Crown dimensions of deciduous teeth of prehistoric and living populations of Western India.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 61:383-387 (1983) Crown Dimensions of Deciduous Teeth of Prehistoric and Living Populations of Western India J O H N R. LUKACS, M.R. JOSHI, AND P.G. MAKHIJA Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (J.R.L.) and Department of Orthodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Ahmedabad, 380 016, India (M.R.J., P.G.M.) KEY WORDS dia, Pakistan Deciduous teeth, Crown size, Prehistoric, Living, In- ABSTRACT Deciduous tooth crown dimensions are poorly known for the people of South Asia. This contribution describes dental crown dimensions of two prehistoric and one living population from the northwestern region of the subcontinent. Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown diameters and cross-sectional crown areas are reported for the prehistoric inhabitants of Inamgaon (1600-700 B.c.) in western Maharashtra, India, and Timargarha (1400-850 B.c.) in Dir-State, northwest Pakistan. Crown diameters and cross-sectional areas are also reported, independently by sex, for a living group of Gujarati schoolchildren from Ahmedabad. While crown diameters and cross-sectional areas for the Timargarha and Gujarat samples are very similar, figures for the Inamgaon sample are consistently larger than either the Timargarha or the Gujarat samples. These differences in tooth crown size are interpreted in the context of Brace’s dental reduction model. Differences in level of technology, diet, and subsistence select for different optimal tooth sizes and may explain differences in tooth size reported here for deciduous teeth from South Asia. Anthropological studies of dental crown morphology and tooth size in South Asia have focused almost exclusively on permanent teeth of living and prehistoric populations (Lukacs, nd). The only descriptions of deciduous dental variation in South Asia include a n analysis of morphological features of the dentition of living Jats of northern India (Kaul and Prakash, 1981) and a comparative study of crown dimensions of the prehistoric inhabitants of Inamgaon, an early farming village in western India (Lukacs, 1981). The need for more extensive descriptive and comparative studies of deciduous dental variation in South Asia is obvious. 0 1983 ALAN R. LISS, INC. This paper reports dental crown dimensions and selected indices for one living and two prehistoric populations in South Asia. Archaeological excavations at Inamgaon have been conducted annually since 1968 by Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute (Pune; India). These excavations are now complete and during the 1981-1982 academic year morphological, metrical, and pathological studies of the entire deciduous dental sample ( n = 733) were conducted. The Inamgaon data are compared with dental crown data from an Iron Age archaeological site in northern Pakistan known as Timargarha. Both prehistoric dental samples are compared with dental crown data for living Gujarati Hindu children from western India (Ahmedabad, Gujarat). The dental dimensions and indices for this living Gujarati sample are reported here for the first time. Dental arch dimensions, dental crowding, and size and location of diastemata are reported in detail for the Gujarati sample by Makhija (1981). MATERIALS AND METHODS The Inamgaon skeletal sample includes fragmentary maxillae and mandibulae and their associated dental elements, but many isolated teeth are also present in this sample. Specimens were derived from single or twin-urn burials located beneath the house floors, rather than in a cemetery. Three cultural phases are recognized at Inamgaon: Malwa (1600-1400 B.c.); Early Jorwe (1400-1200 B.c.) and Late Received January 10, 1983;accepted March 25, 1983 384 J.R. LUKACS, M.R. JOSHI. AND P.G. MAKHIJA Jorwe (1200-700 B.c.). These are distinguished TABLE 1 . Crown diameters of deciduous teeth of Gujarati Hindus from Western India by house shape, pottery design and fabric, and evidence of external cultural influences (DhavSexes pooled Female Male alikar, 1979; Sankalia et al., 1973, 1975). A t SD x SD jr SD total of 69 specimens from all three cultural phases preserved deciduous dental elements; Mesiodistal their distribution is Malwa (n = 3,4.4%),Early Maxilla 0.42 il 6.73 0.35 6.52 0.42 6.61 Jonve (n = 23,33.3%),and Late Jonve (n = 43, 0.34 5.50 0.35 5.31 0.36 5.39 i2 62.3%).Since the dentition of most specimens 0.37 6.82 0.32 6.53 0.40 6.70 C 0.45 ml 7.44 0.43 7.12 0.40 7.31 was incomplete, samples from all three cul0.51 9.21 0.55 9.08 0.58 9.18 m2 tural phases were pooled for statistical treatment. Approximately 96% of the Inamgaon Mandible 0.23 il 4.18 0.34 4.05 0.22 4.10 specimens are derived from Jorwe levels (early 0.30 i2 4.76 0.31 4.66 0.33 4.72 0.30 5.91 0.32 5.77 0.28 5.84 C and late) which are roughly synchronic with 0.48 8.15 0.38 7.78 0.40 7.99 ml the Timargarha sample. 10.24 0.61 9.91 0.45 10.10 0.51 m2 The Timargarha cemetery has an estimated Buccolingual antiquity (1400-850 B.c.) similar to that of In- Maxilla 0.34 5.25 0.31 5.04 0.30 5.16 il amgaon and is associated with the “Gandhara 0.39 4.94 0.34 4.71 0.33 4.83 i2 Grave Culture” of northern Pakistan (Bern0.48 6.19 0.47 5.96 0.50 6.06 C hard, 1967; Dani, 1966, 1967, 1980). The Ti0.54 ml 9.07 0.57 8.76 0.54 8.81 margarha skeletal series is currently on loan 0.57 m2 10.15 0.59 9.75 0.50 9.91 to Dr. Wolfram Bernhard (Anthropologisches Mandible il 0.29 3.88 0.25 3.87 0.25 3.87 Institiit, Universitat Mainz) by the Archaeol4.35 0.29 4.21 0.34 4.31 0.32 i2 ogy Department of the Government of Paki0.39 C 5.64 0.39 5.38 0.40 5.51 stan. 0.53 7.51 0.57 7.27 0.43 7.47 ml 0.56 9.32 0.61 8.87 0.48 9.11 m2 Measurements of the dental crowns for both prehistoric samples were made by Lukacs according to the standardized methods described by Moorrees (1957) and Wolpoff (1971). Unworn and undamaged dental crowns were mea- pooled, to enhance comparison with crown disured with a Helios needle-point dial caliper, ameters for the prehistoric samples described calibrated to 0.05 mm. Measurements were re- below. Males exhibit consistently larger crown peatedly made until a consistent reading was diameters than females. These differences are attained; figures were rounded to the nearest uniformly significant a t the .05 level, except 0.1 mm. for the buccolingual diameter of the mandiData for the Gujarati sample is derived from bular central incisor, which is not significantly plaster casts of 50 male and 50 female Hindu different between sexes. The MD diameter of schoolchildren from Ahmedabad. Stone plaster the maxillary canine shows greater differences dental casts were made from alginate impres- between the sexes than the mandibular canine. sions of children with normal occlusion beCrown diameters of deciduous teeth from tween the ages of 3 and 64 years. Individual prehistoric sites in western India (Inamgaon) crown dimensions were measured according to and northern Pakistan (Timargarha) are prethe method of Moorrees (1957), with a vernier sented in Table 2. Since sex is indeterminate caliper. Each measurement was rounded to the in the skeletal remains of children, these data nearest 0.1 mm and the average of three re- are based on samples that include both sexes. peated measurements was recorded (Makhija, There are no consistent differences in crown 1981). All figures reported below are based on diameter between the Inamgaon and Timarmeasurements of the left side of the dental ar- garha samples. However, when differences becade. tween these samples attain a conventional level of significance, the Inamgaon sample always RESULTS exhibits larger crown diameters than the TiMesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) di- margarha sample. ameters of the deciduous dental crowns of GuIf crown diameters of the Gujarati sample jarati Hindu children are presented in Table (sexes pooled) are compared with the Inam1. These results are presented independently gaon and Timargarha samples several obserby sex, for males and females; but they are also vations are noteworthy. The Inamgaon teeth presented for the entire sample, with sexes are consistently larger in both MD and BL di- 385 DECIDUOUS TOOTH SIZE IN WESTERN INDIA TABLE 2. Crown diameters of deciduous teeth from prehistoric Inampaon (India) and Timarparha (Pakistani Mesiodistal Buccolingual Inamgaon Maxilla il i2 e ml m2 Mandible il i2 C ml m2 = Timargarha Timargarha X (n) SD x 4) 6) 9) 8) 8) 0.29 0.52 0.53 0.59 0.35 5.30 5.04 5.94 9.00 10.04 (19) (33) (32) 0.33 0.38 0.47 0.59 0.66 5.18 4.89 5.83 9.09 9.81 ( ( ( ( ( 4) 3) 7) (13) (14) 0.42 0.38 0.29 0.36 0.40 4.10 4.44 5.43 7.40 9.14 (21) (22) (22) (36) (39) 0.29* 0.28 0.45 0.57* 0.56 3.75 4.40 5.47 7.02 8.92 ( ( ( (n) SD 6.81 5.51 6.76 7.43 9.45 (19) (21) (28) (33) (34) 0.42 0.44 0.43 0.44 0.57* 6.60 5.38 6.84 7.58 8.98 ( ( ( ( ( 4.34 4.91 5.84 8.40 10.59 (20) (22) (27) (36) 139) 0.24** 0.36 0.33 0.58 0.50** 3.95 4.67 5.99 8.27 10.13 ( ( ( X Inamgaon SD X (n) (20) (28) (n) SD 4) 7) 9) 8) 9) 0.30 0.25 0.39 0.34 0.45 4) 3) 6) (13) (13) 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.48 0.42 0.05 significance level. =* - 0.01 significance level mensions than the teeth of living Gujarati children; however, many of these differences are not statistically significant. A much greater similarity in crown dimensions is observed between the Gujarati sample and Iron Age sample from Timargarha. A most useful measure for comparative evaluation of differences in tooth crown size is the sum of cross-sectional areas of individual teeth. The cross-sectional area (crown area, robustness value) of a particular tooth is obtained by multiplying MD diameter by BL diameter. The sum of cross-section areas of all teeth (upper and lower) from one side of the dental arcade yields a figure (in mm2) that provides a convenient index for comparative studies of crown size. Devised by Brace (19621, this method has subsequently been successfully employed in the study of Australian aboriginal migrations (Brace, 1980) and in the analysis of biological and cultural mixing in the South Pacific (Brace and Hinton, 1981). Cross-sectional crown areas for deciduous teeth from prehistoric and living samples of western India and northern Pakistan are presented in Table 3. A “sexes pooled” column computed from the entire Gujarati sample is included to enhance comparison of living and prehistoric samples. Cross-sectional areas for individual teeth are summed for maxillary and mandibular arcades and a total crown area figure is also presented for each sample. Close inspection of Table 3 reveals several important points. In the Gujarati Hindu sample figures for cross-sectional crown area are consistently greater in males than females. This results in a cumulative difference of 34.47 mm2 between the male (493.61 mm2) and female (459.14mm2)total cross-sectional crown areas. Comparisons between the two prehistoric dental samples indicate that the Inamgaon sample more frequently exhibits greater cross-sectional crown areas than the Timargarha sample. Though most of these differences are nonsignificant,in cases where significantdifferences occur (mandibular canine, first and second molar) the Inamgaon sample is larger. The difference in total crown area between Inamgaon and Timargarha is 23.84 mm2,a figure smaller than that separating the male and female components of the Gujarati sample. A comparison of the Gujarati “sexes pooled” data with prehistoric samples emphasizes the close similarity in tooth crown size between Timargarha and living Gujaratis. The dental sample from Inamgaon, however, exhibits greater crown areas than the Gujarati sample for all teeth but the upper and lower canines. In both instances Gujarati canine teeth are only slightly larger (maxillarycanine, 0.46 mm2; mandibular canine, 0.62 mm2) than the Inamgaon canines and the differences are nonsignificant. Differences in crown area for other teeth range from 1.49 mm2 (lower lateral incisor) to 6.21 mm2 (lower second molar) and average 2.85 mm2, with Inamgaon always exhibiting larger teeth. The total crown area for Inamgaon (497.91 mm2)exceeds that reported for the “sexes pooled” column of the Gujarati sample (476.08 mm2)by 21.83 mm2. 386 J.R. LUKACS, M.R. JOSHI, AND P.G. MAKHIJA TABLE 3 . Crown areas for deciduous teeth ofprehistoric and living South Asians fin mm'i Prehistoric samples Inamgaon Living samples Timargarha Gujarati Hindus (n x Maxilla il i2 C ml m2 Maxillary crown area Mandible il i2 C ml m2 Mandibular crown area Total Crown Area 36.13 27.99 40.26 67.68 95.13 ( n) (19) (20) (27) (32) (32) = 50) Female (n = 50) SD n) SD 3 SD x SD x SD 3.89 3.64 5.45 5.89 11.00 34.21 26.45 40.06 68.95 87.86 ( ( 4) 6) 9) 8) 8) 3.39 3.66 5.37 7.41 5.74 34.20 26.11 40.72 64.57 91.15 3.93 3.35 4.89 7.11 9.69 35.57 27.16 42.38 67.75 94.12 3.46 3.28 4.28 7.17 9.71 32.93 25.08 39.22 62.36 88.77 3.58 2.91 4.97 6.06 9.45 ( ( ( 257.53 (20) (22) (22) (36) (36) Male (n 100) ( 267.19 17.74 21.81 31.62 62.21 97.34 = 2 1.90 2.62 3.83 6.37 10.16 14.88 20.61 32.51 58.10 90.44 256.75 4) 6) 9) (13) (13) ( ( ( 2.67 3.20 3.62 5.95 7.36 15.84 20.32 32.24 59.80 91.13 266.98 1.81 2.41 3.52 6.96 9.59 16.02 20.64 33.38 60.99 95.60 248.36 1.63 2.25 3.59 6.99 10.73 15.46 19.68 31.06 56.60 87.98 230.72 216.54 219.33 226.63 210.78 497.91 474.07 476.08 493.61 459.14 DISCUSSION These data provide valuable information regarding the tooth crown dimensions of prehistoric and living populations of South Asia. Their greatest value is as a source for the comparison and interpretation of new data generated by future studies of deciduous tooth crown size in South Asia. Since the data presented here are preliminary and the number of samples few, it is unwise to engage in detailed evolutionary interpretations. However, the idea that tooth crown size is correlated with level of technological development, food preparation techniques, and diet is a provoking one (Brace 1978; Brace and Mahler, 1971) and it may partially explain some of the tooth size variations reported here. The early farming people of Inamgaon exhibit larger deciduous teeth than either Iron Age (Timargarha) or modern (Gujarati Hindu) people of South Asia. It is possible that differences in technology, diet, and subsistence account for the difference in tooth size. The occupants of Inamgaon employed stone and copper tools and engaged in hunting to supplement their basically agricultural subsistence. Agriculture has a much longer history in and near the Indus Valley and may partially account for the smaller teeth of the people from Timargarha and Gujarat. Artifactual remains are not abundant a t the cemetery site of Timargarha; 1.89 2.58 3.37 5.24 7.89 consequently independent archaeological evidence of subsistence and diet for this sample is unavailable. Though at present this explanation is a plausible one, the evolutionary significance of differences in crown area will only become clear when data are gathered from many living and prehistoric people of widely varying technological abilities and dietary preferences. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank officials of the collaborating institutions (Deccan College, Pune; Government Dental College and Hospital, Ahmedabad; University of Oregon, Eugene) for their cooperation in providing facilities and leaves of absence to conduct this research. Special thanks is due Dr. S. B. Deo, Director (Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute) for permission to study the human skeletal series from Inamgaon, and for his continued encouragement. Data collection and analysis was conducted in India and was funded in part by research grants to the senior author (J.R.L.) from the American Institute of Indian Studies (NSF, INT8106982-A011 and the Smithsonian Institution (grant No. 1083700). We thank Dr. Karen Hbjgaard, Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, and the reviewers for reading the manuscript and providing useful comments. DECIDUOUS TOOTH SIZE IN WESTERN INDIA LITERATURE CITED Bernhard, W (1967) Human skeletal remains from the cemetery of Timargarha. Ancient Pakistan 3291-407. Brace, CL (1962) Cultural factors in the evolution of the human dentition. In MF Ashley-Montagu (ed): Culture and the Evolution of Man. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 343-354. Brace, CL (1978) Tooth reduction in the Orient. Asian Perspectives 19:203-219. 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