close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Craniofacial growth of fetal Macaca nemestrina A cephalometric roentgenographic study.

код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 53:407-421(1980)
Craniofacial Growth of Fetal Macaca nemestrina:
A Cephalometric Roentgenographic Study
J. E. SIRIANNI AND L. NEWELL-MORRIS
Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New
York 14261; and Departments of Anthropology and Orthodontics, and Regional Primate
Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195
KEY WORDS
Fetal, Craniofacial, Growth, Macaca nemestrina
ABSTRACT
The prenatal growth of the macaque craniofacial skeleton is
described using lateral radiographs of 82 fetal and 25 neonatal Macaca nemestrina whose known gestational ages range from 50 to 186 days. The ossification
sequence of the craniofacial bones resembles that in the human fetus. During
gestation, the macaque neurocranium loses its round, globular shape, becoming
flattened and elongated in a n anteroposterior direction. In contrast, the morphologic pattern of the face is established early in fetal life, and little change takes
place during the remaining prenatal period. The macaque craniofacial dimensions develop along the general skeletal growth pattern, unlike the human
craniofacial dimensions, which follow a n intermediate pattern between the
neural and general skeletal patterns. However, despite minor differences, the
macaque and human fetal faces follow the same basic patterns of growth.
Prenatal growth of the human craniofacial
skeleton has been the subject of numerous
investigations and is well documented in the
literature (see Lavelle, '74). There are no comparable data on the normal craniofacial
growth of the macaque fetus, however, even
though the macaque is a popular research
animal and is often used as an experimental
model of the human craniofacial complex. To
date, the only area of the craniofacial complex
that has been studied deals with shape and
size changes in the cranial base of fetal macaques (Moore, '78; Lestrel and Moore, '78).
Unfortunately, this investigation was based
on a small sample of unknown-aged fetuses.
This paucity of baseline data coupled with the
increasing use of nonhuman primates to test
the possible teratogenic effects of drugs emphasizes the increasing need for normal craniofacial growth parameters. The purpose of
the present investigation is to describe the
normal craniofacial growth of the fetal pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and to
compare the morphological growth pattern of
the fetal mecaque face with that of the human
face.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The sample consisted of 65 male and 42
female fetal and neonatal Macaca nemestrina
obtained from the Regional Primate Research
0002-948318015303-040'7$03.10
0 1980 ALAN R. LISS, INC.
Center at the University of Washington. The
82 normal fetuses resulted from timed matings in which gestational age was known to
within -C 1 postovulatory day (Blakley et al.,
'77). The fetuses were taken by caesarian
section and ranged in gestational age from 50
to 165 days (Fig. 1). The sample of 25 newborns from normal vaginal deliveries ranged
in age from 155 to 186 gestational days. The
average age at birth for this sample was 170.6
days.
Each specimen was fixed with buffered formalin while its mouth was in a closed position.
Since the deciduous teeth are not erupted
during the fetal period, the distance between
the two jaws is mostly dependent on the size
and position of the intervening tongue. The
animals were then radiographed using Kodak
Industrex (Type AA2) film with a film-tube
distance of 152.4 cm and a film-midsagittal
distance of 7 cm. With the exception of the
cephalograms taken on the three specimens
younger than 60 gestational days, tracings
were drawn on 0.003 matte acetate paper and
the following landmarks were located:
A. Roentgenocephalometric landmarks. (Fig.
2)
1. S,Center of sella turcica as determined
by inspection; although the fetal dorsum sellae
Received June 25,1979 accepted January 18,1980.
408
J. E. SIRIA"1 AND L. NEWELL-MORRIS
65
days
70
50
#
1
I
I Ill
males
. II I
90
I
I
n
42
I
1
I
1
I
I
I
170
150
130
110
111
I
I
1
iiinr 1 1
I I !
I
190
I
I
females
Fig. 1. Age distribution of the sample; each line segment represents one fetus.
8. Go, Gonion, a point on the most posteroinferior border of the mandible approximating
the junction of the ramus and body of the
mandible.
9. Me, Menton, the most inferior point of
the mandibular symphysis.
The following linear dimensions were measured to 0.1 mm using a Helios dial caliper:
B. Linear roentgenocephalometric dimensions
1. Anterior cranial base: S-Na
2. Anterior cranial base: S-OR
3. Posterior cranial base: Ba-S
4.Posterior midface height: S-PNS
Me
5. Midface depth: S-Pr
6. Palatal length: PNS-Pr
Fig. 2. The nine cephalometric landmarks used: 1, the
7. Anterior midface height: Na-Pr
basioccipital portion of the cranial base; 2, the basisphenoid 3, the presphoidal portion.
8. Total face height Na-Me
9. Lower face depth: S-Id
10. Total posterior face height: S-Go
is not ossified, an outline of its cartilaginous
11. Mandibular length: &-Id
precursor is usually visible.
12. Length of the presphenoid portion of
2. Na, Nasion, located at the juncture of
the nasal and frontal bones in the midsagittal the cranial base
13. Length of the basisphenoid
plane.
14. Length of the basioccipital
3. OR, Junction of the superior surface of
the orbital roof and the inner table of the
C. Angular dimensions
frontal bone.
1. Cranial base angle: Ba-S-Na
4.Ba, Basion, the most anterior point of
2. Neurofacial angle: S-Na-Pr
the foramen magnum.
3. Facial' angle: PNS-Pr-Na
5. Pr, Prosthion, the most antero-inferior
point of the premaxilla in the midsagittal
All radiographs were traced and measured
plane.
6. PNS, Posterior nasal spine, defined as twice by the same investigator (J.E.S.) at a
the most posterior point of the ossified palate six-month interval. After the linear dimensions were corrected for enlargement, the first
in the midsagittal plane.
7.Id, Infradentale, the most anterosuper- and second records were averaged. Table 1
presents the measurement error calculated
ior point on the mandible.
CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH OF FETAL MACACA NEMESTRINA
409
TABLE 1. Standard deviations for 17 cmniofacial variables
and maximum error for 9 S o of the measurements per variable
Variable
S-Na
S-Or
Ba-S
s-PNS
SPr
PNSPr
Na-F'r
Na-Me
S-Id
S-GO
&-Id
Length of presphenoid
Length of basisphenoid
Length of basioccipital
4 BA-S-Na
4 S-Na-Pr
4 PNS-Pr-Na
from these duplicate measures using the formula of Chebib and Burdick ('73):
where n = sample size, m = the number of
repeated measures and XI and X, are actual
measurements. The standard deviations ranged
from 0.18 to 0.59 mm. The maximum error for
99% of single measures was lowest(0.34 mm)
for the length of the basisphenoid and highest
(5.95") for the angle PNS-Pr-Na.
The statistics of a preliminary scattergram
of the data showed that the independent variables (age, age squared, inverse of age, and
log,, age) were highly correlated with the
linear dimensions. To predict the size of these
craniofacial dimensions in animals of known
age, we formulated linear prediction equations
by selecting the best or a combination of the
best independent variables (Nie et al., '75).
These step-wise regression forumlae were generated for each variable of both sexes. Since
no differences were found between male and
female regression coefficients using an F-test
(Sokal and Rohlf, '69, p. 4551, we generated
sex-combined regression formulae for each dimension.
Equations predicting age were formulated
using log,,, inverse and square of the dimensions S-Na, S-Or, S-Pr, and PNS-Pr as independent variables. These dimensions were selected on t h e basis t h a t the landmarks
defining them are easily identified throughout
the fetal period and therefore have a low
measurement error.
SD
0.26mm
0.30mm
0.31 mm
0.35 m m
0.29 mm
0.29m m
0.59mm
0.56mm
0.34 mm
0.39mm
0.49 mm
0.49 m m
0.18mm
0.35 mm
2.98"
2.44"
3.00"
Maximumerror
0.49mm
0.56 mm
0.58 mm
0.66mm
0.55 mm
0.55mm
1.11 mm
1.05mm
0.64mm
0.73mm
0.92 mm
0.92mm
0.34 mm
0.66 111111
5.91"
4.85'
5.95"
RESULTS
Shape and size changes
The lateral roentgenographic cephalograms
shown in Figure 3 illustrate the growth and
development of the craniofacial skeleton. In
the 60-day-old animal, the jaws, the inferior
portion of the nasal bone, and various parts of
the frontal, sphenoid, and occipital bones have
begun to ossify (Fig. 3a). The initial ossification of the maxilla and mandible occurs between 45 and 50 gestational days, with the
mandible being more advanced. Between 50
and 60 days, the malar, nasal, and premaxillary bones begin to ossify as do the squamous
and orbital portions of the frontal, the greater
wing and basilar parts of the sphenoid, the
lateral and squamosal components of the occipital, and the tympanic ring. The initial
ossification of the petrous portion of the temporal occurs at about 70 days, the lesser wing
of the sphenoid a t about 75 days, and the
presphenoid a t 78 days. By 80 days of age, the
parietal and the squamous parts of the temporal are also visible (Fig. 3b). The cephalogram of the 119-day-old animal shows that
the semicircular canals are ossified and that
the deciduous dentition has begun to calcify
(Fig. 3c). By 139 days and continuing to birth,
most of the cartilaginous anlage of the cranial
base is being replaced by bone,. leaving the
spheno-ethmoidal suture and the midsphenoidal and spheno-occipital synchondroses patent and actively contributing to the linear
growth of the basicranium (Fig. 3d, e).
One of the more obvious changes throughout the fetal period is the relation of the
410
J. E.SIIUANNI AND L.NEWELLMORRIS
Fig. 3. Lateral radiographs of hemiseaed macaque skulls at increasing gestational ages: a, 60 days; b, 80 days; c, 119
days; d, 139 days; e, full term at 170 days. Fetal heads a-c were treated with 0.5% aqueous silver nitrate before being
radiographed.
neurocranium to the face. The face migrates
from its position directly under the brain to a
more anterior location, primarily due to the
lengthening of both jaws in conjunction with
the calcification of the deciduous dentition.
As the neurocranium elongates in an anteroposterior direction, it changes from its roundish, early fetal form to the characteristic
ovoid shape of the macaque neonate. In contrast to the neurocranium, the face retains its
basic shape throughout the rapid increase in
the linear dimensions during the 110 days of
fetal life (Fig. 4, Appendix 1). None of the
craniofacial angles show a significant correlation with fetal age. The cranial base angle
(Ba-S-Na) and the facial angle (PNS-Pr-Na)
remain relatively constant throughout the fetal period (Table 2, Appendix 2). Although the
angle between the anterior cranial base and
the facial plane (S-Na-Pr) increases by 5.5"
between the early fetal period and birth, the
initial calcification of the deciduous maxillary
central incisor and the development of its
surrounding alveolar bone probably account
for most of the anterior migration of prosthion
and the subsequent opening of the angle. By
110 days, the size of the dental crown is
established and the angle tends to remain
constant during the last two months of fetal
development. This angle and the cranial base
angle change very little postnatally (Table 2).
In contrast, the facial angle closes by as much
as 20" postnatally (Sirianni and Van Ness,
'78).
Females have achieved a greater portion of
their adult size by birth than have males
(Table 2). Their basicranial lengths are 67.5%
to 74.4%complete, whereas male dimensions
are 54.wo to 65.Fo complete. The facial dimensions of both sexes are far less advanced
with reference to adult size than are the neurocranial dimensions. During the prenatal period, female facial dimensions range from
39.4%to 53.2% of adult dimensions; the male
dimensions range from 31.3%to 38.8%.
Craniofacial growth curves
The size changes of craniofacial dimensions
in the.feta1 macaque are best described by a
regression formula using log,, age and age as
411
CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH OF FETAL MACACA NEMESTRINA
Pr
Fig. 4. Tracings of lateral radiographs superimposed on the sella to nasion line with animals ranging in age from 80
to 160 days. On the right is a schematic representation of age changes in the cranial base and midfacial region of animals
ranging in age from 75 to 175 days. These dimensions were based on the mean linear and angular values of animals in
the following age categories: 70-79,90-99,110-119, 130-139, and 170-179 days (see Appendixes 1 , 2 ) .
TABLE 2. Absolute and percent change in cranwfacial dimensions between the
early fetal period (60 to 80 gestational days) and birth (160 to 186 days) and
percent of adult size achieved at birth
Change
Dimensions
Anterior cranial base (S-Na)
Anterior cranial base (%Or)
Posterior cranial base (Ba-S)
Upper midface height (Na-Pr)
Palatal length (PNS-Pr)
Mandibular height (%Go)
Mandibular length (&-Id)
S-Pr
S-Id
4: Ba-S-Na
< S-Na-Pr
< Na-Pr-PNS
Percent of adult
size achieved at
birthP
Absolute
Percent'
Males
Females
16.0 mm
15.7 mm
7.3 mm
14.1 mm
14.3 mm
13.3 mm
20.7 mm
22.6 mm
24.0 mm
0.4"
81.6
88.8
71.9
96.9
97.6
106.8
109.8
100.4
102.6
59.6
65.2
54.9
31.3
31.9
33.1
31.4
36.4
38.8
92.4
87.3
62.6
71.9
74.4
67.5
41.5
39.4
40.8
40.7
49.4
53.2
96.0
90.0
72.2
5.5"
0.0"
D -D
' Average percent growth rate = 2
1/2(D2
+ DJ x 100 (Brdy, '64).
Adult dimensions were measured by J.E.S. on 17 male and 30 female M. nernestrina that
were part of the colony at the Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washingtun,
Seattle.
the independent variables. Those cranial base
dimensions approximating the length of the
anterior (S-Na, S-Or) and posterior (Ba-S) segments of the basicranium are described by
second-degree polynomial equations, whereas
the growth of the individual basicranial bones
and the growth of the fetal face are best
described by simple linear functions. Regression coefficients for the functions Y = A + B
(log,, age) and Y = A + B (log,, age) + C (age)
and statistics to calculate the confidence bands
for individual size estimates are shown in
Table 3.
The anterior cranial base increases its
length a t a considerably faster rate than the
posterior section, with both dimensions slowing slightly during the late fetal period (Fig.
5). Despite the differential growth of these
basicranial components, the regression coefficients for the rates of linear increase of the
Go-Id
Presphenoid
Basisphenoid
Basioecipital
S-GO
S-Id
PNSPr
Na-Pr
Na-Me
S-Pr
S-Na
S-Or
Ba-S
S-PNS
Dependent
variable
-103.40
-95.88
-45.13
-35.65
-86.19
-54.11
-47.75
-85.83
-93.35
-52.63
-76.54
-23.04
- 18.34
-20.51
A
Constant
65.02
61.24
29.91
21.71
53.84
34.03
30.96
54.62
57.77
32.14
46.71
14.81
11.01
13.14
Log,,age
B
-0.08
-0.09
-0.05
C
Age
90
89
90
91
106
106
107
107
107
92
67
105
92
95
n
2.12
2.07
2.07
2.08
2.08
2.08
2.12
2.10
2.08
2.06
2.08
2.13
2.12
2.11
X log age
-
d
=A
137.99
126.76
125.18
xage
0.12
0.15
0.15
0.16
0.15
0.16
0.12
0.11
0.16
0.15
0.16
0.11
0.11
0.13
S
Q
,,
35.89
41.83
41.78
SD,,
1.24
2.52
2.52
2.55
2.51
2.56
1.30
0.82
2.52
2.14
2.25
1.02
1.12
1.41
‘X:
115,926.99
183,284.68
183,287.31
‘x:
1.03
1’18
2.69
2.68
1.21
2.00
0.58
0.18
0.31
0.84
0.78
0.33
0.45
2.06
syx
+ B (log,, age) + C (age), and statistics for
Statistics for confidence 1irmt.a
P = A + B (log,,age) and
calculating the confidence limits of Y
T m L E 3. Constants and regression coefficients for the formulae
tj
Fi
z
8r
+
F32
m
rn
4
413
CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH OF FETAL MACACA NEMESTRINA
35
30
25
10
S -Ba
5
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
AGE
Fig. 5. Comparison of regression curves describing the normal growth of the anterior (SNa) and posterior (Ba-S)
basicranial components with age. Squares = males; dots = females.
414
J. E. SIRIA"1 AND L. NEWELLMORRIS
presphenoid and basioccipital are not statistically different from one another, but both
elements grow faster than the basisphenoid
(Fig. 6). Although the midfacial region grows
i n a forward direction (S-Pr) at a faster rate
than downward (Na-Pr), both anterior midface
height (Na-Pr) and palatal length (PNS-Pr)
increase a t the same speed (Table 3).
Anterior midface height grows a t a faster rate
than posterior face height (Fig. 7).
The jaws elongate rapidly and are continually displaced in a downward, forward direction (Fig. 4). The mandible (&-Id) grows significantly faster than the palate (PNS-Pr), so
that it is 2Wo longer than the palate at birth
(Fig. 8). Total posterior face height (S-Go)
increases at the same speed as anterior midface height, but a t a significantly slower rate
than mandibular length.
Age estimation
Three regression formulae estimating fetal
age are presented in Table 4. To test the
accuracy of these formulae, the ages of nine
known-aged animals were determined using
the three different formulae. None of the "test"
fetuses were used to calculate the original age
estimation formulae. All three formulae yielded age estimates within 5 days of the actual
gestational age for 75% of all cases. The mean
residual days between an animal's actual and
estimated age is lowest for the regression
formula based on the dependent variable S-Pr
and highest for S-Na (Table 5). The precision
of these formulae varies with age. For example, in younger animals it is difficult to measure the distance between sella and nasion
accurately, because nasion is not easily identified until approximately 125 gestational
days. The most anterior point of the premaxilla (Pr) is a more readily apparent radiographic landmark in younger d s . Therefore
the formula based on the dependent variable
S-Pr is a better estimator of age in the early
fetal period (i.e., up to 125 days). We would
recommend using all three formulae for estimating the fetal age of a single specimen.
DISCUSSION
Although the inadequate sample size in the
age range of 45 to 60 gestational days prevented us from documenting the initial ossification of many of the facial bones, we did
observe that the general ossification sequence
is approximately the same as in the human
(Noback and Robertson. '51: O'Rahillv and
Gardner, '72). For example, in the moncey, as
in the human, the facial bones ossify before
the neurocranial bones, and more specifically
within the neurocranial region, the cranial
base of both species ossifies along the same
caudal-rostra1 gradient with the basioccipital
ossifying first, the basisphenoid next, and then
the presphenoidal elements (Scott, '58).
Many of the investigators who have quantified the fetal changes in the human craniofacial region have also been concerned with
the question of when the morphologic pattern
of the face is established. Broadbent ('37) and
Brodie ('41) proposed that facial shape and
proportional growth of the head is set early in
postnatal life. Rabkin ('52) speculated that
facial growth patterns are probably established much earlier, i.e., during the prenatal
period, and the results of subsequent research
support this idea. By the end of the first
trimester, the dimensions of the craniofacial
region have already attained the proportions
characteristic of the human head. During the
next two trimesters, the general shape of the
face remains constant despite the rapid and
differential growth rates of the facial skeleton
(Inoue, '61; Burdi, '65; Levihn, '67; Johnston,
'74; Lavelle, '74; Bhaskar, '76).
As we have shown here, the basic proportions of the macaque craniofacial region are
also established by the beginning of the fetal
period and remain relatively constant during
prenatal life, with a single exception. The
relation of the neurocranium to the face does
undergo a change. As the brain continues to
develop and grow, the neurocranium elongates and flattens. At this same time, the face
is increasing its length in response to the
developing tooth buds. The result of this differential growth places the face anterior to
the brain, not directly under the brain as it is
in the human fetus.
The morphologic pattern of the macaque
face is established early in the fetal period,
and relatively little change takes place during
the remaining prenatal or early postnatal life.
As in the human fetus, craniofacial dimensions grow almost isometrically except for the
posterior cranial base. The various angles of
the neurocranium and face also tend t o remain
constant. The cranial base angle is maintained
a t 153"in the macaque and 130"in the human
(Burdi, '651, and opens postnatally in response
to the growth and remodeling in the posterior
segment of the basicranium and to the upward
relocation of the nasion.
The brain's growth Dattern differs from that
of the muscul&kelet& system, and the bones
CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH OF FETAL MACACA NEMESTRINA
415
15
10
Presphenoid (3)
5
Basisphenoid ( 2 )
10
5
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
I
AGE
Fig. 6. Growth of three basicranial components.
I
i
200
416
J. E. SIRIA"1 AND L. NEWELL-MORRIS
25
U
m
20
--
8
e n
0
15
-N a - Pr
cn
lo
--
(r
W
I-
w
-
I
I
10
S - PNS
0
I
60
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
1
I
I
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
I
AGE
Fig. 7. Growth of anterior (Na-Pr) and posterior (SPNS) midface heights.
25
20
15
PNS - Pr
10
5
30
25
20
0
0
G O - Id
15
10
AGE
Fig. 8. Growth of the palatal (PNS-Pr) and mandibular (&-Id) lengths.
J. E. SIRIANNI AND L. NEWELL-MORRIS
418
TABLE 4. Regression formulae for estimating fetal
age from the dimensions S-Na, S-OR and S-Pr
Dependent
variable
A
Constant
Age
Age
Age
50.313
47.715
53.807
B
Regression coefficient
0.149 (S-Na)z
0.174 (S-OR)*
0.099 (S-Pr)*
TABLE 5. Residual days' between the animal's
actual age and estimated age as determined by
regression formulae based on three cmniofacial
dimensions
Residuals
Actual age
(days)
60
66
70
105
125
134
146
155
160
177
Mean residual
days
Dimension
Sex
M
F
M
F
M
F
F
M
F
M
S-Na
S-OR
--2
-2
-8
-5
-2
2
1
2
-7
-7
0
-3
O
-9
-1
-3
-1
3
2
-4
-1
-6
-2
4
3
-1
5
-5
0
3.8
3.3
S-Pr
1
2.7
' Residual days = actual age minus estimated age.
greater portion of their adult size via a moderate pubertal growth spurt, in contrast to the
pronounced spurt typical of linear skeletal
growth (Baughan et al., '79). During the fetal
period, the macaque and human faces grow a t
a fast, steady rate, completing 3w0 to 45% of
their adult height and depth (Krogman, '51).
However, unlike the human pattern, both the
facial and postcranial skeletal dimensions in
the macaque attain the same percentage of
adult size at birth (Tarrant, '75). The interspecific difference is probably attributable to
the intense pubertal growth spurt seen in the
human infracranial skeleton (Tamer, '62).
Although the growth rates of midfacial
height and depth are equal in the macaque
fetus, there is some disagreement about which
dimension dominates in the human fetus. Ford
('56)' Krogman ('58), and Inoue ('61) have
presented evidence that the maxilla increases
in height faster than in length. In contrast,
Burdi ('65), Levihn ('671, Houpt ('701, and
Johnston ('74) reported that palatal length
grows faster than midface height. Different
methods of data collection and analysis probably account for this discrepancy. In both species the mandible grows faster than the maxilla (Mestre, '59 Inoue, '61; Houpt, '70), and
mandibular length increases a t a faster rate
than mandibular height (Houpt, '70; Lavelle,
'74). Later during the adolescent growth period these facial dimensions undergo an acceleration in growth (Bambha, '61; Thompson et
al., '76; Sirianni, '80).
The face follows the same basic growth
pattern in both macaque and human fetuses.
It is therefore reasonable to use this nonhuman primate in tests for the teratogenic effect
of drugs. Unfortunately, researchers have not
had the necessary baseline data to make adequate comparisons between experimental
and normal groups. Without these data, the
experimenter is restricted to an expensive
protocol involving age-matched controls. The
usefulness of normal growth curves for assessing growth status has been shown in a recent
study that evaluated craniofacial defects in
fetal macaques (Newall-Morriset al., '80). In
addition, the normative data established here
should be of value t o investigators studying
the craniofacial biology of fetal primates.
that are functionally associated with the brain
and its derivatives grow according to this
neural pattern (Scammon, '30; Moss, '73); basicranial dimensions that are influenced by the
neural framework attain a greater proportion
of their adult size by the time of birth and
undergo only a slight pubertal growth spurt
later in postnatal life (Baughan et al., '79).
The macaque and human cranial bases grow
rapidly during the fetal period, completing
5Wo to 6Wo of their adult size prenatally, and
then experience a very mild growth spurt
during adolescence (Lewis and Roche, '72; '74;
Sirianni and Van Ness, '78). In both species,
the anterior cranial base grows twice as fast
as the posterior cranial base (Ford, '56; Mestre,
'59; Burdi, '65; Levihn, '67; Birch, '68). The
posterior segment, which is not as advanced
at birth as the anterior component, continues
to grow and remodel well into the adolescent
period. This later postnatal growth is probably
under the influence of the skeletal growth
pattern rather than the neural (Schultz, '55).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The face follows neither a neural nor a
general skeletal growth pattern. Facial diThis study was supported by National Instimensions are not as advanced as the neuro- tutes of Health grants DE02918, HD08633,
cranial lengths are a t birth and accomplish a HD10356, HL19187, and RR00166. Computer
CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH OF FETAL MACACA NEMESTRINA
funds were made available by the Department
of Anthropology at the University of Washington. We wish to thank Mr. Richard A,
Grotefendt and Professor Krishna Rustagi for
assistance in the statistical analysis of the
data.
LITERATURE CITED
Bambha, J.K. (1961) Longitudinal cephalometric roenb
genographic study of face and cranium in relation to body
height. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 63:776-799.
Baughan, B., A. Demijian, G.Y. Levesque, and L. LapalmeChaput (1979) The pattern offacial growth before and
during puberty, as shown by French-Canadian girls.
Ann. Hum. Biol., 6~59-76.
Bhaskar, S.N. (1976) Orban's Oral Histology and Embryology. C. V. Mosby, Saint Louis.
Birch, R.H. (1968) Foetal retrognathia and the cranial
base. Angle Orthodont., 38:231-235.
Blakley,
G.A.,
C.R.
Blaine,
and
W.R.
Morton (1977) Correlation of perineal detumescence
and ovulation in the pigtail Mucucu nemestrinn. Lab.
Anim. Sci., 27:352-355.
Broadbent, B.H. (1937) The face of the normal child.
Angle Orthodont., 7:183-207.
Brcdie, A.G. (1941) O n the growth pattern of the human
head from the third month to the eighth year of life.
Am. J. Anat., 68:209-262.
Brody, S. (1964) Bioenergetics and Growth. Hafner, New
York.
Burdi, A.R. (1965) Sagittal growth of the nasomaxillary
complex during the second trimester of human prenatal
development. J. Dent. Res., 44~112-125.
Chebib, F.S., and J.A. Burdick (1973) Estimation of
measurement error. J. Gen. Psychol., 89:47-58.
Ford, E.H.R. (1956) The growth of the foetal skull. J.
Anat. (Land.), 90~63-72.
Houpt, M.I. (1970) Growth of the craniofacial complex of
the human fetus. Am. J. Orthodont., 58:373-383.
Inoue, N. (1961) A study on the developmental changes
of dentofacial complex during fetal period by means of
roentgenographic cephalometrics. Tokyo Med. Dent.
Univ. Bull., 8:205-227.
Johnston, L.E. (1974) A cephalometric investigation of
the sagittal growth of the second-trimester fetal face.
Anat. Rec., 178.623-630.
Krogman, W.M. (1951) Craniometry and cephalometry
as research tools in growth of head and face. Am. J.
Orthodont., 37r406-414.
Krogman, W.M. (1958) Problems of Growth and Development of Interest to the Dentist. D. Clin. North America.
pp. 497-514.
Lavelle, C.L.B. (1974) An analysis of foetal craniofacial
growth. Ann. Hum. Biol., ft269-287.
Lestrel, P.E., and R.N. Moore (1978) The cranial base in
fetal Mucacu nemestrina: A quantitative analysis of size
419
and shape. J. Dent. Res., 57r395-401.
Levihn, W.C. (1967) A cephalometric roentgenographic
cross-sectional study of the craniofacial complex in fetuses from 12 weeks to birth. Am. J. Orthodont.,53:822-848.
Lewis, A.B., and A.F. Roche (1972) Elongation of the
cranial base in girls during pubescence. Angle Orthodont., 42:358-367.
Lewis, A.B., and A.F. Roche (1974) Cranial base elongation in boys during pubescence. Angle Orthodont.,
44:83-93.
Mestre, J.C. (1959) A cephalometric appraisal of cranial
and facial relationships a t various stages of human fetal
development. Am. J. Orthodont., 45:473.
Moore, R.N. (1978) A cephalometric and histological
study of the cranial base in foetal monkeys, Mucucu
nemestrina. Arch. Oral Biol., 23: 57-67.
Moss, M.L. (1973) A functional cranial analysis of primate craniofacial growth. Symp. IVth Int. Congr. Primat., vol. 3: Craniofacial Biology of Primates, pp.
191-208. Karger, Basel.
Newell-Morris, L., J.E. Sirianni, T.H. Shepard, A.G. Fantel,
and B.C. Moffet 11980) Teratogenic effects of retinoic
acid in pigtail monkeys (Mucucu nemestrina). 11. Craniofacial features. Teratology (submitted).
Nie, N.H., C.H. Hull, J.G. Jenkins, K. Steinbrenner, and
D.H. Bent (1975) SPSS Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences. Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Noback, C.R., and G.G. Robertson (1951) Sequences of
appearance of ossification centers in the human skeleton
during the first five prenatal months. Am. J. Anat.,
89: 1-28.
ORahilly, R., and E.Gardner (1972) The initial appearance of ossification in staged human embryos. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol., I34:291-306.
Rabkin, S. (1952) Variation in structural morphogenesis
of the human face and jaws. J. Dent. Res., 31:535-547.
Scammon, R.E. (1930) The measurement of the body in
childhood. In: The Measurement of Man. University of
Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
Schultz, A.H. (1955) The position of the occipital eondyles and of the face relative to the skull base in primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 13r97-120.
Scott, J.H. (1958) The cranial base. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., I6:319-348.
Sirianni. J.E. (1980) Adolescent facial growth in Macaca
nemestrina. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (in press).
Sirianni, J.E., and A.L. Van Ness (1978) Postnatal
growth of the cranial base in Mucacu nemestrinn. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol., 48329-340.
Sokal, R.R., and F.J. Rohlf (1969) Biometry. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.
Tanner, J.M. (1962) Growth at Adolescence. 2nd ed.
Blackwell, Oxford.
Tarrant, L.H. (1975) Postnatal growth in the pig-tailed
monkey (Mucucu nemestrinul. University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Thompson,
G.W.,
F.
Popovich,
and
D.L.
Anderson (1976) Maximum growth changes in manBiol., 48:285-293.
dibular length, stature and weight. b.
SE
SD
X
SD
n
-
n
X
SE
~
SD
SE
SD
SE
' Measurements recorded in millimeters
&-Id
S-Id
SE
SD
3
5
11.7
14.7
0.84
0.71
1.46
1.58
13
7
6
11.3
14.2
9.1
0.45
0.45
0.28
1.02
1.11
1.20
12
7
6
6.0
7.2
7.8
0.25
0.20
0.13
0.45 0.66 0.49
6
6
12
13.6
16.8
10.0
0.67
0.84
0.36
1.63
2.05
1.23
6
6
12
9.1
11.0
6.7
0.36
0.45
0.25
1.11
0.89
0.86
6
6
12
13.7
16.6
10.3
0.68
0.76
0.27
1.66
1.87
0.94
11
4
4
10.3
12.1
7.8
0.86
0.84
0.31
1.72
1.67
1.02
6
17.3
0.56
1.38
7
17.4
0.49
1.30
6
9.7
0.24
0.58
6
20.7
0.49
1.21
6
13.5
0.28
0.69
4
21.4
1.14
2.27
5
15.3
0.55
1.24
4
19.3
0.35
0.70
5
18.4
0.23
0.51
4
10.3
0.23
0.46
4
22.9
0.37
0.73
4
14.8
0.23
0.45
4
23.2
0.49
0.98
4
16.4
0.05
1.10
1
11.1
n
S-Na
E
60-69 70-79 80-89 90-99 100-109
Dimensions Statistics
5
20.4
0.30
0.68
6
20.1
0.31
0.77
6
11.0
0.15
0.37
6
24.6
0.57
1.40
6
16.1
0.29
0.71
5
24.9
0.56
1.26
5
19.4
0.72
1.62
110-119
Age Categories
3
23.0
0.96
1.66
3
22.1
0.91
1.57
3
11.8
0.15
0.26
3
27.2
1.37
2.38
3
17.7
1.30
2.25
3
27.8
1.25
2.17
3
20.3
1.07
1.86
120-129
33
24.5
0.15
0.89
32
23.2
0.16
0.92
25
12.6
0.11
0.57
33
29.5
0.19
1.11
33
19.0
0.13
0.76
33
30.9
0.20
1.17
29
23.8
0.21
1.13
130-139
15
25.9
0.27
1.03
14
24.5
0.26
0.98
14
13.3
0.13
0.49
16
31.3
0.35
1.38
15
20.2
0.30
1.15
16
32.4
0.46
1.84
16
25.1
0.46
1.82
140-149
170-186
20
27.6
0.18
0.80
19
25.9
0.23
0.99
17
13.8
0.13
0.52
20
34.1
0.29
1.31
18
22.1
0.32
1.37
19
35.6
0.35
1.52
19
29.9
0.67
2.92
8
27.7
0.43
1.23
8
25.6
0.59
1.66
7
13.8
0.32
0.84
8
33.2
0.75
2.11
8
21.1
0.63
1.79
8
34.8
0.71
2.02
7
27.5
0.68
1.79
11
27.0
0.45
1.48
11
25.2
0.30
1.01
9
13.2
0.32
0.97
11
32.4
0.38
1.25
10
21.2
0.38
1.20
10
34.1
0.78
2.46
10
26.3
0.62
1.97
150-159 160-169
APPENDIX 1 . Means, standard errors, and standard deviations for seven emniofacial dimensions' at various ages
z
m
e,
SE
SD
g
PNS-Pr-Na
1
SD
n
S-Na-Pr
5
150.2
2.13
4.76
5
85.3
1.97
4.40
5
64.8
1.69
3.78
5
151.1
0.44
0.99
5
82.3
0.68
1.53
5
65.0
1.79
4.02
6
5
5
5
153.1 153.9 154.6 148.7
1.02
0.99
1.35
0.66
2.22
3.02
1.47
2.50
6
5
5
5
81.4
85.8
81.1
81.3
1.90
1.62
0.83
1.41
9.26
1.86
3.15
4.64
6
5
5
5
64.2
64.5
64.3
65.2
1.01
1.12
1.25
0.92
2.25
2.51
2.80
2.26
80-89
110-119
70-79
90-99
60-69
Measured to the nearest tenth of a degree.
SE
SD
X
x
X
SE
n
-
Statistics
B-S-Na
Angles
100-109
Age Categories
3
150.8
0.93
1.61
3
85.3
0.67
1.15
3
65.4
1.06
1.85
120-129
150-159
7
153.7
1.84
4.88
7
87.4
1.11
2.93
7
63.9
0.36
0.94
140-149
12
155.1
0.92
3.19
12
87.0
0.99
3.42
12
64.2
0.86
8.10
130-139
29
151.2
0.79
4.26
29
86.3
0.55
8.41
28
64.9
0.40
4.22
153.0
1.18
3.34
8
86.6
0.94
2.65
8
65.2
1.03
2.90
8
160-169
APPENDIX 2. Means, standard errors and standard deviations for three craniofacial angles' at various ages
10
154.6
1.01
3.26
10
86.7
1.05
3.33
10
64.5
0.63
1.99
170-186
?I
0
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
1
Размер файла
856 Кб
Теги
growth, craniofacial, stud, roentgenographic, cephalometric, macaca, nemestrina, fetal
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа