AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 137:367–370 (2008) Book Reviews NEANDERTHALS REVISITED: NEW APPROACHES AND PERSPECTIVES. Edited by Katerina Harvati and Terry Harrison. New York: Springer. 2006. $129.00 (hardcover). Paleoanthropologists, no matter which part of the hominin fossil record they work on, all seek answers to similar, if not the same, questions. How many taxa are represented in the part of the fossil record they are interested in? How are those taxa related to each other and to the taxa that came before and after them? What are the morphological characteristics of those taxa? How did they behave? How did the behavioral niche they occupied differ from that of any coeval hominin taxa? And so on. Those of us whose research focuses on earlier phases of human evolutionary history, where some sample sizes are pitifully small, now and then cast envious glances in the direction of the Neanderthal fossil record. By the standards of what is available for taxa such as Homo habilis, the Neanderthal hypodigm is extraordinarily rich. Because much of it was deliberately buried, taphonomic factors have not wrought the havoc they have on the earlier record, so Neanderthal juveniles are preserved, and regions like the hand and the foot are relatively well represented. And to cap it all, there is even ancient DNA available for some specimens, albeit in small fragments. Thus, it is sometimes a puzzle to those of us who look in from the outside, why the research questions outlined above are still so much in play with respect to the Neanderthals. Surely, with this excellent record, all you have to do is to run the relevant information about the fossils through an appropriate computer program, and in a few seconds you will have generated the solution to your phenetic, phylogenetic, functional, or adaptive conundrum? At the beginning of 2005, Katerina Harvati and Terry Harrison hosted a conference entitled ‘‘Neanderthals Revisited: New Approaches and Perspectives,’’ which was supported by the Center for the Study of Human Origins at New York University and by the Department of Human Evolution at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. They deliberately mixed senior and junior researchers and asked the young and the not so young alike to set out how fresh approaches might reduce our ignorance of Neanderthal paleobiology. The papers run the gamut of research themes and styles, ranging from a study of the Neanderthal hand to one that claims to have found evidence of selection acting on mtDNA. Nonetheless, two sets of questions predominate among the papers. The ﬁrst concerns the nature of Neanderthals. Are they distinctive? And if so, what does their distinctiveness tell us about their relationship with modern humans? The second set of questions assumes that Neanderthals are distinctive at some biologically meaningful level and goes on from that premise to try to derive function from form. Just what were these morphologically distinctive creatures adapted (or maladapted) for? Most of the contributions use one or other circumlocution (e.g., ‘‘an unambiguously demarcated morphoC 2008 V WILEY-LISS, INC. species’’; ‘‘a historically individuated entity’’), which, roughly translated, means they accept the working hypothesis that Neanderthals are a distinct species. Three papers (Antonio Rosas et al., and both nameorder permutations of Maria Ponce de León and Christoph Zollikoffer) look to development for clues about the origins of the Neanderthals. Rosas et al. set up the ‘‘accretion’’ model in opposition to what they term the ‘‘organismic’’ model of Neanderthal evolution. But to me they seem complementary explanations; the accretion model is about mode, and the organismic model is about mechanisms. Ponce de León and Zollikofer track the cranial ontogenies of modern humans, Neanderthals, chimpanzees, and bonobos in shape space in order to compare their growth trajectories. It is implied that the differences between the chimpanzee and bonobo trajectories are likely to be the yardstick for a species-level difference. Although all four of these creatures are part of the hominid (sensu molecular-inﬂuenced taxonomy) twig of the Tree of Life, it seems to me that while parsimony would suggest that developmental constraints are likely to have been similar within the Pan-Homo clade, there is no logical reason to assume that all hominid sister taxa became distinct via the exact same ontogenetic modiﬁcations. The ecological context for the emergence of the Pan and Homo clades was most likely not the same as that which accompanied speciation events within the later part of the hominin clade, so why should development be modiﬁed in the same way? Others have made the case that evolution is the effect of ecology on development, and I, for one, am convinced that if one can recover the developmental history of morphological traits, then this will help sort homoplasies from homologies. However, for all their obvious promise, these investigations of Neanderthal ontogeny have not, as yet, taken us much further than AnneMarie Tillier did when she pointed out that the distinctive Neanderthal morphology was obvious even in infants. You need a lot of data to compare ontogenies, and, excellent though the Neanderthal fossil record is, it is not yet quite good enough. Harvati and Weaver make good use of geometric morphometrics to investigate the relative utility of different regions of the hominin cranium for assessing population afﬁnities and for phylogeny reconstruction. I coauthored a paper suggesting that conventional cranial morphometrics do not seem to be capable of reliably recovering the branching pattern of cladograms based on molecular data. But Harvati and Weaver show that when morphology is captured using more sophisticated 3D methods, the cranial base is better at recovering deeper relationships than regions like the face and vault. This is an important study that should encourage others to undertake similar analyses using other data sets. To my mind the star of the show is Steve Churchill’s report of his elegant attempt to provide a heuristically useful model of Neanderthal bioenergetics. He focuses on the large chest cavity seen in Neanderthals and tries to discriminate between two functional explanations. Is its large size related to reducing heat loss or is its large size a mechanism for heat production? 368 BOOK REVIEWS Churchill comes down in favor of the latter, but because he writes so well and explains his complex arguments so clearly, even if you do not agree with his conclusions, you will be both informed and educated if you read this paper. Most of the chapters in this book are a rich source of information and inspiration for students, researchers, and teachers. My take is that despite the application of the new methods featured in many of the book’s chapters, there is much still to do to understand the paleobiology of the Neanderthals. The depressing inference is that if this is the case with a hypodigm as rich as that for the Neanderthals, then what hope is there for those HUMAN ORIGINS AND ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUNDS. Edited by Hidemi Ishida, Russell Tuttle, Martin Pickford, Naomichi Ogihara, and Masato Nakatsukasa. New York: Springer. 2006. 281 pp. ISBN 0-387-29638-7. $139.00 (hardcover). The primate fossil record of the Miocene, considered the golden age of ape-like primates, is characterized by highly diversiﬁed groups of proconsulids, dryopithecids, and the successive radiation of Old World monkeys, particularly the cercopithecoids. East Africa is blessed with an abundance of Early to Middle Miocene localities bearing hominoids, which are rare in the Middle to Late Miocene epoch. The rarity of apes in the fossil record toward the end of the Miocene has sparked some debates on the effects of climate forcing, particularly on the evolution of extant African apes. Human Origins and Environmental Backgrounds, edited by Ishida and colleagues, is perhaps one of a few compilations of detailed studies of East African Miocene hominoids and their depositional environments. The peer-reviewed volume is the tenth in Russell Tuttle’s successful Developments in Primatology series published by Springer. It exempliﬁes the range of research topics and methodological issues addressed by primatologists and paleoanthropologists today and is devoted to research and scholarship on the functional morphology, positional behaviors, stratigraphy, and geochronology of East African Miocene primates. Although the volume originates from a conference dedicated to Dr. Hidemi Ishida’s contribution to the study of primatology and hominoid evolution, it is a great source of scholarly information related to current issues in human evolution. Human Origins and Environmental Backgrounds is divided into three major sections: ‘‘Fossil Hominoids and Paleoenvironments,’’ ‘‘Functional Morphology,’’ and ‘‘Theoretical Approaches.’’ The ﬁrst section provides some historical background on East African Miocene primate research, especially work on primate positional behavior, paleoenvironmental interpretations, geology, and the depositional histories of East African sediments. The second section deals with issues related to functional morphology and inferred locomotor repertoires of Miocene primates, while the third and last section deals with theoretical frameworks and research approaches currently used in East African paleoanthropology. In the ﬁrst section, an introductory tribute by Nakatsukasa and coworkers to Ishida’s contributions to priAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology of us who focus on parts of the fossil record where the evidence is, as yet, much sparser? BERNARD WOOD Center for the Advanced Study of Hominid Paleobiology Department of Anthropology George Washington University Washington, District of Columbia DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20862 Published online 18 August 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). matology and paleoanthropology is followed by ﬁve contributed articles that range in scope, covering issues such as the history of East African Miocene primate research, evolution of the vertebral column in Miocene hominoids, and terrestriality of Old World monkeys. Tuttle’s paper on seven decades of East African Miocene anthropoid studies provides a general overview on the pace of fossil primate research as well as a basis for subsequent contributions. Gommery, for example, presents a very compelling study on the evolution of the vertebral column in Miocene hominoids and Plio-Pleistocene hominins, while Blue et al. discuss positional behaviors of Middle Miocene monkeys, with an emphasis on Victoriapithecus from Maboko Island. Mammalian biostratigraphic correlative studies rarely receive attention in paleoanthropology beyond their importance in relative dating of hominoid-bearing deposits. A detailed and generalized study of mammalian biostratigraphy and faunal turnover events in relation to paleoenvironments and hominoid evolution during the Cenozoic is well presented by Nakaya and Tsujikawa. It is complemented by Sawada et al.’s study on the geology and depositional history of Miocene fossiliferous sediments bearing Nacholapithecus, Samburupithecus, and Orrorin from Kenya. This particular biostratigraphic correlative study provides a rich, informative, time-averaged stratigraphy illustrated by columnar sections describing various facies, which provide readers with a better understanding of temporal relationships of fossiliferous beds that have been associated with these important hominoids. The second section, which consists of seven contributions, provides detailed discussions of primate comparative functional morphology in relation to locomotion. Nakano’s study of patterns and modes of arboreal locomotion, using three-dimensional techniques, offers some insightful information on the varying degree of functionality of the forelimb and hindlimb muscles in verticalclinging primates. This short paper is complemented by Richmond’s detailed comparative study of primate hand anatomy and its relevance to human bipedality. In this section, primate positional behaviors and locomotor preferences continue to dominate where topics on energetics and biomechanics are used to develop models for the evolution of upright stance in our ancestors. For example, Matsumura et al. present probably one of the few mammalian examples of hindlimb morphology and mechanical loading that can be associated with varying postural 369 BOOK REVIEWS adaptation. This article goes together with four other contributions: Hirasaki et al. on experimental biomechanical studies using trained primates; Nakatsukasa et al. on locomotor energetics in nonhuman primates; and Jouffroy and Medina on the form, action, and function of gluteus maximus as it relates to different postural behaviors across an array of primates. Finally, Ogihara and Yamazaki conclude this section with their studyemploying computer simulations of bipedal locomotion using musculoskeletal system constraints during a given locomotor repertoire-on issues of primate postural positional behavior relevant to the evolution of bipedality. The third and ﬁnal section sums up key issues associated with East African Miocene primate studies. Tuttle’s article on neontological perspectives on East African Middle and Late Miocene anthropoids complements most of the articles in the ﬁrst section, thus providing a reader with a better summary on the evolution of East African Miocene hominoids. Pickford provides a detailed discussion on paleoenvironments, paleoecology, adaptation, and the origins of bipedalism and posits some questions that challenge our understanding of Miocene primate adaptation. Senut’s work on arboreal origins of bipedalism describes some important morphological features of Miocene hominoids that link arboreal bipedality with terrestrial upright walking. Okada’s article presents more evidence that not only supports Senut’s GRAUBALLE MAN: AN IRON AGE BOG BODY REVISITED. Edited by Pauline Asingh and Niels Lynnerup. Højbjerg, Denmark: Aarhus University Press. 2007. 351 pp. ISBN 8-788-41529-5. $46.00 (hardcover). The Grauballe Man was found by peat cutters in 1952 in a bog in Jutland, Denmark. The preservation of the body, one of many such bog bodies across Northern Europe, is attributed to the tanning action of the bog water. The body was removed to a local museum, where studies including radiocarbon dating, radiologic and forensic examination, and examination of intestinal contents were initiated by Professor P. V. Glob. The body was then conserved for museum exhibition. Fifty years later, another group of scientists gathered around the Grauballe Man, this time at a hospital, to apply the latest in medical and scientiﬁc technology to this visitor from the past. Their efforts have resulted in a superbly illustrated volume, providing much more information and correcting some earlier misconceptions regarding his life and death. My ﬁrst step in reviewing this volume was to reread the 25-page chapter on Grauballe from the 1969 English translation of Glob’s The Bog People: Iron Age Man Preserved. He concluded that the body was a 30-year-old man with fractures of the skull and left femur and tibia, with death due to a deep cut across the throat that severed the trachea, esophagus, and great vessels. The lack of any artifacts associated with this naked body made archeological dating impossible. Repeated radiocarbon dating has now moved the date of his death from about 210– 410 AD back to about 400–200 BC, i.e., from the Late proposal but also elucidates the importance of biomechanics and functional morphological studies as locomotor indicators in primates. Although the article by Furuichi on the evolution of the social structure of hominoids digresses from the main themes of this volume, still it offers some theoretical frameworks equally important in construction of social and positional behaviors of Miocene apes. A thought-provoking article by Tuttle on the question of whether human beings are apes or apes are people too is a reminder of the many challenges the ﬁeld of paleoanthropology faces, particularly from popular opinion. Ishida sums up in this section with some thoughts on terrestrial locomotion and the origin of human bipedalism. In general, I highly recommend this volume to students of East African hominoid paleoanthropology and human evolution. CHARLES MUSIBA Department of Anthropology University of Colorado Denver Denver, Colorado DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20874 Published online 9 July 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Iron Age to the Early Iron Age and has certainly laid to rest the early contention by some that Grauballe Man was a contemporary Jutlander who had died in the bog. Conservation of the body was initially undertaken by the newly appointed Conservator of the Prehistoric Museum in Aarhus, Gunnar Lange-Kornbak. Quite a challenge on his ﬁrst day at work! Reexamination of the body has revealed Lange-Kornbak’s techniques, secrets that he took ‘‘to the grave’’ (p 50). The process involved creation of an artiﬁcial bog, tanning in an oak-bark bath, and subsequent treatment with oils and resins. A surprise was that numerous body parts, including the internal organs and several vertebrae, had been replaced by what appear to be sponges, wax, and blackboard erasers. The vertebrae followed a tortuous path, from Denmark to Professor William Laughlin’s labs, ﬁrst at the University of Wisconsin and then at the University of Connecticut, and ﬁnally to the Museum of the Aleutians in Unalaska, Alaska. A photograph in the book even shows Laughlin and Lange-Kornbak removing the vertebrae in 1956. Based on interpretation of the intestinal contents as a special sacriﬁcial meal, Glob considered the bog bodies to be sacriﬁces to the divine of the period. The detailed modern analysis indicates that the last meal was simply the porridge or gruel eaten by the common people of the time rather than any special ritual meal. CT scans, not available at the time of the initial studies, now reveal the skull and femoral fractures to be postmortem and due to the pressure of the peat. The tibial fracture is perimortem, indicating the Grauballe man was knocked to his knees and then seized by the head, with the fatal American Journal of Physical Anthropology 370 BOOK REVIEWS wound inﬂicted by a right-handed person standing behind him. Based on three-dimensional visualization, a full size epoxy model of the skull was made, which allowed a facial reconstruction, putting us face to face with an Early Iron Age man. Histologic study of the skeleton revealed that the decalciﬁcation noted radiologically was not due to osteoporosis but rather to the chelating of bone calcium by sphagnum moss. A similar effect was seen on the teeth, with the enamel totally lost. Osteon analysis provided an age of 34 years, consistent with changes in non-synovial joint morphology, dental analysis, growth plate fusion, and degenerative joint changes. Grauballe Man is a redhead now but probably was not during life, as the brown eumelanin pigment in hair fades with time, leaving the red phaeomelanin pigment. His hair also provided evidence of a terrestrial diet with primarily animal-based protein. Microscopic examination of his preserved intestinal tract was not rewarding, with only collagen of the intestinal wall remaining. In general, there was no evidence of pathology in the body other than the traumatic wounds, dental wear, periodontitis, and tooth loss. The question raised by this publication is whether the application of techniques not available 50 years ago has provided us with signiﬁcant new information. This goal has certainly been met. Perhaps disappointing in one respect is that Grauballe Man was not a special person, simply a typical man of the Early Iron Age. In a broader American Journal of Physical Anthropology context, he is very special indeed, a ‘‘man on the street’’ preserved for us to see as a representative of his time over 2,000 years ago. The primary aims of the new studies, evaluating Grauballe’s state of preservation and ensuring his future survival, have been achieved, and we know much more about his life and death. As an added bonus, a penultimate chapter on the bog people offers a photographic review of many of the bodies found in bogs in northern Europe, England, and Ireland. The book is extensively referenced and, although lacking an index, will be a valuable asset for paleopathologists and Iron Age specialists, especially at this attractive price. MICHAEL R. ZIMMERMAN Department of Biology Villanova University Villanova, Pennsylvania Department of Anthropology University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20904 Published online 18 August 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).