AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 132:483–487 (2007) Book Reviews THE APE IN THE TREE: AN INTELLECTUAL AND NATURAL HISTORY OF PROCONSUL. By Alan Walker and Pat Shipman. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. 2005. 288 pp. ISBN 0-674-01675-0. $26.95 (cloth). In this well written and insightful book, Alan Walker and Pat Shipman provide an expansive and detailed history of discoveries and analyses of the Miocene primate genus Proconsul. In their review of Miocene hominoid research, the authors cover a wide range of topics but do so in a coherent and engaging fashion. This is in large part due to Walker’s breadth of scholarship on this subject and Shipman’s clear and concise writing. This is a book that will be of interest both to students of primate evolution and to others curious about primate natural history. It was fun to read about the interesting characters, including D.B. Pigott and Edward James Wayland, involved in the search for fossils in East Africa early in the twentieth century. Their work yielded the ﬁrst specimens of Proconsul which were the basis of the 1933 description of Proconsul africanus by Arthur Hopwood of the British Museum. In the early section of this book, Walker and Shipman provide an insightful discussion of the early career of L.S.B. Leakey and Leakey’s luck— both good and bad. They also introduce the reader to Mary Nicol Leakey and highlight her important contributions to paleoanthropology. In Chapter 4, ‘‘The Lost and Found,’’ readers are treated to a fascinating account of the rediscovery in the early 1980s of portions of a Proconsul skeleton that had been described more than twenty years earlier. Walker, working with archival documents in the National Museums of Kenya, pieced together a much more complete skeleton by sifting through the museum’s collections and returning to the original ﬁeld site. Accounts of the ﬁeldwork at Rusinga are a joy to read, particularly for those with ﬁeld experience. Walker and Shipman do a good job of sharing the complexities of cultures, geologic structures, climatic conditions, and personalities that make ﬁeldwork the wonderful adventure that it is. In addition, they provide an exciting account of the discovery of a number of partial skeletons of Proconsul, a collection they aptly describe as ‘‘an embarrassment of riches’’ (p. 112). I am also impressed with how graciously Walker shares credit with many others, particularly his own students, as he works his way up to our present understanding of the phylogenetic placement of Proconsul and of its natural history. It is also nice to read about his sincere respect for and friendship with the Kenyan colleagues who have been so important in recovering fossils that bear on hominoid evolution. These accounts allow Walker and Shipman to highlight the importance of teamwork in contemporary primate biology. The authors provide easy to understand yet intellectually rigorous descriptions of a number of important topics for primate evolutionary biology, including mechanisms of speciation (p. 47), relative brain size (p. 84), estimation of body mass (p. 160), and the function of the C 2006 V WILEY-LISS, INC. semicircular canals (p. 242). Such discussions make this book an excellent choice to assign to an undergraduate biological anthropology course. In the author’s notes, Walker states that he does not attempt to cover all the research pertinent to the book’s subject. This is understandable given the volume of material that has been published on Miocene hominoids during the past 50 years; still, I think a few scholars who should have been acknowledged were left out of the text. For example, while the excellent work of Carol Ward in reconstructing the positional behavior of Proconsul is given its due, some reference to Mary Ellen Morbeck’s research is warranted. Her work, on much more limited material, challenged the idea that brachiation was an important part of the locomotor repertoire of Proconsul, and certainly anticipated some of Ward’s important contributions. Similarly, an insightful discussion of the state of molecular clocks is presented in Chapter 11, but missing is reference to the work in the 1960s of Morris Goodman, Vincent Sarich, and colleagues; Goodman’s ongoing efforts in this arena; or the more recent work of Todd Disotell and Caro-Beth Stewart. The naive reader will be given the impression that analysis of genetic material for phylogenetic purposes is just now emerging. Also, along these lines, Walker and Shipman provide an excellent account of the possibility that apes have migrated out of and then back into Africa during the past 18 million years and refer to some of the interesting work that David Begun has done on this topic. But certainly this discussion would have been improved by noting the arguments put forth on this matter by Stewart and Disotell in the late 1990s. Finally, I must reiterate that this is an extremely well written book. The only factual error that I can recall is on page 228, where the authors state, ‘‘This evidence support the idea that Victoriapithecus, a species believed to be ancestral to Old World monkeys and apes, had a slower life-history strategy than would be expected for a monkey of its size.’’ This statement on the phylogenetic placement of Victoriapithecus is incorrect but the reader will already know this because, earlier in the text, this early Miocene creature is identiﬁed as a suitable model for an ancestor to all Old World monkeys—a statement consistent with the views of most students of catarrhine evolution. In sum, I recommend this book both to scholars of primate evolutionary biology and to anyone interested in the natural history of primates. All will ﬁnd this book to be insightful, pleasurable, and thought provoking. HERBERT H. COVERT Department of Anthropology University of Colorado at Boulder Boulder, Colorado DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20540 Published online 18 December 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). 484 BOOK REVIEWS FUNDAMENTALS OF FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY. By Linda L. Klepinger. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. 2006. 185 pp. ISBN 0-471-21006-4 (hardcover). This book provides a much needed update to this ever expanding, applied specialty of biological anthropology. Reminiscent of the succinct chapters and practical approach of T. Dale Stewart’s classic Essentials of Forensic Anthropology (1979), Klepinger’s work brings the reader into the 21st century with all of its new developments and issues. Throughout the volume, information is imparted to the reader in a refreshing, straightforward, and, at times, tongue-in-cheek style. Klepinger tackles a dense subject head-on. The author provides the background and history of forensic anthropology in Part I, and moves on to the methodological nuts and bolts in Part II. The latter includes the major categories considered by forensic anthropologists when developing a biological proﬁle: initial assessment, sex, age at death, ancestry, stature, and markers of activity, occupation, and life history. Klepinger handles the voluminous literature and vast data supporting these chapters admirably. Part III addresses the medicolegal investigative responsibilities of the forensic anthropologist: identiﬁcation of trauma, estimation of time of death, and expert witnessing. A ﬁnal chapter recognizes the increasingly important role of DNA in forensic anthropological work; yet Klepinger rightly warns that this well-tested method also has its limitations. The shortcomings of this volume are few. The historical information provided in Chapter 2 is not new and rehashes Stewart (1979) and Steven Byers’ Forensic Anthropology (2005). The details of the Luetgert murder case are intriguing and well told, however. Also in Chapter 2, Klepinger glosses over the term ‘‘positive identiﬁcation’’ in reference to DNA. It should be clariﬁed, when discussing DNA and its application to individual identiﬁcation, that mitochondrial DNA does not provide the speciﬁcity required in many cases to establish a positive identiﬁcation. Chapter 3 begins with a discussion of how forensic anthropologists sort human versus nonhuman remains. In my experience, the initial sort is bone versus nonbone; then one may move on to differentiating species. Items such as stone, plastic (for example, from aircraft crashes), and the like can be confused with bone in the ﬁeld and even in the laboratory until a microscope is employed. Later in Chapter 3, Klepinger mentions nonbone items and the need to sort them from actual remains, but this step should be detailed more thoroughly and in sequence. My main criticism—which may be more of a compliment—is that I desired more from this author. The brev- MAN THE HUNTED: PRIMATES, PREDATORS, AND HUMAN EVOLUTION. By Donna Hart and Robert W. Sussman. New York: Westview Press. 2005. 312 pp. ISBN 0-81333936-7. $27.50 (paper). The inﬂuence of predation on primate behavior and sociality has generated signiﬁcant controversy among physical anthropologists, fueled principally by a want of satisfactory empirical data. However, recent studies focusing on predators, rather than prey, have conﬁrmed C 2006 V WILEY-LISS, INC. ity of the volume leaves questions in the reader’s mind. The knowledgeable reader may wonder why more was not mentioned on particular topics (e.g., distinguishing bone versus nonbone material or the truncated discussion of sharp force trauma in Chapter 9). Novices will not get details that perhaps they might need. The lack of a concluding chapter was disappointing to me as well. With the last chapter entitled ‘‘DNA,’’ one would hope that there would be a further ﬁnal word from the author regarding the state of forensic anthropology today, its future directions, and potential contributions. The succinctness can be seen as a positive but also left me feeling a bit cheated. The need for this volume is great, since there has been no such summary of the state of affairs in forensic anthropology since Stewart’s 1979 volume was published. There will clearly be much interest in the book from students (graduate, upper division undergraduate) and the general public. The latter may be bamboozled by CSI-esque knowledge, or purported knowledge, and want to know more. Fundamentals will assist in this regard, since the author repeatedly mentions how misinformation and amateur practitioners plague forensic anthropology at this time. The current information in this volume makes it a work that the practicing forensic anthropologist will want to have on his or her own shelf. DNA and the changing legal precedents and perspectives of the courts are just two such topics. The impact that Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology will have will be multifaceted. It will be a core text for graduate students who are specializing in forensic anthropology, or biological anthropology graduate students who desire or require an exposure to the specialty. For the general public, undergraduate student, or medicolegal nonspecialist, this book sets the record straight regarding amateur practitioners and their future (or lack thereof) in forensic anthropology. This is an important contribution from a well versed and experienced forensic anthropologist, and will serve as a useful summary of the state of the science today. ANN W. BUNCH Department of Anthropology State University of New York at Oswego Oswego, NY DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20539 Published online 18 December 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). that for some primates predation represents a signiﬁcant source of mortality. Additionally, new experimental approaches have permitted ﬁeld researchers to manipulate the perceived risk of predation and to examine behavioral responses to such risk in detail. Hart and Sussman’s book ostensibly represents a timely contribution, purporting to summarize for a popular audience the inﬂuence of predation on primate, and speciﬁcally human, evolution. Sadly, this engaging premise rapidly deteriorates into a recycled critique of ‘‘Man the Hunter’’ that BOOK REVIEWS mires itself in a simplistic dichotomy between predator species and prey species and all but completely ignores the modern anthropological literature on hunting and meat eating. A single question pervades Hart and Sussman’s book: ‘‘Were early humans bold hunters or were they fearful prey?’’ (p. 5). And early on the authors invest the answer with grave moral signiﬁcance. Viewing humans as a predatory species descended from an ‘‘oppressive killer ape’’ (p. xv), they argue, inevitably leads to a belief that ‘‘humans are slaughter prone assassins by nature’’ (p. xviii) and that violence is unavoidable. Seeing humans as a prey species, on the other hand, is morally instructive, because it highlights our cooperative instincts and suggests that we ‘‘are just one of many, many species that had to be careful, had to depend on other group members, had to communicate danger, and had to come to terms with being merely one cog in the complex cycle of life’’ (p. xvi). ‘‘Let’s quit accepting our spurious heritage as Man the Hunter,’’ they urge, ‘‘to excuse why we start wars, torture others, and scorch the earth’’ (p. xviii). Feet ﬁrmly planted in the naturalistic fallacy, the authors proceed to present evidence from both living primates and the fossil record that our ancestors were frequent meals for a variety of predators and thus a prey species. Their data comprise an exhaustive catalog of predation on humans and nonhuman primates by lions, tigers, bears, hyenas, wolves, pythons, crocodiles, sharks, Komodo dragons, and crowned hawk eagles, as well as a profusion of anecdotes from the popular media on everything from African schoolchildren savaged by raptors to American cyclists carried away by mountain lions. Occasionally this exercise produces fascinating nuggets, such as a discussion of why European wolves prey on humans but North American wolves do not. The authors are too polite to play these grisly episodes for their full tabloid potential, however, so the overall result is weirdly monotonous: Teacher mauled by crocodile? Check. Cattle herder smothered by python? Check. This litany of human carnage is interspersed with fossil evidence for carnivore wear on the remains of various human ancestors. Here the biases of the authors are apparent as they uncritically accept any indication of carnivore damage as proof of predation. For example, signs that Homo erectus remains at Zhoukoudian were processed by the extinct hyena Pachycrocuta are taken to show unambiguously that ‘‘Pachycrocuta preyed on hominids in the area, and then brought pieces of their prey home to the cave’’ (p. 102). That Pachycrocuta may have scavenged hominids that died in some other fashion is never considered. Similarly, carnivore tooth marks on a jaw at Dmanisi generate the conclusion that the hominid there ‘‘wasn’t a powerful hunter, and wasn’t a competitor with the indigenous wolves for grazing animals . . . The little Dmanisi hominid acted like prey and was viewed as such’’ (p. 95). One might well question why Hart and Sussman do not similarly consider the abundant evidence of cut marks from stone tools on faunal remains from various African assemblages as evidence of predation by hominids; however, on this issue they remain silent. This aspect of the archaeological record is omitted entirely, and it is left to poor Raymond Dart to present the case for hunting by hominids. One searches the bibliography in vain for references to Isaac, Bunn, Blumenschine, Kroll, Potts, Plummer, and many others who have documented signs of hominid butchery in the fossil record. C 2006 V WILEY-LISS, INC. 485 The authors’ deafness to the issue of hunting by hominids seems largely a result of their curious and rigid dichotomy between prey animals and predator species. Hart and Sussman’s basic premise is that any indication of predation can be taken as prima facie evidence that a species is a prey animal and, thus, not a predator species. Consequently, once it is established that early hominids were occasional prey items, it becomes unnecessary to even consider the evidence that they may have been hunters. However, this assumption is clearly at odds with observations of modern carnivore behavior. Interspeciﬁc killing is frequent and well documented among carnivores, accounting for 40–60% of mortality in several species and 68% in one cheetah study. Hyenas kill wild dogs, coyotes kill ferrets, mountain lions kill coyotes, foxes kill badgers, and lions kill hyenas, to list but a few examples. Sometimes the victims are consumed; sometimes they are not. But the fact that a coyote in Yellowstone shows all the fearful vigilance of a prey species when wolves are about, and may even end up as a wolf ’s dinner, says absolutely nothing about that coyote’s effectiveness as a predator. Presumably this was true for human ancestors as well. Hart and Sussman cling tenaciously to their predator species-prey species distinction, however, even as it leads down some bizarre paths. One might expect, for example, that the massive data set on chimpanzee hunting would be welcomed as veriﬁcation that predation is an important source of mortality for a primate species (red colobus monkeys). However, viewing chimpanzees as effective predators conﬂicts with the authors’ general notion of primates as prey species and their speciﬁc view of chimpanzees as prey items for leopards and lions. Thus, Hart and Sussman deny that chimpanzees are naturally predators, citing—oddly enough—Craig Stanford’s data that in some years Gombe colobus suffer 30% mortality from chimpanzee predation. ‘‘How can such high rates of chimpanzee predation . . . be anything other than an aberrant situation?’’ they ask. ‘‘It is obvious that this chimpanzee predation on monkeys is a recent and unnatural phenomenon’’ (p. 54). What the authors omit here is the fact that Stanford’s work shows signiﬁcant variation in colobus mortality from year to year, with high mortality years followed by low mortality ones. Furthermore, the 30% ﬁgure that Hart and Sussman quote is not for Gombe colobus, but for colobus groups in the center of the Kasakela chimpanzees’ territory. Stanford’s data suggest a distinct source-sink dynamic in which colobus groups in the border zones between chimpanzee communities suffer less predation and enjoy larger group sizes than those more centrally located. Similar temporal and spatial variation in colobus predation rates has been reported from other long-term study sites, and it is anything but obvious that chimpanzee predation on monkeys is a ‘‘recent and unnatural phenomenon.’’ Unfortunately, this casual approach to the scientiﬁc literature extends to a range of issues. An entire chapter is devoted to debunking the idea that lethal intergroup aggression by male chimpanzees is part of an evolved behavioral strategy. Hart and Sussman are concerned that chimpanzee aggression might offer support for the killer ape hypothesis, so they maintain that escalated aggression in chimpanzees is: (1) much rarer than suggested by chimpanzee ﬁeldworkers, and (2) the result of human provisioning. Sussman has produced these arguments in previous publications, and it is telling that he 486 BOOK REVIEWS chooses here to overlook recent reviews by Richard Wrangham and Michael Wilson that provide patient, detailed, and persuasive refutations of his claims. Instead, the authors refer only to Wrangham’s ten-yearold popular book, Demonic Males, as though it provides the sole evidence for lethal intergroup aggression in chimpanzees. Exasperating omissions of this kind are so frequent in Man the Hunted that portions of the book almost seem to exist behind glass. The penultimate chapter offers a lengthy critique of sociobiology that could have been written in 1976. Modern students of behavioral ecology will ﬁnd this section almost embarrassing to read, so grossly anachronistic is the authors’ apparent understanding of the ﬁeld. And it’s hard to know what to make of statements like: ‘‘many scientists, scholars, and members of the general public have a view of our ancestors as bloodthirsty brutes, not just defending themselves but aggressively entering into combat with every living creature’’ (p. 190). Do they really? Or was this just true in 1965? Never mind. What’s the point in actually engaging with the modern anthropological literature when one can kick around Raymond Dart and Robert Ardrey? Regardless of one’s sympathies toward Hart and Sussman’s general approach, it may ultimately prove irrelevant to the underlying question of what effects a history of COOPERATION IN PRIMATES AND HUMANS: MECHANISMS AND EVOLUTION. By Peter M. Kappeler and Carel P. van Schaik. New York: Springer. 2006. 349 pp. ISBN 3-540-28269-6. $149.00 (hardcover). Cooperation is a topic that has long been of interest to biologists, anthropologists, and economists. Such interdisciplinary attention prompted Peter Kappeler and Carel van Schaik to organize the Fourth Göttinger Freilandtage (German Primate Center, December, 2003), which brought together theoreticians, primatologists, and students of human behavior to discuss recent developments in the complex ﬁeld of primate cooperation. This book, a collection of chapters written by selected conference attendees, has two stated goals: ‘‘It documents and summarizes the range of cooperative behavior among non-human primates . . . [and] . . . identif[ies] mechanisms of, and prerequisites for, cooperation that are uniquely human’’ (pp. v–vi). Each chapter provides a thorough review of a cooperative behavior or mechanism, and some present new analyses. Several introduce novel frameworks to guide future thinking. Laudably, most authors emphasize the importance of proper tests of alternative hypotheses and analytical rigor. In Chapter 1, van Schaik and Kappeler begin with a brief history of cooperation research, organized according to the three classic explanatory models: kinship, reciprocity, and mutualism. This provides a framework for the remainder of the volume. Next, chapters by Joan Silk and Bernard Chapais evaluate the role of kin selection in the evolution of cooperation. Silk argues that competition between relatives may counteract some of the positive effects of kin selection and points out that mechanisms other than kin selection may generate kinbiased behavior. Similarly, Chapais cautions against the temptation to explain all forms of kin-based interactions in terms of inclusive ﬁtness. He challenges the tradiC 2006 V WILEY-LISS, INC. hunting might have had on human evolutionary psychology. For whether australopithecines and their immediate successors were hunters or hunted, even Hart and Sussman concede that by 400,000 years ago there is ample evidence of hunting in the fossil record. And if 50,000 years is sufﬁcient for a new species to evolve, then surely 400,000 years represents adequate time for natural selection to have shaped novel psychological and cognitive adaptations in the human lineage. What these might be—and the extent to which they were inﬂuenced by a hunting and gathering lifestyle—is the focus of much current research. But readers interested in these issues will ﬁnd little to draw them to the current volume. And those seeking a historical perspective on ‘‘Man the Hunter’’ will ﬁnd an inﬁnitely more nuanced and interesting treatment in Matt Cartmill’s excellent A View to a Death in the Morning. MARTIN N. MULLER Department of Anthropology Boston University Boston, Massachusetts DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20538 Published online 18 December 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). tional assumption that kin and nonkin make equally valuable cooperation partners by investigating the role of competence in the evolution of cooperation. A section on reciprocity is headlined by a chapter by Robert Trivers, which provides a ﬁtting, if somewhat wordy, summary of the complex evolution of reciprocity theory within and outside the prisoner’s dilemma. Some of these complexities are subsequently addressed by Frans de Waal and Sarah Brosnan, who argue that a reciprocal pattern may arise from mechanisms that fall along a continuum from simple symmetry-based to calculated reciprocity. They emphasize the need to rule out simple mechanisms before accepting more complex alternatives. This is a point of critical importance, yet in some cases the authors appear to disregard their own advice. In their studies of food sharing, they effectively control for symmetry-based reciprocity but rather hastily discount the importance of other alternative mechanisms. Nevertheless, they provide a well written and detailed description of two decades of research on reciprocity in coalition formation, grooming, and food sharing in captive macaques, capuchins, and chimpanzees. Next, John Mitani presents careful analyses of new data from the Ngogo chimpanzee community at Kibale National Park, Uganda. Here, Mitani builds on previous work, providing solid evidence of a reciprocal pattern of exchange of grooming, coalitionary support, and meat sharing among adult males. A chapter by Filippo Aureli and Colleen Schaffner rounds out the section with a discussion of the role of cooperation in postconﬂict reconciliation. The discussion of wild chimpanzees continues in a section on mutualism, where Christophe Boesch, Hedwige Boesch, and Linda Vigilant focus on cooperative hunting at Taı̈ National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Using new analyses of genetic data, they conclude that males do not make kin-biased hunting decisions. Instead, they present previously published data supporting a mutualistic mechanism. They claim that group hunts are more energetically 487 BOOK REVIEWS proﬁtable to an individual than are lone hunts, and that hunters have greater net caloric intake than bystanders. While there is little doubt that this is a crucial piece of the puzzle, more discussion of the reliability of energy expenditure estimates is warranted. Next, Carel van Schaik, Sagar Pandit, and Erin Vogel distill two mathematical papers into a slightly more digestible presentation of a model explaining interspecies differences in the formation of male-male coalitions. They argue that the relationship between rank and ﬁtness is the key factor in determining whether or not there is selective pressure for males to form coalitions. In the subsequent chapter, Tim Clutton-Brock provides a succinct review of cooperative breeding in mammals. While there is not much data from primates in this chapter, Clutton-Brock makes it clear that our understanding of cooperative breeding in other taxa is applicable to primates. In an elegant illustration of this point, Barbara König then presents data from several of her experiments on communal nursing in house mice. By measuring the ﬁtness consequences of communal rearing, König concludes that females gain direct, mutualistic beneﬁts from nonoffspring nursing. Next, in the ﬁrst of two chapters on biological markets, Louise Barrett and Peter Henzi highlight the importance of incorporating the broader utility of grooming into analyses of interchange of goods and services. Then, Ronald Noë assesses whether mechanisms of cooperation and trading in modern humans can be traced back to homologous mechanisms in our primate relatives. This leads nicely into the ﬁnal section of the book, which addresses the extraordinary sophistication of human cooperation. Manfred Milinski reviews recent ﬁndings on the impact of personal reputation on human cooperation, and Simon Gächter and Benedikt Herr- BOOKS RECEIVED Brodie N, Kersel MM, Luke C, and Tubb KW (eds.) (2006) Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, and the Antiquities Trade. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 349 pp. $65.00 (cloth). Byers AM (2006) Cahokia: A World Renewal Cult Heterarchy. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 599 pp. $69.95 (cloth). Chamberlain A (2006) Demography in Archaeology. New York: Cambridge University Press. 235 pp. $29.99 (paper). Dawkins R (2006) The Selﬁsh Gene (30th Anniversary Edition). New York: Oxford University Press. 360 pp. $15.95 (cloth). Frayer DW (2006) The Krapina Neandertals: A Comprehensive, Centennial, Illustrated Bibliography. Zagreb: Croatian Natural History Museum. 219 pp. 49.00 (cloth). Gibbons A (2006) The First Human: The Race to Discover Our Earliest Ancestors. New York: Doubleday. 306 pp. $26.00 (cloth). Gowland R, and Knüsel C (eds.) (2006) Social Archaeology of Funerary Remains. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 312 pp. $120.00 (hardcover). C 2006 V WILEY-LISS, INC. mann review the extent to which human cooperation can be explained by traditional economic models. Like many volumes emerging from a conference, this book suffers from some discontinuity. For example, several chapters use different deﬁnitions of cooperation. It would have been more informative (but admittedly challenging) for the authors to have approached each section with a common deﬁnition in mind. However, this is more a criticism of the ﬁeld than of the editors or authors. Additionally, there is some needless repetition of detailed descriptions of certain terms and mechanisms (e.g., prisoner’s dilemma, indirect reciprocity, etc). While this helps emphasize important points and allows each chapter to stand alone, it disrupts the continuity of the book as a whole. Nevertheless, the narrative style contributes to its readability and, in most cases, helps make an often confusing and complicated subject easier to grasp. Finally, the relaxed tone appears to have encouraged the authors to make bold and sometimes controversial suggestions, which are wonderful for stimulating discussion. Without a doubt, this volume will be of value to biological anthropologists and behavioral ecologists with an interest in cooperation in primates and other taxa. IAN C. GILBY Department of Anthropology Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20523 Published online 28 November 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Grafen A, and Ridley M (eds.) (2006) Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think. New York: Oxford University Press. 283 pp. $25.00 (cloth). Hann JH (2006) The Native American World Beyond Apalachee: West Florida and the Chattahoochee Valley. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 253 pp. $55.00 (cloth). Lehman SM, and Fleagle JG (eds.) (2006) Primate Biogeography: Progress and Prospects. New York: Springer. 535 pp. $149.00 (hardcover). Lipo CP, O’Brien MJ, Collard M, and Shennan SJ (eds.) (2006) Mapping Our Ancestors: Phylogenetic Approaches in Anthroplogy and Prehistory. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction. 353 pp. $29.95 (paper). Nunn CL, and Altizer S (2006) Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. 384 pp. $49.50 (paper). Zaidi M (ed.) (2006) Skeletal Development and Remodeling in Health, Disease, and Aging. Boston: Blackwell. 572 pp. $145.00 (paper). DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20526 Published online 28 November 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).