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Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy sera inhibit axonal growth of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons by activation of rho-kinase.

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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Chronic Inflammatory
Demyelinating
Polyneuropathy Sera Inhibit
Axonal Growth of Mouse
Dorsal Root Ganglion
Neurons by Activation of
Rho-Kinase
Junko Taniguchi, MS,1 Setsu Sawai, MD,1
Masahiro Mori, MD,1 Takekazu Kubo, PhD,2
Kazuaki Kanai, MD,1 Sonoko Misawa, MD,1
Sagiri Isose, MD,1 Toshihide Yamashita, MD,3 and
Satoshi Kuwabara, MD1
Clinical course and prognosis are variable among patients
with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
(CIDP), whereas the extent of axonal degeneration is the
major prognostic factor. We studied the effects of sera from
CIDP patients on axonal growth in cultured mouse dorsal
root ganglion neurons. Compared with control sera, CIDP
sera prominently suppressed axonal outgrowth of dorsal root
ganglion neurons and shortened axonal length. The inhibitory activity was abolished by adding Y27632, a Rho-kinase
inhibitor. These findings suggest that CIDP sera inhibit axonal elongation by Rho-kinase activation, and some serum
factors may be responsible for development of axonal degeneration in CIDP.
Ann Neurol 2009;66:694 – 697
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
(CIDP) is an immune-mediated neuropathy characterized by electrodiagnostic and pathological evidence of
peripheral nerve demyelination.1 It is likely that CIDP
is a heterogeneous disorder, having a wide range of
clinical expression ranging from subacute to chronic
progression, and a monophasic disorder remitting to a
chronic persistent or relapsing course. Therefore, outcomes are also variable among CIDP patients.1–3
From the Departments of 1Neurology and 2Neurobiology, Graduate
School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba; and 3Department of
Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
Address correspondence to Dr Kuwabara, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.
E-mail: kuwabara-s@faculty.chiba-u.jp
Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.
Received Dec 2, 2008, and in revised form May 18, 2009. Accepted
for publication Jun 12, 2009. Published online, in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/ana.21784
694
© 2009 American Neurological Association
Whether specific clinical, electrodiagnostic, and laboratory features are associated with prognosis of CIDP
is not sufficiently understood, but previous studies
have suggested that the extent of secondary axonal degeneration is the major prognostic factor in CIDP.4,5
Extensive axonal loss evidenced by prominent muscle
atrophy leads to little or no responses to immunomodulating treatments, and thereby insufficient clinical
recovery.6
Peripheral axonal degeneration is usually associated
with collateral sprouting and axonal regeneration, but
clinical recovery in CIDP patients with axonal degeneration appears to be slow and incomplete, suggesting
that some factors could inhibit axonal regeneration.
For example, some myelin components such as myelinassociated glycoprotein (MAG) trigger the inhibitory
signal on neurite axonal growth via the Rho-kinase
pathway, which is one of the major mechanisms for the
lack of ability of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system, and this inhibitory pathway is also present
in the peripheral nervous system.7–9 It is possible that
after extensive peripheral nerve demyelination, fractions
of MAG with the inhibitory activity or some other active peptides contained in patients’ sera could suppress
axonal regeneration by activation of the Rho/Rhokinase pathway. We therefore studied whether serum
factors in CIDP patients affect axonal growth in mouse
dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and whether Rhokinase inhibition reverses the effects.
Subjects and Methods
Serum Samples
Serum was collected from eight CIDP patients (7 men; age,
34 – 64 years) in their initial progressive phase or at relapse.
The patients’ condition fulfilled published criteria.2 Disease
duration ranged from 2 months to 19 years. Atrophy in the
distal muscles was present in four patients, mild in three patients (Patients 1–3 in the Table), and severe in Patient 8.
Control sera were obtained from 5 healthy subjects and from
14 patients with multiple sclerosis (n ⫽ 5), neuromyelitis
optica (n ⫽ 5), or vasculitic neuropathy (n ⫽ 4; see the
Table). Patients with vasculitic neuropathy caused by allergic
granulomatous angiitis showed prominent muscular atrophy
and served as neuropathy control patients. Serum was stored
at ⫺80°C and inactivated at 56°C for 30 minutes before use.
Dorsal Root Ganglion Cultures
DRGs were removed from adult C57BL/6J mice and dissociated into single cells by incubation with 0.25% trypsin for
30 minutes at 37°C. Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium/
F12 medium (Invitrogen Corporation, Carlsbad, CA) containing 10% fetal bovine serum was added, and the cells
were centrifuged at 1,000 rpm for 5 minutes. Neurons were
plated on poly-L-lysine–coated chamber slides.
Neurite Outgrowth Assays
For outgrowth assays, plated cells were stimulated 30 minutes in the presence or absence of Y27632, a specific inhib-
Statistical Analysis
Table. Measurements of Neurite Length in the
Absence or Presence of Rho-Kinase Inhibitor,
Y27632
Samples
Neurite Length (␮m)
Untreated
Control (no serum) 101 (6)
(n ⫽ 3), mean
(SEM)
MAG-Fc (n ⫽ 3),
46 (2)b
mean (SEM)
Normal (n ⫽ 5),
96 (4)
mean (SEM)
CIDP (n ⫽ 8),
49 (7)b
mean (SEM)
Patient no.c
1 (2 mo)
50
2 (4 mo)
24
3 (5 mo)
48
4 (8 mo)
40
5 (14 mo)
30
6 (14 mo)
56
7 (15 mo)
59
8 (228 mo)
90
Vasculitic neuropathy 92 (7)
(n ⫽ 4) Mean
(SEM)
109 (9)
Multiple sclerosis
(n ⫽ 5), mean
(SEM)
Neuromyelitis optica 92 (7)
(n ⫽ 5), mean
(SEM)
Y27632
Treated
96 (8)
pa
NS
110 (10)
0.0001
104 (2)
NS
103 (10)
0.001
140
77
72
99
78
137
134
94
94 (12)
NS
101 (10)
NS
102 (10)
NS
Data are represented as the mean ⫾ standard error of the
mean of three independent experiments. Statistical analyses
were performed using Student’s t test for paired data. Median values among groups were compared with one-way
analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s multiple-comparison
test.
Results
The neurite outgrowth assay allowed detailed morphometric analysis of individual neurons. DRG neurons
derived from adult mice were cultured in chemically
defined medium at low density, resulting in individual
neurons without neuron’s contacts (Fig 1). In a few
hours, the neurons showed outgrowth of neurites.
Neurite length in CIDP serum-containing cell cultures
was clearly shorter than in normal serum-containing
cell culture. Neurite outgrowth inhibition was also ob-
Untreated versus treated. bp ⬍ 0.01 compared with normal
serum. cDisease duration (months).
SEM ⫽ standard error of the mean; NS ⫽ not significant;
MAG ⫽ myelin-associated glycoprotein; CIDP ⫽ chronic
inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.
a
itor of Rho-kinase (20␮M; EMD Chemicals, San Diego,
CA), and incubated for 24 hours. Then the cells were fixed
in 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate-buffered saline
and immunostained with Tuj-1 (1:1,000; Covance, Princeton, NJ) antibody recognizing the neuron-specific ␤-tubulin
III protein. After staining, the length of the longest neurite
for each ␤-tubulin III–positive neuron was determined.
Where indicated, recombinant rat MAG-Fc chimera (25␮g/
ml; R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN) was added to the medium after plating.10,11 Samples were added to the medium
at the concentration of 10% (vol/vol) to examine the effect
of CIDP serum. Photomicrographs of ␤-tubulin III–immunostained DRG neurons were captured using Image-pro software (Media Cybernetics, Bethesda, MD) from randomly selected fields. Neurite lengths were measured using the Scion
image software (Scion Corporation, Frederick, MD). Then
to examine whether CIDP sera cause axonal degeneration
(shortening of axonal growth), we added the sera 24 hours
after culture.
Fig 1. Effects of serum from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients on axonal growth of
mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in the presence or
absence of Y27632, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor. Compared
with normal serum, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG)-Fc
(positive control) and CIDP serum suppress axonal elongation.
The inhibitory effect is canceled by adding Y27632. Scale bar,
50 ␮m.
Taniguchi et al: CIDP Sera Affect Axonal Growth
695
served in MAG-Fc treatment. Therefore, we tested
whether the neuronal effects of CIDP serum are Rhokinase–dependent using Y27632, a specific inhibitor of
Rho-kinase. The inhibitory activity by MAG-Fc and
CIDP sera was abolished by Y27632 (Fig 2), and the
effects were similar at the concentration of 20 and
2␮M.
The Table shows the effects of sera obtained from
eight individual CIDP patients, compared with sera
from normal subjects and disease control patients. Sera
from all but one CIDP patient prominently suppressed
axonal outgrowth. Patients 1 to 7 whose sera had the
inhibitory effects had disease duration of 2 to 15
months. Patient 8 had long-standing CIDP (19 years)
and severe muscle wasting in the four limbs; only this
patient’s serum did not affect the axonal growth. The
CIDP group showed significantly shorter axonal length
Fig 2. Measurements of the mean axonal length. Sera were
added after culture for 24 hours. In contrast with sera from
healthy control subjects (n ⫽ 3) and patients with vasculitic
neuropathy (n ⫽ 3), adding sera from patients with chronic
inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP; n ⫽ 3)
at 24 hours resulted in substantial shortening of axonal
growth at 48 hours. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth by CIDP
serum was blocked by adding Y27632 (Rho-kinase inhibitor).
White bars represent 6 hours; hatched bars represent 24
hours; black bars represent 48 hours.
696
Annals of Neurology
Vol 66
No 5
November 2009
than the normal and disease control groups. The inhibitory effects of CIDP sera were canceled by adding
Y27632, whereas normal human serum and inflammatory disease control sera from patients with multiple
sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, or allergic granulomatous angiitis had no significant effects on neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons, and they were not affected
by Y27632.
To examine the effects of immunoglobulins contained in CIDP sera, we purified IgG and IgM from
human sera using Melon Gel IgG Purification Kits
(Pierce, Rockford, IL) and HiTrap IgM Purification
HP (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, Bucks, UK), and
depleted IgG from serum pools using protein
G-agarose beads. Purified IgG and IgM, and IgGdepleted serum was used at a concentration of 10 and
20% in the culture medium for neurite outgrowth assay. The finding showed that IgG and IgM did not
affect the neurite growth in our culture system.
Figure 2 shows the effects of sera added after 24hour culture, when axonal growth developed. Sera
from three CIDP patients (Patients 2, 4, and 5 in the
Table) shortened axonal length prominently at 48
hours, whereas sera from patients with vasculitic neuropathy had no obvious effects on axonal growth.
Discussion
Our results show that CIDP sera suppress axonal elongation of mouse DRG neurons, and this inhibitory effect was abolished by adding a Rho-kinase inhibitor,
Y27632. Moreover, CIDP sera added after development of axonal elongation shortened the axonal length.
Sera obtained from other inflammatory disease control
subjects did not have such effects. These findings suggest that CIDP sera specifically inhibit axonal growth
and degenerate axons, and the inhibitory activity is mediated by activation of the Rho-kinase pathway.
Rho-kinase is a serine/threonine protein kinase and
one of the major downstream effectors of the small
GTPase Rho. Several types of myelin-associated neurite
outgrowth inhibitors trigger the inhibitory signals via
the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway.7–9 Rho activation by
outgrowth inhibitors such as MAG and Nogo is mediated through p75NTR receptor, which enhances the dissociation of the Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation
inhibitor (Rho-GDI) from RhoA after stimulation by
the neurite outgrowth inhibitors.12 To elucidate the
signal cascades of neurite outgrowth inhibition via the
activation of Rho/Rho-kinase, the next step would be
to test whether p75NTR is essential for neurite outgrowth inhibition induced by CIDP serum.12
Many studies have shown that Rho-kinase is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases.
Therefore, the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway is considered
to be a promising target for new pharmacological treatments.13–16 Several types of Rho-kinase inhibitors have
been reported. Y27632 is in the category of
4-aminopyridine derivatives.17 Y27632 inhibits both
Rho-kinase I and II by competitively binding to the
adenosine triphosphate binding pocket.18 –20 Another
Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, is safe and clinically
available for treatment of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage and, therefore, is a candidate for
treatment of axonal loss in CIDP patients.
Our results suggest that some substances in serum of
CIDP patients inhibit axonal regeneration. Sera from
seven of the eight CIDP patients, whose disease duration ranged from 2 to 15 months, clearly inhibited axonal growth. The inhibitory activity is possibly responsible for poor recovery from axonal loss in some CIDP
patients. Serum from the remaining one patient with
severe muscle atrophy and long-standing CIDP (19
years) did not show such inhibitory effects, but this
patient’s serum was tested after stabilization of symptoms for 10 years; therefore, disease activity itself could
be low at the time of examination.
Our finding also showed that CIDP sera cause shortening of axonal length after development of axonal
growth, and this cannot be explained by inhibitory effects of axonal growth mediated by MAG-triggered
Rho-kinase activation. However, our results demonstrated that the shortening of axons was also reversed
by adding Y27632, suggesting that the effects are also
Rho-kinase dependent.
Molecules responsible for the inhibition are currently unknown, but candidates include inflammatory
cytokines, and fragments of MAG or other myelin
components that trigger inhibitory signals of axonal
growth. Our findings could provide new insights into
the pathogenesis of CIDP. Further studies will be required to identify the neurite outgrowth inhibitory factor in CIDP sera. Rho-kinase inhibition may be a new
treatment option for CIDP patients with secondary axonal loss and resulting incomplete clinical recovery.
This work was supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and
Welfare of Japan (S.K., Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant
on Intractable Diseases-Neuroimmunological Diseases).
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Taniguchi et al: CIDP Sera Affect Axonal Growth
697
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sera, dorsal, growth, mouse, activation, inflammatory, roots, inhibits, rho, axonal, ganglion, neurons, demyelination, chronic, kinases, polyneuropathy
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