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Correlations between cranial capacity and cranial length breadth and height as studied in the Mongol crania United States National Museum. Craniometric Studies No

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CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CRANIAL CAPACITY
AND CRANIAL LENGTH, BREADTH, AND HEIGHT,
A S STUDIED I N T H E MONGOL CRANIA, UNITED
STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES, No. 11
This paper deals with the same correlations that were considered in the ninth and tenth Craniometric Studies. It was
decided to make a study of the same problem in a race closely
allied to the Eskimo, namely, the Mongol. The crania all
came from Urga, in Mongolia. The same numbers were utilized as in the two previous Studies, namely, thirty-four male
(nos. 278794 to 278886) and thirty-four female (nos. 278913
to 278739).
THE CRANIAL CAPACITY
The writer was much impressed by the high maximum of
1770 cc. for the males of this group, which was higher than in
all the six Eskimo groups previously studied, wjth the exception of the Central and St. Lawrence Island male crania.
Some of the other male Mongolian crania registered very
high capacities, so that it was not surprising to find the high
average of 1555 cc. f o r the thirty-four crania. This was
higher than in all the Eskimo groups, except those from the
Central and Greenland areas. The minimum was actually as
high as 1330 cc.
The maximum capacity for the thirty-four female Mongolian crania, namely, 1590 cc., mas higher than in any of the
Eskimo groups cited above, while the average of 1392 cc. was
also higher than in all of these, with the exception of the
Central Eskimos. The writer was therefore frankly surprised to find such high capacities for the Mongolian type of
skull, which emulate the well-known high capacity of the
280
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
281
Xskimo skull. They were much higher than the averages for
the Hamann Musenm white and negro crania, both male and
female, as estimated by Wingate Todd ( 5 ) .
TABLE 1
T h e average capacities of t h e crania fTom Urga, Nongolia, compared with those
for the Haniann Museum white and negro cronia
Mongslian crania (U. S. N. Museum). ..........
Hamann Museum whites.. ......................
Hamann Museum negroes. ......................
Males
Females
1555ee.
1391 ec.
1350 ec.
1392 ce.
1231 cc.
1220 ec.
HrdliEka’s module(3) for the whole 114 male crania of
this group, viz., 1551, was slightly below the average capacity
of 1573 cc. The module in the case of the whole seventy-three
female crania, viz., 1473, was well above the average capacity
-1406 CC.
The standard deviation of the capacity for these thirtyfour Mongolian crania was relatively high, namely, 111.44,
but it was lower than in two of the six Eskimo groups mentioiled above. The standard deviation for the female crania,
viz., 104.99, was lower than that f o r the males, and this also
held good for d l the Eskimo groups except two.
These standard deviations, however, were much lower than
those for the Hamann Museum whites, where the figures were
117.58 for the males and 126.32 f o r the females. The contrast
in the case of the female crania is particularly striking.
It is evident, then, that the standard deviations of capacity
for these Mongolian crania are on a par with those for a
homogeneous race like the Eskimo, and it is therefore possible they may represent a racial type that is likewise homogeneous in charqcter. This impression gains credence when
it is stated that the standard deviations f o r the other cranial
measurements studied in this paper are all uniformly low,
while the corresponding correlations will be show-n to be unusually favorable. As a matter of fact, in an isolated country
like Mongolia, situated in the interior of a vast continent,
with the most primitive means of intercommunication, one
would naturally expect t o find conditions favorable for the
creation of a comparatively homogeneous race.
282
JOHN CAMERON
TABLE 2
The standard deviafion of cranial capacity is low i+a a homogeneous race like the
Mongol and comparatively high in the Harnann Museum white
crania, t h w suggesting racial admixture in the latter
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum) ...................
Hamann Museum whites.. ....................
Ydes
Females
111.44
117.58
104.99
126.32
THE CRANIAL LENGTH
The range of variation of the length in these Mongolian
crania was from 198 mm. to 178 mm. in the males and from
186 mm. to 163 mm. in the females. It is of significance to
note that the average cranial length for the males, viz.,187
mm., was practically the same as that for the St. Lawrence
Island male Eskimos (187.5 mm.). The figures for the females of the two races were also almost exactly alike, namely,
177 mm. and 178.5 mm. It is therefore of interest to note
that the average length of the dolichocephalic Eskimo skull
which reaches the maximum in the most easterly situated
tribes (Greenland area) gradually diminishes as one proceeds
westward, until in the most westerly situated tribes one can
detect an approximation to the corresponding dimension of
the brachycephalic Mongolian skull. It may be further noted
that the maximum length for these male Mongolian crania,
viz., 198 mm., almost equaled that for the St. Lawrence Island
Eskimo males (200 mm.), while the maximum length for the
females, viz., 186 mm., actually exceeded that for the St.
Lawrence Island Eskimo females (184 mm.).
TABLE 3
The average length of the dolichocephalic E s k i v o skull gradually merges, as has
been pointed out b y HrdCiEka (Cat. no. 1, '27), with the corresponding dim&n
of the brachycephalic Mongolian skull as one proceeds from east to west
Males
mm.
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). ..........
Central Eskimo (U.S. N. Museum). .............
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). ..
Asiatic Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum) ............
Mongol (U.S. N. Museum) .....................
190.5
189
187.5
186.2
187
Females
mm.
180.5
181.5
178.5
.....
177
283
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
The standard deviation of the length of these Mongolian
crania was slightly lower in the males than in the females, the
respective figures being 4.91 and 5.52. The coefficients of
variability followed these results consistently, namely, 2.62
and 3.12. These standard deviations were closely similar to
the averages for a homogeneous race like the Eskimo, and
thus contrast with the high standard deviations f o r the Hamann Museum whites, 8.19 for the males and 8.55 for the
females, as estimated b>-Wingate Todd( 5j.
TABLE 4
The standard deviations and coefficients of variability of cranial length are low
in comparatively homogeneous races like the Xslcimo and the Mongol, and
relatively high in the Haniann Museum whiten, t h u s suggesting racial admixture i n the latter
Females
Yales
St. Lawrence Island Eskimos.. ...........
Greenland Eskimos. .....................
Canadian Arctic Expedition Eskimos. .....
Mongols ...............................
Hamann Museum whites.. ...............
G---%X?
8.o.T.
5.30
4.50
3.66
4.91
8.19
3.30
4.53
4.75
5.52
8.55
2.82
2.36
1.96
2.62
4.51
1.84
2.50
2.67
3.12
4.92
THE CRANIAL BREADTH
The range of variation of the breadth in these Mongolian
crania was from 152 mm. to 140 mm. in the males and from
148 mm. to 132 mm. in the females. The average was 146 mm.
for the males and 140 mm. for the females. These were both
definitely higher than the corresponding measurements for the
six Eskimo groups previously mentioned, and therefore afford
a marked contrast between the proportions of the dolichocephalic and brachycephalic types of skull. It is likewise of
interest to note that the maximum breadth and the minimum
breadth in the male crania were both higher than the maxima
and minima for all of the six Kskimo groups. In the case of
the female crania, the maximum was higher than in all of the
six Eskimo groups, while the minimum was higher than in all
except one. It is also significant to note that the average
breadth of the Eskimo skull exhibits a gradual increase as
284
JOHN CAMERON
one proceeds from east to west until its size finally approximates to that of the brachycephalic Mongol skull.
TABLE 6
T h e a'verage breadth of t h e dolichoeephalic Esbimo skull gradually increases as
one proceeds f r o m east to west until it finally approximates
t o that of the brachycephalic Mongol skull
Fem,nles
Nales
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). . . . . . . . . . .
Alaska Eskimo (V. S. N. Museum). .............
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). .
Asiatic Eskimo (U. S. hT.Museum). ............
Mongol (U. S . N. Museum). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mm.
mm.
136
139
129.5
156
135
139
146.7
146
.....
140
This approximation of the average length and average
breadth of the Eskimo skull to those of the Mongol type is
admirably demonstrated by a study of the cephalic index. For
instance, the U. S. National Museum Catalogue(2) gives the
cephalic index of the Greenland Eskimo male as 71.5, which
represents well-marked dolichocephaly, while it has become
raised to 76.9 in the St. Lawrence Island Eskimo male. The
cephalic index for the male Mongol is 81.4, according to the
Catalogue. This gradual increase is shown in table 6. The
same increase holds good for the female crania.
TdBLE 6
T h e cephalic index of t h e doldehocephalic Eskimo skull gradually increases f r o m
east t o west, until it approximates t o the broc7~ycephaZyof t h e
M o n g d skull (HrdliFka, Cat. 1u). 1 , '27)
Females
Males
71.9
Greenland Eskimo (U. S . N. Museum). .......... 71.5
75.4
Central Eskimo (U.S. N, Museum). ............ 73.8
77.4
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. 5. N. Museum). 76.9
Asiatic Eskimo (U. 5. N. Museum). ........... 79.1
....
Mongol (IT. S. N. Museum) .................. 81.4
82.4
The standard deviation of the breadth of these Mongol
crania was slightly lower in the males than in the females, the
respective figures being 3.17 and 4.20. The coefficients of
variabiIitp followed these results consistently, namely, 2.17
and 3. These results compare favorably even with a homo-
285
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
geneous race like the Eskimo, and contrast with the relatively
high standard deviations for the Hamanii Museum white
crania, namely, 5.67 for the males and 5.35 for the females,
as estimated by Wingate Todd(5).
TABLE 7
T h e standard deviations of cranial breadth f o r both sexcs are low in comparatively
homogeneous races like t h e Xongol and Eskimo and relatively high in the
Haniann MiMeuw while crania, thus suggesting racial admixture in the latter
Females
3fQZfX
St. Lawrence Island Eskimos
(IT. S.N. Museum). 3.52
Greenland Eskimos (U. S. N. Museum).. . . . . . . .
Central Eskimos (U. S. W. Museum). ...........
Mongols (U. S. N. Museum). .................
Hamaun Museum white crania.. ................
2.73
4.27
2.57
4.20
5.35
4.40
1.i3
3.17
5.6i
THE CRANIAL HEIGHT
The average height of these Mongolian crania exhibited a
marked decrease when compared with that of the varions
Eskimo groups, the figures for the males being 131 mm. and
for thc females 125 mm. The range of variation was from
140 mm. to 118 m. in the case of the male crania, and from
135 mm. to 117 mm. in the females.
Hrdli6ka( 2) has directed attention to a gradual reduction
in the average height of the dolichocephalic Eskimo skull,
particularly in the males, as one proceeds from east to west
through the racial groups. It is significant to note that this
‘geographic reduction ’ tends ultimately to approximate to the
average height of the brachycephalic Mongol skull.
TABLE 8
T h e average height of t h e doliehocephalic Eskimo skull gradually diminishes
from east to west, particularly in t h e mules, until it finally approximates
t o that of the brachycephalic Mongol skull
Males
mm.
Greenland Eskimo (U. S. AT. Museum) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Central Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). ..............
Alaska Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
St. Lawrence Island Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum .....
Asiatic Eskimo (U. S. N. Museum).
Mongol (U. S. N. Museum). .....................
..............
139.5
139.7
137.6
137
133.6
131
286
J O H N CAMERON
The standard deviation of the height of these Mongol
crania was ascertained to be higher in the males than in the
females, the respective figures being 5.63 and 4.22. The coefficients of variability followed these results consistently4.29 and 3.37. These results are, on the whole, rather higher
than those obtained in the Eskimo crania.
Now that the three cranial dimensions have been studied,
it is important to note at this point that the alterations in
all three, which have been previously detected as one proceeds
from east to west through the various Eskimo groups, finally
tend to approximate to the corresponding dimensions of the
Mongol skull. This fact is of great morphological importance,
f o r it demonstrates the transition from the dolichocephalic
to the brachycephalic type of skull or vice versa. It likewise
demonstrates the racial affinity that exists between the
Eskimo and the Mongol.
THE CORRELATIONS
The correlation between capacity and length in these sixtpeight Mongol skulls was found to be unusually favorable in
both sexes, with a slight advantage in the case of the females.
The figures were
0.76 and
0.73. The writer has
already( 1) obtained relatively high degrees of correlation in
the Eskimo skull, as compared, for example, with the Hamann
Museum white and negro crania. His Eskimo results therefore afforded support to Miss Lee’s suggestion(4) that a
high correlation between cranial capacity and cranial length
was a distinctive feature of the dolichocephalic type of skull.
Conversely, one would of course have expected not so favorable a correlation between capacity and length in the brachycephalic type of skull, but this is not borne out by the results
obtained in these markedly brachycephalic Mongol crania.
Therefore, it is evident that one can obtain highly favorable
correlations between capacity and length in both the dolichocephalic and the brachycephalic types of crania. The author
begs t o offer another explanation. He has already pointed
out that the Eskimo and Mongol crania which have been re-
+
+
287
CRhNIOiVIETRIC STUDIES
ported upon in the present group of craniometric studies represent individuals belonging to two comparatively homogeneous races. This conviction gains support when one compares
the low standard deviations and high correlations obtained in
these races with those yielded by the heterogeneous material
represented by the Hamann Museum white crania(5). From
this viewpoint, then, a high correlation would signify homogeneity of race rather than representing a characteristic feature of a special type of skull. The correlations between
cranial capacity and cranial length in these three racial
groups are represented in table 9.
T4BLE 9
The correlation between cra,nial capacity and cranial length in both sexes is high
in comparatively homogeneous races like the Eskimo and Mongol, and low in
the Hamann Museum white crania, thus suggesting racial admixture i n the
latter
ST. LAWRENCE
ISLAND ESKIMO,
U. S. N. M.
ESKIMO
Males,
Females,
I
+ 0.72
+ 0.52
1
+ 0.83
+ 0.65
+ 0.70
+ 0.56
MONGOL,
HAXA"
U. 6. N. M.
MUSEUM
WHITES
+ 0.73
+ 0.76
+ 0.45
+ 0.37
I
The correlation between capacity and breadth was likewise
found to be highly favorable in these brachycephalic Mongol
crania. Moreover, the figures for the two 'sexes were fairly
close together, with a slight advantage in favor of the males0.72 and $- 0.64. These results are, on the whole, more
favorable, and certainly much more stable for the two sexes,
than in the case of the Eskimo (table 10). Again, the correlation is in this instance more in favor of the male crania,
whereas in the Eskimo it tends to show more favorable results in the females. Their favorable character likewise contrasts very vividly with the corresponding correlations for
the Hamann Museum white crania, as table 10 shows.
Whether or not this highly favorable correlation between ca-
+
288
J O H N CAMERON
pacity and breadth holds good for all types of brachycephalic
crania remains, of course, to be seen.
TABLE 10
Note the high correlations between capacity and cranial breadth in the Eskimo
and the Mongol as compared with the Hamann Museum white crania
ALASKA ESKIMO
Yalea,
Females,
ROYAL COLLEGE
OBEENLSND
O F SURGEONS
MUSEUM ESKIMO
ESKIMO
+ 0.65( + 0.55
+ 0.73~ + 0.75
1
1
~
ST.LAU'RENCE
I S ~ ~ ESHIMO
i D
HAMANN
~
I
XoN@oJJ
WHITE
I
f 0.32
f 0.60
~
+ 0.83
+ 0.67
1
1
I
+ 0.72
+ 0.64
1
~
+ 0.46
+ 0.56
The writer(1) has previously pointed out that in Eskimo
crania the correlations between capacity-length and capacitybreadth are more favorable than that between capacity-height.
The same fact holds good in another homogeneous race, such
as the Mongol, where the results for capacity-height were
0.58 for the males and
0.59 f o r the females.
found to be
This result was thus most remarkably consistent f o r the two
sexes, and therefore in striking contrast to those for the
Eskimo groups, which exhibited very wide ranges of variation
in the case of this correlation. It may be further noted that
in both the Eskimo and the Mongol crania the correlation
between capacity and height tended to be more favorable in
the females than in the males. It is interesting to record
that this correlation was the only one of the three in which
the American white, both male and female, exhibited as favorable results as the Mongol (table 11).
+
+
TABLE 11
T h e correlation between capacity and cranial height was as favorable in the
Hamann Museum white crania as in the Mongol crania, the
results being practically the same in both races
Hnrnnnn Musauna white
Mongol (U.S. N. X )
0.58
0.59
Males . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Females . . . . . _. _ ._. _ _
. . +0.60
0.59
.
. +
+
+
CRANIOMETRIC STUDIES
289
CONCLUSIONS
1. The standard deviations and coefficients of variability of
the cranial capacity, the cranial length, and the cranial
breadth are low in a homogeneous race like the Mongol and
comparatively high in the Hamann Museum whites, thus suggesting racial admixture in the latter. The standard deviation and coefficient of variability of the cranial height are,
however, rather better in the Hamann Nuseum whites.
2. The average length, breadth, and height of the dolichocephalic Eskimo skull, as already shown by Hrdligka, gradually merge with the corresponding dimensions of the brachycephalic Mongol skull as one proceeds from east to west
through the various Eskimo groups.
3. This fact is of great morphological importance, for it
demonstrates the transition from the dolichocephalic to the
brachycephalic type of skull, or vice versa.
It likewise demonstrates the racial affinity that exists between the Eskimo and the Mongol.
4. The high correlations between capacity-length and
capacity-breadth which the writer previously obtained in a
homogeneous race like the Eskimo were also present in a
homogeneous race, such as the Mongol.
5. Whether or not this highly favorable correlation between
capacity and breadth in these Mongol skulls holds good f o r
all types of brachycephalic crania remains to be seen.
6. The correlation between capacity-height is relatively low,
even in comparatively homogeneous races, such as the Eskimo
and the Mongol.
LITERATURE CITED
1 CAMERON,JOHN1926 Correlations in the Eskimo crania of the Canadian
Arctic Expedition. Trans. Roy. SOC. Can.
2 HRDLIEKA,ALES 1924 Catalogue of human crania in the U. S. National
Muscum Collections, no. 1, Washington.
3 -- 1925 Relation of the size of the head and skull to capacity in
the two sexes. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., VIII, no. 3.
4 LEE,9., AND PEARSON,
K. 1901 A first study of the correlation of the
human skull. Trans. Eoy. Soe., A, 96.
5 TODD,T. WIXGATE 1923 Cranial capacity and linear dimensions in white
and negro. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., VI, no. 2.
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