AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 139:445–446 (2009) Book Reviews EARLY HUMAN KINSHIP: FROM SEX TO SOCIAL REPRODUCTION. Edited By Nicholas J. Allen, Hilary Callan, Robin Dunbar and Wendy James. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 2008. 316 pp. ISBN 978-1-4051-7901-0. $94.95 (hardcover). What part did kinship play in the long story of our becoming human? This big question, as Callan notes in the epilogue of Early Human Kinship, organizes contributions by many authors who rely on various methods, data, and perspectives. The result of their efforts is a rich story filled with many interesting ideas but also with some meandering turns. The book consists of an introduction, four parts, and an epilogue. The introduction highlights some of the key concepts recurring throughout the volume under the banner of kinship. This chapter does a fine job of foregrounding concepts such as the ways in which evolutionary biologists employ kinship (degree of relatedness) compared with its common usage among social anthropologists. A succinct, current overview of human evolution follows this chapter. Part I consists of two chapters under the title ‘‘Where and When: Archaeological Evidence for Early Social Life in Africa.’’ Gamble’s chapter begins with the question of whether Neandertals married as a means of asking about kinship systems within a recent evolutionary context. He draws some provocative parallels between material culture and kinship (e.g., how use of containers and instruments might structure thought). Gowlett’s chapter briefly reviews the essential features of hominin anatomy, ecology, and especially archaeology that enable inferences regarding kinship. He acknowledges the limitations of these data but still succeeds in specifying some relevant hows and whens of hominin kinship evolution. Part II includes four chapters under the title ‘‘Women, Children, Men-and the Puzzles of Comparative Social Structure.’’ The first of these, by Knight, reviews important historical landmarks in the study of kinship, particularly with respect to arguments over matrilineal origins (e.g., Lewis Henry Morgan’s ‘‘primordial horde’’). James gives a concise overview of alternating birth-generation classes (systems that associate grandparents and grandchildren) in East Africa. Allen summarizes his ‘‘tetradic theory.’’ This conceptual model is meant to capture essential features of an original kinship system, including horizontal and vertical relationships and a contrast between egocentric and sociocentric kinship perspectives. The final chapter, by Layton, critiques elements of Allen’s model along with other models specifying more details of hominin behavioral evolution, particularly those presented in a later chapter by Opie and Power. He summarizes data addressing hunter-gatherer mobility and social structure (e.g., fluid, often bilocal bands organized in regional communities). Part III, ‘‘Other Primates and the Biological Approach,’’ consists of four chapters. Dunbar introduces some basic concepts of behavioral evolution related to C 2009 V WILEY-LISS, INC. kinship. Korstkens covers kinship in monkey societies and discusses topics such as male versus female philopatry, cooperation, cercopithecine matrilineal structures, and kin recognition. Lehmann’s contribution covers great-ape kinship. She notes that degree of relatedness is less important than previously thought, and she reviews interesting cases of kin recognition and preferential association. Opie and Power’s chapter concludes this section by presenting data on the energetics of consumption and production that, they argue, suggest that Homo erectus females relied on support from both grandmothers and mates. Part IV, ‘‘Reconstructions: Evidence from Cultural Practice and Language,’’ begins with a chapter by Fortunato on phylogenetic approaches to cultural evolution, including a case study on the reconstructed history of dowry versus bridewealth in Eurasia. Ehret’s lengthy but provocative chapter uses linguistic reconstructions to infer early marital and kinship patterns within African language groups. Barnard draws links between the evolution of kinship and language in the past few million years. Last, Callan’s epilogue brings it all together with a thoughtful summary of themes and directions forward in the study of kinship. The book’s ambitious approach to kinship covers some important terrain but could be more fluid. Allen’s ‘‘tetradic model’’ is commonly referenced throughout the volume but poorly integrated within it. Allen himself dismisses the relevance of nonhuman primate and archaeological data to his model, whereas other contributors point out the importance of specifying elements of ecology, reproduction, and more in qualifying it. This example serves as an illustration of the challenges of cohesively integrating concepts (tetradic theory) derived within an isolated intellectual trajectory with those from a broader intellectual realm (evolutionary theory). For the story of human kinship to be seamless, we need a science that employs terms that translate across disciplines and that are consistent across levels of analysis; the ‘‘tetradic model’’ does not fit that mold. Furthermore, the book could have been organized slightly differently to tell the most coherent study. Specifically, moving the chapters of Part III, ‘‘Primates and the Biological Approach,’’ to Part I would highlight the broader phylogenetic context of kinship before homing in on the hominins. Contributors differ in their views of hominin mobility and descent, even among recent hunter-gatherers. While Lehmann states that patrilineal descent is most common among foragers, other contributors emphasize either fluid, bilateral kinship or matrilineal descent. These differences of scholarly opinion are similarly reflected in opposing views of the support for the ‘‘grandmother hypothesis’’ of kin assistance among our ancestors versus a greater role for males. In such divergences, the authors reflect wider scholarly developments. Readers new to these debates might wish for a better sense of how to critically evaluate these competing views. Others may find these discrepancies simply stimulating, perhaps motivating attempts to resolve them. 446 BOOK REVIEWS In the end, this volume pulls together many interesting contributions to the study of early human kinship and can serve as a useful reference to interested scholars. The book is suitable for an advanced course devoted to kinship, but it is otherwise hard to see a student audience for the entire volume, although selected chapters might be assigned. Perhaps this volume will also inspire another scholar to write a story of human kinship that is fully and cleanly integrated within the evolutionary sciences. COMPARATIVE SKELETAL ANATOMY: A PHOTOGRAPHIC ATLAS FOR MEDICAL EXAMINERS, CORONERS, FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGISTS, AND ARCHAEOLOGISTS. By Bradley J. Adams and Pamela J. Crabtree. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. 2008. 348 pp. ISBN 978-1-58829-844-7. $129.00 (hardcover). The primary purpose of this photographic atlas is to guide experts from various fields through the identification of human and nonhuman bone. In both archaeological and forensic contexts, accurately differentiating human bone from nonhuman bone is a necessary and important responsibility. Ability to make these distinctions is directly commensurate with the observer’s level of experience and the availability of appropriate reference material. The latter includes comparative skeletal collections and reference books pinpointing the gross morphological differences between species. Unlike most reference manuals, which tend to focus exclusively on either human or nonhuman skeletal structures, Adams and Crabtree include exemplars from both, contrasting the observable differences in size and shape of the species commonly encountered at archaeological sites and forensic scenes. As such, Comparative Skeletal Anatomy combines a much needed synthetic volume for the identification of human and nonhuman remains with a reference manual accessible to practicing forensic scientists, archaeologists, and biological anthropologists. Comparative Skeletal Anatomy is divided into three sections. First, the introductory chapter establishes the need for a photographic atlas that integrates both human and nonhuman examples, outlines the authors’ criteria for the selection of faunal species, and introduces the reader to the anatomical nomenclature used throughout the book. The second section, and by far, the bulk of the book, includes Chapters 2–17. These chapters are arranged by species (largest to smallest) and comprise black-and-white photographs of animal bones side by side with their human counterparts. Each photograph includes a descriptive figure caption highlighting the morphological differences between the human and nonhuman specimens. Chapter 17 is a compilation of miscellaneous human and nonhuman bones. In the final section, Chapter 18, ‘‘Traces of Butchery and Bone Working,’’ Crabtree and Campana discuss various aspects of modification to human and nonhuman bone, including modern butchery, prehistoric food processing, and a modern forensic case of dismemberment. American Journal of Physical Anthropology PETER B. GRAY Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21051 Published online 8 April 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Comparative Skeletal Anatomy will be a very useful resource for correctly identifying human and nonhuman bone, particularly for those who are not well versed in skeletal anatomy and human variation. However, the authors’ caveat that ‘‘An experienced osteologist should always be consulted for confirmation’’ (p 3) is very important. Animal remains are frequently mistaken for human remains and they can ‘‘end up in the medical examiner or coroner system’’ (p 2), where the potential use of this atlas seems most directed. The inverse scenario—human remains that are mistakenly identified as nonhuman by an inexperienced analyst and are discarded from further analysis—has even greater repercussions, but the implications of this scenario are not fully addressed. This omission is troubling given the intended forensic audience. The resolution of the photographs in Comparative Skeletal Anatomy is not always sufficient to identify the slight differences in morphology between species. Although the photographs provide enough clarity to establish a presumptive identification, as a photographic atlas, Comparative Skeletal Anatomy would benefit from higher-quality photographs. Obviously, the authors could not include every morphological detail useful for differentiating at the species level; however, more detail on these differences would have greatly enhanced the book’s overall impact. Most readers will find the format of Comparative Skeletal Anatomy intuitive, particularly, the order in which species are presented. Taken as a whole, Comparative Skeletal Anatomy will be a valuable resource for any forensic scientist, forensic anthropologist, or archaeologist working with human and nonhuman bone. Additionally, students of human osteology, zooarchaeology, and comparative vertebrate anatomy will find this an extremely helpful reference for developing their skeletal-anatomy knowledge-base. JOSEPH T. HEFNER Bioarchaeology Division Statistical Research, Inc. Tucson, AZ DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21053 Published online 16 April 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).