close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Contribution to the anthropology of the brain.

код для вставкиСкачать
CONTRIBUTION TO T H E ANTHROPOLOGY O F THE
BRAIN
C. J. CONNOLLY
Catholic University, Washington, D. C .
ONE FIGURE
At the present time, the most intensive work on the brain is
directed toward its microscopic anatomy. Previous decades
have witnessed very detailed studies of the external features
of the brain, especially the convolutions, and comparisons
have been made regarding the comparative development of
the brain in different races. It would almost seem that this
phase of brain study had become a closed subject. But it
has recently been pointed out by some investigators both in
America and Europe that the results so far attained a r e
far from being satisfactory and are, in fact, often contradictory. Though detailed studies of sulci and convolutions
have been made on specimens representing different races,
the number studied is often small, so that the degree of variation in dimensions of the brain and its parts cannot be
estimated. hloreover, indices by which the general shape of
the brain in different races could be compared a r e frequently
lacking. Again, there is no generally accepted standard
method of measuring the brain such as exists for the skull,
and it is thus difficult to compare the results obtained by
different authors.
I t is important to know the average dimensions and degree
of variability in the brain of a sufficiently large series of each
race. Much work is yet to be done on this problem, though a
difficulty exists in obtaining ample material in the case of
certain races.
477
ANERICAN J O U R N A L OP PHYSICAL A N T R R O P O W G Y , VOL. XV, NO. 3
APRIL-JUNE, 1931
478
C. J. C O N N O L L Y
The material used in this investigation was that preserved
in the U. S. National Museum, Division of Physical Anthropology. The collection constitutes a series of well-hardened
brains. A few that were slightly damaged or deformed are
not included in this study. Measurements were, however,
made on small groups or on single specimens representing
different races, but these are omitted here as not being
significant for a comparative study.
This study gives the results of measurements made on the
240 hemispheres of 120 brains of adults representing white,
negro, and Malay races. The brains of the whites (German)
with Berlin as their source were all hardened by injection in
situ, while the negro brains were hardened after removal
from the skull by HrdliEka and weighed by him. The number
of male specimens of these two races is about equal and
sufficiently large to indicate the degree of variation and also
to permit of some comparison regarding general form. The
miscellaneous whites are of various European nationalities,
and it was thought advisable to treat these separately from
the uniform series of German whites. The Malay (Filipino)
group is much smaller and may not represent the true average
of the race.
Particular attention was given to method, for the structure
of the brain naturally presents difficulties in obtaining exact
measurements, and it is desirable that more uniformity be
reached as to what should be measured and in what manner.
Hence many measurements were taken in the effort to ascertain which were the more significant and most reliable.
I n his study of “An Eskimo brain” and in his “Anthropometry,” HrdliEka ( ’01, ’20) proposed a simple method of
taking any desirable horizontal distance and expressing this
as a percentage of the total horizontal length of the hemisphere. The method “consists of taking the maximum
antero-posterior diameter of each hemisphere as a basis and
a horizontal to which all other measurements are referred as
so many verticals.’’
ANTHROPOLOGY OF T H E B R A I N
479
More recently, Ariens Kappers ( ’27) independently suggested a somewhat similar method in his valuable paper, but
here the horizontal used a s a base upon which the various
verticals a r e erected is “the line connecting the base of the
operculum orbitale with the base of the occipital lobe-the
lateral horizontal” and extending between the frontal and
occipital perpendiculars. Apart from the chief indices, such
as length-breadth index, which Rappers measured directly
on the brain, the various other indices were measured on
photographs of the lateral and medial sides. The indices
express the relation of a vertical at any chosen point on
the brain, either to its distance from the frontal or occipital
perpendicular o r its relation to the total horizontal. The
occipital index is, for example, according t o Kappers, the
parietal perpendicular or that from the highest point of the
parietal lobe divided by its distance to the occipital perpendicular.
For this study an apparatus was constructed for the purpose of taking measurements with the horizontal between the
frontal and occipital poles as the base. Figure 1 shows a n
isometric drawing of the apparatus. It consists of a rigid
rectangular frame of walnut (26 X 27 X 16 em.) dovetailed
at angles to prevent warping. At the bottom there is a n
adjustable platform with a steel axis, the ends of which a r e
held a t corresponding levels of ratchets. The platform can
thus be inclined at various angles. At one end (left of figure)
a glass plate is fitted flush with the inner wall of the frame.
Across the top of the frame a beveled scale extends. This
scale is rigidly fixed to a rider and can thus be moved backward and forward. The zero point of the scale is at the plane
of the glass plate. Scales may also be inset along the top
edges of either end of the frame to ensure accuracy of position
of the longitudinal scale. Along the latter a depth gauge slides
and its vertical scale can thus be brought over any point on
the surface of the brain. F o r measuring very small brains,
the platform may be raised to higher levels by adjusting to
corresponding teeth of the rachets in front and back.
480
C.
J. CONNOLLY
T o take measurements, the brain is placed upon the platform with its frontal poles just touching the glass plate and
its longitudinal axis parallel with the scale above. The platform is then so adjusted as to bring the frontal and occipital
poles to the same horizontal level. This can be done accurately
with the aid of a mechanic’s surface gauge (right of figure).
The occipital poles may be more precisely located with the
use of pins. It is generally possible t o bring the two frontal
and one occipital pole to the same plane, just as skull i s
placed on Frankfort plane by bringing the two lower orbital
Figure 1
points and one porion into the same plane. When hemispheres a r e asymmetrical, each hemisphere is leveled separately. The projectional distances between any points on the
surface of the brain may now be read off as distances along
the base horizontal and expressed as percentages of this
horizontal or projectional length of the brain. Likewise, any
transverse diameter may be brought into this relation.
Further, by means of the depth gauge, the height of any
point above the base horizontal may be measured and likewise the distance of any point below the horizontal as in the
case of the temporal perpendicular. The apparatus is thus
essentially a space gauge by means of which the relations
481
ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE BRAIN
of any point in the three dimensions may be given. Thus,
from comparatively few measurements, the general contour
of the brain may be reproduced.
The maximum breadth was taken with spreading calipers
and the maximum frontal breadth a t the level of the temporal
poles, usually between the orbital opercula, with sliding compasses. The horizontal measurements of the brain were
TABLE 1
-
I
m
m
MAXIMUM
LENGTH, C Y .
z
RACE
2
~
3$
[
Xhx
37
M
U
White
(German)
36
M
U
Miscellaneous
whites
18
M
White
(German)
I
1i 11 1
10
M
u
I
Left
-~
5.23 I 12.4 12.5
0.41 0.68 0.75
15.7 15.8 12.9 10.5
0.54 0.58 0.44 0.39
6.69
0.51
5.48 12.1 12.5
0.41 0.58 0.50
15.6 15.9 12.8
0.92 0.97 j 0.82
6.18
0.33
5.37 12.2 12.7
0.32 0.65 0.74
10.4
0.68
16.0 16.0 13.4 10.6
0.83 0.97 1.14 0.71
Negro
Right
16.2 16.3 12.5 10.1
6.22
0.62 0.83 1.10 0.55 0.54
~
Negro
TEYPOBAG
OCCIPITAL
DIAMETER, CM.
15.5 15.6
0.65 1.0
1
/
12.3
0.77
11.9
0.76
11.9
0.61
15.5 15.4 12.6
0.40 0.34 0.48
11.9
0.39
1
selected for the purpose of giving the comparative size of the
main divisions of the brain.
Table 1 gives the averages of the chief dimensions of the
brain of four groups together with the standard deviations.
It will be noted that, on the average, the left hemisphere
is but 1 mm. longer than the right in negro and white
(German) males. To check results of measurements with
apparatus, the maximum lengths of all hemispheres were also
482
C.
J. CONNOLLY
taken with calipers. This likewise gave but 1-mm. difference,
though the figures for whites were 1 mm. greater, while in
the case of negroes, exactly the same averages were obtained.
The method of measuring with the apparatus may therefore
be considered reliable.
A somewhat greater difference in favor of the left hemisphere is seen in the group of miscellaneous whites, where
differences u p to 6 mm. in individual brains existed. In the
smaller group of Malays the hemispheres are on the average
equal in length, while in white females the right is on the
average 1mm. longer than the left.
These results are not in agreement with the widespread
belief that there is a considerable difference in the size of the
two hemispheres. A contrary opinion was expressed by
Jaeger (’14) on the basis of a study of the volume of the
cortex in the two hemispheres, though only a few brains were
studied. Berger (’21) found no pronounced difference in
favor of the left hemisphere in his histological study, but his
tables give a slight predominance in number of cells per unit
area in favor of the left.
Nevertheless, the left hemisphere is larger in a greater
percentage of cases. Our results harmonize well in this
respect with those of HrdliEka ( ’07), who found slight but
definite differences in favor of the left side in the sum of the
lengths of the cranial fossae and in the maximum ventral
anteroposterior diameter. He states that “there is therefore a clear, though small excess of fossal length on the left
in the mass of human crania.” The following are the percentages in our groups of males in which the right or the left
hemisphere is longer.
Right
Per cent
Negro,
White (German),
Miscellaneous whites,
Malay,
32.4
30.5
22.5
30.0
Left
Per cent
Equal
Per cent
40.5
58.3
66.6
50.0
27.1
11.2
10.9
20.0
The predominance of the left hemisphere, however slight in
amount, is clearly shown in these figures. The bilateral asym-
ANTHROPOLOGY O F THE BRAIN
483
metry is, moreover, greater in whites than in Malays and in
Malays greater than in negroes. The female whites, however,
show on the average a 1-mm. difference in favor of the right.
I n the whole series of 120 brains, male and female, the right
is longer in 31.7 per cent, the left longer in 50.0 per cent, and
the hemispheres are equal in 18.3 per cent.
The functional superiority of the left hemisphere is stated
by Jacobi ('27) to be present in 95 per cent of cases. This is
generally believed to be associated with prevalence of righthandedness and its assumed interdependence with localization of speech centers on left hemisphere. We should expect
on this theory to have a larger percentage with excess size
of left hemisphere, and as mentioned above, Berger finds no
pronounced histological difference in the two hemispheres.
Bethe ('25) doubts that right-handedness is something primary in a majority of people, but comes through exogenous
influences, and believes it is still a n unsettled question that
right-handedness is associated with functional predominance
of left hemisphere.
Comparing the two large series of whites (German) and
negroes, we note that the negro brain is on the average longer,
narrower, and flatter than the whites, with also a lower
frontal height. The smaller group of miscellaneous whites
show about the same relations. The average maximum height
is, however, slightly smaller than in negroes, but the frontal
height is greater. There is much overlapping in all the dimensions, as the standard deviations ( a ) indicate.
The Malay brains occupy a position in some respects intermediate between whites and negroes. The average length
and breadth is greater than in whites, but both maximum
height and frontal height are lower. I n the temporal-occipital
diameter there is an excess of length on the left side in
negroes and whites.
I n the small group of females the dimensions are smaller,
but show generally the same relations in the two races a s
the males do. The temporal-occipital diameters are here
equal.
484
C. J. CONNOLLY
BRAIN WEIGHT
So many factors enter into consideration in dealing with
brain weight that it is difficult to draw general conclusions.
It is becoming ever more apparent that in itself brain weight
in different races is not correlated with cultural status. Nor
is this true even when stature is taken into account. Many
researches seem to show this. Recently, Bushmakin ( ’28)
found that Buriats who “ h m e entered the zone of cultural
development only with the new state organization” have an
average brain weight considerably surpassing the brains of
Europeans and greater than that of Russians whose stature
is higher than that of the Buriats.
I n considering brain weight, as also other dimensions of
the brain, we a r e here approaching the subject as one would
any other organ from the anthropological side, namely, to
attempt to ascertain the racial features and the degree of
variability. Within the limits of a race there nevertheless
seems to be a degree of correlation between brain weight and
mental development. The following are the weights for the
different groups :
Females
Males
Negro,
Whites (German),
Miscellaneous whites,
Malay,
Number
Weight
in g r a m
36
36
14
10
119s
129s
1264
1310
Iiegro,
Whites (German),
Number
Weight
in g r a m
9
10
1127
1226
The average weight of the German brains is less than that
usually given for the average of their population. This would
be probably explained by the fact that unclaimed hospital
subjects would represent the poorer, less-nourished individuals. This may also be true of the negro, though perhaps
to a less extent.
The group of Malay brains, if typical and not selected, show
greater average brain weight than the whites. I n all three
races and in males and females, the brain weights correspond
quite closely with size dimensions, and especially with the
chief dimensions as expressed by the cerebral module.
485
ANTHROPOLOGY OF T H E BRAIN
Table 2 gives the chief brain indices. The cerebral or
length-breadth index gives ratios which are typical of what
we might obtain in any representative series for cranial indices in negroes, Malays, and Germans. Regarding the other
three indices given in the table in which height is one member
of the ratio, we must note first that our height dimension is
taken from the frontal-occipital pole base line, and not from
TABLE 2
Indices
NUMRER
RACE
CEREBRAL OR
LENOTHRREADTH
BREADTH
Br.xlOO
Length
H Z 0
Breadth
:FS:\
RRIOHT-
BRAINS
I
LENQTH
FrLHn;,OO
CEREBRAL
MODULE
LcB+ H
3
Males
U
Miscellaneous
whites
18
M
U
Malay
(Filipino)
White
(German)
I 1
77.4
4.70
49.5
j
32.0
11.69
0.34
81.6
3.64
52.2
3.01
1
34.8
3.30
11.78
0.34
81.5
5.46
4.25
83.0
5.10
45.3
5.54
1
51.6
2.77
1
1.92
10
V
81.0
3.38
I
11.58
2.84
32.5
4.40
11.80
0.83
1.96
11.22
0.52
36.3
3.34
11.48
0.28
the horizontal connecting the base of these lobes. Hence
height here given is smaller than would be obtained from
base taken by Kappers.
The negro brain being narrower than the white, the relation of the height to breadth is about the same in both races.
With regard to frontal-height index, it will be noted that the
ratio is higher in whites than in negroes, and in each race
higher in females than in males.
486
C.
J. CONNOLLY
Regarding sex differences of the brain, several investigators, especially Retzius, have noted a simpler and more
regular type of convolution in brains of females. Though the
number of brains for the two sexes in our series is quite
unequal, our observations support this view. The female
brain is conservative i n type, with fewer secondary convolutions. It approaches more closely the youthful brain than
does the male. As Retzius, however, states, there is no arrangement of sulci or gyri which is characteristic of the sex,
as some assert. Landau ('23) was unable to determine sex
in animal or human brains.
The writer believes, however, that the sex can be determined in a large percentage of cases, though not to the same
degree of accuracy as in the case of the skull. Apart from the
more delicate membranes, regularity of sulci and convolutions, the general form of the brain reveals differences. And
these differences are such as we might expect from a knowledge of the skull. The general form is more rounded, less
angular. The general dimensions are, of course, generally
smaller than in the male. But it is the relative dimensions
that are of significance. The frontal region is relatively
higher, the top of the brain flatter. The temporal lobe is
smaller in length and depth and is more inclined medially
when viewed from the lateral side. These characteristics are
brought out in percentage relations and indices, though it is,
of course, not maintained that by indices alone sex differences
of individual brains can be revealed. Thus the frontal height,
though absolutely less than in the males, is relatively greater
in females as shown by the frontal-height index. Again, the
temporal-occipital diameter is not only smaller absolutely i n
females than in males, but also relative to the total length
of the brain (table 4). The differences are again greater in
whites than in negroes.
Corresponding to the terminology of craniometry, we may
speak of the mean of length, breadth, and height as the cerebral module (L+t+H).
The figures are smaller, of course, than
would be the case if the height were taken from the base of
0
487
ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE BRAIN
frontal and occipital poles instead of from the frontaloccipital pole horizontal. The module for the ten Malay
brains is higher than in whites and negroes, and this corresponds to the brain weight and other dimensions.
Considerable attention has been given to the problem of
symmetry in the fissures and convolutions of the two hemispheres. Landau, who has given special attention to this
TABLE 3
1
RACE
HOBIZONTAL DISTANCE, I N CENTIMETERS, FBOY
FRONTALPOLE
BER OF
(BBAINSI
i
l
._
Negro
37
White
(German)
36
]
18
I
Left
M
7.4 ' 7.5
U
0.48
0.51
M
U
Miscellaneous
whites
Right
M
U
7.4
0.52
'
7.7
0.58
1
Right
I
Left
I
Right
I
Left
13.8
0.59
13.9
0.59
8.9
0.36
9.3
0.64
7.6
0.43
12.9
1.20
13.1
0.56
8.6
1.61
9.3
0.60
7.9
0.62
13.0
0.97
13.2
0.98
8.7
1.04
9.4
0.68
13.6
0.82
8.6
0.73
9.0
0.46
Malay
M
U
Females
.___I
Negro
White
(German)
II
M
u
M
lo
u
7.4
0.32
7.1
0.53
1
7.6
0.34
13.3
0.69
13.5
0.77
8.8
0.59
9.0
0.68
7.2
0.51
13.0
13.0
0.46 I 0.37
8.6
0.67
9.2
0.56
problem, reaches the conclusion that there is a fundamental
bilateral symmetry of the two hemispheres and that any asymmetry present comes about by secondary growth differences.
The projectional system of measurement i n a fairly large
series offers some data for consideration.
Table 3 shows the horizontal distances from the frontal
pole to the principal fissures. We have taken the distances
to the lower and upper ends of the central sulcus, but as these
488
C. J. CONNOLLY
are relatively the same a s to the midpoint of the sulcus, we
need take only the latter as a measure of the frontal length.
I n cases where there was a sharp bend about the middle of
the central sulcus, we have taken the midpoint on the line
continuing the general direction of the sulcus. The horizontal distance to the parieto-occipital fissure was taken to
the point where the fissure cuts the superior border. When
the fissure does not cut the border, the point is taken where
the fissure if extended would cut the border. The posterior
end of sylvian fissure is the point of forking of the main
trunk,. or when it does not fork, at the point where it turns
upward.
Quite striking are the small differences in the distances to
the fissures on right and the left side. The excess, however
slight, is constantly on the left side, with one exception. This
excess on left side is obviously no mere accident, but is the
expression of the slight predominance of the left hemisphere
over the right. Somewhat greater are the distances to the
end of the sylvian fissure in the two hemispheres. There is
a tendency for the sylvian fissure to be longer on the left side,
even where the right hemisphere is longer. This is in agreement with Cunningham's ( '92) observation. The differences
in the distances of the two sides are again greater in whites
than in negroes.
Table 4 gives the percentage of the total horizontal length,
of the chief divisions of the brain as marked by verticals
through the midpoint of the central sulcus and the parietooccipital fissure. These percentages may not be strictly proportional to the sizes of the frontal, parietal, and occipital
lobes, for the breadth is here not taken into account.
In males the frontal region shows a somewhat larger percentage in whites than in negroes, while the parietal region
is relatively larger in negroes. I n the small group of females
the parietal region in negroes is again slightly larger, though
this is also true for the frontal. As shown in table 1, however, the average frontal breadth of the female negro brain
is almost a centimeter less than in white male. The occipital
489
ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE BRAIN
region as measured by the projectional distance between the
parieto-occipital fissure and the occipital pole h a s a greater
percentage size in whites than in negroes, and with the exception of the rather heterogeneous group of miscellaneous
whites, the right occipital region gives a slightly larger per
cent than the left. It is of interest to compare this result
with that of Cohn and Papez ('30), who found a greater
TABLE 4
I
l
I
i
l
1
PKR CENT OI ROBIEONTAL LENOTH
1 Right 1
Left
- ___
___
___
14.5
46.4
46.1
38.9
39.3
14.6
2.30
2.27
3.20
2.81
3.26
2.30
76.7
2.08
76.9
3.27
Right
I
Left
! Right \
Left
I Right 1
Left
Males
~
Negro
37
White
(German)
36
47.2
3.0
35.3
47.9
2.61 3.8-
35.0
3.16
17.4
3.11
17.1
2.50
78.9
1.68
78.7
2.30
M iscellaiieoua
whites
18
47.2
2.33
47.7
3.44
36.6
2.44
35.7
3.83
16.2
2.08
16.5
2.01
78.2
2.69
77.7
2.55
Malay
(Filipino)
10
47.2
2.26
49.4
2.21
37.2
3.50
36.0
2.95
15.6
3.18
14.6
1.43
78.2
1.85
7i.7
1.84
48.1
38.2
2.00
1.63
38.6
2.60
47.0
3.20
37.7
3.50
Negro
9
M
j 47.9
Females
-_ _
13.9
2.74
13.2
3.00
75.0
2.20
75.2
2.36
15.9
2.40
15.2
2.20
76.7
2.19
76.8
2.99
White
(Germaii)
10
37.6
3.00
length of the calcarine fissure on the right side than on the
left.
With regard to the temporal-occipital lobes, only fractional
differences exist when expressed as a percentage of horizontal length. More significant is the difference between
males and females of the respective races. As already pointed
out, they a r e relatively smaller in the female brain.
I n comparing head size and skull capacity in males and
females, HrdliEka ('25) observed that in males the cranial
490
C. J. CONNOLLY
capacity is 98.5 to 107 per cent of the cephalic module, while
in females it is only 87 to 94.5 per cent of the module. The
smaller relative size of the temporal-occipital lobes would
seem to be a factor in explaining this difference. But our
series of female brains is rather small to afford conclusive
evidence on this point.
SUMMARY
1. An apparatus, used in this investigation, is described
which the writer believes would help standardize brain
measurements.
2. The study of the 240 hemispheres of the 120 brains
reveals that the left hemisphere is longer in a larger percentage of cases than the right, especially in whites, yet the differences are quite small on the average. I n negro males the
right hemisphere was longer in 32.4 per cent and the left
longer in 40.5 per cent. I n whites (German) the right was
longer in 30.5 per cent and the left longer in 58.3 per cent.
I n the whole series of 120 brains, male and female, the right
hemisphere is longer in 31.7 per cent, the left longer in 50.0
per cent, and the hemispheres are equal in 18.3 per cent.
3. The slight predominance of the left hemisphere over the
right is also revealed in the greater average projectional distance from the frontal pole to the central sulcus, to the
parieto-occipital fissure and to the sylvian fissure of the left
side. The left temporal-occipital diameter is, on the average,
likewise greater than the right.
4. The brain weights correspond fairly closely with the size
dimensions in the respective races.
5. The brain can be recognized by observation in a considerable percentage of cases as belonging to a male or a
female, and the averages of certain dimensions confirm this
(e.g., frontal-height index). Further, in correlation with
average brain weight, practically all dimensions are slightly
smaller in females than in males.
6. Comparing the two large groups of whites and negroes,
while the variability is large and there is much overlapping,
ANTHROPOLOGY O F THE BRAIN
491
the mean values reveal definite differences. The dimensions
correlate well with what we might expect from a knowledge
of the cranium in the two races. The negro brain is on the
average relatively longer, narrower, and flatter than the brain
of whites.
7. The frontal region, as measured by the projectional distance to midpoint of central sulcus, is, relative to the total
length of the brain, larger in male whites than in negroes,
while the parietal is larger in negroes than in whites. I n
the small group of females the frontal region does not show
this excess in whites, though again the parietal is larger in
negroes.
8. It is suggested that the difference in the relation of
cranial capacity to cephalic module in males and females may
be in part due to the relatively smaller temporal-occipital
lobes in the latter.
LITERATURE CITED
B w m , H. 1921 Untersuchungen uber den Zellgehalt der menschenlichen
Grosshirnrinde. Zeitsch. ges. Neurol. u. Psych., LXIX.
BETHE,A. 1925 Zur Statist& der Links- und Rechtshandigkeit und der Vorherrschaft einer Hemisphare. D. med. Woch., Nr. 17.
BUSHYAKIN,
N. 1928 Characteristics of the brain of the Mongol race. Am. J.
Phys. Anthrop., XII, no. 2.
COHN, H., AND J. W. PAPEZ1930 A comparative study of the visuosensory or
striate area in the two hemispheres of the human brain. Am. J.
Phys. Anthrop., XV, no. 1.
CUNNINGHAM,
D. J. 1892 Contributions to the surface anatomy of the cerebral
hemispheres. ‘‘ Cunningham Memoirs, ” Roy. Irish Acad. Dublin,
no. VII.
HRDLICKA,
ALES 1901 An Eskimo brain. New York.
1907 Measurements of the cranial fossae. Proc. U. S. Nat.
Museum, X X X I I I .
1920 Anthropometry. The Wistar Institute, Phila.
1925 Relation of the size of the head and skull to capacity i n
the two sexes. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., VIII, no. 3.
JACOBI,
A. 1927 Anatomie und Histologie des Qrosshirns, I. Leipzig.
JAEOFJL,
R. 1914 Inhaltsberechnung der Rindensubstanz.
Arch. Psych. u.
Nervenkrankheiten, LIV.
RAPPERS,
AR.IENS 1927 Indices for the anthropology of the brain applied to
Chinese, dolicho- and brachycephalic Dutch. Proc. K. Akad. Wet.
Amsterdam, XXX, no. 1.
LANDAU,E. 1923 Anatomie des Grosshirns. Bern.
RETZIUS,G. 1898 Das Menschenhirn.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
1
Размер файла
720 Кб
Теги
Anthropology, contributions, brain
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа