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Correlations between cranial capacity and cranial length breadth and height as studied in the Greenland Eskimo crania United States National Museum. Craniometric Studies No

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CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CRAXIAL CAPACITY
AND CRANIAL LENGTH, BREADTH, AND HEIGHT,
AS STUDIED I N THE GREENLAND ESKIMO
CRANIA, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM
JOHN CAMERON
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotiu
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES, No. 9
Thanks to the courtesy of Dr. Alee Hrdliska, the writer has
been granted the privilege of utilizing the measurements in
the catalogue of crania in the U. S. National Museum for the
purpose of estimating certain correlations( 3 ) . The results
of these investigations are embodied in Craniometric Studies
nos. 9 to 12. I wish to pay my acknowledgments to Doctor
H r d E k a for his kindness, which has made these four studies
capable of fulfillment.
The present study deals with the possible existence of correlations between cranial capacity and cranial length,
breadth, and height in the Greenland Eskimo crania. It was
ascertained that these correlations not only existed, but were
likewise found to be favorable in character. The writer had
previously obtained satisfactory correlations of this character
in the Eskimo crania of the Canadian Arctic Expedition and
also in the Eskimo crania'of the Royal College of Surgeons
Museum( 1). The results of the present investigation thus
fully confirm these previous observations.
Thirty-four male (nos. 242707 to 242697) and thirty-four
female (nos. 242711 to 213620) Greenland Eskimo crania
were available for the purposes of this investigation. The
writer rigorously separated the females from the males. He
felt justified in this step after having discovered that there
was evidently a sex factor at work determining the extent of
these correlations.
359
A X E R I C A N J O U R N A L O F PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, VOL. X I , KO.
JANUARY-MARCH,
1928
2
260
J O H N CAMERON
THE CRANIAL CAPACITY
The striking features of these crania were the high maxima
of capacity. F o r instance, one male cranium exhibited a capacity of 1730 cc., while another showed 1725 cc. So with the
females, where one cranium topped the list with 1530 cc.,
which mould be regarded as a very high result for the female
cranium of the white race. In contrast to this, it may be
noted that Wingate Todd(5) gives an average capacity of
only 1231 cc. for the Hamann Museum female white. Of
course, it is a well-known fact that the Eskimo cranium exhibits an unusually high average capacity, though the writer
found that this was not borne out by the Eskimo crania
of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, where he found averages as low as 1377 cc. f o r the males and 1240 cc. for the
females(1). It should be mentioned that the average capacities of the Greenland Eskimo crania, now being considered,
were 1560 cc. for the males and 1347 cc. for the females. The
averages for the Hamann Museum male and female whites
were found by Wingate Todd(5) to be 1391 cc. and 1231 cc.,
respectively, which are in decided contrast to the above.
TABLE 1
Average cranial capacities compared
Males
Greenland Eskimo (U. S . N. Museum) ........... 1560 ce.
Royal College of Surgeons Museum Eskimo ...... 1546 ec.
Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimo ............ 1 3 7 7 ec.
Hamann Museum white .......................
1391cc.
Hamann Museum negro .......................
1350cc.
Females
1347 cc.
1342 ce.
1240 ec.
1231 ce.
1220 cc.
It will be noted from the table that there is a close correspondence between the average capacities of the Greenland
Eskimo crania and those from the R. C. S. Museurn, which,
it may be mentioned, are also from the Greenland area. Indeed, the closeness in the case of the females is quite striking.
HrdliEka has directed attention to the remarkably close
relationship which the cranial capacity bears to his cranial
module, particularly in the case of the male crania. A full
account will be found in Hrdlicka’s paper (4). This close rela-
261
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
tionship was found to be rather striking in these Greenland
Eskimo crania, especially in the males, where the average
cranial capacity and the cranial module were 1560 and 1554,
respectively. In the case of the females, this relationship
was, as usual, not so intimate, the respective figures being
1347 and 1471.
The standard deviations of the cranial capacity proved to
be 87.65 for the males and 91.30 for the females, while the
coefficients of variability were 5.61 and 6.77, respectively.
Note that the male crania provided the more favorable results. These findings were corroborated by the author's observations(1) on the Eskimo crania of the Canadian Arctic
Expedition, where the standard deviations were 61.78 for the
males and 85.35 f o r the females, and also by those of Wingate
Todd(5) on the American white, where the figures were 117.58
and 126.32. These relatively unfavorable results for the
American white are in striking contrast to those for the
Eskimo crania and teach us two things, first, that the American white, as represented by the Tamann Museum Collection,
is a heterogeneous race, as Wingate Todd(5) has already
pointed out, and secondly, that the Eskimo peoples are, by
converse analogy, comparatively homogeneous in character,
which one would expect from their geographic isolation.
TABLE 2
T h e staiidard deviations and coefficients of variability of t h e cranial capacity are
consistently higher in the females in three distinct groups of crania. N o t e the
relatively unfavorable standard deviations and coeficients of variability in the
American white, as compared with the Eskimo
S.D .
8-
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. hT. Museum). _ . 87.65
Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimo. . . .. 61.78
American white (Hamann Museum). . . 117.58
.
91.30
85.35
126.32
0. of
F.
*
Male8
FemaIea
5.61
4.48
8.45
6.77
6.88
10.25
The writer has information t o show that the standard deviations and coefficients of variability of the cranial capacity
are not necessarily lower in the males than in the females
in every instance. These facts will be referred to in later
Craniometric Studies.
262
J O H N CAMERON
THE CRANIAL LENGTH
Some of these crania were remarkably dolichocephalic,
which, it may be remarked, is a striking feature of the Eskimo
type of skull. Thus, one male cranium yielded a maximum
length of 201 mm., while the average for the whole male series
worked out at 190.5 mm. Correspondingly high results were
obtained by the writer in the Eskimo male crania of the
Canadian Arctic Expedition where the respective figures
were 196 mm. and 186 mm. These exhibit a striking contrast
with the average for the male American white cranium, which
was found by Wingate Todd to be 181.4 mm.(5).
Consistently similar results were obtained in the case of the
female crania. The average, namely, 180.5 mm., was slightly
higher than that for the Canadian Arctic Expedition female
Eskimo crania, which was 177.5 mm. Both these measurements, however, are well above the average for the female
american white, which, according to Wingate Todd, is 173.7
mm. (5).
The standard deviation for the cranial length was 4.50 in
the males and very slightly higher, namely, 4.53 in the females. The coefficients of variability followed these consistently, being 2.36 for the male crania and 2.50 for the female
crania. These results accorded with those for the Canadian
Arctic Expedition Eskimo crania, where the standard deviations were 3.66 for the males and 4.75 for the females. Note,
just as in the case of the cranial capacity, how favorable all
these results are in comparison with those given by Wingatr
Todd for the American white, where the corresponding figures were 8.19 and 8.55.
TABLE 3
T h e standard deviations and coe,$cients of variability of t h e cranial length are
con.slstently higher i n t h e females than in the males in three distinct groups
of crania. N o t e the relatively unfavorable standard deviations and coeflcieats
of variability in the American white as compared with the Eskimo
c. of 7.
S.D .
__h_l
Males
Greenland Eskimo (U. S . N. Museum) ... . . 4.50
Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimo. . . . . 3.66
American white (Hamann Museum) . . . . . . 8.19
.
Females
4.53
4.75
8.55
c--J---
Hales
Females
2.36
1.96
4.51
2.50
2.67
4.92
263
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
The writer will, however, show in subsequent communications that the standard deviations and coefficients of variability of cranial length are by no means always more unfavorable in the females than in the males.
THE CRANIAL BREADTH
As was to be expected, these dolichocephalic Eskimo crania
exhibited a marked reduction in the average breadth when
compared with other races. The writer’s experience shows( 1)
that in dolichocephalic skulls the average breadth in the
males is not usually over 140 mm., though of course there may
be marked individual fluctuations. F o r example, the maximum breadth f o r these male Greenland Eskimos was 146 mm.,
the average was 136 mm., while the minimum was as low as
125 mm. The average breadth in the Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimo male crania was even less, namely, 132.5
mm.(l). It is likewise worthy of mention that tmo markedly
dolichocephalic male Melanesian crania in the writer’s collection exhibited breadths of only 122 mm. and 128 mm.(2).
These averages are worthy of contrast with that for the male
American white, which is given by Wingate Todd as 144.2 mm.
This authority, it may be noted, classifies the American white
as mesaticephalic( 5 ) .
TABLE 4
The average width of the dolichocephalic t y p e of skull, contrasted with that of
the mesaticephalic American white
AVeTage width
C e p h d i c tndex
mm.
Greenland Eskimo male (U. S. N. Museum).
136
Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimo male. .
132.5
Two Melanesian males.. . . .
. . . . . . . 122 and 128
Male American white (Hamann Museum). . .
144.2
. .. . . . . .
.
71.5
72.2
64.21 and 64.32
79.69
The female crania yielded similar results. The average
breadth was 129.5 mm., which was practically the same as
that f o r the Canadian Arctic Expedition female Eskimos,
namely, 129 mm. The average for the female American white,
as was to be expected, was much higher, the figure, as found
by Wingate Todd(51, being 139.4 mm.
AMERICAN J O U R N A L OF P H Y S I C A L ANTHROPOLOGY. VOL. X I , N O .
2
264
J O H N CAMERON
The standard deviations of the cranial breadth were 4.40
for the males and 4.27 for the females. These figures were
confirmed by the Canadian Arctic Expedition crania, where
the results were respectively 5.75 and 3.55, and also by the
American white crania, which, according to Wingate Todd( 5),
yielded figures of 5.67 for the males and 5.35 for the females.
Thus, in all three groups of crania the standard deviations
of cranial breadth were consistently higher in the males than
in the females, which was the very reverse of what was found
in the cases of cranial length and cranial capacity.
TABLE 5
The standard deviations of cranial breadth were consistently higher in the males
than in the females in three distinct groups o f crania
Xales
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum) ........... 4.40
Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimo. .............. 5.75
American white (Hamann Museum) ............... 5.67
Females
4.27
3.55
5.35
It does not follow from this table that the standard deviations of cranial breadth are always higher in the males than
in the females.
THE CRANIAL HEIGHT
One of the features of these Greenland Eskimo crania was
their unusual height. This, it may be noted, was measured
from the basion to the bregma. The average for the males
was 139.5 mm., which was very nearly the same as tha$ for
the male Eskimo crania of the Canadian Arctic Expedition,
namely, 137 mm. These figures are very striking in comparison with the average for the male American white which is
given by Wingate Todd(5) as 116.4 mm. It should be noted,
however, that the latter is auricular height. Still the contrast
is very pronounced. It can therefore be said that the Eskimo,
in addition to being long headed, is also high headed.
These results were confirmed by an examination of the
female crania which yielded an average height of 131.5 mm.,
as contrasted with 112.2 mm. for the female American whitecertainly an amazing difference.
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
265
The standard deviations of the cranial height were 4.16 for
the males and 3.85 f o r the females. Somewhat similar results
were obtained in the Eskimo crania of the Canadian Arctic
Expedition, the corresponding figures being 4.98 and 4.68.
Wingate Todd’s results(5) f o r the American white were 4.82
for the males and 3.42 for the females. It will thus be noted
that these standard deviations, just as in the case of the
cranial breadth, were higher in the males than in the females
in all three groups of crania.
TABLE 6
The standard deviations of cranial height were consistently higher in the males
than i n the females in three distinct groups of crania
Yales
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). ........... 4.16
Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimo. .............. 4.98
American white (Hamann Museum) .............. 4.82
Females
3.88
4.68
3.42
THE CORRELATIONS
A favorable correlation was found to exist between cranial
capacity and cranial length. The figure for the female crania
was
0.62, that for the males being slightly lower, namely,
0.51. The results for the males, it may be mentioned, were
vitiated by three crania which contributed nearly two-thirds
of the total in the -xy column. As a matter of fact, hundreds of crania would have t o be included in the research in
order to counteract the effects of such adverse factors. €37
excluding these three skulls, the result would have been as
good as in the case of the female crania. This impression
was confirmed by noting the correlations between capacity
and length for other Eskimo crania. Thus, in the crania of
the Canadian Arctic Expedition, the writer (1) obtained cor0.73 for the males and
0.57 f o r the females,
relations of
and in the Royal College of Surgeons Museum Eskimo crania,
0.72 for the males and +0.52 for the females. On the
whole, then, it would appear that the correlation between
capacity and length is usually more favorable in the male
than in the female Eskimo.
+
+
+
+
+
266
JOHN CAMERON
This result suggested the possible existence of a sexual
factor in determining the degree of correlation. This conclusion was confirmed by studying Wingate Todd’s investigat,ions on the corresponding correlations in the American white
and the American negro(5). This authority found that the
most favorable results were obtained in the males of both
races. Thus the correlation between capacity and length for
0.45 and f o r the female whites
0.37.
the male whites was
In the negro crania the respective figures were +0.67 and
0.50. It will therefore be noted that in three very divergent
racial types, namely, the Eskimo, the white, and the negro,
the most favorable correlation was found in the case of the
male crania.
+
+
+
TABLE 7
I n three very divergent racial types the most favorable Correlation Between cranial
capacity and cranial length was found in the males
Canadian Arctic
Royal College of
American white
American negro
Expedition Eskimo.. ..........
Surgeons Museum Eskimo. .....
(Hamann Museum). ..........
(Hamann Museum). ...........
Mnlus
Females
+ 0.73
+ 0.72
+ 0.45
-+ 0.67
+ 0.57
+ 0.52
+ 0.37
+ 0.50
The correlation between cranial capacity and cranial
breadth proved to be more favorable in the females than in
0.60 and
0.32. I n this case,
the males, the figures being
therefore, there was an exact reversal of the correlation
between capacity and length. This conclusion was confirmed
by the Eskimo crania of the Royal College of Surgeons Museum, where the correlation for the females was
0.75 and
0.55. I n the Canadian Arctic Expedition
for the males,
crania, however, this correlation was found to be more favorable in the males.
I n the next place, the writer decided t o compare these findings with those obtained by Wingate Todd(5) in the American white and the American negro. This observer found that
the correlation between capacity aiid breadth was
0.46 for
the male American white and 0.56 for the female American
0.64 f o r the male American negro and
0.74 for
white,
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
267
CRANIOMETRIC S T U D I E S
the female American negro. I n these cranial groups it will
be noted that the most favorable correlations were found in
the case of the females. From these investigations one can
gather that in three very distinctive races the correlation
between capacity and breadth is on the whole more favorable in the female than in the male crania.
TABLE 8
I n three very distinctive races the correlation betwcen cranial capacity and
cranial breadth is on the whole more favorable in the
female than in the male crania
Females
Males
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). . . . . . . . .
Royal College of Surgeons Museum Eskimo. . . . .
American white (Hamann Museum). . . . . . . . . . .
American negro (Hamann Museum) . . . . . . . . . . .
+ 0.60
+ 0.75
+ 0.56
+ 0.74
+ 0.32
+ 0.55
+ 0.46
+ 0.64
The correlation between cranial capacity and cranial
height was rather more unfavorable than in the cases of
length and breadth. Like that for capacity-breadth, it proved
to be more favorable in the female crania, the actual figures
being
0.36 for the males and 0.42 for the females. These
results were confirmed by those for the Eskimo crania of the
Canadian Arctic Expedition(1)where it was ascertained that
the correlation for the males was as low as
0.17, while that
0.65.
for the females reached the relatively high figure of
It is evident that the capacity-height correlation map exhibit
wide fluctuations.
It proved profitable and likewise interesting to compare
these results with those obtained by Wingate Todd(5) in the
American white and the American negro, where he found
that the capacity-height correlation was consistently higher
0.59
in the female crania of both races. The figures were
for the male whites,
0.60 for the female whites,
0.26 for
0.71 f o r the female negroes. It will
the male negroes, and
thus be noted that in three very divergent types like the
Eskimo, the white, and the negro, the correlation between
cranial capacity and cranial height is more favorable in the
female than in the male crania.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
268
J O H N CAMERON
TABLE 9
In three very divergent races the correlation between cranial capacity and cranial
height is more favorable in the female than in. the male crania
Male8
+
+
+
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). .........
0.36
Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimo.. .......... f 0.17
American white (Hamann Museum). ...........
0.59
American negro (Hamann Museum). ..........
0.26
Female8
+ 0.42
+ 0.65
+ 0.60
+ 0.71
SUMMARY
1. The correlation between cranial capacity and cranial
length is usually more favorable in the male than in the female
Eskimo.
2. The correlations between capacity-breadth and capacityheight are, on the whole, more favorable in the female than
in the male Eskimo.
3. The correlation between capacity and height exhibits
wider fluctuations than those between capacity-length and
capacity-breadth.
4. These results are confirmatory of Wingate Todd’s conclusions in both sexes of the American white and the American negro.
5 . There is, in the Eskimo, as shown by Hrdli6ka for races
in general, a remarkably close relationship in the males between the cranial capacity and the mean cranial diameter,
while in the females there is a marked difference between the
two.
6. There is evidently a sex factor at work determining the
extent of cranial correlations.
LITERATURE CITED
CAMEROR, JOHN 1926 Correlations in the Eakimo crania of the Canadian
Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918. Trans. Roy. SOC.Can., XX.
2
1918 Two remarkable skulls from the New Hebrides. Trans.
N. S. Instit. Sci., XIV.
3 CataIogue of human crania in the U. S. National Museum Collections, 1924.
4 HRDLICKA,
A. 1925 Relation of the size of the head and skull t o capacity
in the two sexes. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., V I I I , no. 3.
5 TODD, T. WIXGATE 1923 Cranial capacity and linear dimensions in white
and negro. Am. J. Phya. Anthrop., TI,no. 2.
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