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Can we really walk straight.

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL AN'FHROPOLOGY 89:19-27 (1992)
Can We Really Walk Straight?
TERUO U E T m
Department of Health and Physical Education, Faculty of General
Education, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu,
Tokyo 183, Japan
KEY WORDS
Footprint, Fourier analysis, Meandering walk,
Gait asymmetry
ABSTRACT
Twenty healthy men were asked to walk as straight as possible t o a target SO m away a t normal speed. A series of footprints was recorded
for each subject by having him wear socks soaked with red ink and walk on
white paper fixed flat to the floor. Fourier analysis was applied to determine
whether the subjects actually were able to walk straight, and the results
revealed that all walked in a sinuous line rather than a straight line. Periodicity and amplitude of the meandering differed from subject to subject. These
facts suggest that none of us can walk in a strictly straight line; rather, we
meander, primarily due to a slight structural or functional imbalance of our
limbs, which produces a gait asymmetry, and secondarily due to feedback
from our sense of sight, which acts to correct the shifted walking course.
0 1992 Wiley-Liss, h e .
Because bipedal walking is the most common form of human locomotion and is a distinctive human characteristic, it has been
the subject of many studies. Chodera and
Level1 (1973) reported that the change in
pattern of a walking course under different
conditions fell into one of three basic shapes:
a curve to the left, a curve to the right, or an
S-shaped curve, the latter found more frequently at slow walking speed. Nigorikawa
f 1988)reported that a man whose sight was
obstructed did not walk straight but instead
veered to the left or the right.
The purpose of the present paper is to
clarify whether people can really walk
straight or not, and, if not, how the path of a
walking person deviates from a straight
line. This was undertaken by applying Fourier analysis to the tracks left by subjects
walking to a target approximately 60 m
away at normal speed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects
The subjects were 20 healthy Japanese
men aged 18-45 years. None of them had
any history of lower limb problems. Their
0 1992 WILEY-LISS, INC.
mean height was 172.0 cm (SD = 5.55 cm)
and their mean weight 65.5 kg (SD = 6.12
kg). The only significant difference between
left and right limbs was in forearm length
(Table 1). Seventeen of the subjects kicked a
ball better with the right foot, the rest with
the left (Table 2).
Method of recording footprints
A piece of white paper 0.8 x 50 m in size
was fixed flat on the floor. The subject,
wearing socks soaked with red ink and with
pedal switches attached just beneath the
heel and the great toe of both feet, was asked
to walk at his normal speed in a straight line
to a target SO m away. The pedal switch used
in this experiment was designed to be as
small as possible (-8 mm in diameter and 2
mm thick) so that it might not affect the
experimental walking. The pedal switch was
made of two fine wires separated by a rubber mat containing fine-grained iron, which
was compressed enough under body weight
to permit current to flow from one wire to
Received November 8,1990; accepted March 3,1992.
T. UETAKE
20
TABLE 1 , Means for anthropometrical
measurement icmi
Right
..._.___
- Left
_-________-____X__ SD
Arm length
Forearm length2
Hand length
Biepicondyle of arm
Bistvloid uorc. of forearm
Hand breadth
Arm girth
Forearm girth
Thigh length3
Leg length
Foot length
Foot height
Biepicondyle of thigh
Bieuicondvle of leg
Fooi breadth
.Thigh girth
Leg girth
31.8
23.0
19.2
6.7
5.6
8.3
27.5
25.6
468
36 2
252
1.43
1.32
0.36
0.29
0.38
1.54
1,34
183
2 55
104
75
0 50
94
74
10.3
52.7
36.8
065
038
0.60
3.37
1.94
SD
30.9
24.2
19.3
6.7
5.7
8.4
27.9
26.2
468
36 o
252
75
95
74
10.2
52.9
36.9
1.87
1.14
putting on the pedal switch and the soaked
socks. The subject was instructed to stand in
the middle of one end of the paper, to start
with his left foot, and to walk at normal
speed to the other end of the paper. Subjects
following these directions left an average of
72.8 footprints (SD = 6.47). The time (seconds) elapsed from the first heel contact to
the last w a s determined from the pedal
switch record, and
- - the -cadence (strides per
second) was calculated as the number of
strides divided by the time.
:::;
0.27
0.40
1.49
1.18
173
2 57
100
0 50
071
037
0.58
3.48
1.55
Anthropometrical measurements were taken following the procedures of Martin and Seller (1957).
'The lateral difference is statistically significant iP < 0.01).
3Thigh length = (iliac height - tibia1 height) x 0.93.
the other. During the experimental walking,
the pedal switch was covered with a n adhesive vinyl tape so as not to short circuit. An
open circuit, made with the pedal switch, a
small battery, and a data recorder set apart
from the experimental walking course,
closed whenever the pedal switch contacted
the floor, and the moment of contact was
recorded. Before the experiment, a few practice steps were taken by the subject before
Fourier analysis of the pattern of change
of the two heel positions
Because the walking cycle during the first
four steps was erratic, only steps 5-68 were
usually analyzed in this study. However, if a
subject did not leave more than 68 steps, his
steps from the fifth to the last were analyzed. The distance from the most posterior
point of the heel impression to the center
line of the paper, referred to here as step
width, was measured with a digitizer (Fig.
1).Measurements to the left of the center
line of the paper were indicated by a plus
symbol, those to the right side by a minus.
A n indeterminate form or pattern can be
easily quantified using Fourier analysis,
which has been used to analyze a variety of
biological forms, from crania (Lestrel and
Roch, 1986; Lestrel, 1989; Inoue, 1990) and
TABLE 2. Cadrnre and step uidth (em!
Cadence
X
0.95
0.85
0.92
0.95
0.93
0.86
1.00
0.92
0.85
0.81
0.78
0.93
0.93
1.05
0.93
1.06
1.06
0.96
0.81
0.96
5.6
0.2
6.3
4.5
0.6
- 5.2
1.5
1.9
- 2.0
3.2
0.3
6.4
11.5
4.5
1.9
1.5
2.2
2.1
12.4
- 1.3
~.
Subj.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
BFS'
__
R
R
R
L
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
L
R
L
R
R
R
BFS, better font. side for kicking a ball.
~
Left
SD
cv
2.91
4.19
3.28
2.25
3.43
6.76
2.24
1.95
1.78
2.52
2.30
2.49
2.87
1.32
1.91
2.23
1.86
1.52
1.58
2.63
2095.0
52.1
50.0
571.7
130.0
149.3
102.6
89.0
78.8
766.7
38.9
25.0
29.3
100.5
148.7
84.5
72.4
12.7
202.3
X
_________
52.0
- 3.8
3.5
0.7
- 3.2
- 2.8
- 2.8
- 4.3
- 5.2
-- 6.0
- 0.5
- 4.7
- 1.1
7.1
- 2.5
- 4.2
3.4
- 4.9
0.8
5.9
- 9.9
-
-
Right _~
.~.
SD
2.61
3.95
3.82
2.01
3.17
2.24
2.29
1.29
2.05
3.09
1.91
2.59
2.64
1.24
1.99
2.10
2.17
1.89
1.72
2.29
CV
__._
68.7
112.9
545.7
62.8
113.2
80.0
53.3
24.8
34.2
618.0
40.6
235.5
37.2
49.6
47.4
61.8
44.3
236.3
29.2
23.1
21
FOOTPRINTS IN NORMAL WALKING
I
0
target
right and l e f t s t e p w i d t h
Fig. 1. Schematic presentation of the walking experiment.
TABLE 3. SLW widtt? tor theoretrcal pattern of stey, width change immi
____ Case
____A
St, No.'
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Left
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
Case B
Case C
__
~
Right
Left
Right
Left
Right
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 29.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
- 25.00
50.00
48.10
42.68
34.57
25.00
15.43
7.32
1.90
0.00
1.90
7.32
15.43
25.00
34.56
42.67
48.10
50.00
48.10
42.68
34.57
25.01
15.44
7.33
1.91
0.00
1.90
7.32
15.43
24.99
34.56
42.67
48.09
- 0.48
- 4.21
- 11.11
- 20.12
50.00
42.68
25.00
7.32
0.00
7.32
25.00
42.67
50.00
42.68
25.01
7.33
0.00
7.32
25.00
42.67
50.00
42.68
25.01
7.33
0.00
7.31
25.00
42.67
50.00
42.69
25.01
7.33
0.00
7.31
25.00
42.66
- 1.90
- 15.43
-
- 29.88
- 38.89
- 45.79
49.52
49.52
45.79
38.89
29.88
- 20.13
- 11.11
- 4.22
- 0.48
- 0.48
-- 4.21
- 11.11
- 20.12
- 29.87
- 38.88
- 45.78
- 49.52
- 49.52
45.79
- 38.90
- 29.88
- 20.13
- 11.12
- 4.22
- 0.48
-
34.57
48.10
48.10
34.57
15.44
- 1.90
- 1.90
- 15.43
- 34.56
- 48.09
- 48.10
- 34.57
- 15.44
-- 1.91
- 1.90
- 15.42
- 34.56
- 48.09
-- 48.10
- 34.58
- 15.44
---
-
1.91
1.90
- 15.42
34.55
48.10
- 48.10
- 34.58
- 15.45
- 1.91
--
'Step number
mandibles (Halazonetis et al., 1991) to the
waveshape of electronystagmograms (Reccia et al., 1990). In this study, taking the
step width distance of 64 sequential steps as
the axis of the ordinate and step number as
the abscissa, Fourier analysis was used to
examine patterns of step width change.
These data were fed into a Fourier analysis
program developed by Hino (1977) for a microcomputer, which yielded coefficients of
cosine and sine and amplitudes in each harmonic as output. If one could walk straight
(case A, Table 3), coefficients of cosine or
sine and amplitudes would appear only in
the 32nd harmonic (Fig. 2A, Table 4). On the
other hand, if one walked meanderingly
(case B or C, Table 31, that would be reflected not only in the value of the 32nd harmonic but in other harmonics (Fig. 2B,C, Table 4).Because appearance of amplitude in
22
T. U E T m
C
Fig. 2. Theoretical pattern of step width change: Straight walking (A) and meandering walking (B, C).
WidtMength ratio of each step is exaggerated by a factor of 7 to display meandering more clearly.
and the number in parentheses indicates
the magnitude of amplitude of each harmonic relative to that of the 32nd harmonic.
Fifteen subjects among the 20 had the highest amplitude at the 32nd harmonic. The
next highest amplitude fell into four groups:
11 (Nos. 1, 4, 8, 9, 11-16, 19) at the first
RESULTS
harmonic, two (Nos. 7,17)at the second harmonic, one (No. 5) at the fourth harmonic,
Cadence and step width
Table 2 shows the cadence and the mean and one (No. 20) at the 24th harmonic. In
for the step width of both left and right contrast, the remaining five subjects had
sides. It is clear that there is a difference the highest amplitude at the first harmonic.
from subject to subject; cadences ranged Three of these (Nos. 3, 6, 10) had the next
from 0.78 to 1.06, and step width ranged highest harmonic at the 32nd harmonic and
from -4.0 cm to over 12 cm on the left side two (Nos. 2,181 at the second harmonic.
and from -9.9 cm to over 6.5 cm on the right
Typical pattern of step width change
side. A common finding was that each subFigure 3 shows some typical patterns of
ject had a large coefficient of variation value
change in step width. Figure 3A shows one
for both step widths.
case in which the subject walked relatively
Results of Fourier analysis
straight (No. 14). The results of Fourier
Table 5 outlines the results of Fourier analysis for this case indicated that the
analysis, in which the number of harmonics highest amplitude was at the 32nd haris listed in order of magnitude of amplitude, monic, but the next one was only a small
other than the 32nd harmonic (especially a
low harmonic number) will demonstrate
that an individual walked meanderingly
rather than straight, the magnitude of amplitude of each harmonic was used to assess
each subject's manner of walking.
23
FOOTPRINTS IN NORMAL WALKING
TABLE 4. Amplitudes oftheoretical pattern
H'
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
i4
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
For case A
.____
Cosine
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
25.00
of step
width change
For case B
________-____
Cosine
Sine-____
Cosine
___
0.00
0.00
0.00
25.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0 00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
25.00
6.uu
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
25.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
25.00
Sine
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
For case C
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Sine
___
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
n on
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
'Harmonic
by the activities of the entire body and can
therefore provide us with a wide range of
interesting information. For example, the
Pliocene footprints at Laetoli in northern
Tanzania have been used to infer the stature
of the individual who left them (White, 1980;
Robbins, 1987; Tuttle, 1987) and the number of steps per minute (Charteris et al.,
1981, 1982; Alexander, 1984; Tuttle, 1987)
as well as the contour pattern of individual
footprints (Day and Wickens, 1980; White
and Suwa, 1987). Footprints have also been
used t o diagnose abnormal walking. From
studies of footprints, Dougan (1924) and
Patek (1926) observed an inconstancy in the
foot angle on the same side during successive steps, even in normal walking. Despite
this inconstancy, it was clear that the foot
angle (i.e., toeing out) increased as the walkDISCUSSION
ing speed decreased (Morton, 1932)and that
The trail of footprints made by the plantar there were significant differences among
surface of the feet during walking is affected age groups, with those over 60 years old
percentage of the first harmonic. Figure 3B
shows a case of walking with long periodic
meandering (No. 6); the results of Fourier
analysis indicated that the highest amplitude was a t the first harmonic and the next,
which had an amplitude equivalent to that
of the first, was at the 32nd harmonic. Figure 3C shows a case with moderate periodic
meandering (No. 171, for which the results of
fourier analysis indicated that the highest
amplitude was at the 32nd harmonic and
the next was at the second harmonic. Finally, Figure 3D shows a case of walking
with relatively short periodic meandering
(No. 5), for which Fourier analysis revealed
that the highest amplitude was at the 32nd
harmonic and the next was a t the fourth
harmonic.
T. UETAKE
24
TABLE 5. Order in amplitude
_ _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _
Subj. ____________
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
of
harmonics analyzed by FFT
Harmonic
1st
2nd
3rd
32 (100.0)
l(189.6)
l(125.1)
32 (100.0)
32 (100.0)
l(107.7)
32 (100.0)
32 (100.0)
32 (100.0)
l(155.8)
32 (100.0)
32 (100.0)
32 (1 00 0)
32 (100.0)
32 (100.0)
32 (100.0)
32 (100.0)
l(166.6)
32 (100.0)
32 (100.0)
l(49.1)
2 (111.4)
32 (100.0)
l(35.3)
4 (95.5)
32 (100.0)
2 (71.6)
l(39.0)
l(78.7)
32 (100.0)
l(68.5)
l(65.8)
li9)R.l)
l(18.9)
l(47.0)
l(53.9)
2 (46.8)
2 (130.8)
l(47.5)
24 (32.9)
2 (35.6)
32 (100.0)
2 (60.6)
9 (24.4)
l(90.1)
30 (46.1)
3 (34.6)
15 (27.8)
3 (40.2)
3 (64.2)
2 (45.1)
30 (42.3)
3 (80.9)
21 (15.0)
6 (29.8)
3 (45.3)
l(28.7)
23 (103.7)
2 (24.7)
23 (25.0)
_____
___
.-
4th---__-________-5th
4 (25.5)
26 (18.0)
3 (89.2)
20 (58.5)
7 (48.6)
3 (45.9)
10 (18.1)
5 (19.4)
6 175.4)
2 (72.1)
10 (45.8)
22 (33.5)
11 (29.6)
23 (28.2)
6 (22.0)
31 (25.4)
4 (33.8)
17 (33.5)
2 (43.7)
20 (31.5)
7 (26.1)
22 (24.6)
2 (37.9)
4 (35.5)
26 (55.3)
2 (53.5)
24 (14.6)
23 (13.3)
12 (27.5)
4 (24.3)
5 (37.8)
13 (32.4)
19 (20.1)
3 (20.0)
32 (100.0)
4 (80.1)
3 (20.2)
5 (18.2)
4 (20.0)
14 (20.1)
'Parentheses show the rate of amplitude for the 32nd harmonic.
showing a more pronounced angle than
those younger (Murray et al., 1964). These
facts indicate that increase in the foot angle
has to do with maintaining lateral body balance, as Morton (1932) suggested. Another
way of keeping lateral body balance while
walking, which has not been examined extensively in previous studies, is the separation of the two feet. When we are walking
and want to turn in another direction, we
usually change both the angulation of the
foot and the distance between the heel and
the center line of the walking course. If deviations in the foot angle and the heel position
relative to the center line of the walking
course are correlated with each other, meandering walking will necessarily result, even
in an experiment in which the subject is told
to keep to as straight a path as possible.
The secondary first-harmonic amplitude
peak evinced in case No. 14 (Fig. 3A) shows
that even an exceptionally straight-looking
trail of footprints may exhibit a pronounced
meander. These findings confirm that we
cannot walk exactly straight but always meander to some degree.
To seek the reason for this phenomenon,
we must refer to earlier studies on structural and functional asymmetry in the lower
limbs. Published studies of asymmetry of
tibial torsion (Staheli and Engel, 1972;
Malekafzali and Wood, 1979; Clernentz,
1988) and lower limb length (Rush and
Steiner, 1946; Ingelmark and Lindstrom,
1963; Friberg, 1983; Friberg and Kvist,
1988) have concluded that a lateral difference or side dominance exists even in normal individuals and that a great many people have more tibial torsion on the right side
and greater lower limb length on the left
side. Studies of lower limb preference have
been numerous, all finding a functional
asymmetry in our lower limb behaviors
(Nachshon et al., 1983; Plato et al., 1985;
Chapman et al., 1987).
Table 1 shows the means of the present
subjects' anthropometrical measurements of
upper and lower limbs. As stated, a significant lateral difference was observed only in
forearm length ( P < 0.01). However, as has
been found in many other studies on lower
limb length, the left lower limb was usually
slightly longer than the right, and right
girth measurements of both upper and lower
limbs were slightly larger than left. Many
(17 of 20) of the subjects showed a right side
preference in kicking a ball. It is clear from
these facts that there is a structural and
functional asymmetry in the lower limbs of
the present subjects.
25
FOOTPRINTS IN NORMAL. WALKING
A
I
1
D
r
1
I
-Fig 3 Typical pattern of step width change in relatively straight walking (A),long periodic meandering
(B), moderate periodic meandering (C), and relatively short periodic meandering (D). WidthAength ratios
exaggerated as in Figure 2
It seems likely that these lateral differ- larger right foot angle than left foot angle.
ences, side dominances, or lower limb pref- As has been found in other studies, genererences inevitably produce a gait asymme- ally the left stance phase lasted signifitry. For example, Chatinier and Rozendal cantly longer than the right, and the right
(1970) reported that stance phase in walk- swing phase lasted significantly longer than
ing lasted longer for the left foot than for the the left. These results indicate that the
right, and they surmized that this asymme- present subjects also had a gait asymmetry.
As stated above, all subjects in this study
try reflects a functional lateral dominance of
our limbs. Holden et al. (1985)reported that walked meanderingly to a greater or lesser
over 90% of their subjects had a signifi- degree. It was thought that there were two
cantly greater right foot angle, correspond- main and inseparable reasons for this, One
ing to the asymmetry of tibia1 torsion. Table is that a slight structural or functional im6 shows the foot angle, stance duration, and balance in our body shifts our walking
swing duration of the present subjects in the course, and the other is that there is feedwalking experiment. A significant lateral back from the sense of sight, which acts
difference was observed in almost all indi- to correct a shifted walking course to a
viduals in a t least one of the three measure- straight one. As Schaeffer (1928) demonments. For the foot angle, 13 of 20 had a strated, blindfolded subjects walk spirally to
significant lateral difference, and further the left or right, presumably because they
observation revealed that ten of them had a lack this visual feedback. Shifting the walk-
T. UETAKE
26
TABLE 6. Foot angle, stance duration, and swing duration
Subj.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Foot angle'
(degrees)___-.___
Left
Right
_____SD
X
SD
~
x
10.5
19.1
9.2
14.5
13.5
15.4
7.5
16.3
15.5
1.75
2.24
1.92
1.72
1.80
2.43
1.44
2.23
1.66
1.88
10
~.
14.2
1:
12
13
14
15
10.6
1.m
12.7
20.1
4.2
16.5
10.7
3.0
9.3
6.3
14.4
2.41
1.76
1.35
2.02
1.56
1.20
1.68
1.73
1.80
16
17
18
19
20
13.1
18.0
9.1
21.0
21.8
20.0
8.1
15.6
11.9
15.0
13.9
18.7
28.0
3.6
10.6
6.8
6.9
13.1
13.6
13.9
Stance duration
~
__
_ X_
2.12"" 531.8
4.37
692.7
2.61
637.4
1.58"" 532.4
2.90"" 599.5
2.39"" 656.1
1.80 585.6
3.95
607.4
.
Swing duration
(rnsec)
_
_
Left
__-_
Right
566.1
_ SD_
16.41
18.85
20.24
39.25
16.45
25.29
18.59
19.58
21.58
108.42
747x
3462
556.0
663.4
701.9
658.1
652.8
639.2
610.8
614.4
579.5
28.59
190.38
56.49
41.63
15.00
24.27
34.21
98.13
21.97
2 . 5 P 666.6
3.68
2.96""
4.05*"
4.17**
1.70
2.26""
1.67""
1.60""
1.97""
3.34""
3.34
_
hS€.C)
Left
Right
-
._
- .~
X
562.6
653.0
615.9
627.1
581.2
639.2
565.1
603.6
674.3
706.8
666 4
576.2
670.8
567.7
546.9
492.5
473.6
547.5
700.1
571.1
22.18""
23.73""
20.74*"
12.88""
14.19""
18.61""
15.80""
19.05
21.44
32.37"*
46.25"*
18.1Xr*
92.17
73.07*"
22.38""
87.05""
55.35""
19.00""
19.01""
23.82
479.0
484.1
454.3
518.7
478.1
508.9
417.6
485.8
496.2
646.4
542.8
512.0
402.5
245.0
426.5
285.7
298.3
436.1
605.0
475.8
18.91
13.65
11.78
50.59
17.53
28.12
13.42
17.90
17.21
112.51
19.40
23.2'7
162.07
34.18
39.08
36.28
31.78
63.35
100.19
12.96
510.6
524.8
477.8
419.0
497.9
522.5
439.9
488.9
487.9
507.3
628.5
497.4
389.1
322.0
413.6
243.9
247.4
409.7
516.2
464.1
__
SD
19.92""
20.28""
15.85""
20.21""
19.12""
16.37"
8.75""
15.83
20.07
18.95""
33.77""
27.27
66.47
70.60""
33.88
43.22""
24.10**
47.86
18.82""
12.65""
Foot angle: The angle made by the line of progression and the longitudinal axis that equally divides t h e angle made by the inner and outer
tangential lines of a footprint.
*"The lateral difference is statistically significant ( P c.05, P < 0.01, respectively).
ing course and visually compensating for
those shifts by turns may thus cause the
meandering walking observed in this study.
Further studies are needed t o elucidate the
factors causing differences between individuals.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Grateful acknowledgment is made ho Prof.
Ohtsuki of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology for his suggestions and
advice.
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