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Correlations between cranial capacity and cranial length breadth and height as studied in the Alaska Indian crania United States National Museum. Craniometric Studies No

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CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CRAKIAL CAPACITY
AND CRANIAL LENGTH, BREADTH, AND HEIGHT,
AS STUDIED I N THE ALASKA INDISN CRANTS,
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES, No. 12
In this paper the correlations that were considered in the
ninth, tenth, and eleventh Craniometric Studies will be again
dealt with. I n this case the Alaska group of North American
Indians, reported by 'Hrdli5ka (1)has been selected, for, like
all the other aborigines of the Western Hemisphere, they
are Mongolian in origin. The present paper may therefore
be regarded as a direct sequel t o Craniometric Study no. 11.
The same numbers of crania were utilized, namely, thirtyfour male (nos. 242875 to 242904) and thirty-four female (nos.
243973 t o 300897).
THE CRANIAL CAPACITY
Throughout the whole of the present series of craniometric
studies the writer has been more and more impressed by the
high averages and the high maxima of the cranial capacity.
For instance, the average for these Alaska Indian males was
1560 cc. This compares favorably with that for the Eskimo,
who is generally regarded as possessing the highest average
cranial capacity among modern Hominidae. The maximum
capacity reached the high figure of 1710 cc., which could likewise be compared with the high maxima found in the Eskimo
and Mongol crania.
The maximum capacity for the female crania, namely, 1550
cc., was also comparable to those of the Eskimo and Mongol
females, while the average of 1367 cc. was second only to the
Central Eskimo and the Mongol. The writer was therefore
290
CBANIOMETRIC STUDIES
291
interested to note such consistently high capacities in three
races that are closely akin t o one another. It may be further
noted that these average capacities were much higher than
those for the Hamann Museum white and negro crania, both
male and female, as estimated by Wingate Todd(4).
TABLE 1
The average ci-and capacities of t h e Eskimo, Mongol, and Alaska Indian,
compared with those f o r the Hamann Museum white and negro crania
Greenland Eskimo (U. 6. N. Museum) ...........
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). .
Mongol (U. S . N. Museum). ...................
Hamann Museum whites.. .....................
Hamann Museum negroes.
......................
Males
Female8
1560cc.
1489 cc.
1555 cc.
1391 cc.
1350 cc.
1347 cc.
1341 cc.
1392 cc.
1231 cc.
1220 ce.
HrdliFka’s module (3) f o r the whole sixty-one male Indian
crania, viz., 1543, was slightly above their average capacity
of 1529 cc. The module in the case of the whole forty-eight
female crania, viz., 1466, was well above their average capacity-1355 cc.
The standard deviation of the capacity for these thirtyfour Alaska Indian male crania was relatively low, namely,
105.41, and compared favorably with those f o r the Eskimo
and Mongol crania. The standard deviation for the female
crania, viz., 104.08, was closely similar to that of the males,
being only a fraction lower. This favorable position of the
female crania was found also in the Mongols and in all of the
six Eskimo groups, except two.
These standard deviations, like those f o r the Mongol and
the Eskimo, are very much lower than those for the Hamann
Museum white crania, as estimated by Wingate Todd(4).
TABLE 2
T h e standard deviations of cranial capacity f o r t h e Eskimo, Mongol, and A l m k a
Indian are lower than those for t h e Hamann Museum white crania
Greenland Eskimo (U. S . N. Museum). .........
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). .
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum) ....................
Alaska Indian (C. S. N. Museum).. ............
Hamann Museum white crania. .................
Males
Female8
87.65
114.00
111.44
105.41
117.58
91.30
71.37
104.99
104.08
126.32
292
J O H N CAMEEON
THE CRANIAL LENGTH
The range of variation of the cranial length for these thirtyfour Alaska Indian male crania was from a maximum of 193
mm. to a minimum of 176 mm. The corresponding figures for
the thirty-four female crania were 180 mm. and 167 mm. The
average length for the males, viz., 183.5 mm., was very much
less than that for the dolichocephalic Eskimo crania. The
average f o r the females, namely, 173.5 mm., likewise represented a substantial reduction from the Eskimo dimensions.
It may be further noted that these measurements for both
sexes exhibited a decided reduction from the corresponding
dimensions of the brachycephalic Mongol crania ( Craniometric Study, no. 11). This, of course, suggested that these
Alaska Indian crania would probably be found to be more
brachycephalic than those of the Mongol group, and this
proved t o be so, for the respective cephalic indices, as given
in the U. S. National Museum Catalogue, were 82.1 and 81.4
in the case of the males and 83.4 and 82.4 for the females(2).
TABLE 3
The average cruniul length and the cephalic indem of the dolichocephalic Eskimo
compared with those of the brachycephalic Mongol and Alaska Indian
&€ales
Females
A
brnnial length Cephalic in&;
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N.
Museum) ................. 190.5
sfongo1 (U. S. N. Museurn). . . 187
Alaska Indian (U. 8. N.
Museum) ................. 183.5
CrtrniaZ length Cephalic r n d e i
mm.
mm.
71.5
81.4
180.5
177
71.9
82.4
173.5
83.4
82.4
The standard deviation of the length of these Alaska Indian
crania was slightly lower in the females than in the males,
the respective figures being 3.57 and 3.86. The coefficients of
variability followed these results consistently, namely, 3.05
and 3.10. These standard deviations compare favorably with
those found in the Eskimo groups and in the Mongol and are
decidedly lower than those for the Hamann Museum white
crania, as estimated by Wingate Todd(4).
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
293
TABLE 4
T h e standard deviations of cranial length are low i n the Alaska Indian when
compared with the Eskimo, Mongol, nnd the Hamann Museum white crania
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Xuseum).. ........
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum).
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum) ....................
Alaska Indian (U. S. N. Museum). ............
Hamann Museum white crania .................
.
Males
Females
4.50
5.30
4.91
3.86
8.19
4.53
3.30
5.52
3.57
8.55
THE CRANIAL BREADTE
The range of variation of the crania1 breadth for these
thirty-four Alaska Indian male crania was from a maximum
of 158 mm. to a minimum of 139 mm. The corresponding
figures for the thirty-four female crania were 158 mm. and
13,5 mm. The average breadth was 149 mm. for the males
and 144 mm. for the females. These were both definitely
higher than the corresponding measurements yielded by the
brachycephalic Mongol crania, and of course much above
those for the dolichocephalic Eskimo crania. These resnlts
are shown in table 5 , in which the corresponding dimensions
of the Hamann Museum white crania have been added for
comparison.
TABLE 5
T h e average cranial breadth i s greater in the Alaska Indian than in the Hamann
Museum white, the Mongol, and t h e Eskimo. This holds good f o r both sexes
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum) ...........
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). .
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum).. ...................
Alaska Indian (U. S. N. Museum).. .............
Hamann Museum white crania.. .................
Mazes
mm.
Females
136
139
146
149
144.2
129.5
136
140
144
139.4
mm,
The standard deviation of the breadth of these Alaska Indian crania was not so favorable as that for the length, the
figures being 5.33 for the males and 4.54 for the females.
It was thus rather better in the females than in the males,
which was the condition found also in most of the Eskimo
groups. The coefficients of variability followed the above
results consistently, namely, 3.57 and 3.15. These standard
deviations, though not so good as in the Eskimo and Mongol,
294
JOHN CAMERON
were nevertheless better than in the Hamann Museum whik
crania (4).
TABLE
6
The standard deviations of breadth are lower in the Eskimo, Mongol, and Alaska
Indian crania than in the Hamann Muneum white crania, both male and female
Hales
Females
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). .......... 4.40
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum).
3.52
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum) ....................
3.17
Alaska Indian (U. S. N. Museum). . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.33
Hamann Museum white crania. ................ 5.67
4.27
2.73
4.20
4.54
5.35
.
T H E CRANIAL H E I G H T
The average height of these Alaska Indian crania displayed
a decided decrease when compared with that of the various
Eskimo groups, the figures for the males being 130 mm. and
for the females 124 mm. The range of variation was from
146 mm. to 121 mm. in the male crania and from 135 mm. .to
115 mm. in the female crania.
HrdliEka (2) has previously drawn attention to a gradual
reduction in the average height of the dolichocephalic Eskimo
skull, particularly in the males, as one proceeds westward
from the Greenland area. It is of interest to note that this
geographic reduction tends ultimately to approximate to the
average dimension of the brachycephalic Alaska Indian skull.
TABLE 7
The average height of the dolichocephalic Ezkimo skull gradually diminishes from
east t o west, particularly in the males, until i t finally approximates t o
that of the brachycephalic Alaska Indian skull
Male8
mm.
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). ............
Central Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum) ................
Asiatic Eskimo (U. 9. N. Museum).
Alaska Indian (U. S. N. Museum) .................
................
139.5
139.7
137.6
133.6
130
The standard deviation of the cranial height of the Alaska
Indian was ascertained to be higher in the males than in the
females, the respective figures being 6.12 and 5.36. The coefficients of variability followed these results consistently4.70 and 4.32.
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
295
It is of interest to note that in two brachycephalic races
that have been studied so far, namely, the Mongol and the
Alaska Indian, the standard deviation of cranial height tends
to be higher than in the dolichocephalic Eskimo.
TABLE 8
The standard deviation of cranial height tends to be higher in the brachycephalic
Mongol and Alaska Indian than in the dolichocephalic Eskimo.
This holds good for both sexes
Make
Ff?md58
4.16
3.69
4.23
5.63
6.12
3.88
3.38
3.88
4.22
5.36
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). .........
Central Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum) .............
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum).
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum). ...................
Alaska Indian (U. S. N. Museum). .............
Now that the three cranial dimensions have been studied,
it is important to note at this point that the alterations in
all three, which have been previously detected in the various
Eskimo groups as one proceeds from east to west, finally tend
to approximate t o the corresponding dimensions of the Alaska
Indian skull. This fact is of great importance morphologically, for it demonstrates the process of transition from the
dolichocephalic t o the brachycephalic type of skull, or vice
versa. This fact is likewise of ethnological interest, seeing
that both races are Mongolian in origin.
THE CORRELATIONS
The correlation between capacity and length in these sixtyeight Alaska Indian skulls proved to be rather low in both
sexes, with a slight advantage in favor of the females. The
figuses were $. 0.47 for the females and
0.40 for the male
crania. These are much lower than khe results obtained both
in the Eskimo and the Mongol crania; In Craniometric Study,
no. 11, the writer suggested that high cranial correlations
may possibly mean homogeneity of race. This suggestion
obtained support from the fact that relatively high correlations were found in homogeneous races like the Eskimo and
the Mongol and very low correlations in the Hamann Museum
+
AMERICAN JOURN.4L OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY. VOL. X I , NO. 2
296
J O H N CAMERON
white crania, the latter being definitely known to represent
marked racial admixture. From this viewpoint the relatively
low correlation exhibited by these Alaska Indian crania map
also indicate racial admixture, and, of course, geographically
speaking, this would be rendered quite feasible. I n this relation it should be mentioned that the writer found relatively
low correlations in the Alaska Eskimo, as compared with
the other Eskimo groups(1). The figures were
0.51. for
the males and
0.54 for the female crania, which approximated to those for the Alaska Indian.
+
+
TABLE 9
Note the relatively high correlations between capacity and cranial length in both
sexes of the Eskimo and the Mongol as compared with those foT the
Alaska Indian and the Hamann Museum white crania
Canadian Aretie Expedition Eskimo.. .........
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. 5. N. Museum).
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum). ..................
Hamann Museum white ......................
Alaska Indian (U. S. N. Museum). ...........
dielea
+ 0.73
+ 0.70
+ 0.73
+ 0.45
+ 0.40
Fsmeles
+ 0.57
+ 0.56
+ 0.76
+ 0.37
+ 0.47
The correlation between capacity and cranial breadth was
more favorable than that between capacity and length. It
proved t o be higher in the males than in the females, the respective figures being
0.64 and
0.54. The writer has
already pointed out that, in the brachycephalic Mongol, the
correlation between capacity and cranial breadth was more
stable for the two sexes than in the dolichocephalic Eskimo.
This conclusion is borne out by a study of another brachycephalic race, such as the Alaska Indian. Another contrast
between these two types of skulls was indicated by the fact
that in the dolichocephalic Eskimo the correlation between
capacity and breadth was, on the whole, more favorable in
the female crania, whereas in the brachycephalic Mongol and
the brachycephalic Alaska Indian this correlation was found
to be more favorable in the male crania.
+
+
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
297
TABLE 10
I n the dolichocephalic Eskimo t h e correlation between capacity and breadth is, 0%
the whole, more favorable in the female crania, whereas in the brachycephalic
Mongol and Alaska Indian t h k correlation tends t o be more favorable in the
male c r a n k
Alaska Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). ...........
Royal College of Surgeons Museum Eskimo. .....
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). ........
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum). .................
Alaska Indian (U. S. N. Museum). ............
Males
Females
+ 0.55
+ 0.32
+ 0.72
+ 0.75
+ 0.60
+ 0.65
+ 0.64
+ 0.73
+ 0.64
+ 0.54
The high correlations between capacity and breadth that
have been exhibited by these Eskimo, Mongol, and Alaska
Indian crania contrast with the relatively low correlations
found in the Hamann Museum white crania(4).
TABLE 11
A conbparison of the correlations between capacity and breadth in the Eskimo,
Mongol, and Alaska Indian crania w i t h those in the
Hamann Museum white crania
Males
Alaska Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum) ............
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum). ..................
Alaska Indian (U. S. N. Museum).. ...........
Hamann Museum white.. .....................
+ 0.65
+ 0.72
+ 0.64
+ 0.46
FemaIea
+ 0.73
+ 0.64
+ 0.54
+ 0.56
The writer has pointed out that, in Eskimo and Mongol
crania (ninth, tenth, and eleventh Craniometric Studies), the
correlations between capacity-length and capacity-breadth are
more favorable than that between capacity and height.
The same contrast was found to be displayed by these Alaska
Indian crania, where the correlation between capacity and
height was very low for both sexes, namely, +0.32 for the
males and +0.24 for the females. I n fact, this correlation
was the only one of the three in which the Hamann Museum
crania, both male and female, exhibited more favorable results than the Alaska Indian.
298
JOHN CAMERON
TABLE 12
The correlations between capacity-length and capacity-breadth are more favorable
than that between Gupaeity and keigkt in four distinct racial types
Capacity-length
Haler
FemalPs
+
Greenland Eskimo.. . . .
0.51 $- 0.62
St. Lawrence Island
Eskimo .. . .
. . . f 0.70
0.56
Mongol ........ . . . _ . .
0.73 +0.76
Alaska Indian . . . . . . . .
0.40
0.47
.. . . .
+
+
+
+
Capacitfr-braad th
Yules
Females
+ 0.32 + 0.60
+ 0.83 + 0.67
+ 0.72 +0.64
+ 0.64
f 0.54
Capacity-height
Males
Females
+ 0.36 + 0.42
f 0.49 + 0.32
+0.58 + 0.59
+ 0.32 + 0.24
The writer has previously observed that the correlation between capacity and height exhibited more fluctuations than
those between capacity-length and capacity-breadth, when
tested in several groups of crania belonging to the same
race(1). These fluctuations were found to be very manifest
even in a homogeneous race like the Eskimo, and were, moreover, exhibited by both sexes. It is evident, then, that the
correlation between capacity and height is not so trustworthy
as those Between capacity-length and capacity-breadth.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The correlations and standard deviations that were
studied in this paper tend to indicate that the Alaska Indian
does not represent such homogeneity of race as is found, for
example, in the Eskimo and the Mongol.
2. The correlations between capacity-length and capacitpbreadth were, however, rather better than those in the Hamann Museum crania, the latter being known t o represent
marked racial admixture.
3. The correlation between capacity and height was lower
than in homogeneous races, such as the Eskimo and the Mongol. This correlation is, however, subject to marked fluctuations, even in homogeneous races.
4. The highly favorable correlation between capacity and
breadth which was found to exist in the brachycephalic Mongol is also manifested by another brachycephalic race, such
as the Alaska Indian.
OSSIFICATION OF R P I P H Y S I A L CARTILAGES
299
5. The average length, breadth, and height of the dolichocephalic Eskimo skull gradually merge with the corresponding dimensions of the brachycephalic Alaska Indian skull as
one proceeds from east (Greenland) t o west through the
various Eskimo groups.
6. This fact is of great morphological importance, for it
demonstrates the transition from the dolichocephalic to the
brachycephalic type of skull, o r vice versa.
LITERATURE CITED
1 CAMERON,
JOHN
1926 Correlations in the Eskimo crania of the Canadian
Arctic Expedition. Trans. Roy. SOC.Can.
ALES 1924 Catalogue of human crania in the U. S. Eational
2 HRDLICKA,
Museum Collections, no. 1, Washington.
1925 Relation of the size of the head and skull to capacity in
3
the two sexes. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., VIII, no. 3.
4 TODD,T. WINGATE 1923 Cranial capacity and linear dimensions in white
and negro. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., VI, no. 2.
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