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Changing patterns of conception and fertility. Edited By D. F. Roberts and R. Chester. London Academic Press. 1981. xii + 211 pp. figures tables references index. $25

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in science relatively rare. Health and Human Services regulations place primary responsibility on the research institution.
Dong, both a doctor and a lawyer, spells
out the legal basis for federal prosecution of
science misrepresentation as “white coat”
crime. He argues forcefully that the public
has a n interest in science, that fraud injures
the government, that NIH regulates scientific research by its funding and thus has the
primary responsibility for policing the truthfulness of claims made to it. He lambastes
NIH for defects in its policy and describes in
angry tones his frustration in tracking down
among its administrators documents relative
to fraud. The statutory basis for prosecution
of one who makes a knowing, willing false
statement to the government, Title 18, U S .
Code Section 1001, carries a penalty of up to
$10,000 fine, five years imprisonment, or
both. The author develops his case skillfully,
citing Latin phrases and twenty court
d w i si on s.
In Part Four, the Kilbournes develop the
theme that deviance in science depletes a
vital national resource. Going beyond previous definitions, they include ad hominem
attacks, dogmatism, shoddy work, secrecy,
unnecessary delays in publication, and even
publicity seeking-virtually any fall from the
ideal. The interface of science with government, industry, education, society, national
security, and the developing world are all
seen to suffer from deviance in science. Their
proposed solution includes Barber’s safeguards, ending informal legal exemption of
scientists from prosecution, and expanding
the opportunities in science especially for
young people through a n increased and
steady science budget-a dubious incentive
a t best.
The three selections in Part Five are overwhelming and distinct from the previous
ones; they sound more like criticisms of science itself and of our whole culture. Sampson
says that in our pursuit of mastery over nature, the pursuer has become the pursued.
The deviance of science itself is illustrated
by the nineteenth century scientific demonstration of the inferiority of the female brain,
FERTILITY. Edited By D.F. Roberts and R.
Chester. London: Academic Press. 1981. xii
+ 211 pp., figures, tables, references, index. $25.00 (cloth).
the early twentieth century proof of the low
I& of East European immigrants, and data
supporting bias against the worker class. In
a way reminiscent of Wordsworth but not
entirely clear to me, he calls for a different
relationship between humanity and nature.
In “The Mythical Content of Economic
Theory,” Reed calls the propositions of economics anachronistic and unscientific. The
dismal science is viewed as deviant and manipulative in its political purpose.
In the final article, Dittman, a physics professor, claims that science is deviant from its
normative humanistic ideal. He is concerned
about the marriage of science and the military, especially nuclear power, and claims
that science and its technology increase the
gap between the rich and poor nations. I
could not quarrel with his conclusion: Objectivity need not mean lack of concern; we need
to integrate knowledge and values, to have
social consciousness, and to be aware of the
consequences of our work.
In a summary, Forthman sees the key challenge as protecting the public interest, protecting science, and providing fair treatment
of the alleged deviant.
Surely those who view fraud in its larger
social context are correct. We must find a
way to educate young scientists to their
moral responsibilities as well as opportunities, to minimize the pressure to publish or
perish, to provide adequate peer review of
results and swift investigation into alleged
fraud, and to encourage the partnership of
science with humanity. Only in serious,
proven cases would I recommend the Dong
treatment of legal prosecution.
The public needs to realize that scientists
are neither gods nor devils, but only human.
And scientists need to reemphasize the advancement of knowledge, the service to people, and the joy of living, over money, fame
and power.
Department of Anatomy
The University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill,North Carolina
This volume represents the proceedings of
the Sixteenth Annual Symposium of the Eugenics Society of London, held in 1979. For
general topics the symposium examined the
demographic perspective on fertility, contra-
ception, quality improvement in fertility and
gestation, and particular social and ethical
concerns. These topics are each treated in
this volume by three authors out of the 250
symposium participants.
The volume is thus a mixed bag of general
synthesizing and specific analysis, of broad
social commentary and narrow medical reporting. While the volume’s several sections
will appeal to professionals in different arenas, the overall quality of its content is high.
The details of recent medical and technological advances in fertility are not too technical
for the concerned social scientist to appreciate.
The first three contributions examine fertility in demographic perspective. Benjamin’s “Recent and Prospective Fertility
Trends in Great Britain” provides a good
analysis of the interplay of fertility rate, family size, and socioeconomic influence. Vie1
presents a brief summary of “Fertility Policies in the Latin American Continent.” Peter
Laslett’s “The Centrality of Demographic
Experience” (the Galton lecture) is a n excellent discourse on how, and a t what levels
(from the individual to the population), we
conceptualize demography.
The second topic includes Peel’s “Changing
Patterns of Contraception,” which evaluates
methods by failure rates; Jacobs’s “Contraception in the Future,” which briefly evalu-
ates Gossypol (a male contraceptive derived
from cottonseed oil), LHRH, and luteolytic hormones, and Teper’s comprehensive
discussion of “Relative Risks in Fertility
Control and Reproduction.” Her analysis
covers maternal health risks as well as
fetal risks associated with termination of contraceptive use.
The third portion treats three specific topics in excellent summary articles: causes and
treatment of infertility (Macnaughton), prenatal diagnosis (Ferguson-Smith), and the
effects of drugs on fetal development
The final portion includes a n analysis of
the legal and medical status of artificial insemination in Britain (Newton), a brief statistical survey of “Social and Medical
Hazards of Teenage Pregnancy” from the author’s 14 year study in Newcastle (Russell),
and a short paper on the effects of maternal
age on pregnancy and fetal development.
Most of the more technical papers, and all
of the review articles, have extensive bibliographies. This is a volume that should be in
the library of the human biologist and medical anthropologist.
Department of Anthropology
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, Texas
Edited by Frans P.G.M. van der Linden. Ann
Arbor, Michigan: Center for Human
Growth and Development, The University
of Michigan. 1982. 150 pp., figures, references. $29.00 (cloth).
This book was written by three authors
(Bakker, van der Linden and Wassenberg) to
reveal and describe variations in the dentition during the replacement of deciduous
(primary) teeth by their permanent successors, the secondary set of teeth. They pursued
their objective by discussing for each jaw separately the transition of incisors and the
transition of the deciduous canines and molars that occur after a one- to two-year rest
period, during which little change is observed in the arrangement of teeth in the
mouth. This period of “inactivity” is deceptive, because the formation of the roots of the
secondary teeth and their movement towards
the alveolar crest following resorption of the
roots of the primary teeth proceeds actively.
In addition, the changes in the incisor segment of the dental arch associated with
changes in the left and right posterior segments of the dental arch are described, again
in separate chapters for the maxillary and
mandibular dentitions.
A chapter on general aspects of the development of the dentition precedes the six
chapters detailing the transitional changes.
The last two chapters provide brief comments about guidance procedures and interceptive measures, as well as orthodontic
therapy to normalize tooth alignment during
the development of the secondary dentition.
Lastly, a short retrospective account of the
material is provided, followed by a summary
and references.
Serial dental casts collected from 407 children of the Nymegen Growth Study (the
Netherlands) were available for selecting examples to illustrate various patterns of dental development by photographing series of
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london, xii, figuren, references, roberts, index, academic, 1981, patterns, fertility, conception, edited, tablet, 211, chester, pres, changing
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