close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Brief communication Infracranial maturation in the skeletal collection from Coimbra Portugal New aging standards for epiphyseal union.

код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 134:424–437 (2007)
Brief Communication: Infracranial Maturation in the
Skeletal Collection From Coimbra, Portugal: New Aging
Standards for Epiphyseal Union
Hélène Coqueugniot1,3* and Timothy D. Weaver2,3
1
UMR 5199-PACEA, Laboratoire d’Anthropologie des Populations du Passé, Université Bordeaux 1,
avenue des Facultés, 33405 Talence cedex, France
2
Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616
3
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6,
D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
KEY WORDS
postcranium; development; age determination; bone maturation; epiphyseal fusion
ABSTRACT
Age at death of a single skeletal individual or a group is essential information in archaeological,
paleoanthropological, and forensic contexts. Dental remains are the most commonly used age indicators, but
when the dentition is not available, or too few teeth are
present for an accurate age assessment, other age indicators such as skeletal maturation must be used. Of
particular utility in this regard is the fusion of the epiphyses of the infracranial skeleton. Here we present
new aging standards based on the infracranial matura-
tion of individuals from the known age and sex collection from Coimbra, Portugal. We scored infracranial epiphyseal fusion and spheno-occipital synchondrosis closure (64 loci of ossification in total) on 137 skeletons
from individuals between 7 and 29 years old. We further discuss developmental differences between the
sexes and similarities and differences between the
Coimbra documented collection and other published
aging standards. Am J Phys Anthropol 134:424–437,
2007. V 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Skeletal remains of subadults are frequently found in
archaeological, paleoanthropological, and forensic settings. Often, one of the first tasks for a human osteologist, and particularly when analyzing subadults, is to
estimate as accurately and as precisely as possible the
age at death of the individuals. These age estimates are
the basis for determining the minimum number of individuals represented as well as for almost all further
analyses. For example, age estimation can be crucial in
forensic contexts for identity determination. In archaeological and paleoanthropological contexts it is necessary
for studies of development, demography, and pathology.
There are a number of published methods and standards for estimating the age at death of subadult specimens from cranial or dental remains. The timing and
sequence of dental eruption and stages of dental formation and calcification are thought to be good proxies for
chronological age because they appear to be less affected
by environmental or physiological factors than other
aspects of development (Schour and Massler, 1940, 1941;
Lewis and Garn, 1960; Moorrees et al., 1963a,b; Garn
et al., 1965, 1973a, b; Ubelaker, 1978; Demirjian, 1986;
Smith, 1991; Bowman et al., 1992; Liversidge, 2003).
However, dental development is not completely free from
environmental influences (Cardoso, 2007), and often the
dentition is missing, or not enough teeth are present for
an accurate age assessment. Moreover, most dental development is completed before the teens, so its utility is
mainly limited to children. In older subadults, age estimation must be based on other aspects of anatomy such
as the infracranial skeleton.
In clinical contexts it is often possible to use the
appearances of primary or secondary ossification centers
to estimate age at death, but this method is not usually
very useful in archaeological, paleoanthropological, and
forensic contexts, because small, fragile skeletal elements are frequently not recovered. An alternative, particularly for fetuses through young children, is to use
long bone diaphysis length, which increases rather predictably with age (Ghantus, 1951; Maresh, 1955, 1970;
Anderson et al., 1964; Gindhart, 1973). However, such
estimates require population specific standards that are
not available for many archaeological contexts. Additionally, when considering archaeological skeletons, we may
expect that individuals who died as children to be
shorter than their surviving cohort, potentially biasing
such age estimates.
Perhaps the most useful age indicator for individuals
ranging from the early teens to early adulthood is the
gradual fusion of the epiphyses. For accurate age assessment with this method, sex differences in epiphyseal
union must be considered and coding schemes for the
union process must be well defined (Ubelaker, 1989b).
Most osteology textbooks present standards for epiphyseal union that can be used to estimate age at death
(Krogman and Iscan, 1986; Steele and Bramblett, 1988;
Bass, 1995; Mays, 1998; White and Folkens, 2000; Byers,
C 2007
V
WILEY-LISS, INC.
C
Grant sponsor: French CNRS, Max Planck Society.
*Correspondence to: Hélène Coqueugniot, Laboratoire d’Anthropologie des Populations du Passé, Université Bordeaux 1, avenue des
Facultés, 33405 Talence cedex, France.
E-mail: h.coqueugniot@anthropologie.u-bordeaux1.fr
Received 31 January 2007; accepted 31 May 2007
DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20683
Published online 13 July 2007 in Wiley InterScience
(www.interscience.wiley.com).
INFRACRANIAL MATURATION IN COIMBRA
2002), but these tables and charts are in fact based on a
limited number of studies of documented skeletal collections (Stevenson, 1924; McKern and Stewart, 1957;
Webb and Suchey, 1985). The youngest individuals in
McKern and Stewart’s (1957) and Stevenson’s (1924)
studies were 17 and 15 years old, respectively. Webb and
Suchey’s (1985) sample starts at 11 years old, but the
data is only for the iliac crest and the sternal end of the
clavicle. To our knowledge, data on younger individuals
come almost exclusively from radiographic studies,
which may not be comparable to direct observations on
the bones. One of the few exceptions is the study by
Veschi and Facchini (2002), but the data are broken into
age classes, making it difficult to compare with other
studies. Additionally, details of the different states of
fusion are not always precisely documented in these previous studies.
Recently, a number of books and edited volumes focusing on the osteology of subadults have been published
(Hoppa and Fitzgerald, 1999; Scheuer and Black, 2000;
425
Baker et al., 2005; Lewis, 2006), and these comprehensive treatments have substantially advanced our understanding of the growth and development of the human
skeleton. The fact still remains, however, that the aging
standards available to most researchers are based on a
very limited number of studies of documented collections. To assess the accuracy of age estimates of
unknown individuals it is important to know the ranges
of variation for human skeletal development.
To help remedy the situation, we present new data collected on subadult specimens from the documented skeletal collection from Coimbra, Portugal. Our primary goal
is to provide new comparative data on the fusion of different epiphyses. We focus on the infracranial skeleton,
but we also present data on the closure of the sphenooccipital synchondrosis. We document differences in development between males and females, and further compare and contrast our results with published standards
to better assess developmental variability in human
populations.
MATERIALS
Fig. 1. Sample age and sex composition.
This study is based on an identified human skeletal
collection housed in the Department of Anthropology at
Coimbra University, Portugal. The collection was primarily assembled by Professor E. Tamagnini between 1915
and 1942. What follows is a brief summary of the history
based on Rocha (1995).
In 1885, a course of study in anthropology, human paleontology, and prehistoric archaeology was created at
Coimbra University by Professor B. Machado. To augment the osteological material available for teaching and
research, between 1896 and 1903, an initial reference
collection of skulls was accumulated in the Anthropology
Museum of Coimbra University by Professor Machado.
These skulls came from the Anatomical Museum of
Coimbra University, created by the medicine faculty of
Coimbra University, and from medical schools in Lisbon
and Porto.
Fig. 2. Ossification of the os
coxa (left panels) and sacrum
(right panels). Each bar in the
scale equals 1 cm. [Color figure
can be viewed in the online
issue, which is available at
www.interscience.wiley.com.]
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
426
H. COQUEUGNIOT AND T.D. WEAVER
Fig. 3. Ossification of the proximal
radius (top left panel), sternal end of the
clavicle (top right panel), scapula (bottom
left panel), and tibia (bottom right panel).
Each bar in the scale equals 1 cm. [Color
figure can be viewed in the online issue,
which is available at www.interscience.
wiley.com.]
After Professor Machado resigned in 1907, Professor
E. Tamagnini became the director of the Anthropology
Museum, and he remained in this position until 1950.
Professor Tamagnini was given permission by the city
council of Coimbra to expand the initial collection with
skeletons excavated from the largest cemetery of the city
of Coimbra (Cemiterio da Conchada). Normally, after a
waiting period of 5 years, unclaimed skeletons from the
cemetery would be transferred to a communal grave, but
instead they were added to the collection. The process
was similar to what occurred with the Lisbon collection
(Cardoso, 2006). Economics was not the only reason why
skeletons remained unclaimed; also some individuals
were not claimed at the wishes of the individual or the
family. At the time the collection was being assembled,
Portugal was in a period of political transition starting
with the establishment of the First Republic in 1910,
and there were associated changes in religious practices
and behaviors surrounding death.
After careful washing, each infracranial skeleton was
deposited in a cataloged box. For the skulls, after being
numbered, they were arranged in showcases. For each
individual, biographical information (birthplace, sex, age
at death, date of death, cause and location of death,
occupation, marital status, name, parents’ names, and
the site of the burial in the cemetery) was recorded from
the cemetery documentation.
The entire collection consists of 505 human skeletons,
both from adults and subadults, with ages at death ranging from 7 to 96 years old. Of the total, 498 skeletons
were excavated from the cemetery and seven were dissected in the Anatomical Museum of Coimbra University.
The individuals in the collection were born between 1826
and 1922 and died between 1904 and 1938. All the indi-
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
427
INFRACRANIAL MATURATION IN COIMBRA
TABLE 1. Number of skeletal elements for each locus and fusion stage by sex with the list of abbreviations used
Female
Cranial and infracranial locus
Ilium pubis
Upper ischium pubis
Lower ischium pubis
Ischium ilium
Iliac crest
Ischial tuberosity
Anterior inferior iliac spine
Medial sacral segments 1–2
Lateral sacral segments 1–2
Posterior sacral segments 1–2
Medial sacral segments 2–3
Lateral sacral segments 2–3
Posterior sacral segments 2–3
Medial sacral segments 3–4
Lateral sacral segments 3–4
Posterior sacral segments 3–4
Medial sacral segments 4–5
Lateral sacral segments 4–5
Posterior sacral segments 4–5
Coracoid
Acromion
Sternal end
Humerus head
Humerus medial epicondyle
Humerus distal end
Radius proximal end
Radius distal end
Ulna proximal end
Ulna proximal end
Femur head
Femur greater trochanter
Femur lesser trochanter
Femur distal end
Tibia proximal end
Tibia distal end
Fibula proximal end
Fibula distal end
Calcaneus posterior end
Spheno-Occipital synchondrosis
Male
Abbreviations
a
b
c
a
b
c
Il_Pu
U_Is_Pu
L_Is_Pu
Is_Il
Ic
It
Aiis
M_SS_1_2
L_SS_1_2
P_SS_1_2
M_SS_2_3
L_SS_2_3
P_SS_2_3
M_SS_3_4
L_SS_3_4
P_SS_3_4
M_SS_4_5
L_SS_4_5
P_SS_4_5
Crd
Acm
Ster
Hum_Hd
Hum_Me
Hum_De
Rad_Pe
Rad_De
Uln_Pe
Uln_De
Fem_Hd
Fem_Gt
Fem_Lt
Fem_De
Tib_Pe
Tib_De
Fib_Pe
Fib_De
Clc_Pe
SOS
28
27
8
27
49
28
24
24
15
17
14
10
8
13
8
7
12
2
7
24
35
64
41
27
26
26
41
26
44
28
28
28
37
28
29
27
31
25
13
5
5
2
10
35
53
5
33
17
9
19
19
6
17
12
10
21
3
11
4
8
48
20
1
0
6
20
2
11
29
12
9
14
29
14
17
23
5
9
103
104
126
99
49
54
102
11
34
41
35
32
52
38
36
49
31
37
45
106
74
22
70
102
106
105
75
109
76
78
93
97
85
78
91
76
80
104
44
16
18
6
15
35
24
18
24
10
12
9
6
6
8
6
9
8
1
7
13
22
58
34
17
12
19
37
17
42
21
23
22
31
26
19
26
24
10
9
23
8
3
10
27
38
9
35
17
13
27
16
3
25
12
5
24
5
11
11
15
45
25
7
5
11
18
7
7
33
13
16
15
25
11
15
24
8
10
94
108
125
109
66
71
106
7
39
41
30
42
55
33
43
51
33
47
46
107
82
22
70
102
113
103
77
111
78
82
99
97
90
84
104
84
87
108
47
viduals are of Portuguese origin (mainland and insular),
except for two males who were born in Spain, one female
from Brazil, and three males and three females from
somewhere in Africa (Rocha, 1995).
Judging from their occupations, most of the individuals were of low socioeconomic status. The occupations of
the inhabitants of Coimbra were above all servants,
housekeepers, workers, soldiers, or artisans. The analysis of skeletal indicators of stress corroborates the historical records by indicating that a high percentage of the
individuals were of low socioeconomic status (Cunha,
1995). Even so, only a few individuals died from diseases
directly linked to malnutrition (Santos, 1995). The most
frequent cause of death in adults (about 40% of adult
deaths) was infectious, contagious diseases such as tuberculosis. The next most common causes of death were
circulatory and heart diseases (about 29%) and respiratory diseases (about 9%). In the subadult sample, infectious diseases were the main cause of death (Santos,
1995). Unlike some individuals from the Spitalfields collection (Molleson et al., 1993), our examination of the
infracranial skeletons did not detect abnormal bone development that could be linked with malnutrition.
For our study, we examined all 137 skeletons from individuals between 7 and 29 years old (69 females and 68
males, Fig. 1). They did not show any clear signs of pathology that could have significantly disrupted their growth
and development. In this sample, two males and two
females were not of Portuguese origin, being from Africa.
Additionally, we thought it would be instructive to
compare our results for the Coimbra collection with
other published data collected in the same way on
known age and sex osteological collections. We make
comparisons with the age determination standards compiled by Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994). These standards
are based on a variety of primary and secondary sources
(McKern and Stewart, 1957; Redfield, 1970; Suchey et al.,
1984; Krogman and Iscan, 1986; Ubelaker, 1989a,b). We
chose to focus on these standards because they are
reprinted in most textbooks and are very widely used.
METHODS
Scoring protocol
For each individual, we scored 64 infracranial loci of
ossification on the sacrum, left and right os coxae, scapulae, clavicles, humeri, radii, ulnae, femora, tibiae, and
calcanea. Most of these loci are taken from aging charts
and tables in standard human osteology texts (Krogman
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
428
H. COQUEUGNIOT AND T.D. WEAVER
Fig. 4. Os coxae: Age range
for each developmental state in
males (black) and females
(white).
and Iscan, 1986; Buikstra and Ubelaker, 1994; White
and Folkens, 2000). For each locus, we coded three
states of fusion: ‘‘a’’, ‘‘b’’, and ‘‘c’’, corresponding to open
(no fusion), partial union (fusing), and complete union
respectively. In most cases, it was fairly easy to decide
on the appropriate state, but we encountered some difficulties, which we note below. Our goal with this section
is to document any potential difficulties as clearly as
possible, so that other researchers will be able to collect
data that is comparable to ours. Readers should refer to
Baker et al. (2005) and Scheuer and Black (2000) for
more detailed descriptions of the ossification of different
skeletal elements.
General notes. As often happens with skeletal collections, some bones were damaged or eroded, making it
difficult to accurately code the state of ossification. When
enough of the relevant region was present, we coded the
degree of fusion as usual. Otherwise, we recorded the
state of fusion as unknown (missing data). Additionally,
we encountered a problem (specific to the Coimbra collection) in our coding of the long bones and the iliac
crest. Sometimes the epiphyses were glued to the primary ossification centers, and it was not always clear if
fusion had begun. If we could see any glue, we coded the
situation as ‘‘a’’, because only two parts which had originally been separated could be glued together. We coded
the situation as ‘‘b’’ when we could not see glue and
could observe bony connections between the secondary
and primary ossification centers. Often, we observed
deep bony connections even though a gap between the
primary and secondary centers was still present superficially.
Os coxa. Along the rim of the acetabulum, at both the
ilium-pubis and ilium-ischium junctions, a small open
notch sometimes remains long after complete union has
occurred everywhere else along the acetabular union of
the bones. We chose to code this situation as ‘‘b’’. Additionally, the fusion of the ischium and the pubis occurs
at two locations, which close at different times. We call
these upper (U), which is inside the acetabulum, and
lower (L), which is approximately midway along the
ischio-pubic ramus. The lower region fuses first. Figure
2 shows an os coxa with state ‘‘a’’ for the upper ischiumpubis and state ‘‘b’’ for the lower ischium-pubis loci (top
left) and an os coxa with state ‘‘a’’ for the iliac crest
(notice the glue), state ‘‘b’’ for the anterior-inferior iliac
spine, and state ‘‘b’’ for the ischium ilium loci (bottom
left).
Sacrum. The ossification of the sacrum is extremely
complicated, so we divided our coding into three regions
to summarize at least some of this complexity. The neural arches, centra, and the elements of the alae of each
successive vertebra had already fused to each other,
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
INFRACRANIAL MATURATION IN COIMBRA
429
Fig. 5. Sacrum: Age range
for each developmental state in
males (black) and females
(white).
because the youngest individuals in our sample were already 7 years old. For the remaining ossification steps,
the first region we coded, medial (M), is located along
the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the sacral vertebrae. The second region, lateral (L), is located along the
anterior surface of the sacrum, lateral to the sacral foraminae, but not including the separate ossification centers for the auricular surfaces and inferior lateral margins. The third region, posterior (P), documents the
fusion of successive laminae and spinous processes that
form the posterior border of the vertebral foramen. We
did not code the fusion of the two halves (laminae) of the
sacral vertebrae along the midline. For the medial
region, we scored the state of fusion as ‘‘b’’ once there
was a clear anterior projection of bone (formed by the
fusion of successive bodies and their annular rings) and
the absence of a horizontal line between successive vertebral bodies. Figure 2 shows a sacrum with state ‘‘b’’ for
the medial and state ‘‘c’’ for the lateral loci (top right)
and a sacrum with state ‘‘b’’ for the posterior locus
(bottom right).
Scapula. The fusion of coracoid process is complicated.
Because the separate subcoracoid and coracoid secondary
centers join with each other before either fuses with the
rest of the scapula, we considered them together as the
coracoid epiphysis. This means that the coracoid epiphysis, as we have defined it, includes the superior margin
of the glenoid fossa. There is also an additional ossification center along the anterior, posterior, and inferior
margins of the glenoid fossa, and a small center on the
coracoid process itself, all of which we ignored in our
coding. Finally, we sometimes observed pseudo-arthroses
that divided the acromion epiphysis in two. These could
be mistaken for unfused epiphyses, but they occur in the
wrong location and do not have the billowed appearance
of unfused epiphyses. Figure 3 shows two scapulae with
states ‘‘a’’ and ‘‘b’’ for the coracoid locus (bottom left).
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
430
H. COQUEUGNIOT AND T.D. WEAVER
Clavicle. The medial epiphysis is often not discrete. It
tends to gradually build up, usually starting in the center of the sternal end and eventually forming a thin
plate of bone over the articular surface. Figure 3 shows
a clavicle with state ‘‘b’’ for the sternal end (top right).
ment of the semimembranosus muscle. At the base of
this feature, there is sometimes a thin line that could be
confused with a fusing epiphysis. Figure 3 shows a tibia
with state ‘‘b’’ for both the proximal and distal ends
(bottom right).
Radius. For the radius in particular, but a similar situation occurs for the other long bones, there often remains
a very thin line where the articular surface of the proximal end meets the shaft. This line could be confused
with a fusing epiphysis (state ‘‘b’’ rather than ‘‘c’’). Figure 3 shows a radius with state ‘‘b’’ for the proximal end
(top left).
Spheno-occipital synchondrosis. There is sometimes
a line where the pterygoid plates are fusing to the body
of the sphenoid that can be confused with an unfused
synchondrosis. The line of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis tends to lie between the foramina lacerum.
Femur. We sometimes observed an additional ossification center for a third trochanter, which we ignored.
Tibia. Along the medial side of the proximal end of the
tibia there is a rectangular strip of bone for the attach-
Interobserver error. Before presenting our results on
the maturation of the Coimbra collection, we would like
to briefly mention interobserver error. We followed a
three-step procedure to minimize interobserver error in
our coding. We started by examining two individuals and
coded them together to make sure that we agreed on the
basic features of the coding system, in particular, the difference between states ‘‘b’’ and ‘‘c’’. We then selected 15
individuals and each coded them separately. We compared the results and discussed any differences to come
to a consensus as to the correct coding. Finally, we
selected another set of 15 individuals and each coded
them separately. When we compared the results for this
second set, we found only very minor differences in coding. This gave us confidence that our interobserver error
was minimal. For the remaining individuals in our sample, only one of us coded each individual (each of us
coded half of the collection), but we continued to discuss
any difficult situations.
RESULTS
Fig. 6. Scapula: Age range for each developmental state in
males (black) and females (white).
As with many documented collections, the coverage of
the Coimbra sample is uneven across ages (Table 1). The
Fig. 7. Upper limb: Age
range for each developmental
state in males (black) and
females (white).
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
INFRACRANIAL MATURATION IN COIMBRA
431
Fig. 8. Lower limb: Age
range for each developmental
state in males (black) and
females (white).
Fig. 9. Clavicle: Age range for each developmental state in
males (black) and females (white).
Fig. 10. Spheno-occipital synchondrosis: Age range for each
developmental state in males (black) and females (white).
sample is biased towards having more young adults
between 19 and 29 years (N 5 103). However, there are
still quite a few individuals between 7 and 18 years (N
5 34), but there are no 13-year-old individuals at all.
There are also more females for the younger ages, but
more males for the older ages, resulting in almost
exactly the same numbers of females (N 5 69) and males
(N 5 68) in the total sample.
Table 1 provides a list of abbreviations for Figures 4–
12. Table 1 also gives an overall summary of the maturation of our sample from the Coimbra collection. As
expected, given the larger numbers of young adults, for
most loci there are many more skeletal elements at the
‘‘c’’ state of fusion. Nevertheless, there are still many ‘‘a’’
and ‘‘b’’ states present. Table 2 summarizes bilateral
asymmetry in bone maturation. Figures 4–11 show the
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
432
H. COQUEUGNIOT AND T.D. WEAVER
Fig. 11. Timing of fusion in
the Coimbra collection for both
sexes combined (divided into
parts A and B).
ranges for each developmental state for the different
skeletal elements, grouped by anatomical region. There
is a wide range of fusion times, with some loci already
beginning to fuse (state ‘‘b’’) at 7 years whereas others
only starting to fuse at 17 years. The average start time
is about 13 years. The earliest fusing loci are from
regions of the sacrum; the latest are from regions of the
shoulder and arm.
Most of the paired loci do not show statistically significant differences in fusion between the left and right
sides. Only 8 of the 26 loci show statistically significant
differences (P \ 0.05 with a Fisher’s exact test, Table 2).
The largest asymmetry in fusion is for the sternal end of
the clavicle, for which 13.7% of the individuals have a
different fusion state for the left and right sides. For the
ilium-pubis the discrepancies between the sides only correspond to the end of the period of active fusion. For the
other seven loci with asymmetry, some of the differences
also correspond to the beginning of the period of active
fusion.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
INFRACRANIAL MATURATION IN COIMBRA
433
Fig. 11. (Continued)
DISCUSSION
The results of a comparison between the standards
presented by Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) and our
Coimbra data are summarized in Figure 12. The data on
epiphyseal fusion given by Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994)
only indicate the period during which union/fusion is
occurring, making direct comparisons only possible with
our state ‘‘b’’. We should note that Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) also define three states in their coding
scheme, similar to our ‘‘a’’, ‘‘b’’, and ‘‘c’’. For both studies,
technically only ‘‘b’’ has a distinct beginning and end.
State ‘‘a’’ only has an ending point, and state ‘‘c’’ only
has a starting point.
The most similar fusion time between our study and
Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) is for the distal end of the
radius, for which the results are identical. The results
for the greater trochanter and distal end of the femur,
the proximal and distal ends of the fibula, and the distal
end of the tibia are also quite similar, with only about 1–
2 years of difference. The most notable discrepancies are
for the fusion of the humeral medial epicondyle and distal end, which are delayed in the Coimbra collection by
about 5 years relative to Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994).
Delayed fusion in the Coimbra collection, however, is not
a consistent pattern. There is a delay of about 5 years
for the iliac crest, but the fusion of the sternal end of the
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
434
H. COQUEUGNIOT AND T.D. WEAVER
Fig. 12. Comparison of the
timing of fusion in Buikstra
and Ubelaker’s (1994) standards (white) and Coimbra
(black).
clavicle, the spheno-occipital synchondrosis, the femoral
head, and the proximal end of the tibia starts much earlier in the Coimbra collection than in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994). The beginning of fusion of the acromion
and humeral head starts about 3 years later in the
Coimbra collection.
Additionally, in four other cases, the variability in the
age of fusion in the Coimbra collection is much greater
than in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994). In fact, the period
of fusion from Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) is encompassed within the period for the Coimbra collection for
the proximal end of the tibia, the head and lesser tro-
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
INFRACRANIAL MATURATION IN COIMBRA
TABLE 2. Bilateral asymmetry in fusion
Ilium pubis
Upper ischium pubis
Lower ischium pubis
Ischium ilium
Iliac crest
Ischial tuberosity
Anterior inferior iliac spine
Coracoid
Acromion
Sternal end
Humerus head
Humerus medial epicondyle
Humerus distal end
Radius proximal end
Radius distal end
Ulna proximal end
Ulna distal end
Femur head
Femur greater trochanter
Femur lesser trochanter
Femur distal end
Tibia proximal end
Tibia distal end
Fibula proximal end
Fibula distal end
Calcaneus posterior end
n_i
n_d
n_total
%d
P-value
128
134
132
129
123
129
128
128
109
107
124
123
129
132
125
134
123
129
128
129
133
128
129
113
126
126
6
1
3
6
6
4
3
3
3
17
5
2
1
1
6
1
2
6
5
5
3
6
3
2
7
1
134
135
135
135
129
133
131
131
112
124
129
125
130
133
131
135
125
135
133
134
136
134
132
115
133
127
4.5
0.7
2.2
4.4
4.7
3.0
2.3
2.3
2.7
13.7
3.9
1.6
0.8
0.8
4.6
0.7
1.6
4.4
3.8
3.7
2.2
4.5
2.3
1.7
5.3
0.8
0.0295
1.0000
0.2472
0.0295
0.0294
0.1222
0.2471
0.2471
0.2466
0.0000
0.0601
0.4980
1.0000
1.0000
0.0295
1.0000
0.4980
0.0295
0.0602
0.0602
0.2472
0.0295
0.2471
0.4978
0.0144
1.0000
The columns ‘‘n_i,’’ and ‘‘n_d,’’ correspond to the number of individuals, respectively with identical and different stages of fusion
between the right and left sides. The column ‘‘n_total’’ gives the
total number of individuals for which the locus was recordable.
The ‘‘%d’’ column shows the percentage for which the left and
right sides were different. The last column presents P-values
from Fisher’s Exact Tests, with significant test results highlighted in bold.
chanter of the femur, and the proximal end of the radius.
The age ranges are narrower in Coimbra than in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) for the fusion of the head of
the humerus and the acromion of the scapula.
Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) note accelerated fusion
for females relative to males by about 1 year for the
medial epicondyle and about 2 years for the distal end of
the humerus. We also observe a difference between
males and females in humeral development. Unfortunately, we cannot compare our ‘‘b’’ state directly to the
chart in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) because the
Coimbra collection contains no females from this state.
Nevertheless, the complete fusion of the distal end of the
humerus begins at 12 years for females and 16 years for
males in the Coimbra collection. Similarly, the complete
fusion of the medial epicondyle begins at 14 years for
females and 16 years for males.
For the pelvis, the ‘‘b’’ and ‘‘c’’ states also tend to begin
earlier in females than in males, except for the iliac crest
and state ‘‘c’’ for the anterior-inferior iliac spine. For the
iliac crest, state ‘‘b’’ begins at 16 years in males and
17 years in females, and state ‘‘c’’ begins at 20 years in
males and 22 years in females. State ‘‘c’’ for the anteriorinferior iliac spine begins at 16 years in males and
17 years in females. Some other parts of the pelvis also
show important differences in developmental timing
between males and females (Fig. 4). The largest difference is for the upper part of the ischium and pubis
where females begin state ‘‘b’’ at 9 years and males at
16 years.
435
In comparison with females, males also show a delay
of 1–4 years for the fusion of the scapula and clavicle
(Figs. 6 and 9) with the exception of state ‘‘c’’ for the
sternal end of the clavicle, which starts at 25 years for
both sexes. A similar delay occurs for most loci of the
upper limbs (Fig. 7). The largest difference between
males and females in the upper limb is complete lack of
overlap for state ‘‘b’’ of the proximal end of the radius.
The sacrum also shows a similar difference in developmental timing between the sexes. Fusion starts earlier
in females, except for state ‘‘c’’ of the medial sacral segments 4–5, lateral sacral segments 2–3, medial sacral
segments 2–3, and lateral sacral segments 1–2 loci,
which occurs earlier by about 1 year for males. An
advance of 9 years for females relative to males is present for state ‘‘b’’ of the posterior sacral segments 4–5 and
medial sacral segments 4–5 loci.
The lower limbs have more examples of accelerated
fusion of males relative to females. This is the case for
state ‘‘b’’ of the greater trochanter and distal epiphysis of
the femur, the distal epiphysis of the tibia, and the proximal and distal epiphyses of the fibula, and for state ‘‘c’’
of the proximal and distal epiphyses of the fibula. State
‘‘c’’ for the proximal epiphysis of the tibia starts at the
same age for both sexes.
There are also a few loci for which two or more skeletal elements start a state at exactly the same age. This
is the case for the distal epiphyses of the radius and
ulna, for which state ‘‘b’’ begins at 17 years in females
and 19 years in males and state ‘‘c’’ occurs at 20 years
for both sexes. For males, state ‘‘c’’ for the distal epiphysis of the femur begins at the same age as state ‘‘c’’ for
the proximal epiphysis of the radius. Also for males, all
the ‘‘b’’ states of the bones of the lower limbs, including
the calcaneus, begin at 16 years and end at 20–21 years
old, with the exception of the femur for which this state
ends at 24 years. State ‘‘c’’ begins at 16 years for the
greater trochanter of the femur, the distal epiphyses of
the tibia and fibula, and the calcaneus. This state begins
at 19 years for the other loci of the lower limbs. Whatever the state, there is much more variability in the
ages of fusion for the females than for the males.
The last epiphysis to fuse in the Coimbra collection is
the sternal end of the clavicle. The youngest specimens,
for both sexes who show a completely fused clavicle, are
25 years old. For the medial sacral segments 1–2 locus
of the sacrum, the youngest male specimen showing
complete fusion is also 25.
For the only cranial feature that we examined, the
spheno-occipital synchondrosis, the youngest male at
state ‘‘b’’ is 16 years and the youngest female is 17 years.
The sexual differences in development are more pronounced for state ‘‘c’’: there is a 14-year-old female with
a completely closed spheno-occipital synchondrosis and
the youngest male at this state is 19 years old. However,
the 14-year-old female with state ‘‘c’’ is an outlier as the
next youngest females to show complete fusion are 17
years old. Moreover, this 14-year-old female shows also
early fusion of other epiphyses (upper ischium pubis,
ischial tuberosity, and anterior inferior iliac spine for the
os coxae loci; humerus, medial epicondyle, and ulna
proximal end for the upper limb loci; coracoid for the
scapula loci; femur greater trochanter, femur lesser trochanter, tibia distal end, and calcaneus posterior end for
the lower limb loci; medial sacral segments 1–2, posterior sacral segments 1–2, and posterior sacral segments
3–4 for the sacrum loci). In Buikstra and Ubelaker
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
436
H. COQUEUGNIOT AND T.D. WEAVER
(1994) the spheno-occipital synchondrosis begins fusing
later than in the Coimbra sample, at around 19 years.
CONCLUSIONS
The aim of this study is to present new data on infracranial ossification from a sample of subadult specimens
of known age and sex. These macroscopic observations of
the ossification of the upper and lower limbs, the sacrum, the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the sphenooccipital synchondrosis could be extremely useful for age
estimation of subadult skeletons in the absence of dental
remains.
In agreement with previous research on other collections, we find that when there are differences in the timing of fusion between males and females in the Coimbra
collection, and for most centers, females are precocious.
Although there are some differences in development
between the right and left sides, in general, we see very
little asymmetry in epiphyseal fusion. Comparing our
results with previously published aging standards, we
observe only one locus for which the age range of fusion
matched exactly. Finally, there is much variation in development between our data from the Coimbra collection
and other studies.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Professor E. Cunha (Department of Anthropology, University of Coimbra, Portugal) for access to the
osteological collection and Professor N. Porto (University
of Coimbra, Portugal) for permission to take photographs. We thank three anonymous reviewers for their
helpful comments that improved our study.
LITERATURE CITED
Anderson M, Messner MB, Green WT. 1964. Distribution of
lengths of the normal femur and tibia from one to eighteen
years of age. J Bone Joint Surg Am 46:1197–1202.
Baker BJ, Dupras TL, Tocheri MW. 2005. The osteology of
infants and children. College Station: Texas A&M University
Press.
Bass WM. 1995. Human osteology: a laboratory and field manual. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society. p 361.
Bowman JE, MacLaughlin SM, Scheuer JL. 1992. The relationship between biological and chronological age in the juveniles
from St. Bride’s Church, Fleet Street. Ann Hum Biol 19:216.
Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH, editors. 1994. Standards for data
collection from human skeletal remains. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archaeological Survey.
Byers SN. 2002. Introduction to forensic anthropology: a textbook. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. p 444.
Cardoso HFV. 2006. The collection of identified human skeletons
housed at the Bocage Museum (National Museum of Natural
History), Lisbon, Portugal. Am J Phys Anthropol 129:173–
176.
Cardoso HFV. 2007. Environmental effects on skeletal versus
dental development: using a documented subadult sample to
test a basic assumption in human osteological research. Am J
Phys Anthropol 132:223–233.
Cunha E. 1995. Testing identification records: evidence from the
Coimbra identified skeletal collections (nineteenth and twentieth centuries). In: Saunders S, Herring A, editors. Grave
reflections portraying the past through cemetary studies.
Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press. p 179–198.
Demirjian A. 1986. Dentition. In: Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors.
Human growth, 2nd ed. New York: Plenum. p 269–298.
Garn SM, Lewis AB, Blizzard RM. 1965. Endocrine factors in
dental development. J Dent Res 44:228–242.
Garn SM, Nagy JM, Sandusky ST, Trowbridge F. 1973a. Economic impact on tooth emergence. Am J Phys Anthropol
39:233–238.
Garn SM, Sandusky ST, Rosen NN, Trowbridge F. 1973b.
Economic impact on postnatal ossification. Am J Phys Anthropol 38:1–3.
Ghantus MK. 1951. Growth of the shaft of the human radius
and ulna during the first two years of life. Am J Roentgenol
65:784–786.
Gindhart PS. 1973. Growth standards for the tibia and radius
in children aged one month through eighteen years. Am J
Phys Anthropol 39:41–48.
Hoppa RD, Fitzgerald C. 1999. Human growth in the past.
Studies from bones and teeth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 315.
Krogman WD, Iscan MY. 1986. The human skeleton in forensic
medicine. Springfield: CC Thomas.
Lewis AB, Garn SM. 1960. The relationship between tooth formation and other maturational factors. Angle Orthod 30:70–
77.
Lewis ME. 2006. The Bioarchaeology of children: perspectives
from biological and forensic anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 266.
Liversidge H. 2003. Variation in modern human dental development. In: Thompson JL, Krovitz GE, Nelson AJ, editors. Patterns of growth and development in the genus Homo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 73–113.
Maresh MM. 1955. Linear growth of long bones of extremities
from infancy through adolescence. Am J Dis Child 89:725–
742.
Maresh MM. 1970. Measurements from roentgenograms. In:
McCammon RW, editor. Human growth and development.
Springfield: CC Thomas. p 157–200.
Mays S. 1998. The archaeology of human bones. Oxon: Routledge. p 242.
McKern TW, Stewart TD. 1957. Skeletal age changes in young
American males. Natick: Quartermaster Research and Development Command Technical Report EP-45.
Molleson T, Cox M, Waldron AH, Whittaker DK. 1993. The Spitalfields project, Volume 2. The anthropology. The middling
sort. CBA research report 86. Archaeology CfB, editor. York:
Council for British Archaeology.
Moorrees CFA, Fanning FA, Hunt EE. 1963a. Age variation and
formation stages for ten permanent teeth. J Dent Res
42:1490–1502.
Moorrees CFA, Fanning FA, Hunt EE. 1963b. Formation and
resorption of three deciduous teeth in children. Am J Phys
Anthropol 19:99–108.
Redfield A. 1970. A new aid to aging immature skeletons: development of the occipital bone. Am J Phys Anthropol 33:217–
220.
Rocha MA. 1995. Les collections ostéologiques humaines identifiées du Musée Anthropologique de l’Université de Coimbra.
Antropologia Portuguesa 13:7–38.
Santos AL. 1995. Death, sex, and nutrition: analysis of the
cause of death in the Coimbra human skeletal collection.
Antropologia Portuguesa 13:81–91.
Scheuer L, Black S. 2000. Developmental juvenile osteology.
San Diego: Academic Press. p 587.
Schour I, Massler M. 1940. Studies in tooth development. J Am
Dent Assoc 27:1778–1793.
Schour I, Massler M. 1941. The development of the human dentition. J Am Dent Assoc 28:1153–1160.
Smith BH. 1991. Standards of human tooth formation and
dental age assessment. In: Kelley M, Larsen CS, editors.
Advances in dental anthropology. New York: Wiley-Liss. p
143–168.
Steele DG, Bramblett CA. 1988. The anatomy and biology of the
human skeleton. College Station: Texas A&M University
Press.
Stevenson PH. 1924. Age order of epiphseal union in man. Am
J Phys Anthropol 7:53–93.
Suchey JM, Owings PA, Wiseley DV, Noguchi TT. 1984. Skeletal
aging of unidentified persons. In: Rathbun TA, Buikstra JE,
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
INFRACRANIAL MATURATION IN COIMBRA
editors. Skeletal aging of unidentified persons. Springfield:
Charles C. Thomas.
Ubelaker DH. 1978. Estimating age at death from immature
skeletons: an overview. J Forensic Sci 32:1254–1263.
Ubelaker DH. 1989a. Human skeletal remains. Washington:
Taraxacum.
Ubelaker DH. 1989b. The estimation of age at death from
immature human bone. In: Iscan MY, editor. Age markers
in the human skeleton. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. p 55–
70.
437
Veschi S, Facchini F. 2002. Recherches sur la collection
d’enfants et d’adolescents d’âge et de sexe connus de Bologne
(Italie): diagnose de l’âge sur la base de degré de maturation
osseuse. Bulletins et Memoires de la Société d’Anthropolgie de
Paris 14:263–294.
Webb PA, Suchey JM. 1985. Epiphyseal union of the anterior iliac
crest and medial clavicle in a modern multiracial sample of
American males and females. Am J Phys Anthropol 68:457–466.
White TD, Folkens PA. 2000. Human osteology. San Diego: Academic Press.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology—DOI 10.1002/ajpa
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
904 Кб
Теги
coimbra, portugal, brief, communication, infracranial, standards, epiphyseal, new, collection, skeletal, union, maturation, aging
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа