AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 136:368–372 (2008) Book Reviews PRIMATES OF WESTERN UGANDA. Edited by Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher, Hugh Notman, James D. Paterson, and Vernon. Reynolds. New York: Springer. 2006. 516 pp. ISBN 0-387-32342-2. $119.00 (hardcover). Facing a bleak future, the cinematic pirate Jack Sparrow sighs, ‘‘The world’s the same—there’s just less in it.’’ This observation describes the current state of ﬁeld primatology. As the human population expands and relentlessly consumes arable land, wild habitats shrink, fragment, and deform. Today, those of us who study wild primates do so in isolated islands surrounded by farmlands, fences, and roadcuts. This volume describes primate ecology and behavior across several such oases in western Uganda. The volume is broken into four sections, with the ﬁrst containing only a review of western Ugandan primate taxonomy by Groves. He wades into the subtleties of colobine and galagid pelage, morphology, and vocalization, but relies little on recent genetic studies. Although his conclusions are provocative (e.g., identifying Ugandan chimps as Pan troglodytes marungensis), Groves’ reconstruction of Ugandan historic biogeography provides a testable scenario for future scholars. The remaining sections—on ecology, behavior and physiology, and conservation—are more extensive. Preece (Chapter 2) reviews Colobus guereza feeding and population density and suggests that lianas are an important but overlooked dietary component. However, his conclusions conﬂict with Chapman et al. (Chapter 21), who emphasize group size as a key factor in determining density. Twinomugisha et al. describe ecological ﬂexibility in the golden monkey (Chapter 3), effectively combining range use, behavioral observation, and nutritional analysis to examine dietary requirements and optimization. Chapters 4 and 5 on Budongo baboon diet are biased by the impact of crop and garbage raiding by baboons. Although data on dietary variation between forest and savannah baboons are clearly needed, further discussion of the effect of these human-food sources would have enhanced their results. Analyses of self-medication, geophagy, and climate– hormone correlations in Budongo chimpanzees (Chapters 7–9) present new data, but suffer from small sample sizes and lack consistent results. However, they add to a growing database of these rare and unique behaviors. Similarly, Quaitt’s examination of leaf-tool use by Budongo chimpanzees (Chapter 13) is interesting, but with only 121 observations over 3 years, it is clear that these behaviors represent a small fraction of this species’ behavioral repertoire. The focus on chimps continues with Chapter 12, where differences in party size and composition are identiﬁed between Budongo and Kanyawara. Thompson and Wrangham offer ﬁve explanatory hypotheses, any and all of which may inﬂuence male–female associations. In the following chapter, the results of hormonal assays further demonstrate the ﬂexibility of chimpanzee behavioral ecology: at Budongo, peripheral females are in better reproductive condition than their cohort at Kanyawara. There is no detailed social or ecological data to indicate C 2008 V WILEY-LISS, INC. why this variation exists, but data from the Kibale site of Ngogo, well known for its large community of chimpanzees, may shed light on these matters. A brief description by Hashimoto and Furuichi (Chapter 14) of female chimpanzee promiscuity at Kalinzu focuses on a few individuals over a short time period, but their results (some females showing very high promiscuity) illustrate the difﬁculties of modeling chimpanzee socioecology given variation across sites and individuals. Chapters 15 and 16 describe the effects of snare injuries on chimpanzee feeding and locomotion, and seem more appropriate to the conservation section. Although their sample sizes are quite small, these chapters provide important data on an understudied (and increasingly prevalent) phenomenon. They should lead positional behavior researchers to explore the energetic and metabolic costs of feeding and travel in these impaired apes. Notman’s chapter on chimpanzee communication is unique, generating a theoretical argument for pant-hooting and calling as listener dependent as well as caller speciﬁc. Such debate about theory of mind, while salient when discussing chimpanzees, is difﬁcult to evaluate here, as the author refers to other papers for ‘‘methodological details and speciﬁc results’’ (page 305). The gorilla chapters are meager but worth reading. Cross-site comparisons of gorilla diet (Chapter 9) are interesting, but the chapter ends with a single paragraph on the Bwindi gorilla diet, leaving this reader with more questions than answers. The next chapter describes the parasites of Bwindi gorillas, but it lacks a detailed discussion of parasitic virulence or the implications of human and domesticate contact with gorillas, which is alluded to by Goldsmith et al. (Chapter 23). Nkurunungi and Stanford provide a preliminary but important review of sympatric range use over one year by chimpanzees and gorillas at Bwindi (Chapter 11). Their data, when combined with Goldsmith et al.’s review of gorilla groups consistently ranging outside the park boundaries, makes for compelling reading. The conservation section is the best in the volume. Ambrose’s (Chapter 20) survey of galagos and pottos across western Uganda suffers from short census duration but offers intriguing results. The low density of the hardy Galago thomasi at Budongo, the identiﬁcation of Mabira forest as a faunal boundary site, and the impact of forest disturbance on strepsirrhine distribution show the need for further study of these primates in Uganda. Plumptre presents a detailed review of dietary overlap in Budongo primates, comparing logged and unlogged forest compartments (Chapter 20). He ﬁnds that logging has increased tree diversity at Budongo and describes a high degree of overlap in primate diets there with surprisingly high frugivory in C. guereza. These results dovetail nicely with those of Chapman et al. (Chapter 21), where examination of colobine feeding preferences, food availability, and forest-fragment use offers some hope to the continued survival of primates in fragmented forests. Although both red and black-and-white colobus monkeys are sensitive to habitat changes, they use an array of behavioral offsets (group size, polyspeciﬁc association) to maintain themselves in marginal environments. Note I do not say thrive, as the authors offer a challenging set of unanswered questions that require immediate attention, for example, how 369 BOOK REVIEWS and why logged forest succession inﬂuences population growth variation in colobines. The ﬁnal three chapters emphasize the dangers and traumas, from encroachment to tourism, facing the apes of western Uganda. Both Reynolds (Chapter 22) and Goldsmith et al. (Chapter 23) relate horror stories and successes in their respective efforts to safeguard the Budongo and Bwindi protected areas. Even though these sites are administered by the same government agencies, the challenges of uniform management are evident (e.g., a 350-m buffer zone at Bwindi, vs. only 12 m at Budongo). These chapters show that while park boundaries are important for humans, the apes readily move outside of them as needed, both to their detriment and their success. The ﬁnal chapter (24) by Watkins describes generally benevolent perspectives on Budongo wildlife and forests by local residents, but these results are inﬂuenced by the recency of the study village’s origin and its polyglot ethnic composition. Ultimately, this volume suffers from its uneven structure: representation of sites and taxa is terribly biased, with most chapters focusing on the Somso chimpanzee community of Budongo, while other primates (e.g., strep- A NEW HUMAN: THE STARTLING DISCOVERY AND STRANGE STORY OF THE ‘‘HOBBITS’’ OF FLORES, INDONESIA. By Mike Morwood and Penny van Oosterzee. New York: Smith-sonian Books. 2007. 256 pp. ISBN 978-0-06-089908-0. $25.95 (cloth). The ﬁrst evidence for a new diminutive species of Homo, Homo ﬂoresiensis, was a tiny 12,000-year-old radius recovered in 2001 from Liang Bua cave on the Indonesian island of Flores. The remarkably complete LB1 skull and skeleton, along with fossils from at least 12 other individuals, paints a picture of a population of tiny-brained, tool-making hominins whose skulls exhibited clear Homo morphology, but whose skeletons were more australopith-like. At least momentarily, the Liang Bua discoveries have refocused the paleoanthropological spotlight away from Africa and onto Asia, forcing many to revisit what exactly it means to be human. A New Human recounts the discovery of H. ﬂoresiensis from the perspective of the lead investigator, Australian archaeologist Mike Morwood. Along with coauthor Penny van Oosterzee, Morwood provides colorful descriptions of his time in Indonesia, utilizing humor whenever possible, making the book a quick and enjoyable read. One of the more ironic events recounted by Morwood was when an Indonesian colleague brought the nearly complete cranium of LB1 to a hospital in Jakarta to be X-rayed, but then had it scanned by computed tomography by mistake. This mistake turned out to be fortuitous when the original LB1 cranium was later irreparably damaged. With a few exceptions, most of the material relating to the site and the fossils presented in A New Human will be familiar to workers who have been following the string of publications in Science and Nature. Among his new interpretations, Morwood suggests that the likely ancestor for the Liang Bua hominins was H. habilis (rather than H. erectus) and that the source population for the ‘‘hobbits’’ was not Java but Sulawesi to the north. sirrhines and mangabeys) and sites (e.g., Mgahinga and Kalinzu) are given short shrift. However, this book is very useful for researchers working in Uganda, and it provides new data and research directions for primatologists interested in chimpanzees, gorillas, and certain monkeys. It serves as an addendum to existing publications from this region, such as the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Albertine Rift Technical Reports Series. In the end, the volume is a snapshot of research conducted in western Uganda, and the results within will become more important as these protected areas are either improved and enhanced, or face further pressure and constriction. GARY P. ARONSEN Department of Anthropology Yale University, New Haven, CT DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20808 Published online 6 February 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Interspersed with Morwood’s account of events leading up to the discovery are interesting and accessible discussions of topics central to understanding the evolutionary position of the Liang Bua fossils. For example, Morwood and Oosterzee discuss the geological formation of island Southeast Asia and its implications for the dispersal of animals across these islands, pointing out that prior to 840,000 years ago the only large land animals on Flores were the giant tortoise and pygmy Stegodon. Morwood further hypothesizes that humans were responsible for a faunal turnover event that appears to characterize several islands in Southeast Asia around 840,000 years, although the evidence is not entirely convincing in all cases. The chapter ‘‘Islands in the Evolutionary Stream’’ provides several examples of island dwarﬁsm in other mammals, as well as possible reasons for their occurrence, such as lack of predators and more limited resources. Similar circumstances could have relaxed the selective pressures on the ancestor of H. ﬂoresiensis, allowing this species to become dwarfed over a little less than 100,000 years. Their brief overview of hominin paleontology questions the dogma that H. erectus evolved in Africa and migrated east, repositioning Asia as a major player on the stage of human evolution. The description of the anatomy of LB1 emphasizes its many primitive postcranial features, such as its ape-like body proportions, concluding that since H. ﬂoresiensis exhibits traits found in both australopiths and Homo, it was derived from an H. habilis-like ancestor. It is unclear to what extent these primitive features could be examples of convergent evolution as a result of dwarfing, and while the long arms and short legs seen in LB1 are known to be present in the australopiths and early Homo, very little is known about the postcranial skeleton of early H. erectus. For these reasons, it may be too soon to exclude H. erectus from the ancestry of H. ﬂoresiensis, and a description of the early H. erectus skeletal remains from the Georgian site of Dmanisi may shed light on this quesAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology 370 BOOK REVIEWS tion.* Of interest is the observation that LB1 preserves a unique lower limb conﬁguration consisting of short legs but very long feet, possibly a novel adaptation to maintain a long stride length with short legs. Given Morwood’s background in archaeology, there was surprisingly little information and few illustrations dedicated to the stone tools found with the Liang Bua hominins, and virtually no comparison to stone toolkits from elsewhere in the world. The book brieﬂy mentions the alternative interpretation of the Liang Bua fossils as microcephalic modern humans. It draws clear parallels between the way in which other important hominin discoveries were initially rejected by the greater scientiﬁc community and the way in which the importance of the Liang Bua ﬁnds has been demeaned by other researchers. The clearest analog was Richard Lydekker’s description of the Trinil skull cap from Java (discovered by Eugène Dubois in 1891) as a ‘‘microcephalic idiot.’’ While Dubois was eventually vindicated, and the Trinil calotte is now the type specimen of H. erectus, we do not yet have the beneﬁt of hindsight to judge how the H. ﬂoresiensis debate will play out. The discovery of the diminutive hominins on the Indonesian island of Flores created not only a media frenzy but also a frenzy of allegations, both professional and personal. The last chapter of the book is devoted to a detailed recounting of the transfer of the Liang Bua fossils from the National Research Centre for Archaeology (ARKENAS) REPRODUCTION AND FITNESS IN BABOONS: BEHAVIORAL, ECOLOGICAL, AND LIFE HISTORY PERSPECTIVES. By Larissa Swedell and Steven R. Leigh. New York: Springer. 2006. 322 pp. ISBN 0-387-30688-9. $125.00 (hardcover). For a paleoanthropologist interested in the paleobiology and life history of early hominids, baboon research is of great relevance—obviously, researchers like Washburn and Jolly made this observation long ago. Life history studies of primates, in general, have become quite important for reconstructing and modeling the paleobiology of early hominids as well as other extinct primates. But among extant primates, baboons are particularly important and useful because papionin fossils are often recovered alongside those of PlioPleistocene hominids; they occupied similar geographical and ecological environments. In addition, some of the longest-running primate ﬁeld studies have focused on baboon species, yielding a wealth of data on diverse aspects of baboon biology for comparative study, conservation, and evolutionary modeling relevant to primatology. Undeniably, it is just as important for paleoanthropologists to know a bit about baboon ecology, behavior, and life history, as it is for them to know about apes. In paleoanthropology, discussions of life history are generally limited to information extracted from dental and skeletal hard tissues concerning the pattern, timing, and rate of growth and maturational events. Any other aspect of early hominid life history must, of necessity, be addressed by (cautious) extrapolation from such hard data. In this context, Larissa Swedell and Steven R. Leigh’s edited volume is invaluable for paleoanthropoloAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology ofﬁce to Teuku Jacob’s ofﬁce at Gada Madja University, the subsequent and well-publicized media war between the opposing sides, and the tragic damage to key elements of the H. ﬂoresiensis catalog. As when Jon Kalb detailed the politics of Ethiopian paleoanthropology in Adventures in the Bone Trade, these events will no doubt horrify those not already familiar with the story, and further conﬁrm the ﬁeld of hominin paleontology as a political mineﬁeld. A New Human provides both an entertaining and educational account of what is surely a major fossil hominin discovery, while also providing the necessary background to properly situate these ﬁnds in a both a historical and evolutionary context. Its broad accessibility ensures that this book will prove a popular addition to both public and university libraries. KAREN L. BAAB Department of Anthropology City University of New York New York, New York DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20809 Published online 6 March 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). gists, because the studies provide a detailed perspective on aspects of life history variation (reproductive behavior, social organization, sex- and age-related differences) and levels of inquiry (populations, individuals, and the genome) that are largely inaccessible in the context of paleoanthropology. In addition, this book will certainly be welcomed by a diverse assortment of primatologists, including those interested in reproductive behavior, adaptive strategies, and life history in general, as well as by researchers studying mammals within a wider comparative framework. This book would also be an appropriate source for a variety of graduate-level biological anthropology courses. In the introductory ﬁrst chapter, the editors describe the book as an exploration of the interactions of reproductive behavior, social organization, and life history, and their impact on ﬁtness. Their ﬁrst aim is to ‘‘address ties between reproduction and life history variation in order to understand the evolution of social, behavioral, genetic and morphological diversity’’ (p. 1). The structure of the book follows from their observation that behaviors involving mating and investing in offspring are generally considered separately in the context of different life phases, as well as from their goal to examine ‘‘the relations of [such] ﬁtness components to one another at two especially important life history periods’’ (p. 2). Thus, the book includes two main sections covering diverse areas of inquiry: Part I covers reproductive behavior and mating strategies, and Part II addresses life history, development, and parenting strategies. Although some chapters (especially in Part I) focus pri- 371 BOOK REVIEWS marily on individual baboon study populations (chacma, guinea, hamadryas, or hybrid), the book overall is comparative and illustrates different aspects of baboon behavioral, ecological, and developmental diversity. The ﬁnal chapter by Alberts and Altmann is an overview and synthesis of baboon adaptive ﬂexibility in evolutionary context. Although this chapter is an effective synopsis, a concluding chapter by the editors would have better overcome the typical division between separate life history phases, which the book’s structure maintains to some degree. In general, the ﬁve chapters in Part I address variability in reproductive strategy in baboons, with different chapters focusing on female hamadryas (Swedell and Saunders); female morphological and reproductive behavioral ﬂexibility in Awash hybrids (Beehner and Bergman); male hybrids in the Awash (Bergman); and Guinea baboons of West Africa (GalatLuong et al.). The ﬁnal chapter in this section (Uddin et al.) presents a unique perspective on life history variation at the level of genome evolution, documenting the effect of variation in social organization and reproductive behavior on the prevalence of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) in different baboon populations. Part II of the book includes six chapters focusing on life history, development, and parenting in baboons, including original studies of the chacma populations of southern Africa and three broader comparative chapters. The topics covered in these chapters include the following: mortality factors (e.g., predation in adults and infanticide) affecting female reproductive success (Cheney et al.); interactions between mothers and offspring that affect growth in chacmas (Johnson); complexities in the relationship between parental investment and offspring independence and survival (Barrett et al.); a comparative analysis of ontogeny in different species of Papio (Leigh and Bernstein); ontogenetic trajectories of testicular size in yellow and guinea baboons (Jolly and Phillips-Conroy); and the previously mentioned overview of environmental diversity and life history ﬂexibility in baboons in an evolutionary perspective (Alberts and Altmann). JANE GOODALL: THE WOMAN WHO REDEFINED MAN. By Dale Peterson. Boston: Houghton Mifﬂin. 2006. 740 pp. ISBN 0-395-85405-9. $35.00 (cloth). There is no doubt that the life of the eminent scientist and public ﬁgure Jane Goodall is of great interest to both academics and the general public. The appearance of Jane Goodall’s biography is therefore no surprise nor is its author. Dale Peterson, a lecturer in English at Tufts University, is no stranger to Jane Goodall or the ﬁeld of primatology. With Goodall, Peterson coauthored the award-winning popular book Visions of Caliban (2000). Peterson was also granted access to Goodall’s voluminous correspondence, which he subsequently edited and annotated in two volumes: Africa in My Blood and These studies provide a valuable overview of diverse aspects of primate biology in a life history context, and the book presents new data and new perspectives in all areas. For me, the important common themes illuminated in these chapters involve the variation and ﬂexibility in adaptive strategies, reproductive behavior, and morphology—life history in the broadest sense—among baboons in different geographic, ecological, and social contexts, all of which further extends our understanding of the diverse levels of impact of such ﬂexibility. For example, in paleoanthropology it is typical to consider the life history of a species (e.g., Australopithecus africanus), but these chapters are presented from the different points of view of females and males, of adults and infants, and of different baboon populations, demonstrating the complexities of such interactions within and between populations and species. In this way, studies such as these help to set the parameters for elucidating how different life history factors do (or do not) interact at different levels of inquiry. As noted by various authors in the volume, baboons are a particularly useful model for life history research because of their wide geographic distribution, broad adaptive variation, and large body size. Since they have been so widely studied, baboons exemplify both broader aspects of variation and also the more intricate details that can only be recovered during long-term research of living populations. Perhaps by following the parameters set out in books such as this, studies in paleoanthropology can begin to approach new levels of interpretation concerning the life history of extinct primates. KEVIN L. KUYKENDALL Department of Archaeology University of Shefﬁeld Shefﬁeld, United Kingdom DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20840 Published online 9 May 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Beyond Innocence (both 2001). After accomplishing this monumental task, which required intimate and detailed knowledge of Goodall’s life, the author’s decision to go a step further and write a biography was hardly unexpected. Being close to the ‘‘woman who redeﬁned man’’ and her circle of friends and collaborators, having access to various primary materials concerning her life, and possessing a solid background in her main ﬁeld of interest places Peterson in a commanding position as Jane Goodall’s biographer. However, writing about someone who one knows and who is still alive also has its pitfalls, as it might lead to a lack of neutrality. Indeed, one of the few weaknesses of Peterson’s book is that it contains some hagiographic elements. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 372 BOOK REVIEWS Jane Goodall: The Woman Who Redeﬁned Man is a rather large volume, which is divided into no fewer than 43 chapters. These are grouped in three parts corresponding to three major phases in Goodall’s life and career: ‘‘The Naturalist,’’ ‘‘The Scientist,’’ and ‘‘The Activist.’’ The ﬁrst part (covering 1930–1962) deals with Goodall’s childhood, early interests, and ﬁrst encounters with Africa and the Gombe chimpanzees. The second part (1962–1986) starts with Goodall’s entry into the scientiﬁc community and describes the transformation, with all its intricacies, of a young, nature-loving Englishwoman into a professional ethologist who would make major contributions to the ﬁeld. Criticism of Goodall’s research is barely mentioned with one exception, that of Solly Zuckerman. However, Zuckerman’s critique (based on his own pioneering research, which was by then being called into question by a number of new studies) of Goodall’s work of the early 1960s strengthened rather than undermined her scientiﬁc standing. The third part (1986–2004), though signiﬁcantly less detailed than the ﬁrst two, shows how Goodall’s interests grew and ﬂourished in many diverse areas. Her numerous roles as scientist, popularizer of science, animal rights activist, environmentalist, peacemaker, motivational speaker, spiritual adviser, and others are ably described, with emphasis on her humane and optimistic outlook on life that underpins all her activities. Scientists and historians will probably wish to read a more in-depth analysis of Goodall’s science and the broader theoretical and ideological context within which American Journal of Physical Anthropology it took place. However, one should not forget that this book aims at the general public and that the author purposely avoids going into too much technical detail. This, of course, does not mean that the book is of no interest to experts. Quite the contrary, the biography is extensively researched, superbly written, and provides an invaluable chronology of a famous scientist’s life. The book is both rich in detail and, owing to Peterson’s ﬁne style, a compulsive read. Because of the signiﬁcance of Jane Goodall’s achievements, both as scientist and activist, she will continue to raise interest, and one might predict yet more contributions on her life and career. Peterson’s book, together with the two volumes of Goodall’s correspondence, should be seen as just the beginning of the process of ‘‘discovering’’ Jane Goodall. But for the time being, Dale Peterson is indeed the man who deﬁned the woman who redeﬁned man. GORAN ŠTRKALJ School of Anatomical Sciences University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20841 Published online 29 April 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).