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Cranio-Facial growth in man. Edited by Robert E. Moyers and Wilton M. Krogman. ix + 360 pp. figures tables biblography index. Pergamon Press Oxford. $18

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Robert E. Moyers and Wilton M. Krogman. ix
360 pp., figures, tables, bibliography, index. Pergamon Press, Oxford. $18.75 (cloth).
This book reports the proceedings of a
conference held at Ann Arbor, Michigan
on May 1-3, 1967, under the joint sponsorship of the Center for Human Growth
and Development, University of Michigan,
the National Institute of Dental Research
and the National Institute for Child Health
and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland. The contributions provide state-ofthe-art reviews of cranio-facial growth
research which, as stated in the foreword,
“will serve as a useful guide, not only
to prospective and active investigators in
the field, but to graduate students in their
selection of a meaningful research topic.”
Following a multidisciplinary approach
to the biology of calcified tissues, the conference was organized around three main
themes -bone biology, genetics, and the
analysis of growth data. In addition to
seventeen papers dealing with the main
themes, there are detailed reports of three
seminars - form and function, prediction
of cranio-facial growth, and new techniques in processing and handling growth
data. Finally, three pathfinder papers,
written during the conference, serve to
summarize present knowledge and to suggest future paths of enquiry in craniofacial biology. Several articles dealing
with cellular differentiation, electric field
effects on growing bone, comparative anatomy and the behaviour of growth cartilages are included in the first section of
the book under the title of the biology of
bone. These papers provide concise summaries for those familiar with recent concepts on the microstructure and physiology
of bone tissue. Others will find much new
material to interest them, particularly the
use of electron-microscopy in studies of
early endochondral ossification and mineral homeostasis, and the experimental
application of electric fields to generate
stress in growing bones. Contributions describing vital staining of the sphenoid
bone and the subcutaneous and intracerebral implanting of growth cartilages
also add greatly to the understanding of
cranio-facial growth. With the trend to
study biological processes at the cellular
and molecular levels, investigations of gross
morphology can easily be overlooked. It
was refreshing to read two articles in this
section, written by a zoologist and an
anatomist, dealing with form and function in the vertebrate skull from the comparative and ontogenetic points of view.
Five articles covering a variety of topics
including biostatistics and the classification of cranio-facial anomalies form a
section on the genetics of cranio-facial
growth. There is little doubt that significant advances in knowledge will follow
the application of genetic methods to cranio-facial growth research. Avenues for
research along these lines are suggested
by the articles which outline analytic
methods for partitioning observed or
phenotypic variance into genetic and environmental components. It is interesting
to note the proposal that wider use should
be made of family studies which include
data from relatives other than twins.
The third group of papers describe the
application of multivariate methods to the
analysis of growth data. Original data are
used to illustrate discriminant function,
stepwise regression and factor analysis.
Those who have not used multivariate
analyses will find these articles heavy
going. Although the methods have not yet
been widely applied in growth research,
these articles should go a long way to
stimulate more interest in multivariate
techniques. The final paper in this section takes up the challenging problem of
growth simulation by computer.
The three seminars reported provide interesting summaries of the participants’
current views on form and function, prediction of cranio-facial growth, and the
handling of growth data. Discussions have
been adequately edited to provide a reasonably flowing account of the subject
matter. Not a great deal that is really new
emerges from the seminars and their
worth lies in highlighting some of the
challenges in cranio-facial biology - both
in philosophy and methodology. The graduate student in particular should receive
considerable stimulus from these seminars. The final three papers on new
directions and new horizons emphasize
the complexity of cranio-facial growth and
advocate the need for multidisciplinary
approaches and new avenues in future
It is difficult to present an adequate
review of a book dealing with so many
aspects of a complex subject. The sub-title
- Proceedings of a Conference on Genetics, Bone Biology, and Analysis of Growth
Data - is more indicative of its contents
than the title. I have deliberately made no
reference to the individual authors. Needless to say most are very well known in
their fields, as are the editors, and their
contributions can be accepted as authoritative. In adopting a multidisciplinary approach the contributors have covered the
subject matter in a way that provides a
valuable contribution to knowledge of cranio-facial growth. The organizers of the
conference obviously did not intend to
cover all aspects of cranio-facial growth.
However, they have provided an in-depth
summary of basic bone biology, genetics,
multivariate statistics and computer technology applied to cranio-facial growth.
University of Adelaide
Viken Sassouni and collaborators. vi
573 pp., figures, tables, bibliographies,
indices. C. V. Mosby, St. Louis. 1971.
$24.50 (cloth).
This textbook is “specifically designed
to integrate orthodontics in the general
practice of dentistry.” The subject material is divided into four main parts. Part
I includes eight chapters on basic principles of dentofacial anatomy, normal occlusion, growth, genetics and pathology. Part
I1 discusses the forces, tooth movements
and changes resulting from orthodontic
treatment. Part I11 is concerned with record taking and laboratory procedures necessary for the construction of removable
and fixed appliances. Part IV considers the
diagnosis and treatment of various malocclusions.
For the section on basic principles, the
authors have chosen to discuss many topics superficially. This approach is not unusual for an introductory text, but the
senior clinician or researcher may feel
rather unsatisfied knowing that some
critical topics are not given adequate coverage. Perhaps it is necessary for writers
of introductory texts to set priorities,
omitting some areas and going into others
in greater depth.
Of particular concern is the treatment
of important subjects such as skeletal age,
dental age and the relationship between
them. The section on genetics could also
stand improvement. It is difficult to believe
that dental students need a review of mitosis and meiosis. Even if these topics are
discussed there is need to relate them to
the clinical practice of orthodontics, and
unfortunately, the relationship is not made
While genetics and physiological age
may not be stressed enough, the general
area of descriptive anatomy and growth
is well done. The authors not only present
the classical material of Scott, Bjork and
others; they also cover some of the more
recent work of Enlow and his co-workers.
This is a very succinct and readable section.
With respect to the last three subdivisions of the book, the definitions and descriptions of certain elements of force systems used to move teeth, i.e., moment,
couple, shearing, are not precise, and at
times, incorrect. Therefore, the analysis of
force and couples applied for various
tooth movements also are imprecise. Use
of equilibrium of free body diagrams would
have been helpful.
In the laboratory exercises, the analysis
of text block forces would have been enhanced by a discussion of the characteristics of the appliance design to the resulting stiffness factors and the implications
of these variations in force delivery to
tooth movements.
There is a good review of various orthodontic appliances that usually are used by
the general practitioner. The photography
is excellent and the descriptions clearly
One is bothered by an occasional phrase
as that in explanation of mesial drift of
teeth in certain skeletal patterns - “Teeth
squeezed between acute palate-mandibular
angle and carried forward.’’
The use and discussion of roentgenographic cephalometrics throughout the
book is commendable; but the untrained
reader might find it difficult to follow the
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360, figuren, facial, growth, cranio, roberts, pergamon, index, man, moyers, biblography, edited, tablet, krogman, wilton, pres, oxford
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