Book review New Insights on the Krapina Neandertals 100 Years Since Gorjanovi-Kramberger.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 141:333–336 (2010) Book Reviews THE EARLY BRONZE AGE. I. TOMBS AND BURIALS OF BÂB EDH-DHRÂ’, JORDAN. By Donald J. Ortner and Bruno Frohlich. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press. 2008. 336 pp. ISBN 978-0-759-11075-5. $195.00 (hardcover). In this volume, Ortner and Frohlich (OF) provide an excellent synthesis of the Early Bronze Age (EB) tomb excavations at Bâb edh-Dhrâ’, Jordan, which represents the culmination of many years of bioarchaeological research by the authors as well as the numerous contributors. Their extensive efforts are evident in this informative and richly illustrated volume. The publication summarizes data from the 1977, 1979, and 1981 excavation seasons. These investigations resulted in the recovery of over 700 burials from 28 tombs, dating from the EB IA (3300–3200 BCE) and IB (3200–3200 BCE) as well as one EB IB charnel house. OF present these data in great detail and provide the reader with valuable information concerning the osteological analysis, cultural history, and bioarchaeological interpretations of the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ EB I tombs. The primary authors organize the volume’s 14 chapters into three sections: 1) background and setting, 2) tomb and burial data, and 3) analysis and interpretation. The ﬁrst section covers the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ project background, regional setting, methodology, and EB I cultural history. These chapters offer a wealth of information concerning Near Eastern and Bronze Age archaeology and contextualize the later descriptive and interpretive chapters. Chapter 3 deals with tomb identiﬁcation and excavation methods. Although the ﬁeld work for this volume began over 30 years before this publication, the authors demonstrated innovative approaches to problems they faced during the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ excavations. For example, the use of near-surface conductivity proved valuable in prioritizing tombs for excavation. OF also discuss the need for consistent osteological standards in dealing with the large burial samples and highlight some of the assumptions osteologists working with such collections must make. Chapter 4, by R. Thomas Schaub, is a key resource for the material culture associated with the tombs and should prove to be a concise reference for archaeologists working in the region. The second section of the book includes four chapters describing the results of the three excavation seasons with the results of the 1977 excavation season being divided between two chapters. Chapter 6 (OF with Garofalo) details the 1977 excavations of EB IA shaft tombs. This chapter is the book’s longest and describes 18 separate tombs. Chapters 6 through 9 include high-quality illustrations and photographs of each tomb. These images highlight the extraordinary preservation and archaeological complexity encountered by the authors during their investigations. Chapter 7 (OF with Meier) describes salvage excavation and osteological analysis of an EB IB charnel house. Chapters 8 and 9 (OF with Garofalo) describe the tombs excavated during the 1979 and 1981 seasons, respectively. The ﬁnal ﬁve chapters cover osteology, paleodemography, health, dental remains, and summary interpretations. These chapters synthesize the information C 2009 V WILEY-LISS, INC. presented in previous sections and provide valuable insights into the EB IA and EB IB populations at Bâb edh-Dhrâ’. Chapter 10 (FO with Froment) summarizes the burial sample by age, sex, season, location, tomb, and chamber. In addition, the authors tabulate basic summary statistics for osteometrical and morphological data. The chapter concludes with a comparison of published craniometric data from contemporaneous regional sites. The authors correctly acknowledge the analytical limitations of samples with missing data, but I wish they had given a better explanation of the ‘‘missing data replacement’’ procedures and data thresholds used. They also referenced the availability of the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ data online, but the provided hyperlink failed at the time of this review. Finally, the addition of a map showing the locations of the reference samples and a canonical plot of their relationships might have helped the reader through this section. Chapter 11 (OF) examines the paleodemographic parameters of the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ burial sample. Some sections of this chapter are quite informative but others, I feel, are problematic. The authors begin the chapter with a nod to the recent literature on estimation of age-at-death distributions, but they provide only a marginal discussion of the likely bias in the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ adult estimates. In the chapter’s ﬁrst half, the authors focus on life-table construction, life expectancy, and mortality differences by sex. I felt that this section would have beneﬁted from some methodological updates (see, for example, the works of Boldsen, Konigsberg, and Wood). The latter half of the chapter is an insightful discussion of fertility and mortality in the EB IA culture of the region. The authors examine issues surrounding fetal and infant mortality and the impact of these events on the overall population structure. Chapter 12 (OF with Garofalo) details the paleopathology of the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ sample. This chapter is organized by general disease categories, and the authors provide an excellent summary of the bone lesions observed in the EB IA and EB IB burial samples. Valuable information is presented on bone disorders ranging from osteoarthritis to scurvy and rickets to bone infections. The authors readily contextualize these observations relative to subsistence patterns, lifeways, and cultural interactions of the EB I populations of Bâb edh-Dhrâ’. Chapter 13 (Bentley and Perry) examines dental remains from the EB IA tombs. Their analysis speciﬁcally addresses the biological relationships of the burial sample based on dental morphology and attempts to assess the population’s overall health via select dental health indicators. Because of commingling and the fragmentary nature of the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ burial sample, Bentley and Perry perform univariate nonparametric tests on the morphological trait data. They conclude that the burial sample is homogeneous and that only a few morphological traits exhibit spatial concentrations across the site, hinting at a limited level of biological structuring in the burial distribution. Examination of dental metrics may have strengthened this analysis, but these data are not discussed in the volume. The authors also found no discernible pattern of association by sex or location in linear enamel hypoplasias. Bentley and Perry conclude that the homogeneous pattern of dental disease and mor- 334 BOOK REVIEWS phology is indicative of an endogamous, inbred population and suggest that the presence of the formal cemetery at Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ indicates a settled territorial corporate group. This interpretation differs from conclusions drawn by the volume’s primary authors concerning the organization of the cemetery’s contributing population. The volume concludes with an excellent synthesis of the archaeological and osteological data presented in the various chapters. The primary authors acknowledge the limitations of fragmentary and commingled remains, but they also realize the importance of the Bâb edh-Dhrâ’ sample. Overall, the volume is a valuable offering to the ﬁeld of Near Eastern skeletal biology and should be considered essential for any scholar or student working with Bronze Age material from this region. Bioarchaeologists, no matter their regional or temporal focus, should consider this volume a template for reporting osteologi- NEW INSIGHTS ON THE KRAPINA NEANDERTALS: 100 YEARS SINCE GORJANOVIĆ-KRAMBERGER. Edited By Janet Monge, Alan Mann, David Frayer, and Jakov Radovčić. Zagreb: Croatian Natural History Museum. 2008. 356 pp. ISBN 978-953-6645-32-9. €60.00 (hardcover). It is difﬁcult to overstate the signiﬁcance of the Krapina Neandertal remains to our understanding of Late Pleistocene human evolution. The sheer size of the sample—nearly 900 elements recovered from a rockshelter on the Hušnjak Hill in Krapina located 50 km north of Zagreb, Croatia—combined with its virtually complete anatomical element representation and its longstanding accessibility to researchers is unique. The importance of the Krapina collection has been tempered only by its comparatively high degree of fragmentation and commingling as well as a perception, by some, of sex- and age-bias effects on morphological patterns. When combined with the additional information derived from archaeological and zooarchaeological components from the site, it is no wonder that so many researchers in Pleistocene human evolution have studied one or more aspects of the original collection in Zagreb, often more than once beyond their ﬁrst ‘‘grand tour.’’ This volume was assembled by the editors to honor the 150th birthday of Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger (October 25, 1856), the discoverer, excavator, and original describer of this material, as well as the centennial of the important monograph he published in 1906: Der Diluviale Mensch von Krapina in Kroatien. All 32 contributions to this volume along with the introduction by the editors were originally published in three separate volumes of the Croatian journal Periodicum biologorum (2006, Vol. 108, No. 3, p 235–387; No. 4, p 389–524; and 2007, Vol. 109, No. 4, p 335–400). The contributions are compiled in this volume in the sequence and layout in which they appeared in the journal, unchanged except for a small number of corrections. Given the extensive number of publications that have already been produced to date, either directly on the Krapina remains themselves or as important components of larger aggregate Neandertal samples (over 3000 publications, including 95 publications produced by Gor- American Journal of Physical Anthropology cal analyses and bioarchaeological investigations. Ortner and Frohlich have provided an important contribution to the ﬁeld of bioarchaeology, as well as to the study of the extraordinary EB I tombs in Jordan. NICHOLAS P. HERRMANN Department of Anthropology and Middle Eastern Cultures Mississippi State University Starkville, MS 39762 DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21148 Published online 9 November 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). janović-Kramberger alone), one wonders what is left to document and explore in this sample. As it turns out, there is quite a lot. What the extensive Krapina sample has always offered, in lieu of associated skeletons and complete crania, is an extraordinary window into the range of morphological variation across many anatomical elements in a biological population of Neandertals; this is a record of skeletal variation that is rarely as observable and quantiﬁable in the wider hominin fossil record. The majority of articles focus on morphological variation. Exceptions to this are two contributions: one that explores the inﬂuence that Gorjanović-Kramberger’s Krapina research had on German-Austrian paleoanthropology (Henke) and one that provides a historical review and current contextual and chronological updates of Neandertal sites in Belgium (Toussaint and Pirson). Oddly enough, given the volume’s focus, the Toussaint and Pirson contribution never mentions historical ties to Krapina or Gorjanović-Kramberger. The rest of the contributions cover morphology broadly not only in terms of the range of skeletal elements and complexes that are studied but also in terms of the paleobiological questions that are addressed. The extensive Krapina dental sample is variably integrated into contributions that address issues of phylogeny (Bailey), within-sample relatedness (Rougier et al.), sexual dimorphism (Lee), and paleodemography (Wolpoff and Caspari). The large number of neurocranial elements are integrated into contributions that address possible sex-related bias in frontal bone elements (Ahern); sex, age, and size variation in occipital elements (Caspari); chronological trends in temporal bone morphology between Krapina and the extensive earlier Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos sample from Atapuerca, Spain (Martı́nez et al.); Middle to Late Pleistocene change in endocranial size and morphology in Europe using Krapina 3 and 6 along with the coeval Italian Saccopastore 1 specimen (Bruner et al.); endocranial volume and brain growth (Coqueugniot and Hublin); discrete, within-sample intracranial variation (Sansilbano-Collilieux and Tillier); and cranial-vault thickness (Balzeau). Contributions addressing lower facial anatomy focus on ontogeny (Wil- 335 BOOK REVIEWS liams) and phylogeny (Schwartz and Tattersall). Traits deriving from all parts of the skull are integrated into a contribution exploring the validity of various species within Middle to Late Pleistocene Homo (Chang). Postcranial anatomy is explored in several contributions. Shoulder-complex anatomy is covered in contributions focusing on clavicle shape and phylogeny (Voisin); scapular form, with an emphasis on the signiﬁcance of axillary border patterning (Trinkaus; Odwak) including its ontogeny (Busby); and considerations of leverage and strength at the shoulder and elbow (Churchill and Rhodes). Pelvic anatomy is considered in two contributions (Bonmatı́ and Arsuaga; Rosenberg) in order to sort plesiomorphic from derived Neandertal innominate features. Lower limbs are covered in a contribution focusing on femoral markers of age and activity (Belcastro et al.). Aspects of the appendicular skeleton in both upper and lower limbs are integrated into a contribution exploring physique and ecogeographic adaptations (Pearson and Busby). Paleopathology, especially trauma, is covered in several contributions (Gardner and Smith; Underdown; Mann and Monge; Estabrook). Mortuary practices and the question of cannibalism are covered in two contributions (Ullrich; Frayer et al.). Finally the questions of taphonomy and preservation bias in the Krapina sample are also covered (Van Arsdale). Overall, the contributions comprise a wide range of sampling strategies and organizational approaches. Some focus exclusively on the Krapina sample, whereas others either compare the Krapina sample with other Neandertal samples or make broader comparisons within Pleistocene and Holocene Homo. Similarly, a wide range SCIENCE CONSERVATION IN AFRICAN FORESTS: THE BENELONG-TERM RESEARCH. Edited By Richard Wrangham and Elizabeth Ross. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2008. 254 pp. ISBN 978-0-521-89601-6. $117.00 (hardcover). AND FITS OF A common justiﬁcation for conducting ﬁeldwork in tropical forest venues is that the presence of researchers—and their science—is an effective deterrent to poaching and habitat loss. Research emanating from permanent ﬁeld stations has great potential to reduce human pressure on protected areas. The principle is familiar to most who have worked in Africa; however, this volume was prompted by a sense that the beneﬁts of sustained research needed clear articulation. To mark the 20th anniversary of the Kibale Chimpanzee Project, researchers gathered in Uganda’s Kibale National Park to discuss how their primatology has led to better conservation within the park and improved the lives of Ugandans around it. The resulting volume demonstrates the positive impacts that science can have on a forest, a region, and its people. The ﬁrst section deals with research at Kibale, one of the most recognized and scientiﬁcally productive ﬁeld sites in Africa. This is the ‘‘case study’’ referred to on the ﬂyleaf. Wrangham provides the book’s rationale, emphasizing (among other points) that strong personal rela- of methodological approaches are used, ranging from classic morphological description to measurement analysis via computed tomography. Readers who come to this volume in order to focus on a particular aspect of anatomy or a particular paleobiological question will, in many cases, be rewarded with novel data and new treatments of that question. Readers who approach this volume as a collection of articles will also be rewarded by the extensive range of coverage. The publication quality of this book is exceptional, retaining the glossy paper and color title, subtitle, and table highlights of the original journal layout. The quality of the photos and ﬁgures, many of them in color, is also ﬁrst rate. The cover is attractive, and it includes an equally attractive color dust jacket. Given all of this, its €60.00 price is quite reasonable. The book will make a great addition to the bookshelves of those interested in all things Neandertal and should be particularly interesting to the large number of researchers whose own work has been signiﬁcantly inﬂuenced by the singular Krapina collection and its remarkable discoverer. ROBERT G. FRANCISCUS Department of Anthropology University of Iowa Iowa City, IA DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21174 Published online 9 November 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). tionships (‘‘fuzzy factors’’) are vital for effective conservation. Several chapters discuss how data can be incorporated into management plans, and a slew of examples are provided to illustrate their effectiveness. Thomas Struhsaker, the grand old man of Kibale, reviews activities at the site he began working almost 40 years ago. Few ever accused Struhsaker of sugarcoating, and his chapter is a frank discussion of how conservation success is measured (it varies by taxon), how effective is education and training of locals (we don’t know yet), and the dangers of holding conservation hostage to promises of ‘‘escalating ﬁnancial returns.’’ One of the important lessons from Struhsaker’s review is that despite success in community development, the bedrock of conservation is law enforcement; without effective policing, pressure from hunting and habitat disturbance will trump gains made from capacity building or awareness campaigns. Understanding how forest perturbation affects an organism’s ﬁtness requires long-term data and Chapman et al., illustrate how red colobus distributions are a function of protein-to-ﬁber ratios resulting from differential forest quality. This is science with conservation implications par excellence. Goldberg et al., focus on disease transmission and ways of reducing threats. The Kibale Ecohealth Project was initiated to address practices that put people, primates, and livestock at risk. The need for such projects is a consequence of locals living in close American Journal of Physical Anthropology 336 BOOK REVIEWS proximity to wild animals, and this project shows how research leads to public health programs with widespread beneﬁts. Kasenene and Ross discuss how research at Kibale has led to improved education, a burgeoning ecotourism industry, and increased employment. Trevelyan and Nuttman discuss the role Makerere University Biological Field Station (MUBFS) plays in training national and international students in tropical ecology. This is focused, well-organized ﬁeld training, and its success is remarkable: 97% of Africans who enrolled in MUBFS courses between 1994 and 2006 are involved in conservation activities today. If ever there were a rallying point for the effectiveness of training host-country scientists, this is it. The section concludes with a discussion of the ways local people view activity in the park. Disease transmission and crop raiding remain concerns of residents on the park’s periphery; however, the majority of people felt the park positively impacted their lives. The book’s second section is a collection of chapters on other sites where research on African apes has been conducted for at least 20 years. Studies of chimpanzees at Uganda’s Budongo Forest Reserve date to 1962, and over the last 20 years, research there has been driven largely by conservation concerns. Two sites of chimpanzee research in Tanzania, Gombe, and Mahale, are the focus of the next chapters. The approach of community-based conservation around Gombe and the efforts of Jane Goodall to take her messages around the world are models for promoting science, education, and conservation. Nishida and Nakamura’s discussion of Mahale Mountains National Park is a cautionary tale recounting the dangers of invasive plants, illegal ﬁshing, and diseases brought by tourists, who often outnumber chimpanzees ten-to-one. Sound, well advertised science attracts tourists; however, balancing the beneﬁts and hazards is, the authors note, easier said than done. The Ivory Coast’s Tai National Park is home to one of the region’s last chimpanzee populations and a dwindling number of monkeys. The size of the forest makes policing the park a challenge, and poaching is widespread. To help combat this, chimpanzee researchers perform a play in local villages in which actors convey a simple message: Chimpanzees are our cousins, so please don’t kill them. The team admits the most effective means of protecting Tai chimpanzees has been the continued presence of researchers in the forest, and it is too soon to determine whether the theatrical production changes poacher attitudes. Nevertheless, survey results suggest the performances have been successful in lifting some of the mystery that villagers associate with chimpanzee. The second chapter from West Africa details efforts to link the chimpanzee population in Bossou with that in Nimba Mountain via a corridor of introduced trees. Similar reforestation projects will, most likely, be increasingly necessary. The ﬁnal ‘‘site chapter’’ focuses on gorillas of the Virunga volcanoes. Karisoke, the site made famous by Dian Fossey, recently celebrated 40 years of virtually American Journal of Physical Anthropology continuous research (work was interrupted by the Rwandan genocide in 1994), a feat made possible by strong governmental support and funded largely by tourists who are eager to spend a few hours with these magniﬁcent creatures. The authors provide a sobering discussion of the beneﬁts and drawbacks of tying mountain gorilla conservation to tourism revenue and highlight principles that should be followed if the system is to work in the long run. Science and Conservation in African Forests succeeds in articulating how primate research can lead to improved conservation and better living for local residents. The messages are clear, and the writing is uniformly strong. I have only three quibbles. First, several chapters begin with accounts (and maps) of Kibale, its research history, Uganda, etc. One chapter providing relevant information would eliminate redundancy and ensure uniformity. Second, the book’s title and cover art imply that preserving biodiversity generally is the goal, but several chapters and the preface are written from the position that ape conservation is the volume’s focus. This is odd because Kibale is such a compelling case study of system conservation, and several chapters make little or no mention of apes. I recognize the signiﬁcance and precarious status of our closest relatives, and I’m as fond of chimpanzees as the next person; however, isn’t this book concerned with all forest residents? What about forests that harbor only monkeys? If angwantibos or butterﬂies are my priority, should I read this volume? The answer is yes, but several contributions don’t make the case. Third, the volume would beneﬁt from a discussion that not only revisits key messages but also probes some of the unanswered questions in greater depth: What problems (and remedies) are uniquely African? Are the beneﬁts the same for all species and all peoples? What about wildlife conservation in unprotected areas? For many, the notion that long-term research has value beyond science is obvious. But even if the idea is taken for granted, Wrangham and Ross have done a service by producing a volume that makes the beneﬁts explicit. This book is as much about strategies as it is about rewards; it is a ‘‘how-to’’ (and ‘‘how-not-to’’) guide for conducting research in tropical forests. It offers a statement of broader impacts for our research proposals and, more importantly, rebuts the skeptics who claim research in tropical Africa takes more than it gives. W. SCOTT MCGRAW Department of Anthropology The Ohio State University Columbus, OH DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21175 Published online 20 October 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).