106 FILM REVIEWS at the beginning of the film, says nothing, and is merely shown seated in a laboratory handling what appears to be some vertebral elements of a large mammal (apparently, it was considered too sensitive to show human bones, even if not those of a n early American Indian). In this instance, and for the final question below, a major shortcoming of the film is the absence of opinion from a professional human osteologist. These individuals are, after all, a t the center of the controversy. 3. “What is the religious significance of human skeletal remains to modern American Indians?” Although Hecht spends considerable time on this topic, a better explanation is given in a soft-spoken and articulate account by Lotah. One could argue convincingly that not all American Indians, especially those of prehistoric times, share the same religious concept about burial permanency, although Lotah denies this as it pertains to modern Native Americans. Indeed, as Snethkamp alludes to, why should bones be reburied when they were never buried to begin with, a s those of slain Iroquois slaves? Or why should remains from primary burials be reinterred, when they were found by another American Indian during a secondary burial and simply discarded down a talus slope? 4.“What are the ethical obligations of anthropologists and other scientists regarding the treatment of human skeletal remains?” Some attention was given to this point by the archaeologists, who stressed the fact that both artifacts and skeletal remains studied by professionals are handled in a profes- sional manner. The treatment of remains in the hands of unqualified amateurs or collectors may often be shoddy, on the other hand, which arouses not only Pink’s ire but mine as well. Oddly enough, no mention is given to a resolution on reburial, part of which deals with this question, that was passed unanimously by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 1982 (Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 59230). A similar resolution adopted by the Society for American Archaeology (Am. Antiquity 49:215-216, 1984) is probably too recent to have been mentioned here. 5. “What is the scientific value of human skeletal remains?” If the entire controversy is to ever be settled to the satisfaction of archaeologists and physical anthropologists, the latter are going to have to convince modern Native Americans of the value of studying the remains of early populations. An introduction to this controversy to anthropology students should also indicate what can be learned from old bones, yet there is virtually nothing in this film that deals with this question. From the technical standpoint, finally, both color and sound are adequate, although in several instances a person’s voice is barely discernable a t the start of the interview before rising to a normal level thereafter. The archaeologists are allotted a bit over 15 minutes and the Native Americans about 12 minutes. The professor of religious studies is given 8% minutes, which in my opinion could have been better used by a specialist in human osteology. Bulimia THOMAS W. HILL Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614 Produced by ABC. Distributed by CRM/McGraw-Hill Films, Del Mar, CA 92014. 16mm, color, sound, $215; rental $22. 12 minutes. This film was originally made for the ABC television program 20/20, and it features Hugh Downs as narrator and interviewer. As one would expect, the technical aspects of the film are excellent. The camera work, scene transitions, sound recording, and color are all first class. The script and scene selection are also good. Hugh Downs opens the film by briefly defining bulimia as the eating disorder in which compulsive overeating is followed by vomiting, use of laxatives, or intense fasting. Most bulimics are young women from middle-class or upper-class backgrounds. Although the majority of bulimics are neither overweight nor underweight, their behavior is related to 107 FILM REVIEWS a compulsion to be thin. Downs indicates that bulimia can have serious health consequences because excessive vomiting can lead to esophageal irritation, swollen glands, tooth decay, stomach rupture, and damage to the liver and kidneys. In addition, decreased potassium levels and other electrolyte disturbances can result in heart failure. Next, we are introduced to several young women-including Jane Fonda, a bulimic for 16 years-who discuss their eating problems. We see a session in which counselors are being informed about bulimia, we observe a group-therapy session for bulimics, and we hear parents of bulimics describe the difficulties they faced dealing with their daughters’ behaviors. No single cause is identified as being responsible for bulimia. Although physical factors are mentioned as possible causes, greater stress is placed on sociocultural and psychological determinants. A connection is made between our society’s growing emphasis on thinness, particularly for women, and the contradictory pressures to consume food. When bulimics indulge in binge eating, “junk foods’’ like potato chips, candy bars, ice cream, and cakes are often consumed in huge quantities. For some girls shown, the binge eating followed a period of restrictive dieting, for others, it occurred at times of stress, and for still others, eating became a substitute for friendship. Vomiting for many became a way of regaining control after the binge. Although it is unreasonable to expect a brief introductory film to explore all aspects of a topic, the relationships that exist between bulimia and anorexia nervosa are not adequately discussed. We merely are told that the two disorders are related. This, coupled with the statement that most bulimics are of normal weight, may mislead viewers. Casper et al. (19801, for example, found bulimia present in 47%of patients with anorexia nervosa. The film also fails to adequately indicate the frequency with which bulimics engage in the overeatinglpurging cycle. In a study of 40 university students with bulimia, the most frequently occurring pattern was to binge at least once a day and to end the episode by vomiting (Mitchell et al., 1981).In spite of these difficulties, the film can be a useful introduction to bulimia in any undergraduate course that deals with eating disorders. Because the film touches on so many issues, it provides a good springboard for classroom discussions of such topics as the relationships that exist between sociocultural contexts and eating habits and disorders, the roles of biological and psychological factors in eating disorders, male/female statuses and roles in the U.S.,and the uses to which vomiting and other purging techniques have been put in other societies. LITERATURE CITED Casper, R, Eckert, E, Halmi, K, Coldberg, S, and Davis, J (1980) Bulimia: its incidence and clinical importance in patients with anorexia nervosa. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 37:1030-1035. Mitchell, J, Pyle, R, and Eckert, E (1981)Frequency and duration of binge-eating episodes in patients with bulimia. Am. J. Psychiatry 1382335-836.