Compilation and comparison of averages for standing height at late childhood ages on United States boys of several ethnic groups studied between 1875 and 1980.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 61:lll-124 (19831 Compilation and Comparison of Averages for Standing Height at Late Childhood Ages on United States Boys of Several Ethnic Groups Studied Between 1875 and 1980 HOWARD V. MEREDITH Department of Physical Education, College of Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 KEY WORDS Body size, Standing height, United States boys, Ethnic differences, Secular trend, Socioeconomicstatus ABSTRACT Averages for standing height are brought together a t late childhood ages on boys of different ethnic groups studied in the United States during the last 100 years. More than 80 averages are assembed at each of two ages (9 years and 11 years). Among the groups represented are boys having the following ancestries: Afro-Black, Amerind, Chinese, Japanese, Eskimo, Mexican, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Finnish, German, Italian, British, and Dutch. S f l i c e to cite examples of findings on boys age 11 years. United States Black boys studied during the period 1967-1978 were taller than those studied during 1886-1898 by 11.4 cm, or 8.6%.Average standing heights in the 1930s were near 134 cm for Pueblo boys; near 139 cm for boys whose progenitors were Navajo, Mexican, or Polish; and near 142 cm for boys of Finnish ancestry. In the 1950s, average standing heights were near 140 cm, 144 cm, and 146 cm, respectively, on United States boys of Japanese, Italian, and Dutch ancestries. Afro-Black and Amerind similarities and dissimilarities in the 1960s are illustrated by averages near 140 cm on Black and Chippewa groups in Pennsylvania and Minnesota, and near 144 cm on Black and Blackfeet groups in Ohio and Montana. In some instances, averages are compared for upper and lower socioeconomic subgroups, and for urban and rural subgroups. This report pertains to standing height averages a t late childhood ages on more than a dozen ethnic groups of boys residing in the United States within the period between 1875 and 1980. The primary purpose was to bring together, order, and discuss present knowledge on average standing height a t ages between 9 and 11 years for groups of United States boys having different racial, national, or tribal ancestries. Specific aims, each referring to United States boys at late childhood ages, were as follows: 1. To determine for which-ethnic groups there is information on secular change in standing height. 2. To examine, within ethnic groups, differences in standing height associated with socioeconomic status, urban-rural residence, or other variables. 3. To identify differences and similarities among ethnic groups comparable in respect 0 1983 ALAN R. LISS, INC. to variables such as time, place, and socioeconomic level. 4. To complement findings on United States Black and White boys for the body stem and lower limb components of standing height (Meredith and Spurgeon, 1976) with findings for these components on United States Black and Japanese boys. 5. To provide physical anthropologists and other human biologists with a n overview of research a t late childhood ages on the standing height of different ethnic groups of United States males. It is anticipated the overview will serve as a n aid in teaching, and a n indication of needed further research on several ethnic groups. METHODS Four notations on method are pertinent: Received September 7,1982; accepted January 5,1983 112 H.V. MEREDITH 1. Most of the investigations drawn upon dard deviations exceeding 6.1 cm and 6.6 cm reported arithmetic means. In a few studies, at ages 9 years and 11years respectively. only medians were reported (Barr et al., 1972; Systems Development Project Staff, 1968). FINDINGS The two averages can be assumed equivalent, as there is no systematic difference at Averages for standing height at two late late childhood ages between mean and me- childhood ages are assembled in Table 1 on dian standing height (Scott, 1961). United States boys of predominantly Afro2. Averages are presented to typify stand- Black ancestry. Column 7 of the Table lists, ing height at ages 9 years and 11years. From in order of increasing magnitude, averages those investigations providing annual aver- at age 11 years for 23 samples of boys meaages typifying ages 8.5 years, 9.5 years, and sured between 1885 and 1978. Columns l so forth, values for ages 9 years and 11years through 3 identify the investigations drawn were derived by interpolation. upon, along with the place and time each 3. Averages were subgrouped and ordered sample was studied. Columns 4 through 6 in six tables, one table each on boys with the list, for the successive rows, number of boys following progenitors: Predominantly Afro- measured at age 9 years, average standing Black, Amerind and Eskimo, Chinese and height a t age 9 years, and number of boys Japanese, Mexican and Puerto Rican, East measured at age 11years. Findings accessible from Table 1 include and south European, and Northwest Eurothe following: pean. 4. The tables were constructed without at1. Public school samples a t age 9 years taching standard error value to each aver- gave averages for standing height near 125 age. Taking population standard deviations cm on 303 boys measured during 1896-1898 as 6.1 cm at age 9 years and 6.6 cm a t age 11 in the District of Columbia, 130 cm on 145 years (Krogman, 1970; O’Brien et al., 1941), boys measured during 1929-1931 a t San Anstandard errors are: (a) At age 9 years, 1.11 tonio, Texas, and 133 cm on 208 boys meacm, 0.79 cm, 0.61 cm, 0.35 cm, and 0.19 cm sured during 1974-1977 in Richland County, where the boys measured numbered 30, 60, South Carolina. The average for 1974-1977 100, 300, and 1,000 respectively, and (b) a t exceeded that for 1896-1898 by 8.0 cm, or age 11 years, for the same numbers of boys, 6.4%. 1.20 cm, 0.85 cm, 0.66 cm, 0.38 cm, and 0.21 2. Averages a t age 11 years varied from cm, respectively. These figures supply a base below 132 cm on 43 boys measured during for drawing inferences of the kind illustrated 1886-1890 a t Kansas City, Missouri, to above by: Given two samples each consisting of 100 145 cm on 75 boys measured in 1977 at Philboys age 9 years, and estimating a t p = 0.01, adelphia, Pennsylvania. Among the 23 studwhen averages for standing height differ by ies a t this age, two were made during 18862.3 cm or more, there is high probability the 1898, six during 1921-1938, and seven dursamples were drawn from different standing ing 1967-1978. Composite weighted averheight populations. ages for these periods were 132.2 cm, 138.8 What additional support is there for using cm, and 143.6 cm respectively. The 1967population standard deviation estimates ob- 1978 average surpassed the 1886-1898 avertained on samples of United States Black age by 11.4 cm, or 8.6%. and White boys in assessing differences 3. At both ages, differences in average among the wider assortment of ethnic groups standing height statistically significant at assembled in this report? An earlier analysis p = 0.01 were found between United States of variability in standing height was made Black populations sampled a t (a) Washingon boys age 5 years studied in different parts ton, D.C. during 1896-1898 and Atlanta, of the world (Meredith, 1978:43-48). From Georgia, during 1925-1926, (b) Atlanta dursamples each larger than 750, standard de- ing 1925-1926 and Los Angeles during 1936viations were between 4.5 cm and 5.5 cm on 1938, and (c) Los Angeles during 1936-1938 Belgian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Dutch, Ger- and San Francisco during 1967-1970. Averman, Italian, Japanese, and United States ages were similar in the 1920s a t urban cenWhite boys. Among these eight groups, the ters in Georgia and Virginia, and in the largest standard deviation was on United 1960s a t Washington, D.C. and Cleveland, States White boys. Adjusting for increase in Ohio. variability with age, it appears reasonable to 4. Averages obtained for Black boys of low infer that probably none of the populations socioeconomic status measured in several represented in the present report had stan- states during the late 1960s were near 4.0 Place Several states a Washington, D.C.a Several states Bostonb Cleveland, Ohiob Cincinnati, Ohio Richland County, South Carolina Galveston County, Texasb Dallas County, Texasb San Franciscoe Philadelphia Several states Kansas City, Missouri New York orphanage Washington, D.C. Detroit, Michigan New York Citya Atlanta, Georgia Virginia cities Rutherford County, Tennessee San Antonio Texas Philadelphiab Los Angeles Philadelphia‘ Eight statesa aLow socioeconomic status. h L o to ~ middle socioeconomic status. ‘This study included the 1965-1966 data analyzed by Malina (1972). dUnited States Center for Disease Control (1972). ‘All socioeconomic classes except the indigent and affluent. Dodge and West, 1970 Schutte, 1980 Barr et al., 1972 Eveleth et al., 1979 Abraham et al., 1975 Greenwood, 1891 Hrdlicka, 1899 MacDonald, 1899 Packer and Moehlman, 1921 Herskovits, 1930 Sterling, 1928 Royster and Hulvey, 1929 Mustard and Waring, 1926 Whitacre, 1939 Malina, 1972 Lloyd-Jones, 1941 Krogman, 1970 See footnoted Systems Development Project Staff, 1968 Verghese et al., 1969 Hamill et al., 1970 Piscopo, 1962 Neville, 1977 Rauh et al., 1967 Spurgeon et al., 1978 Investigation 1967-1969 ca. 1978 1967-1970 1977 1971-1972 1968 1963-1965 1963-1965 1958-1959 1967-1968 1963 1974-1977 1886-1890 1896-1898 1896-1898 1921 1923-1926 1925-1926 ca. 1927 ca. 1925 1929-1931 1965-1966 1936-1938 1956-1966 1968-1970 Date - 132.5 25 135.6 75 - - - 135.4 92 124 208 - - 133.8 133.4 133.2 - 593 132.1 133.0 133.1 125.1 125.2 127.0 128.3 128.5 129.0 129.8 129.9 132.6 133.0 132.3 132.3 116 56 76 25 303 ca. 140 172 303 589 86 145 41 207 133 165 - Age 9 years Number Mean 82 24 67 73 23 88 54 74 38 87 95 207 271 ca. 140 188 330 431 67 135 40 238 117 145 - 43 - 143.6 144.3 145.4 145.6 145.9 142.2 142.6 142.7 143.1 143.2 143.5 143.8 132.3 134.6 138.1 138.3 138.7 139.7 140.4 140.5 141.7 141.8 142.0 131.4 Age 11years Number Mean TABLE 1. Average standing height (cm) at two late childhood ages on United States boys ofpredominantly Afro-Black ancestry 0 3 W v) 114 H.V. MEREDITH cm higher than averages for Black age-peers of similar socioeconomic status measured in the early 1920s a t New York City. Groups of Black boys comparable socioeconomically, secularly, and in age, yielded similar averages a t two urban centers in Ohio. Table 2, constructed in the same way as Table 1, displays averages for standing height a t late childhood ages on United States boys of Amerind and Eskimo ancestry. This table shows: 1. At age 9 years, averages from data collected between 1955 and 1965 were near 126 cm for 22 Eskimo boys at Alaskan villages, 130 cm for 44 Chippewa boys in the Minnesota Red Lake Reservation, and 133 cm for Blackfeet boys on the Montana Blackfeet Reservation. Corresponding averages at age 11 years were near 136, 140, and 144 cm respectively. 2. At age 11 years, studies in the early 1930s on Amerind samples larger than 150 indicated Navajo boys were taller than Pueblo boys by about 5.0 cm. The average at this age obtained on 14 Alaskan Eskimo boys at Bethel was similar to that for contemporary Pueblo boys in Arizona and New Mexico. Joint examination of Tables 1 and 2 reveals: 1. At age 9 years, United States Black boys measured in Texas during 1929-1931 (Table 1) were, on average, taller by 6.0 cm than contemporary Pueblo peers measured in southwestern states during 1931-1934 (Table 2). 2. At age 11 years, United States Black boys measured during 1967-1970 at San Francisco (Table 1)were, on average, 5.0 cm taller than comtemporary Chippewa peers measured during 1965 on the Red Lake Reservation, Minnesota (Table 2). 3. At both ages, averages from data gathered in the 1960s were similar on United States Black boys a t Cincinnati, Ohio (Table 1)and Amerind boys a t the Blackfeet Reservation, Montzna (Table 2). Assembled in Table 3 are averages for standing height a t late childhood ages on United States boys of Chinese and Japanese descent studied in the half century subsequent to 1920. Findings accessible from this table include the following: 1. At age 9 years, boys of Japanese lineage living in the San Francisco Bay region during 1956-1957 were, on average, taller by 9.0 cm than ethnic peers measured 30 years ear- lier at Honolulu. Given samples of 100 and 33, a difference of 3.2 cm over this period would allow a t p = 0.01 the inference of dependably different standing height populations. 2. At age 11years, 60 boys of Chinese lineage measured during 1940-1941 a t several cities spread from California to New York were, on average, taller by about 5.5 cm than 43 ethnic peers measured 16 years earlier at Honolulu. At p = 0.01, given samples of 60 and 43, it would be tenable to infer a population difference from a difference between sample averages larger than 3.5 cm. 3. Averages for standing height obtained in the 1920s on United States boys of Chinese and Japanese ancestries fell below 124 cm at age 9 years, and below 134 cm a t age 11 years. From data collected between 1956 and 1970 averages were near 129 cm and 140 cm at ages 9 years and 11years respectively. Some of the studies represented in Tables 1 and 3 reported averages for sitting height. Subtraction of these averages from corresponding averages for standing height led to findings a t late childhood ages on the extent to which the sitting height and lower limb height components of standing height were proportioned differently in Mongoloid and Negroid groups. The following are examples: 1. Data collected during 1929-1931 by Suski (1933)and Whitacre (1939)showed boys of predominantly Black ancestry at San Antonio, compared with peers of Japanese ancestry a t Los Angeles, were shorter in average sitting height by 1.5 cm and 1.9 cm a t ages 9 years and 11years respectively, and longer in average lower limb height a t these ages by 5.2 cm and 6.4 cm respectively. 2. The same relationship of shorter sitting height and longer lower limb height was found from measures accumulated between 1956 and 1966 on boys of Japanese lineage in the San Francisco Bay area (Greulich, 1957) and boys of largely Afro-Black lineage at Philadelphia (Krogman, 1970). Compared with averages on the California Japanese group age 9 years, averages a t this age on the Pennsylvania Black group were lower for sitting height by 2.9 cm and higher for lower limb height by 6.3 cm. Averages for standing height at late childhood ages are brought together in Table 4 on United States boys of Mexican, Cajun, and Puerto Rican ancestries. Comparative findings are culled first within Table 4, and then Bethel, Alaskd Alaskan villages Alaskan villages Eskimo ancestry Hrdlicka, 1941 Heller et al., 1967 Mann et al., 1962 1928-1931 1956-1959 1958 1931-1934 1955 1934 1958 1932-1934 1965 1954 1967-1975 1961 1961 Date ‘Pueblo boys reared under conditions of poor sanitation and diet. bNavajo boys living a t two reservation locations differing in health provisions. ‘Athabascan Amerind boys; the mean for 2 boys age 10 was 132.1 em. dNavajo boys; boys with known White ancestors were excluded. eBoys of the Chippewa tribe living on Red Lake Reservation. fWestern Apache boys residing on Fort Apache Reservation; on 8 boys age 10 years the mean was 134.5 cm. P a r e n t s largely of the Chippewa, Sioux, and Winnebago tribes. hBoys living on Blackfeet Reservation. Dietary intake insufficient for protein and calcium. ‘Members of Assiniboine and Gros Ventres tribes living on Fort Belknap Reservation. ’Eskimo boys living in “the Kuskokwim region,” predominantly “fullbloods.” Arizona and New Mexicoa Ganado and Pinon, Arizonab Arizona and New Mexicoa Alaskan villages‘ Arizona and New Mexicod Minnesotae Arizonaf Minneapolisg Montanah Montana’ Place Amerind ancestry Pitney, 1940 Sandstead et al., 1956 Dunham et al., 1937 Mann et al., 1962 Steggerda and Densen, 1936 Johnston et al., 1978 Kraus, 1961 Johnston et al., 1978 Fisk, 1964a Fisk, 196413 Investigation 7 22 16 219 10 42 5 143 44 13 22 41 17 124.7 126.4 125.5 123.9 127.9 127.0 125.7 131.1 129.9 129.1 134.2 133.1 133.0 Age 9 years Number Mean 14 17 10 213 14 8 3 153 40 5 27 49 26 134.1 136.5 137.0 133.7 134.5 136.7 137.2 138.9 140.3 ~~. . 141.6 143.2 143.8 143.9 Age 11years Number Mean TABLE 2. Average standing height (cmi at two late childhood ages on United States boys ofAmerind and Eskimo ancestries 2 3 W 0 W h c3 c z El z0 Y5 Honolulu, Hawaiid San Franciscod Honolulu, Hawaiid San Franciscoe Oakland, California' Several cities" San Francisco areah Chinese ancestry Appleton, 1927 Preston, 1936 Cox, 1928 Wong and Lee, 1936 Wong and Lee, 1936 Lowe, 1941 Oriental ("yellow") ancestry Barr et al., 1972 1967-1970 1924-1925 1931 ca. 1926 1935 1935 1940-1941 ca. 1926 1921-1923 1931 ca. 1931 1936-1938 1971 1956-1957 Date 36 38 20 > 100 120 27 54 31 48 76 181 45 33 > 100 129.1 122.6 126.0 123.9 124.8 126.9 125.9 119.9 121.0 123.1 126.2 127.2 127.8 128.9 Age 9 years Number Mean "The fathers were largely Seattle tradesmen. bParents of all socioeconomic levels from unskilled to major managerial and professional. '"Representative" samples of boys of Japanese descent born in the San Francisco Bay area. dUnited States Chinese boys whose progenitors migrated from southern China. 'The fathers were 50% unskilled or semiskilled, 4% major managerial or professional 'Housing of Chinese families was somewhat better a t Oakland than San Francisco. "Cities in California, Illinois, Michigan and New York. Below average socioeconomically. hData collected in the Pediatric Multiphasic Program a t Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center; parents in all social classes except the indigent and affluent. Honolulu, Hawaii Seattle regiona San Francisco Los Angelesb Los Angeles Los Angeles San Francisco area' Place Japanese ancestry Cox, 1928 Spier, 1929 Preston, 1936 Suski, 1933 Lloyd-Jones, 1941 Kondo and Eto, 1975 Greulich, 1957 Investigation 27 43 27 > 100 104 30 60 17 30 52 166 56 36 > 100 139.7 131.4 132.2 133.3 133.6 135.8 137.0 129.1 132.8 132.8 135.9 136.1 139.4 140.2 Age 11years Number Mean TABLE 3. Average standing height (cm) at two late childhood ages on United States boys of Japanese and Chinese ancestries ?3 A 4 - g W E c 3 Several Puerto Rican townsd New York San Juan, Puerto Rico Alabamaf Texas: San Antonio, Austin, and Tafta Austin, Texasb Tucson, Arizona San Antonio, Texasd Laredo and El Paso, Texasd Texas Los Angelesd Galveston County, Texasb Place 1968-1970 1962 1921-1922 1968 1968-1970 1936-1938 1967-1969 1929-1931 1930 ca. 1975 ca. 1923 1941-1942 Date 15 102 411 10 45 1202 257 128 217 ca. 100 - 27 131.4 133.3 121.3 129.9 128.8 129.0 132.2 126.2‘ 127.2 126.2 - 121.6 Age 9 years Number Mean 13 94 443 12 41 1198 48 234 255 - 17 30 - 141.8 145.1 130.7 141.3 136.7 138.8 140.7 135.7 136.0 135.0 134.4 Age 11years Number Mean aBoys born in the United States into families of “generally low” socioeconomic status. bFathers mainly unskilled or semiskilled workmen. ‘Estimated mean, the reported mean was 128.6 cm from 103 measures on 9-year-old boys (mean age 9.5 years). Mixtures about 80% Spanish and 20% Amerind; poor to fair status dPublic school boys. ‘United States Center for Disease Control (1972). Boys in low income families. ‘Mixtures estimated about 65% English White, 30% Gullah Black, and 5 4 Cherokee Amerind. “Private school boys of predominantly Spanish ancestry and middle to upper class economic status. Knott, 1963“ See footnotee Puerto Rican ancestry Bary, 1923 Cajun ancestry Pollitzer e t al., 1977 See footnotee Lloyd-Jones, 1941 Dodge and West, 1970 Zavaleta and Malina, 1982 Paschal and Sullivan, 1925 Whitacre, 1939 Manuel, 1934 Mexican ancestry Meredith and Goldstein, 1952 Investigation TABLE 4. Average standing height (cml at two late childhood ages on United States boys of Mexican, Canjun,and Puerto Rican ancestries 3 W 0 -4 0 118 H.V. MEREDITH between Table 4 and the three preceding tables: 1. In the early 1920s, standing height averages at age 9 years were near 121 cm on 411 Puerto Rican urban boys, and almost 5.0 cm higher on about 100 boys of Mexican ancestry lving a t Tucson, Arizona. Statistical testing yielded a t < 5.0, indicating a significant difference in average standing height for these contemporary populations. 2. Average standing height at age 11years was near 136 cm in two groups of public school boys of Mexican ancestry measured about 1930 in Texas (234 boys studied a t San Antonio and 255 boys studied at Laredo and El Paso). These averages were fully 9.0 cm lower than the average from measures taken in 1962 on 94 Puerto Rican private school boys of predominantly Spanish ancestry and middle to upper socioeconomic status. 3. At both ages, Mexican schoolboys measured at Los Angeles in the late 1930s were dependably taller than Mexican schoolboys measured around 1930 a t El Paso, Laredo, and San Antonio. This finding may arise from the difference in geographic location, some difference in ethnic composition, or a compounding of these and other variables. 4. Averages for standing height near 133 cm at age 9 years were obtained in the early 1960s on 102 Puerto Rican boys predominantly of Spanish descent and above average socioeconomic status (Table 4), 124 Ohio boys predominantly of Afro-Black lineage and low to middle socioeconomic status (Table 11, and 41 Montana Amerind boys residing on the Blackfeet Reservation (Table 2). 5. At age 11years, school groups measured in the 1930s yielded standing height averages near 136 cm on 255 boys of Mexican ancestry in Texas (Table 4) and on 166 boys of Japanese ancestry in California (Table 3). Secularly comparable averages were near 139 cm on 1,198 boys of Mexican lineage in California (Table 4) and 153 boys of the Navajo tribe in Arizona and New Mexico (Table 2). In Table 5, averages are assembled for standing height a t late childhood ages on United States boys of Finnish, Polish, Slavic, Italian, and Portuguese ancestries. Examples of comparative findings are drawn first within the table, then from this table in conjunction with antecedent tables: 1. Measures of standing height amassed in the 1930s on United States boys of Italian descent in Minnesota, and Polish descent in Michigan, yielded averages near 130 cm at age 9 years and 139 cm a t age 11 years. Corresponding averages on boys of Finnish descent in Michigan were higher by about 2.0 cm. 2. At age 11 years, average standing height for boys of Italian ancestry and low to middle socioeconomic status measured 19581959 in Massachusetts exceeded by about 12.0 cm the average for boys of Italian ancestry living a half-century earlier under congested conditions in New York. 3. From urban data collected at age 9 years in the 1920s, averages for standing height were near 120 cm on about 100 boys of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii (Table 31, 124 cm on 80 boys of Italian ancestry in Massachusetts (Table 5), and 129 cm on 589 boys of AfroBlack ancestry in Virginia (Table 1). Similar averages near 129 cm were obtained at age 9 years on boys primarily of Afro-Black lineage in Virginia (Table 1)and at age 11years on boys of Japanese lineage in Hawaii (Table 3). 4. Averages between 132 cm and 134 cm a t age 11years were reported on 271 boys of Afro-Black ancestry measured during 18961898 a t Washington, D.C. (Table 11, more than 100 boys of Portuguese ancestry measured at Honolulu in the 1920s (Table 5), and 104 boys of Chinese ancestry measured in 1935 a t San Francisco (Table 3). Averages are displayed in Table 6 for standing height of United States boys who had northwest European progenitors (British, Dutch, German, Irish, mixed nationalities) or Jewish progenitors. Comparative findings accessible from this Table include the following: 1. At age 9 years, boys of Dutch ancestry measured in 1941 a t Holland, Michigan, averaged near 9.0 cm taller than boys of German ancestry measured about 60 years earlier a t Milwaukee, Wisconsin. At age 11 years, boys of northwest European ancestry measured during 1950-1957 at Iowa City, Iowa, averaged near 12.0 cm taller than boys of Irish ancestry measured about 80 years earlier a t Boston, Massachusetts. An alternative comparison a t age 11 years showed the average obtained from 1957-1958 data on boys of Dutch ancestry a t Holland, Michigan, to exceed that from records made during 1875-1876 on boys of Irish ancestry at Boston by about 13.0 cm. Across the 80 years, secular increase in average standing height Detroit, Michigan New York Citye Hantramck, Michigan Minnesota' Slavic ancestry Packer and Moehlman, 1921 Boas, 1911 Polish ancestry Courtis, 1939 Finnish ancestry Matheny and Meredith, 1947 aMembers of families living under crowded conditions. bThe boys' fathers were 58%unskilled or semiskilled, 6%professional or major managerial 'Communities within a 50-mile radius of Hibbing; 80%of fathers unskilled or semiskilled. dMassachusetts boys of low to middle socioeconomic status. eMainly boys of Bohemian, Hungarian, Polish, or Slovak descent living in poor settings. Honolulu, Hawaii New York orphanage New York City" New York City" Detroit, Michigan Beverly and Revere, Massachusettsb Minnesota' Bostond Place Portuguese ancestry Cox, 1928 Matheny and Meredith, 1947 Piscopo, 1962 Italian ancestry Hrdlicka, 1899 Gebhart, 1923 Boas, 1911 Packer and Moehlman, 1921 Meredith, 1939 Investigation 1938-1939 ca. 1938 1921 1908-1910 ca. 1926 1938-1939 1958-1959 1896-1898 1917-1922 1908-1910 1921 1925-1928 Date 93 956 102 ca. 400 > 100 - 59 ca. 260 ca. 80 115 70 ca. 20 132.0 129.8 124.5 125.1 123.3 - 130.0 119.7 121.7 121.0 121.9 124.1 Age 9 years Number Mean 100 905 281 ca. 400 > 100 79 44 90 119 ca. 260 80 ca. 30 141.6 139.4 134.6 135.2 132.6 139.1 144.1 128.7 131.2 131.8 132.1 134.0 Age 11years Number Mean TABLE 5. Average standing height (cm) at two late childhood ages on United States boys of south and east European ancestries 3 W 0 CA tl zmZ C 3 0 2 C m 0 0 20 4 T F; % E i; 3 0 2 0 3z Boston, Massachusetts Detroit, Michigan Mississippia Holland, Michigan Holland, Michigan Holland, Michigan Eastern Tennesseeb Massachusetts’ towns‘ Massachusetts’ townsd Urban Mainee Rural Utah Utah citiesf Iowa City, Iowag New York Cityh Massachusetts’ towns’ New JerseyJ Irish ancestry Bowditch, 1877 British (“Anglo-Saxon”)ancestry Packer and Moehlman, 1921 Miszkiewicz, 1978 Dutch ancestry Steggerda and Shaffer, 1942 Steggerda and Shaffer, 1942 Spurgeon e t al., 1959 Northwest European ancestry Wheeler, 1933 Meredith, 1941 Meredith, 1941 Clayton, 1944 Brown, 1936 Brown, 1936 Meredith, 1982 Jewish ancestry Boas, 1911 Kobyliansky et al., 1980 Kornfeld, 1954 1908-1910 1923-1929 1940-1953 1932 1925-1926 1925-1926 1934-1939 1934-1935 1934-1935 1950-1957 1931-1934 1941 1957-1958 1921 1975-1976 1875-1876 1875-1876 ca. 1880 Date of 124.7 129.9 133.3 - - 103 39 2 10 127.2 128.8 130.8 130.6 130.6 132.3 - 132.4 133.5 127.0 132.4 123.5 121.9 124.3 75 126 56 108 904 647 - 100 99 ca. 400 30 572 85 300 Age 9 years Number Mean 138.7 139.4 142 5 144.6 122 815 645 32 133.8 140.0 144.1 - 295 38 45 138.2 141.2 143.2 146.4 134.6 144.7 132.9 132.2 133.8 87 - 100 105 73 ca. 400 20 559 83 298 Age 11years Number Mean northwest European and Jewish ancestries aBoys in families of middle and upper middle socioeconomic status; attending private schools. bBoys of low socioeconomic status attending schools in a n isolated mountainous region. ‘Boys measured a t schools in Beverly a n d Revere; 70% of fathers semiskilled, 30%,unskilled. dMembers of professional a n d major managerial families; attended schools a t Medford a n d nearby towns. eJonesport, Mars Hill, Monmouth, and Newport. ‘Logan, Provo, and Salt Lake City. Wathers about 47% professional or major managerial, 18%semiskilled or unskilled, and 35%in intermediate category hOffspring of east European Jewish parents living in congested districts. ‘Medford, Beverly, and Revere. ’Predominantly Jewish boys examined in private pediatric practice. Boston, Massachusetts Milwaukee, Wisconsin Place German ancestry Bowditch, 1877 Peckham, 1881 Investigation TABLE 6. Average standing height (cm)at two late childhood ages on United States boys 3: 3 0 F; STANDING HEIGHT OF ETHNIC GROUPS OF UNITED STATES BOYS at age 11years, with allowance for sampling variations, was estimated at not less than 10.0 cm, or 7.5%. 2. For boys of northwest European ancestry measured in Utah during the 1930s,those living at urban centers were, on average, taller than peers in rural areas by about 2.0 cm at age 9 years and 3.0 cm at age 11years. Standing height averages a t late childhood ages were similar for contemporary boys of northwest European ancestry at towns in Maine and rural districts in Utah. 3. Data collected during 1925-1926 on boys of northwest European descent residing a t towns in Massachusetts showed average standing height a t age 9 years was about 2.0 cm higher on offspring of parents in the professional and major managerial category than on peer offspring of parents in the unskilled and semiskilled category. Another comparison at this age showed the 1975-1976 average of 30 Mississippi private school boys of British descent and middle to upper-middle socioeconomic status (Miszkiewicz, 1978) exceeded by 3.0 cm the average for 74 White “poverty area” boys measured during 1968 at widely scattered locations in the United States (Systems Development Project Staff, 1968). At age 10 years, average standing height was 139.1 cm on 100 boys of northwest European descent measured in 1950 a t Eugene, Oregon (Meredith, 1951). A similar average at this age (139.3 cm) was obtained on 30 predominantly Jewish boys measured during 1950-1953 in private pediatric practice (Kornfeld, 1954). At age 11 years, averages were 138.2 cm for 87 Tennessee mountain boys of northwest European descent measured in 1932 (Table 61, 144.3 cm for 98 boys of mainly northwest European lineage measured during 19611963 at Iowa City, Iowa (Knott and Meredith, 1963), and 146.4 cm for 73 boys of Dutch ancestry measured during 1957-1958 at Holland, Michigan (Table 6). Comparison of the two contemporary groups showed boys of Dutch ancestry a t Holland were taller than Iowa City boys of largely northwest European descent by about 2.0 cm, or 1.5%. The Michigan boys of Dutch ancestry surpassed the Tennessee mountain boys measured 25 years earlier by 8.2 cm, or 5.9%. Palmer and Collins (1935) analyzed data for standing height amassed during 19221924 at towns in the northeastern section of the United States on White boys whose par- 121 ents and grandparents were born in the United States. Obtained averages were 130.3 cm for 587 boys age 9 years and 140.0 cm for 553 boys age 11 years. These averages were about 1.5 cm higher than those obtained by Meredith (1939)on boys of northwest European ancestry measured during 1925-1928 at Beverly and Revere, Massachusetts (128.6 cm for 155 boys age 9 years and 138.6 cm for 157 boys age 11years). Drawing upon Tables 1through 6 as a set, illustrative findings a t age 11 years are as follows: 1. Averages for standing height based on measures taken during the 1930s varied from 132.8 cm on boys of Japanese lineage residing a t San Francisco (Table 3) to 142.5 cm on boys of northwest European lineage living at cities in Utah (Table 6). From data collected between 1967 and 1970, averages were 136.7 cm on 41 Mexican boys of low income families in Texas (Table 4) and 145.4 cm on 67 Afro-Black boys of middle income families in California (Table 1). 2. In the 1930s, standing height averages were near 139 cm for boys whose progenitors were Navajo (Table 2), Mexican (Table 4), Italian (Table 5), and Polish (Table 5). In the 1960s, paired similarities were near 140 cm for United States Black boys at Philadelphia (Table 1)and Chippewa peers in Minnesota (Table 21, and 144 cm for United States Black boys at Cincinnati (Table 1) and Blackfeet peers in Montana (Table 2). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The statistics aggregated in Tables 1 through 6 on different groups of United States boys have relevancy for those who teach courses (or course segments) on human ontogeny, engage in research on child somatology, or respond to requests for advice on selecting school growth charts. In discharging these teaching, research, and service functions, updated knowledge is needed on childhood somatic differences across time and among present-day United States ethnic groups. This report supplies teachers with updated information on average standing height of different groups of United States boys, points investigators toward research that would strengthen knowledge of socioeconomic, geographic, and secular variables associated with standing height at late childhood ages, and alerts those who recommend growth charts to check on currency of construction and suitability for use in inter- 122 H.V. MEREDITH preting the standing height status of boys belonging to particular ethnic groups. Growth charts based on data collected between 1960 and 1980 are available for United States children and youths of predominantly northwest European ancestry (American Medical Association, 1975) and predominantly Afro-Black ancestry (Spurgeon and Meredith, 1977). Measures being accumulated in the California Pediatric Multiphasic Program at Kaiser-Permanente Medical Center (Barr et al., 1972) could be used to construct charts appropriate in United States schools having pupils of Chinese or Japanese descent. In the near future, records should be collected suitable for constructing charts applicable in United States schools with pupils having Eskimo, Mexican, or Pueblo progenitors. LITERATURE CITED Abraham, S, Lowenstein, FW, and O’Connell, DE (1975) Preliminary findings of the first health and nutrition examination survey, United States, 1971-1972: Anthropometric and clinical findings. United States National Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Publ. No. HRA 751229 Rockville, MD.: National Center for Health Statistics. American Medical Association (1975) Height-weight Interpretation Folder for Boys. Chicago: American Medical Association. Appleton, VB (1927) Growth of Chinese children in Hawaii and in China. 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