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Brief communication Preliminary radiocarbon dates from Florida crania in Hrdlika's gulf states catalog.

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Brief Communication: Preliminary Radiocarbon Dates
From Florida Crania in Hrdlička’s Gulf States Catalog
Christopher M. Stojanowski* and Kent M. Johnson
Center for Bioarchaeological Research, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University,
Tempe, AZ 85287
craniometrics; Florida; radiocarbon dates
Aleš Hrdlička produced a tremendous
amount of data in his career, much of which was published in a series of catalogs by the US National Museum. The Gulf States catalog, for example, contains raw
craniometric data for over 700 individuals from the state
of Florida alone. However, many of these skeletons are
poorly sourced by Hrdlička, thus limiting their utility in
modern bioarchaeological analyses where context is critical. In particular, the age of the skeletal material is
often based solely on associated material culture and
information on the sites themselves is not presented by
Hrdlička. To address this impasse we attempted radiocarbon dates for 10 of the largest Florida sites published
in the Gulf States catalog. In addition, archival data in
the form of unpublished field notes and personal correspondence were accessed to better contextualize the
radiocarbon dates and to provide some guidance on the
degree of temporal variability at the sites. Eight AMS
radiocarbon dates were successful. Archival data was of
variable quality per site. In some cases very little is
known about the provenience of the specimens. In other
cases, however, individual burials could be allocated to
specific strata within specific mounds. The relevance of
using published raw data is discussed with respect to
the Howells and Boas Immigrant datasets and the
impact the dissemination of these resources has had on
the discipline. Am J Phys Anthropol 145:163–167,
2011. V 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Aleš Hrdlička, founder of this journal, was prolific in
his acquisition of human skeletal material for the
National Museum of Natural History as well as compiling data on human cranial variation from a number of
populations. Hrdlička published raw craniometric data
for many of the skulls currently at the Smithsonian Institution in a series of catalogs throughout his career
(Hrdlička, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1931, 1940, 1942,
1944). Although restricted primarily to North American
populations (but see Hrdlička, 1924, 1928, 1944), these
catalogs contain data from thousands of individuals from
numerous locations across the continent. As was typical
of the time, however, provenience information is meagerly reported, and there is little way to ascertain the
age of the materials collected beyond material culture
affiliations (cf. Brothwell and Burleigh, 1975). The lack of
spatial and temporal information about these burials limits the utility of these craniometric data in comparative
analyses, a fact recognized by Newman (1998 [1949]:549)
who noted in an early overview of Florida anthropology
that the, ‘‘complete disregard of chronological pegs . . . lays
open to question certain parts of Hrdlička’s conclusions . . . .’’
Lack of temporal control is unfortunate because many of
the samples are still available for study at the Smithsonian Institution and such chronological and contextual information would increase their relevance for reconstructing patterns of human biological variation in the past.
Indeed, recent literature indicates these Florida samples
are widely used in broad comparative contexts, thus demonstrating their importance to physical anthropology (see
examples in Corruccini, 1972; Ortner et al., 1999, 2001;
Hanihara and Ishida, 2005; Manica et al., 2007; Hanihara, 2008; Hefner, 2009; Betti et al., 2010).
Here, we present preliminary radiocarbon dates for
eight (ten attempted) of the largest Florida skeletal
samples published in Hrdlička’s Catalog of Human Cra-
nia in the United States National Museum Collections:
Indians of the Gulf States (Hrdlička, 1940). In addition,
unpublished field notes, personal correspondence, and
accession memoranda were accessed at the Smithsonian
Institution Archives to better contextualize the reported
radiocarbon dates. This paper also directs future
researchers to the relevant sources where significantly
more spatial-temporal information may be available.
These contextual data can inform additional study of the
skeletal materials within the realm of modern
bioarchaeological practices implementing, for example,
fine-grained consideration of changes in health, diet and
demographic characteristics through time. In addition,
studies that use the Florida crania in broad surveys
of craniometric variation can use the temporal and contextual data to better interpret the microevolutionary
context of their analyses.
Hrdlička’s interest in the physical anthropology of the
Florida peninsula dates to some of his earliest published
C 2011
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online
version of this article.
Grant sponsor: Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Office of
Research Development and Administration Faculty Seed Grant.
*Correspondence to: Christopher Stojanowski, School of Human
Evolution and Social Change, Center for Bioarchaeological Research,
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287.
Received 24 September 2010; accepted 29 October 2010
DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21461
Published online 4 January 2011 in Wiley Online Library
work in the discipline (Schulz, 1945; see Hrdlička, 1907,
1917, 1918). His Anthropology of Florida (Hrdlička,
1922) contains little data however, and his enduring contribution to the prehistory of the Southeast lies in the
publication of the Gulf States catalog (Hrdlička, 1940).
The number of individuals he included from Florida is
larger than any other state (714 of 1,259 individuals)
and the high frequency of unmodified crania combined
with the large overall sample size makes these data
highly significant from a bioarchaeological and comparative craniometric perspective. Despite early efforts at
recovering human skeletal remains from archaeological
sites in Florida (see Walker, 1880; Moore, 1892, 1900;
Cushing, 1896; Collins, 1929) and the work undertaken
in the 1930s by the Works Progress Administration
(WPA) (see Milanich, 1994:9-10; Lyon, 1996), few
regional studies that use these remains have been published (Hutchinson, 2004:7; but see Hutchinson, 1991,
1993, 2004; Hutchinson and Richman, 2006) which may
reflect concerns over chronology and context. Given the
size of these samples (Table 1) and the continued repatriation of prehistoric skeletal remains, we hope that
presenting these preliminary radiometric dates and
contextual data leads to more concerted research on
these valuable collections.
The Gulf States catalog contains data from 42 different locations in Florida. Of these, 22 locations were
represented by less than five individuals and many were
singleton specimens for which a radiocarbon date would
produce little value. These proveniences are more properly called locations rather than sites because of the
lack of specificity about sample contexts; often a modern
town is referenced. Because funding was only obtained
for 10 radiocarbon dates, samples with maximum anthropological potential, as defined by aggregate sample
size, were selected for dating. These 10 samples are presented in Table 1; the collections from which they were
selected represent 500 of the 714 individuals from
the Florida component of the Catalog. Of the 10 sites,
radiocarbon dates have previously been obtained
from two specimens from Horr’s Island (Brothwell and
Burleigh, 1975).
Because of the importance of teeth in reconstructions
of population history and in bioarchaeology, sampling
focused on nondiagnostic fragments of bone that were
well preserved, free of conservative agents, and minimally affected by taphonomic processes and nonhuman
biological contamination. Fragments were selected with
the aid of curator Dr. David Hunt, photographed from
all perspectives, and weighed prior to submission to Beta
Analytic for AMS radiocarbon assay.
To better contextualize the reported dates we accessed
archival data in the form of personal correspondence,
original field notes, and unpublished manuscripts at the
Smithsonian Institution Archives. We focus on baseline
archival data that allow the reader to interpret the relevance of the single reported radiocarbon date for encapsulating the temporal variability at the site (Table 1).
For example, if all burials derive from a single mound
with one stratigraphic level then the reported date may
well represent the entire skeletal series, notwithstanding
concerns that multiple dates are often needed to fully
explore radiometric variability within even a single component site. On the other hand, if the burials Hrdlička
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
reported derive from multiple sites within the same
general area, and if each site was itself multi-component, then clearly the single reported date represents
merely a starting point for future research. Therefore,
the archival data we present here enumerate: (1) the
number of mortuary sites (usually mounds) associated
with a single provenience designation (usually a town)
provided by Hrdlička, (2) for each site, the number of
reported stratigraphic levels that contain burials, and
(3) if possible the specific burial numbers and their
respective Smithsonian accession numbers that can be
assigned to specific strata at a specific site. These data
allow researchers to use as much or as little temporal
resolution as needed. All retrieved data are included in a
Supporting Information Table (Table S1).
Observed radiocarbon ages are presented in Table 1.
Site Name and ID Number columns reflect provenience
data presented in the Gulf Coast catalog while the
Accession Number is linked to the sample’s acquisition
by the National Museum of Natural History. Beta lab
numbers and calibrated age ranges for each sample are
also presented. Where multiple calibration intercepts
were recorded, two age ranges are presented. All calibrations assume a terrestrial diet which may be problematic
given the coastal location of most of the sites. As such,
these age estimates may be biased if marine foods comprised a significant component of the diet (the marine
reservoir effect). Stable carbon isotope values (Table 1)
do indicate the potential for marine food utilization at
some sites (Perico Island, Safety Harbor, Canaveral, and
Captiva Island); however, this is difficult to determine
without comparable stable nitrogen isotopic values from
the same individuals (see Katzenberg, 2008). If the marine reservoir effect is biasing these determinations then
some of these sites may be younger than the radiocarbon
ages suggest.
Of the 10 dates attempted, two sites failed to produce
a sample that was suitable for radiocarbon assay but are
reported in Table 1 for the sake of completeness. The
sample from Canal Point failed to produce a sufficient
collagen fraction, while the sample from Weeden Island
was collagen poor and contaminated with root fragments. Of the remaining eight sites, the date ranges
vary from 1900 to 1700 cal BP to as recent as 560–510
cal BP with 13C/12C carbon isotope ratios ranging from
29.0 to 220.0%. These dates are generally consistent
with archaeological placement of the respective sites
within regional chronologies (see Table 1) based on artifact inventories (Belle Glade - Stirling, 1935; Willey,
1949; Milanich, 1994; Canaveral - Stirling, 1935; Rouse,
1951; Willey, 1954; Milanich, 1994; Horr’s Island Stirling, 1931, 1933; Widmer, 1988; Milanich, 1994;
Ormond Beach - Jennings et al. 1957; Milanich, 1994;
Perico Island - Stirling, 1935; Bullen, 1950; Luer and
Almy, 1982; Milanich, 1994; Willey, 1998[1949]; Hutchinson, 2004; Hutchinson and Richman, 2006) and analyses
of Florida radiocarbon databases (Dasovich, 1996). The
date for the Horr’s Island specimen is slightly more
recent than two apparently uncalibrated radiocarbon
dates from two burials from Horr’s Island (Cat No.
352156: 818-652 BP; Cat No. 352162: 972-732 BP) published by Brothwell and Burleigh (1975:394, Table 1).
However, the three dates clearly indicate the site
(Blue Hill Mound (8CR41)) is younger than the
Site name
Belle Glade (n 5 43)b
Boynton (n 5 7)c
Perico Island (n 5 102)d
Canaveral (n 5 91)e
Captiva Island (n 5 69)f
Horr’s Island (n 5 69)g
Safety Harbor (n 5 51)h
Ormond Beach (n 5 25)i
Weeden Island (n 5 35)
Canal point (n 5 8)
Trace collagen with small
root infiltration
Failed to produce separable
collagen fraction
Beta No.
1740 6 50
13C/12C ratio
age (BP)
1870 6 50
age (BP)
9702890 and 8602800
6402590 and 5602510
6902640 and 5902560
2-sigma calibrated
range (BP)
Glades II/III
Glades III
St. Johns Ia/Ib
Caloosahatchee I/IIa
Glades III
Manasota, Weeden Island,
or early Safety Harbor
St. Johns I/Ia
Regional cultural
Based on Milanich (1994) as modified by Dasovich (1996).
Multicomponent site, dated sample associated with top sand stratum, lack of archival records precludes placing burials within stratigraphic units (Table S1).
Limited archival data. Boynton specimens included in Hrdlička (1940) should not be confused with human skeletal remains excavated in the 1970s from a burial mound at the
_ can and Kessel, 1988).
Boynton Beach site (8PB100 - Jaffe, 1976; Is
Multicomponent site that includes a burial mound and a separate cemetery, dated sample associated with top, light gray sand and shell stratum (Table S1).
Multicomponent site, dated sample associated with the top sand stratum of Fuller Mound A (Table S1).
Multicomponent site, dated sample cannot be associated with either of the burial mound’s two strata as there is no additional provenience information for the Captiva specimen
in the archival materials (Table S1).
Multicomponent site, dated sample cannot be associated with any of the burial mound’s three strata, accession records could not be linked to the field notes (Table S1).
Multicomponent site, dated sample can only be associated with the mound fill. It is not possible to identify more precise spatial provenience (e.g., upper versus lower portion of
the mound) for the dated specimen (Table S1).
Multicomponent site, dated sample associated with bottom, submound stratum which predates the mound proper (Table S1).
ID number/
accession No.
TABLE 1. Radiocarbon dates for select Florida samples published by Hrdlička in the Gulf States catalog
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Archaic period settlement on Horr’s Island that has been
the subject of intensive examination (Russo, 1991; Russo
et al., 1991).
Several of the specimens returned dates that are less
consistent with regional chronologies based on artifact
inventories. These include the specimens from Boynton,
a poorly defined site not typically included in overviews
of Florida prehistory, Captiva Island, and Safety Harbor.
The date for the Captiva Island specimen dates to the
transition from Caloosahatchee I (2450–1300 BP) to
Caloosahatchee IIa (1300–1150 BP) (Widmer, 1988;
Dasovich, 1996). This is slightly earlier than previously
published temporal associations for the Captiva Island
Mound (Hutchinson, 2004), which assign it to the
Caloosahatchee II period (1250–750 BP). The calibrated
range for the Safety Harbor specimen is older than other
estimated ranges for the site that place it ‘‘between A.D.
900 and 1750 based on ceramics and European artifacts,’’ although there is slight overlap between them
(Hutchinson, 2004:95; see also Stirling, 1931; Willey,
1949, 1998[1949]; Griffin and Bullen, 1950; Luer and
Almy, 1982; Mitchem, 1989; Milanich, 1994).
Reconstructions of human prehistory using cranial
and dental phenotypic data are increasingly utilizing
larger comparative datasets to infer processes of modern
human emergence and migration throughout the Old
and New Worlds. The dissemination of the WW Howells
database was (1989, 1995), in many ways, a landmark
for physical anthropology because of the number of individuals included, their preservation, and the distribution
of sampling locales across the globe. The database compiled by Hanihara is similarly massive in scope and
scale and is being used to produce novel insights into
human prehistory (Hanihara and Ishida, 2005; Manica
et al., 2007; Hanihara, 2008; Betti et al., 2010). At the
same time, as broader patterns of human variation are
discerned we must turn our attention to regional evolutionary processes because regional interaction and longterm microevolutionary trends help determine the
broader scale patterns of interest to paleoanthropologists. And it is here that existing datasets of raw phenotypic data can make important contributions to our
understanding of past and present human variation, as
the Boas Immigrant Database so clearly delineated
(Gravlee et al., 2003a, b; Sparks and Jantz, 2002, 2003).
The Howells and Boas datasets can be used to speak to
specific issues within anthropology. The material collected by Hrdlička suffers from a lack of context, but the
samples are large and often well preserved, thus broadening their utility beyond regional contexts. As
important collections of human skeletal material are
repatriated and additional scientific excavations seriously curtailed, those interested in biological variation
and human health and disease in the past must make
use of whatever critical resources are remaining. Our
initial attempts to contextualize the Hrdlička data
from Florida are presented with this in mind and we
hope more nuanced analyses of these data are now
possible. Nonetheless, the radiometric data presented
here are, admittedly, preliminary in nature and represent an important first step toward resolving the antiquity and age range represented in these important
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
The authors would like to thank Dr. David Hunt for
implementing the sample selection and Dr. Greta
Hansen for managing the sampling request. They also
thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments
on earlier drafts of this article.
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