American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl.): 33 – 148 (2003) Abstracts of Presentations Twenty-sixth Annual Meeting The American Society of Primatologists Hosted by The Department of Anthropology and the University of Calgary Alberta, Canada July 30th to August 2nd, 2003 © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. 34 / Abstracts CONTRIBUTED ABSTRACTS 1-2. ALL ABOUT PRIMATES! A WORKSHOP FOR K-12 TEACHERS (SPONSORED BY THE ASP EDUCATION COMMITTEE AND THE CALGARY ZOO) S. Howell1; K. Strange2 and J. Burns3 1 Primate Foundation of Arizona, P.O. Box 20027, Mesa, AZ, 85277-0027, USA, 2 Calgary Zoo, 3Stony Hill Farm Environmental Education Center This workshop represents a joint effort between the ASP and the Calgary Zoo to introduce K-12 teachers to primatology. The purpose of the workshop is to provide teachers with skills and information necessary to incorporate primatology into their current curriculum. We will provide basic information on primates related to their diversity, geographic distribution, behavior, and conservation. We will acquaint teachers with available audiovisual and online resources. We will provide lesson plans and suggest ways to incorporate primatology into existing science curriculums. The Calgary Zoo environment will also afford the unique opportunity for active learning about the behavior of primates and teachers will receive hands-on training in behavioral observation, data collection methods, and analysis. ASP members will be on hand throughout to share their knowledge, experience, and enthusiasm. While the workshop is geared to K-12 teachers, undergraduate and graduate students in primatology as well as young professionals are welcome to attend and will find it a valuable overview to the field of primatology. 3. MANAGING BEHAVIORAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT OF LABORATORY PRIMATES J. L. Weed1; K. C. Baker2 and C. M. Crockett3 1 Veterinary Resources Program/Office of Research Services/NIH/DHHS, Box 56, Building 102, Poolesville, MD, 20837-0529, USA, 2Tulane National Primate Research Center, 3Washington National Primate Research Center This workshop will focus on the implementation of behavioral management programs in the biomedical setting. It is intended for individuals such as enrichment coordinators, enrichment technicians, and veterinarians, whose positions involve oversight and/or implementation of environmental enrichment programs in the laboratory. Through short talks and group discussions, we will address real-world challenges and mechanisms for promoting ongoing augmentation of enrichment programs. Topics will include: 1) an overview of staffing, roles, and responsibilities at large facilities, 2) mechanisms for increasing the use of social enrichment in the biomedical environment, 3) guidelines for ensuring the evolution of your program, 4) addressing wellbeing in the context of clinical care, infectious disease, and experimental protocols, and 5) positive reinforcement training as an element of a behavioral management program. Attendees will be urged to bring examples of challenges they are currently facing for group discussion and problem solving. Speakers at this workshop include J. L.Weed, K. C. Baker, C. M. Crockett, J. Bielitzski & M. Bloomsmith. Abstracts / 35 4. RESTORING MONKEYS TO TROPICAL HABITATS: LESSONS FROM A COSTA RICAN DRY FOREST L. M. Fedigan University of Calgary, Department of Anthropology, Social Sciences Bldg. 830, Calgary, ALB, T2N 1N4, Canada The accelerating pace at which tropical forests are being felled threatens the extinction of many species, and much research is focused on documenting the decline of primate populations forced to live in ever-diminishing forest fragments. Although some formerly disturbed habitats are now protected, only a small literature exists on how and when mammal populations return to regenerating forests. Since 1983 we have monitored the population dynamics of Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. This park was established in 1971 on reclaimed ranchlands and expanded into the Área de Conservación Guanacaste in 1989, at which time poachers, anthropogenic fires, and cattle were gradually eliminated from the area and tropical dry forest allowed to regenerate. We found that both howler and capuchin populations increased substantially in size during our twenty year study, but the howler population grew faster. They also grew differently, the howlers expanding mainly via the establishment of new groups and the capuchins through increasing the size of existing groups. I will examine the ecological, social and life history variables (e.g., hunting, dispersal patterns, pace of reproduction) that appear to differentially affect the vulnerability of these two species as well as their capacity to recover. Santa Rosa is a restoration “good news” story and I will briefly describe the historical, cultural and political reasons for its success. 5. INFANT BABOON (PAPIO ANUBIS) BEHAVIORAL SEX DIFFERENCES (AGES 1-2 WEEKS) V. K. Bentley-Condit Grinnell College, Department of Anthropology,Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA, 50112-0806, USA Newborn captive olive baboon (Papio anubis) behavioral and proximity sex differences are addressed in large social group (500+ individuals). The subjects include 42 mother-newborn pairs (n=27m, n=15f) for infant-week 1 and 36 pairs (n=23m, n=13f) for infant-week 2 representing 400+ 20-minute focal observations. Repeated measures ANOVA’s (Greenhouse-Geisser correction) show statistically significant age-sex interactions for most of the behaviors/ proximities (Week 1: Suckle: F=2.359, p=.042; Explore: F=3.027, p=.026; Contact: F=2.471, p=.034 and Week 2: Suckle: F=2.453, p=.034; Contact: F=2.799, p=.017; Proximity 1 Meter: F=2.529, p=.050) and significant age main effects for all behaviors/proximities. There are also both relative and statistically significant differences in mothers’ treatment of their newborns and newborns’ responses to their mothers. Mothers’ contact rates with their female infants are higher during Week 1 (X2=18.17, p<.001), female infants’ contact rates with their mothers are lower during Week 2 (X2=5.34, p<.05), and male infants are responsible for a significantly higher percentage of changes in contact with their mothers during Week 2 (z=1.984, p<.05). Per focal observation, there are some general tendencies for female newborns to average less time suckling and more time exploring than male infants and for males 36 / Abstracts to average slightly more time at 1 meter from the mother. Although infant behavior can be subject to maternal influence, these data do indicate that male and female baboons may differentiate behaviorally at a very young age. 6. MOTHER-INFANT INTERACTIONS AND BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT OUTCOME DIFFERENCES IN PRE-TERM AND ATTERM INFANT BABOONS S. Ramirez; M. Bardi; M. Bode and L. Brent Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, PO Box 760549, San Antonio, Texas, 78245, USA Cognitive and behavioral deficits in children born pre-term have been extensively reported. Pre-term infants are at risk for cognitive immaturity and show an increase in attention deficit. No comparable data exist in nonhuman primates. We studied mother-infant interactions and infant developmental outcomes as juveniles (1.5 year old) in 19 pre-term infant baboons (1-2 weeks before expected parturition), compared to 119 at-term infants. Overall, over 2,000 hours of observation were collected. Mother-infant interaction trends within the first two months of infants’ life changed in the two groups following similar developmental patterns, with no significant average differences between pre-term and at-term infants (Maternal Affiliative Behaviors: age, F7,952 = 7.71, p < 0.0001; age x birth condition, F7,952 = 1.0, NS; birth condition, F1,136 = 1.1, NS). However, a divergent trend between pre-term and at-term was noticeable in the last week for the maternal maintenance of contact (p = 0.09) and infant breaking contact (p = 0.04) both were lower in pre-terms. When examined as juveniles, we did not find any significant differences in the behavioral outcome both in the social groups and during a stress test. In conclusion, our data indicate that pre-term conditions do not affect infant or juvenile behavior in baboons. Further studies are needed to assess the role of the mother and the social group in reducing the risks of behavioral deficits in pre-term baboons. Supported by NIH RR-13199. 7. INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN BABOON MATERNAL BEHAVIOR IS INFLUENCED BY GENETIC VARIATION L. Brent; A. G. Comuzzie; T. Koban; M. Foley and J. Rogers Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX, 78245, USA Although recent research using rodent models has identified several genes that appear to affect maternal behavior, the influence of genetic variation on this complex behavioral phenotype has not previously been characterized in primates. This project used pedigree-based variance component methods to quantify the relative influence of different factors (additive genetic differences, measured and random environmental factors and covariates) on individual variation in maternal behavior. Mother-infant interactions and proximity indices were summarized from over 1800 hours of observations collected from 138 pedigreed female baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) during the first 8 weeks of the infant’s life. These normative maternal behavior phenotypes were subjected to quantitative genetic analyses, using a model that included the effects of several covariates (age, number of previous offspring, social Abstracts / 37 dominance, rearing history). A “maternal attention” phenotype (including grooming, huddling, manipulating and watching the infant) was significantly heritable (h2 = 0.69 +/- 0.33, p < 0.001). The second significantly heritable behavioral phenotype was a “stress” phenotype (scratching, brow wipe, muzzle wipe) (h2 = 0.74 +/-0.25, p < 0.00004). Additionally, “maternal aggression” toward the infant had a significant heritability score (h2 = 0.56 +/- 0.38, p < 0.033). This project is the first to report that a significant amount of the variation in primate maternal behavior is due to genetic variance among subjects. Supported by NIH RR-013199. 8. A COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO ASSESS CHANGES IN THE PERIPARTUM SEX STEROID PROFILES AND MATERNAL BEHAVIORAL PROPENSITIES IN MACAQUES M. Bardi1; K. Shimizu2; G. M. Barrett2; S. M. Borgognini-Tarli3 and M. A. Huffman2 1 Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX, 78245-0549, USA, 2Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan, 3University of Pisa, Italy Recent studies on the association between sex steroid hormones and maternal behavior have reported contradictory results in primates. We used a comparative approach to assess the correlation between changes in the pre- and postpartum endocrine profiles and maternal behavior in two closely related macaque species. Subjects were 7 Japanese macaque and 7 rhesus macaque mother-infant pairs born at the Primate Research Institute. We observed each pair 3 h/wk during the first 12 wk of lactation, for a total of 504 hrs. We collected fecal samples twice a week from each mother, starting 4 wk before parturition and ending 4 wk after parturition. We tested the hypothesis that sex steroid changes during pregnancy and lactation might contribute to the regulation and timing of rejection. We found that rhesus mothers rejected their infants earlier and more frequently throughout the whole study (F1,12 = 4.7, p < 0.05). Protectiveness showed similar patterns and values in the two groups, and independence, even if higher in rhesus macaques (F1,12 = 4.9, p < 0.05), showed a similar changing pattern over time. We also found an association between maternal rejection and excreted estrogen (E1C, rs = -0.89, N = 7, p < 0.05; E1C/PdG, rs = -0.92, N = 7, p < 0.01), but not excreted progesterone, for Japanese macaques. This association was not apparent for the rhesus macaques. 9. SOCIAL PLAY AMONG MALE FREE-RANGING RHESUS MONKEY INFANTS: IS IT ALWAYS FUN AND GAMES? J. J. Warfield1,2 1 Institute for the Study of Child Development, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, 2Columbia University, Department of Anthropology Social play patterns of 23 free-ranging male rhesus monkey infants, sampled three times weekly for a total of 600 hrs from age 13-42 weeks, were analyzed with one-way ANOVAs (n=23) and descriptive statistics. The percentage of time infants played varied widely: the 4 infants playing least played 2.5% of the time; the 5 infants playing most played 11.4% of the time; the middle 14 38 / Abstracts infants played 6.2% of the time (p < 0 .001). Despite having no siblings to play with, infants of primiparous mothers played more than infants of multiparous mothers (p < 0.03). Infants in large groups played more than infants in small groups (p < 0.03). Possible effects of maternal rank on social play were more complex but infants of low-ranking mothers were likely to play more, not less. Consistent with a connection between higher play rates and greater tension, the subgroup of infants that played more had higher rates of rejections per hour (but not a higher percentage of rejection), distress vocalizations, selfscratching, risk exposure, aggression from nonmothers, looked at observers more, approached and were approached by nonmothers more, and used mothers less as secure bases. These results and other data suggest that observed levels of social play may exceed what is necessary for normal development and that it is reasonable to ask whether social play functions to reduce tension in infants. 10. HOW DOES PATERNAL INFLUENCE AFFECT INFANT SOCIALITY AND RESPONSE TO STRESS IN RHESUS MACAQUES (M. MULATTA)? M. L. Becker1; M. L. Schwandt1; S. G. Lindell1; C. S. Barr1; S. J. Suomi2 and J. D. Higley1 1 National Institutes of Health-NIAAA, NIH Animal Center, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD, 20837, USA, 2LCE/NICHD/NIH Most studies of personality and temperament have characterized two major traits: sociality and emotionality. In our lab for example, we found a positive correlation between frequency of vocalizations and plasma cortisol concentrations during a separation stressor, emphasizing the utility of vocalizations as a measure of emotionality. We were interested in determining if paternal influences affect the temperament of their offspring. Subjects were 59 infants from three same-aged cohorts, sired by 11 fathers, housed with their mothers in large social groups. Infants were observed two days a week 5 minutes each day until they reached 24 weeks of age. All occurrences of social and non-social behaviors were scored. Factor analysis determined that there were three behaviors that formed a mother-infant “sociality” measure. The behaviors were infant approach, social with mother, and mother reject/ withdrawal. The second trait measured was emotionality, as determined by the frequency of vocalizations during a separation stressor at 24 weeks of age. Infants were statistically grouped as half-siblings to perform analyses to assess paternal influences on mother-infant sociality and vocalizations. Although cohort affected sociality, there were clear paternal contributions to sociality and vocalizations (ANOVA; p = .0493 and p = .0342, respectively). The fathers appeared to strongly influence the temperament of their offspring, specifically in sociality and emotionality. Discussion focuses on genetic and environmental influences and the interacting variables that modulate paternal effects. 11. SOCIAL REARING CONDITIONS AND LATER MATERNAL PERFORMANCE OF PRIMIPAROUS CHIMPANZEES M. A. Bloomsmith1,2; K. C. Baker3; S. R. Ross4; S. P. Lambeth5; L. Brent6 and E. Toback7 1 Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 N. Gatewood Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA, 2Zoo Atlanta, 3Tulane National Primate Research Center, Abstracts / 39 4 5 Lincoln Park Zoo, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, 7Santa Monica College 6 The causal factors relating to why some captive, primiparous chimpanzees display inadequate maternal care are poorly understood. This study addresses the effects of rearing (mother vs. nursery) and allomothering opportunities on later ability to mother. A large sample (N=99) of primiparous chimpanzees was classified using archived records according to the amount of time each female was housed with her own mother and whether she was exposed to infants during her developmental period. The mother’s birth location, birth year, and housing location did not contribute to the prediction of maternal incompetence, as measured by logistic regression. Older first time mothers were less likely to be competent; 46% of those who gave birth at 12 years of age or later cared for their first infant. While controlling for age at first birth, the odds of maternal competence were 3.9 times greater when mothers had one year or more of mother rearing themselves. Descriptively, 41% of the 34 mothers who experienced less than a year of mother-rearing themselves were competent, compared with 76% of mothers who experienced a year or more of mother rearing. While controlling for age at first birth, the odds of maternal competence were 1.66 times greater when mothers had an opportunity for allomaternal experience. This study helps delineate the conditions for rearing maternally competent chimpanzees, and for maintaining future maternal competence. 12. EARLY REARING AND THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES: INTERACTIONS WITH SOCIAL PARTNERS S. R. Ross1; M. A. Bloomsmith2,3 and S. P. Lambeth4 1 Lincoln Park Zoo, 2001 N Clark Street, Chicago, IL, 60614, USA, 2Zoo Atlanta, 3Yerkes Primate Research Center, 4The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Science Park Research with young primates has demonstrated that the development of social behavior is greatly influenced by early rearing conditions. This study investigated how the behavioral development of juvenile chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), specifically the interaction with potential social partners, is affected by differential rearing histories. Nineteen chimpanzees (9 males, 10 females) were observed 1 to 2 times weekly from ages 3 to 6 years. Chimps that spent at least two years in their natal group were categorized as “motherreared” (n=13). Individuals that were removed from their mother less than one week after birth (usually due to poor maternal care) were categorized as “nursery-reared” (n=6). Over 1300 hours of data were analyzed with five social behavioral categories. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant effects of early rearing history. Mother-reared chimpanzees showed higher rates of play and sexual behavior in all three years. Nursery-reared chimpanzees exhibited higher rates of atypical social behavior (embracing and tandem-walking) at ages 4 and 5 years. Mother-reared individuals interacted with a more diverse range of social partners even though there was no effect of group size or composition on the dependent measures. This research contributes to the extant research on applied management techniques of captive chimpanzees, as well as providing a better understanding of the factors influencing social development in hominids. 40 / Abstracts 13. DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SQUIRREL MONKEY BREEDING AND RESEARCH RESOURCE COLONY, 1982-2002 L. Williams and C. Abee University of South Alabama, Dept. of Comparative Medicine, Univ. of South Alabama, 307 University Blvd., MSB 992, Mobile, AL, 36688-0002, USA This work presents the results of a demographic analysis of 20 years of breeding records from the University of South Alabama’s Squirrel Monkey Breeding and Research Resource. Colony size has risen from 205 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) when the resource was originally established in 1980, to a current census of 428. A life table based on 2540 births and deaths showed survival statistics with adult mortalities averaging less than 3% annually. During the study period 1,478 animals were removed for sale or research. Removal rates were relatively constant across years, with most coming from the young adult male and older, reproductive cull, female age classes. Agespecific fertility rates show females have their peak reproductive impact on the colony between the ages of 3 and 13. Twenty-seven percent of females had their first infant at 3 years of age, while 36% had their first infant at 4 years. There was an average inter-birth interval of 1.36 years, with most females (72%) delivering annually. After age 15, the age-specific fertility drops to near zero. The squirrel monkeys showed seasonality, with a peak of births coming in June. Analysis of the life table showed a growth rate of 9% without harvesting. This research was supported by a NCRR center grant, P40 RR01254. 14. ARE LION TAMARINS A GOOD MODEL FOR THE TRIVERSWILLARD HYPOTHESIS? K. L. Bales1,2; M. M. O’Herron3; A. J. Baker4 and J. M. Dietz3 U. Illinois Chicago, Dept. of Psychiatry, Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 W. Taylor St, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA, 2Emory University, 3University of Maryland, College Park, 4Philadelphia Zoo 1 Trivers and Willard (1973) predicted that females in good condition, given certain circumstances, should invest more in offspring of the sex with the higher reproductive variance. This hypothesis has been tested primarily in polygynous mammals in which reproductive variance is higher in males than in females and in which body mass (which is potentially altered by level of maternal investment) is more important to reproductive success in males than in females. Here we evaluate the appropriateness of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) a species in which social patterns suggest greater reproductive variance for females than for males, as a model for the TriversWillard hypothesis. We analyzed variance in two measures of reproductive success: number of offspring produced and number of offspring weaned. We also examined the effects of body mass on reproductive success for each sex. Reproductive variance was significantly higher in females than males for both measures (n = 464; F230,232 = 2.01, p < 0.0001; same for both measures). Body mass predicted number of offspring weaned for female breeders (n=45, t = -2.19, p = 0.034) but not for males (n=27; t = -1.28, p = 0.213). Golden lion tamarins (and perhaps other callitrichid primates) appear to be an interesting and novel model system in which to test the Trivers-Willard hypothesis and other environmental sex determination theories. [This research supported by NSF SBR-9727687]. Abstracts / 41 15. PREDATOR INFLUENCE ON GOLDEN LION TAMARIN NEST CHOICE AND PRESLEEP BEHAVIOR S. P. Franklin1; K. E. Miller1,3; A. J. Baker2 and J. M. Dietz1 1 University of Maryland College Park, University of Maryland, Department of Biology, Building #144, College Park, MD, 20742, USA, 2Philadelphia Zoological Gardens, 3National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Primate sleeping site choices and cryptic pre-retirement behaviors presumably aid survival by reducing a predator’s ability to find and access prey. In callitrichids, fewer vocalizations, rapid movement to and from dens, and frequently changing den sites are behaviors believed to conceal sleeping site locations. However, while predation may influence these habits, some studies and anecdotal observations indicate that predation is not necessarily the most important factor influencing callitrichid sleep behaviors. We examined pre-sleep behaviors in a population of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) that recently suffered heavy losses from predators. We analyzed 12 months of scent marking data collected on individuals from eight breeding groups of tamarins. We used regression analysis to determine whether study individuals decreased scent marking just prior to retiring. Additionally, we looked for a relationship between predator pressure, as measured by the number of observed encounters with potential predators, and the frequency with which social groups changed sleeping sites in order to determine whether groups at higher risk of predation changed den sites more frequently than groups at lower risk. Preliminary results indicate that study individuals did not substantially decrease scent marking just prior to retiring. Further, predator encounter rate was not a significant predictor of the rate with which social groups changed den sites. Consequently, predation does not appear to have a dominant impact on these tamarin sleep-associated behaviors. 16. DIET, FORAGING, AND USE OF SPACE IN WILD GOLDENHEADED LION TAMARINS B. E. Raboy1,2 and J. M. Dietz2 1 Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, NICHD/NIH, NIH Animal Center, Bldg 112, P.O. Box 529, Poolesville, MD, 20837, USA, 2Department of Biology, University of Maryland We describe results from the first long term investigation of foraging and ranging behavior in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas; GHLTs). Twenty-four individuals from three groups were studied for 1.5 to 2.5 years in Una Biological Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil. GHLTs spent 31% of their time budget foraging or traveling between foraging sites distributed widely throughout their territories. Fruit, flowers, nectar, insects and small vertebrates were the primary components of the diet. GHLTs ate 79 different plant species, with fruit comprising the majority of feeding bouts. Over 70% of prey foraging sites were epiphytic bromeliads. Territories averaged 123 ha, however, groups spent 50% of the time in approximately 11% of this area. Intergroup encounters occurred on average twice every nine days and were always aggressive. We conclude that GHLT ranging patterns were influenced more by resource acquisition than by resource defense. We compare our results to those from other studies of Leontopithecus to identify factors 42 / Abstracts that may influence foraging and ranging patterns in this genus. Rainfall seasonality, habitat availability, and the distribution of resources may explain the differences observed in dietary composition, territory size and degree of territoriality seen across species and study sites. For example, GHLTs in Una Reserve spent less time consuming exudates than lion tamarins in more seasonal environments and had larger territories than tamarins ranging in smaller forest fragments. 17. FRUIT PRODUCTIVITY, NOT DBH, CORRELATES WITH TIME SPENT FEEDING BY WILD GOLDEN LION TAMARINS (LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA) K. E. Miller1,2 and J. M. Dietz2 1 Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Animal Center, PO Box 529, Poolesville, MD, 20837, USA, 2Department of Biology, University of Maryland Assessing fruit availability is a critical element in testing hypotheses concerning resource use by frugivores. One method of estimating fruit availability is to measure tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and assume a positive correlation with fruit tree productivity. Our first objective was to test the robustness of the relationship between DBH and tree productivity. We used as our measures of tree productivity: volume of the fruit bearing region of the tree crown (FBRv) and weight of dry fruit matter/FBR. Our second objective was to determine if time spent feeding on fruits by golden lion tamarins (GLTs) was correlated with three measures of fruit tree productivity within tamarin territories. We used as our measures of fruit tree productivity/ha: (1) DBH x tree density, (2) FBRv x tree density, and (3) weight of dry fruit matter/FBR x tree density. We measured fruit tree productivity, tree density and DBH for 17 fruit species commonly eaten by GLTs, in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil. We calculated Spearman correlations. DBH correlated with FBRv but not with weight of dry fruit matter/FBR. The time tamarins fed correlated with the direct measure of fruit productivity that considered both spatial and temporal variation in fruit availability (# 3 above). These results emphasize the importance of including measures of temporal and spatial variation of fruit availability in studies of resource use by frugivores. 18. FISSION-FUSION IN EULEMUR FULVUS RUFUS IN SOUTHEASTERN MADAGASCAR D. J. Overdorff; E. M. Erhart and T. Mutschler University of Texas-Austin, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Texas, E.P.S. C3200, 1 University Station, Austin, TX, 78712, USA In a previous long-term study of red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus) at the Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar (Overdorff et al., 1999), E. f. rufus was described as having groups ranging between 6-16 individuals (mean = 9.5) with a high degree of group stability and cohesion. In seven years, only 21 individuals either immigrated (n = 3) or emigrated (n = 18) and eighteen of these cases involved adult males. Since this study was published, several interesting differences have been noted, particularly regarding group stability and cohesion. Overall study groups are smaller (mean = 6.8 individuals) Abstracts / 43 and over the last 21 months, 13 immigrations/emigrations have been noted involving almost an equal number of adult males (n = 6) and females (n = 7). Additionally, groups are less cohesive; fission-fusion has been observed regularly in June and July when food is least available. Groups are also less faithful to their home ranges. Both study groups have been observed 7-8 km away from the main study site, often for months at a time. These differences may be related to extreme fluctuation in food availability and increases in population density of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) that compete for many of the same fruiting and keystone resources. 19. FOOD CHOICE BY FREE-RANGING LEMURS L. Taylor1,2 and A. Baden1 1 University of Miami, Dept. of Anthropology, Univ. of Miami, P.O. Box 248106, Coral Gables, FL, 33124-2005, USA, 2Lemur Conservation Foundation Ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus) range freely in a 19-acre forest habitat at the Lemur Conservation Foundation, Myakka City, FL. Scan sampling techniques were used to gather data on food choice at 5-minute intervals. Data were used to answer questions about plant preferences for the two taxa. We hypothesized that the bamboo lemurs (N=2.1) would exploit the fewest plant resources because of its specialized bamboo diet. A total of 1294 samples were analyzed. Chi-square tests were used to assess significance. Ringtails (N=1.2) preferred live oak (Quercus virginiana) leaves (7.9% of samples) and slash pine needles (Pinus ellottii) (15.8% of samples). Bamboo lemurs preferred young Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) shoots (26.4% of samples) and bamboo shoots (Bambusa sp., Phyllostachyes sp.) (23.4% of samples). In the dry season, bamboo lemurs ate bamboo almost exclusively. Although they exploited more plant species (N=11) than did ringtailed lemurs (N=10), the difference was not significant. These data show that bamboo lemurs are foraging specialists, with two sources constituting almost half of all scores (49.8%). Ringtailed lemurs were more generalized plant feeders who did not concentrate on any single source or type of plant. Research supported in part by a General Research Grant (LLT) and a Summer Research Fellowship for Minorities and Women (ALB). 20. THE ROLE OF FOOD PATCHES IN PRIMATE SOCIOECOLOGY: A MONKEY’S EYE VIEW E. R. Vogel and C. H. Janson SUNY Stony Brook, Department of Ecology and Evolution, 650 Life Science Building, 6th Floor, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA Food abundance and distribution have played a central role in the conceptual theory of primate socio-ecology (Janson 1988; van Schaik 1989; Chapman et al. 1995; Sterck et al. 1997). This theory predicts that agonistic (‘contest’) competition should occur when food is distributed in discrete, defensible patches; in contrast, when food sources are distributed uniformly or randomly, nonagonistic (‘scramble’) competition is expected. Primatologists usually measure resource density and patchiness from a botanical perspective, ignoring the biology of the animal being studied. Such an approach may be 44 / Abstracts irrelevant to how the animals view the dispersion of resources. We suggest a new method that provides a monkey-based index of food abundance and quality. Rather than assigning quadrat size based on plant density, we propose using the monkey species’ average group spread as a sampling unit. We use a focal-tree method to estimate both the within-tree benefit, and the opportunity costs, of food-related contests. This procedure is evaluated using data on whitefaced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, from a subset of the 700 focal-tree follows collected in northwestern Costa Rica. These results show that the density of feeding trees in the sampling quadrat, not including the focal tree, is a significant predictor of both frequency and types of agonism in the focal tree. Our approach clarifies some contradictory published results about the relationships between aggression and food distribution in primates. 21. DIFFERENTIAL LEVELS OF PLASTICITY IN CERCOPITHECOID PRIMATES J. Kamilar Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-4364, USA Cercopithecine primates are generally believed to exhibit high degrees of behavioral and ecological plasticity. Species such as Papio cynocephalus and Macaca spp. are able to occupy various habitats, and consume a wide range of dietary items. In contrast, colobine monkeys are usually restricted to forested environments, and ingest a less variable diet, normally consisting of high quantities of leaves and relatively low amounts of fruit and insects. Although cercopithecines seem to have more behavioral and ecological flexibility, social organization plasticity is more often attributed to colobine species, such as Semnopithecus entellus or Presbytis thomasi. However, these assessments are primarily based on qualitative or general quantitative analyses. In this study, plasticity is defined as the ratio of intraspecific trait (e.g. diet) variation to the amount of intraspecific environmental variation. To test the hypothesis that cercopithecines are more plastic than colobines, data were obtained from fifty populations of ten cercopithecoid species. Nineteen variables from four categories were evaluated: 1) environmental, 2) dietary composition, and 3) social organization, and 4) activity budget. Multivariate techniques were used to quantify the amount of intraspecific variation in each data set. Cercopithecine species consistently displayed higher levels of plasticity compared to colobines for each data set, with the exception of Papio cynocephalus social organization plasticity. The possible biological causes for these preliminary findings, as well as their potential consequences will be discussed. 22. EARLY PREGNANCY: SUCCESSES AND FAILURES A. G. Hendrickx University of California, Davis, Center for Health and the Environment, Davis, CA, 95616, USA The first trimester of pregnancy includes critical periods of development that must be successful for delivery of a normal infant. The crucial periods include transportation of the fertilized ovum through the oviduct to the uterus where it implants at one week of gestation. During the second and third weeks, the Abstracts / 45 embryo transforms from a simple cell mass into multiple layers of tissues that differentiate into specialized cells, tissues, and primordial organs. A relatively high level of pregnancy loss occurs during this vulnerable period of pregnancy. In the course of the next five weeks, this simple multi-layered embryo undergoes the process of organogenesis during which all of the major organ systems form. It is during this critical and complex period that developmental abnormalities most often occur since the embryo is unusually susceptible to exogenous agents (drugs/chemicals). For example, thalidomide, a drug marketed for prevention of morning sickness in the early 60’s, had highly specific adverse effects on limb development. Following the thalidomide tragedy, the role of the nonhuman primate in the safety assessment of newly developed pharmaceuticals became recognized and additional similarities in humans and Old World monkeys were characterized. Studies involving the developmentally toxic effects of DES (diethylstilbestrol), Accutane (13-cis retinoic acid), and dioxin (TCDD) exemplify the important role played by nonhuman primates in preventing and understanding birth defects. 23. VOCALIZING AT THE EDGE: NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS IN PANT HOOTS OF COMMON CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) M. J. Owren; T. Riede and A. Arcadi Cornell University, Dept. of Psychology, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA Pant hoots produced by common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are multicall vocalizations figuring prominently in the acoustic communication in this species. Although pant hoots are predominantly harmonic, their “climax” components in particular are noted to show noisiness and instability. We examined 1,038 climax calls in 411 pant hoots from 12 adult male chimpanzees recorded in Kibale National Park in Uganda, and documented 4 classic nonlinear acoustic phenomena--”discrete frequency jumps,” “subharmonics,” “biphonation,” and “deterministic chaos.” These phenomena occurred in 52% of the climax calls, but in only 1% of 268 introduction calls drawn from the same pant hoots. While the rates of nonlinear phenomena showed marked variation across individuals, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance revealed corresponding proportions of each type of nonlinearity across callers. Occurrence was related to vocal effort, with nonlinearities becoming more likely in calls with higher vocal-fold vibration rates (fundamental frequency, or F0). A signal-to-noise (SNR) measure used as a proxy for call amplitude and Pearson’s r revealed a positive correlation between SNR and F0 in harmonically structured calls, but no relationship in nonlinear sounds. We suggest that climax calls represent the upper limit of chimpanzee vocal performance, with elevated air pressure and vibration rate rendering the vocal folds susceptible to irregularity and inefficiency. If so, this “vocalizing at the edge” may provide cues to overall vocalizer fitness by displaying tissue performance under stress. 24. A CHIMPANZEE’S RECALL AND REPORTING OF MULTIPLE HIDDEN OBJECTS C. R. Menzel; M. J. Beran; J. W. Kelley and I. C. Sanchez Georgia State University, Language Research Center, 3401 Panthersville Rd., Decatur, GA, 30034, USA 46 / Abstracts This study used symbol-knowledge as a tool to study memory. In Experiment 1, a female chimpanzee that had already learned >120 lexigrams watched as an experimenter hid 6 different types of food items in 6 different locations in the woods outside her outdoor enclosure. After a delay of up to 30 minutes, the chimpanzee had an opportunity to interact with a person who did not know whether a trial was being conducted, much less the types or locations of the items. From Trial 1, the chimpanzee attracted the person’s attention, pointed toward each hidden item in turn while vocalizing, and touched the lexigram corresponding to the type of item hidden. The chimpanzee pointed toward 58 of 60 hidden items and correctly labeled 55 of 60 items prior to the person finding the item. In Experiment 2 (50 trials), the experimenter hid 1, 2, 3, 6, or 12 items of the same type in a single location in the woods. If the chimpanzee directed a person to the baited location, the person removed just 1 food item on a given trip. The person did not know the total number of items present. The total number of recruitments to the location was highly correlated (Pearson r=0.86) with the number of items that the chimpanzee had seen hidden at that location. Supported by MH-58855, HD-38051 and SBR-9729485. 25. HAND PREFERENCES ON A TOOL-USING TASK IN A LARGE SAMPLE OF CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) W. D. Hopkins1,3; S. N. Braccini2; M. A. Hook4 and S. J. Schapiro2 1 Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd. NE, , Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA, 2The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 3Berry College, 4Texas A & M University Hand preference for a tool-use task requiring coordinated bimanual actions were collected in a sample of 198 captive chimpanzees housed at two separate primate facilities (UTMDACC and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center). The tool-use task was designed to emulate the termite fishing behavior observed among wild chimpanzees. Four findings emerged in the analyses. First, chimpanzees showed population-level right handedness [as determined by the Handedness Index=(Right hand use-Left hand use)/ (Right hand use+Left hand use)] for this task, as revealed by a one-sample t-test [t(197)=2.23, p < 0.03]. Second, the degree of right-handedness in the UTMDACC and Yerkes colonies did not significantly differ [t(197)=0.04, n.s.]. Third, in both colonies, sex differences in handedness approaching significance were found, with females more right-handed than males [F(1,184)=3.59, p < 0.06]. No evidence of a significant rearing effect (mother-reared, humanreared) on handedness was found. Lastly, hand preferences for the tool-use task in this study were positively correlated with findings from a coordinated bimanual handedness measure collected previously in these colonies [r = 0.37, df = 196, p < 0.01], suggesting consistency in hand use across measures when motor demands of the task are common between measures. The findings from this study support previous findings from chimpanzees and provide data critical for the evaluation of several evolutionary models of handedness. 26. THE ROLE OF MEMORY IN AN OBJECT PERMANANCE TASK IN CAPUCHIN MONKEYS (CEBUS APELLA) C. R. Rosengart and D. M. Fragaszy Abstracts / 47 University of Georgia, Dept of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA According to Piaget, human infants at a certain stage of object permanence development can correctly find an object at an original location (A), but continue to search at A when the object is hidden at a different spot (B). Six capuchin monkeys were tested to determine if they show the A-not-B error and if it is expressed differently in a recognition task (lifting a cup) versus a recall task (digging in a sandbox). Additionally, the delay periods were manipulated so that the trials were either 10s or 30s in order to determine the role of memory in the A-not-B error. Each monkey searched for a food reward in the original hiding location three times prior to hiding the reward in a new spot. Based on repeated measures factorial ANOVAs, in the recognition task, the monkeys picked the correct cup more frequently on the A trials as compared to the B trials and their initial search on the recall task was closer to the target on the A than on the B trials. In both tasks there was an interaction where performance was hurt by the longer delay period on the B trials but not for the A trials. The monkeys do show object permanence errors that are consistent in recall and recognition tasks, and the error may be exacerbated by memory demands. 27. TOOL USE IN JUVENILE RHESUS MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA) C. M. Veino1 and M. A. Novak1,2 1 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Neuroscience and Behavior Graduate Program, Tobin Hall, Amherst, Ma, 01003, USA, 2Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Previous studies of tool use in rhesus monkeys have relied extensively on training and shaping. In this study, we investigated the spontaneous use of tools in four socially-housed juvenile rhesus monkeys presented with a novel problem involving a rake and an incentive. The monkeys were observed in the following five conditions presented consecutively on separate days: 1) incentive located inside rake head, 2) incentive located either within or outside rake head on different trials, 3) incentive always located outside rake head 4) rake positioned in one location and incentive placed in different location requiring transport of tool to the distant location, and 5) similar to condition 4 but with a novel location. Two subjects retrieved the incentive approximately 50% of the time when it was located inside the rake head (conditions 1 and 2). Only the dominant male successfully manipulated the rake to retrieve an incentive located outside the rake head. This response emerged in the middle of condition 3, no monkey retrieved incentives outside the rake head in condition 2. The dominant male also transported the rake from one location to another in order to retrieve an incentive. Within condition 3, the average session time (T=11.52, p<0.05) and average number of contacts (T=4.05, p<0.05) significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rhesus monkeys can develop planning strategies that facilitate their use of tools.