LEARN PHOTOSHOP CC & LIGHTROOM THE EASY WAY! Issue 77 August 2017 LAYER EFFECTS BLEND PHOTOS FOR INCREDIBLE RESULTS RAW ADVICE | RETOUCHING TRICKS | LIGHTROOM SKILLS LEARN PHOTOSHOP CC & LIGHTROOM THE EASY WAY! Issue 77 August 2017 LEARN PHOTOSHOP CC & LIGHTROOM THE EASY WAY! Issue 77 August 2017 LAYER EFFECTS BLEND PHOTOS FOR INCREDIBLE RESULTS LAYER EFFECTS BLEND PHOTOS FOR INCREDIBLE RESULTS WATCH THE VIDEO http://tiny.cc/h9bbjy DOWNLOAD THE PROJECT FILES To download this issue's files, type the following link into your web browser on your PC or Mac: RAW SKILLS | RETOUCHING TRICKS | LIGHTROOM SKILLS http://tiny.cc/vibkmy RAW SKILLS | RETOUCHING TRICKS | LIGHTROOM SKILLS Welcome to issue 77 of Practical Photoshop! If you enjoy the issue, why not subscribe and get a whole year for just $19.99? This month we tackle two of the biggest topics in Photoshop head-on. First there?s a complete guide to 爎aw processing; then you?ll find an in-depth tutorial on the most fundamental of all Photoshop features ? layers. Elsewhere there?s expert advice on爎etouching, Smart Previews and color tools. FIND US HERE? http://bit.ly/practweet http://bit.ly/pracface Also available on: http://tiny.cc/4dw9ky http://tiny.cc/rew9ky James Paterson, Editor t email@example.com www.digitalcameraworld.com http://tiny.cc/8ew9ky HIGHLIGHTS: WHAT?S INSIDE? THE POWER OF RAW MASTER THE PATCH TOOL CREATIVE COLOR CHANGES CREATE THE COVER LIGHTROOM SKILLS QLearn how to shoot and edit raw photos QDiscover how to retouch photos with ease QGet to grips with powerful colorchanging tools QMaster essential layer skills for amazing art QSave yourself time and disk space with Smart Previews NEWS LIGHTROOM MOBILE UPDATES A few long-awaited new features bring Lightroom Mobile ever-closer to its desktop counterpart Adobe has announced major improvements to Lightroom Mobile for iOS. With headline new features like the Adjustment Brush and Sharpening, it might prove to be the pivotal moment when many of us decide to stop editing on our PCs and start editing on our smartphones and tablets. The big news for most of us who know and love the desktop Lightroom?s Adjustment Brush is the new Selective Brush in Lightroom Mobile, which works in much the same way by allowing you to paint in adjustments over parts of an image. What?s more, the existing selective tools in LR Mobile ? the Graduated Lightroom Mobile for IOS now features a Selective Brush that lets you paint in tonal adjustments on-screen, just like the Adjustment Brush in the desktop app Filter and the Radial Filter� now feature an option to subtract with the brush, just like in Lightroom on desktop. For those of us who use LR Mobile regularly, the new brush is a real game-changer. Brushing on a tablet is arguably The IOS version for iPhone and iPad now includes a Details panel, with Sharpening sliders just like the desktop version more intuitive than on a desktop or laptop PC (especially if you use a mouse rather than a graphics tablet) so this might be a feature in Lightroom Mobile that surpasses its desktop counterpart. If you?re using an iPhone that supports 3D Touch (such as an iPhone 6S or later), you can even vary the effect by pressing softer or harder as you paint. And for iPad Pro users working with an Apple Lightroom for Android phones and tablets has received a爁resh爊ew look, with improved user interfaces Pencil, you get the same capability: press harder to apply more of the effect, or softer to apply less. Another game-changer is the introduction of the Detail panel. Used for sharpening and noise reduction, it contains all of the sliders seen in Lightroom on desktop, so you can get the same degree of sharpening control on your tablet or phone as you have on your PC. Among other improvements are a couple of new features for Lightroom Mobile?s camera, which now includes clipping warnings for blown-out highlights or shadows, and a handy vibration that lets you know when your scene is爌erfectly level. Lightroom Android users will have to wait for these features to trickle through, but in the meantime Android receives a fresh interface that brings it in line with IOS. GET MORE FROM RAW There comes a time when you have to decide: should I shoot in raw or燡PEG? We show why you should (almost always) choose raw? Photography requires dedication. Whether it?s learning techniques, waking up early for sunrise or buying new gear, we put so much time and effort into this artform that it makes sense to demand the most we can get out of our cameras. No matter what we choose to shoot ? landscapes, portraits, action, documentary ? we?d be shooting ourselves in the foot if we didn?t squeeze the maximum quality out of our digital cameras. There?s no doubt that a raw file gives you a better-quality image than a JPEG ? but it also requires slightly more work to realize that燽enefit. That?s where this guide comes in, as we cover the basics of raw processing. We?ll explain exactly why raw is a superior format to JPEG, then take your knowledge further with considerably more advanced raw edits such as high-dynamic-range imaging and爌ortrait retouching. WHY SHOOT RAW? It may take slightly more effort than shooting JPEGs, but shooting raw gives you greater flexibility and higher-quality images Even some phone cameras are燾apable of shooting in raw format these days. To an SLR owner, this may seem daft: surely JPEGs are fine for snaps and selfies? But the same could be said for shooting JPEGs with an SLR. We didn?t buy a camera with a sophisticated image sensor to leave it stuck in second gear, did we? The benefits to shooting raw over JPEG are greater dynamic range and flexibility. Shoot JPEG, and the camera will burn in white balance and color space. Shoot raw, and you can change these after the event. But the biggest factor for many photographers is dynamic range. Raw files hold greater detail in shadows and highlights, so either in high-contrast scenes, or on occasions where you accidentally over- or underexpose, a raw rescue job will allow for recovery. There are also some circumstances where raw is essential not just for the quality it爋ffers, but also for its veracity. For example, photojournalists and documentary photographers don?t want to be accused of doctoring their images. A raw file is as good as a negative in that there?s no way to燩hotoshop over it. RAW vs JPEG Or, to put it another way, quality vs convenience... RAW Contains all the information JPEG Stands for the Joint recorded at the time of shooting as it comes off the燾amera sensor Photographic Experts Group, the committee that wrote the爏tandard Raws hold greater dynamic range than JPEGs, meaning there?s more detail at the extremes of the highlights and shadows. Depending on your camera model, the燿ifference ranges from around�2爏tops. Straight out of the camera, JPEGs are ready for emailing, printing or viewing on almost燼ny device, without any need for post-processing or importing them into extra software like燗dobe Camera Raw or Lightroom. 12-bit-per-channel raws contain over 68燽illion colors, compared with 16 million in 8-bit-per-channel JPEGs. More colors means smoother gradations between different shades ? and less chance of any爃eavy editing you do leading to ?banding? of燾olors. JPEGs take up far less space than raw files, so you can fit more on a memory card or a hard drive. This has become less of an issue as storage has gotten cheaper. But it燾an be handy to switch to JPEG if you?re down to the last爁ew shots on your final remaining memory card. Raws are the digital equivalent of a negative in that, unlike a JPEG, there?s no chance of copying over your original or accidently resizing it. (Indeed, Adobe?s own raw file format is called DNG, standing for Digital Negative.) Because they?re much smaller, JPEGs write to your card quicker. They may be a better option for sports or action as they won?t fill up the buffer quite as quickly, meaning you can shoot a longer continuous sequence in high drive mode. FOCUS ON FORMATS JPEG JPEGs are the world?s favorite image format: they?re hugely efficient, light on file sizes, and open on almost any device. This is because they compress on closing (that?s when you get to choose a quality setting) then they uncompress again when opened, causing a slight loss of data each time. TIFF TIFFs offer lossless compression, so there?s no loss of quality from repeated opening and closing. To preserve the maximum information in an image format other than raw (and especially if you want to carry out further edits), save it as a�-bit TIFF. RAW Raw files contain unprocessed information straight from your camera?s sensor. Unlike JPEGs, you choose how the information is processed afterwards. Camera manufacturers each have their own type of raw file format, such as NEF for Nikon or CR2 for Canon. DNG Adobe?s universal ?Digital Negative? DNG is a lossless format, just like any other raw file, but any edits are stored inside the file rather than as a separate ?sidecar? file. DNG is useful when old software refuses to open new raw files, as you can convert a file with Adobe?s free DNG Converter software. WHY DO JPEGS LOOK BETTER? JPEGs Straight out of the camera, JPEGs often look much more vibrant than raw files, because the colors have been enhanced and sharpening applied in-camera. The excess raw data is then discarded. So JPEGs look punchier because the camera has taken some of the decisionmaking on how it should look out of your hands. RAW FILES Initially a raw file can often look flat, even disappointing, as the manufacturer expects you to make your own enhancements. The look will also vary depending on the爏oftware you chose to process raw files in. Even your camera?s LCD offers a subjective image, as it?s a JPEG燾opy of the newly captured raw file. SPOT THE DIFFERENCE Forget bit depth, compression algorithms and Bayer demosaicing. All most of us need to know is how the differences between raw and JPEG affect the photos we take... BEFORE RECOVERING OVEREXPOSURE How much of a safety net does raw provide? Our initial frame (taken with a Nikon D800 set to Raw+JPEG) was overexposed by two stops, which has left the sky looking washed out. Both JPEG and raw images were fixed in Camera Raw by dragging down on the Exposure slider. While by no means perfect, the raw image retains detail in the brightest clouds. JPEG +2 OVEREXPOSURE RAW +2 OVEREXPOSURE JPEG -4 UNDEREXPOSURE RAW -4 UNDEREXPOSURE BEFORE RECOVERING UNDEREXPOSURE Teasing detail out of underexposed shadows isn?t too tricky. Here our initial exposure was four stops underexposed, leading to a nearblack image in all but the brightest areas. Both raw and JPEG images were fixed in Camera Raw using the Exposure slider. Although lifting underexposure has led to increased noise in both images, the raw image holds much finer shadow detail. WHITE BALANCE: HOW DO RAWS AND JPEGS HOLD UP TO COLOR FIXES? JPEG FILE COMPRESSION: HOW BAD IS IT REALLY? JPEG FIXED JPEGs are a lossy format, meaning there?s an incremental loss of data every time you open and save a file. If you only open each file once or twice, this is probably acceptable ? but any more and you?ll notice a drop in quality, especially in areas of soft gradation like blue skies. How much should you worry about it? Shoot raw and, because the raw color data is recorded, you can change the white balance after the fact. Here our initial image was shot in Raw+JPEG and set to Tungsten white balance, which has resulted in an unnatural blue cast. Then both versions were fixed by clicking on a neutral grey point (in this case, the white vest) using the White Balance tool in Camera Raw. (This can also be done in Lightroom, or with Photoshop?s Curves/ Levels midpoint eyedropper.) The fixed raw gives more of a natural balance between the warm skin tones and the blues and greens in the background, while the JPEG fix has left the balance slightly awry, with neither skin nor background entirely accurate. Saved once Our original raw image was processed in Camera Raw, then saved as a JPEG. There?s no noticeable loss in quality, and so there?s no need to worry about compression. BEFORE RAW FIXED WHEN TO USE RAW AND JPEG Many SLRs and CSCs have a Raw+JPEG setting that lets you record both file formats at once. If爕ou?re happy to accept the extra memory card space the second file will occupy, it gives you the best of both worlds. The raw file will hold all the original color info, so you can archive it with the knowledge that you can always go back to it. But if you?re satisfied with the look of the燡PEG, there?s no need to bother processing the raw. It?s also useful when you need a爍uick turnaround on a set of images, as you can quickly access the JPEGs. Saved 10 times Now we?ve opened and resaved the image 10 times in Photoshop, using the highest Quality setting. The repeated compression has caused banding in the sky. Saved 50 times Granted, not many images will be re-saved 50 times over, but it highlights the huge drop in quality. Despite the drop, the actual file size has increased from an initial 17MB to 18.3MB. PROCESSING RAW FILES So you?ve decided to shoot in raw. Now you?ll need software like Photoshop?s Camera Raw plug-in or Lightroom to process the file... Editing raws requires a爏light shift in mindset if you?re used to a linear digital workflow like: Open file, Edit file, Save file. This isn?t possible with raw, as you can?t save over a raw file. The benefit of this impenetrable shell is that there?s no danger of you ever copying over your original image. Rather than Open-Edit-Save, the workflow is more like Open-Process-Save As. The first step is to open the file in a raw editor like Lightroom or Photoshop?s Camera Raw. These employ parametric editing, which means you?re not actually making changes to the original pixels: instead, you?re adjusting a set of parameters that affect how the image looks while it?s within the software. At some stage you may want to save the image as a different format like a JPEG or TIFF. This is like the imaging equivalent of burning a CD, in that you?re committing the version of the raw you like best into a new format. THE ADOBE RAW WORKFLOW Learn how to get started in Photoshop or Lightroom 01 OPEN A RAW FILE Drag a raw into Photoshop and it?ll pop up in the Camera Raw plug-in, where you can make initial enhancements. You can also open up Adobe Camera Raw directly from Bridge, and Lightroom?s own toolset is broadly similar to Camera Raw?s. 03 CAPTURE SHARPENING Raws don?t go through any incamera sharpening, so they?ll usually benefit from ?capture? sharpening (as opposed to ?output? sharpening for print or web). In the Detail panel, an Amount between 80-150 and a Radius between 0.8-2 often work well. 02 SET BLACK AND WHITE POINTS Raws often lack contrast initially, so they benefit from setting white and black points. Hold Alt and drag the white point left or right until the point just before white pixels appear, then hold Alt and drag Blacks until black spots begin to show. 04 EXPORT THE FILE Once you?ve finished in Camera Raw, you can click Save to save it in a different format, or click Open to bring it into Photoshop. All the changes made to the raw file will be stored for next time. BATCH-PROCESSING: APPLY THE SAME燙HANGES燭O燤ULTIPLE FILES Batch-process in camera Raw... Drag a group of raw files into Photoshop, or right-click them in Bridge and choose Open In Camera Raw. Either make edits to a single image then click Sync settings, or press Ctrl/Cmd+A to select all the images in the Filmstrip to edit them all at once. ..in Bridge... First, you need to edit a single raw file. Once you have done this, right-click it in Adobe Bridge and choose Develop > Copy Settings; then highlight the other images, right-click them and choose Develop Settings > Paste Settings. ...or in Lightroom Lightroom offers lots of tools for syncing your edits. You can edit a single file then select others and click Sync in the Develop Module; select several files and click Auto-Sync; or save effects as Presets then apply them. CAMERA RAW EXPLAINED Get to grips with Photoshop?s powerful plug-in and learn how to make quick adjustments that can help your images jump off the page or screen 1 2 BASICS PANEL PANELS The Basics panel is usually the first stop for enhancing tones. Start at the top by setting White Balance, then work your way down through the sliders. Highlights and Shadows are useful for teasing out details, while Clarity can add extra crispness to the midtones. Vibrance enables you to boost the weaker colors without affecting the dominant ones. The panels to the right let you access different options. The most useful include the Detail panel for sharpening or noise reduction; the Lens Correction panel (pictured), which lets you correct chromatic aberration, barrel distortion and converging verticals; and the HSL/Grayscale panel, which gives you control over eight separate color ranges in the image. 3 4 2 1 5 3 4 5 SPOT REMOVAL CROPPING WORKFLOW OPTIONS This tidies up marks or blemishes, so it?s useful for retouching portraits or removing sensor spots. Use ] and [ to resize the brush tip, then paint over the offending area. You can sync spot removal over a batch of frames if you?re plagued by a recurring mark. Cropping is often one of the first edits you?ll want to make. The benefit of doing it in a raw processing program is that the cropped areas are never lost, so you can always go back to the tool if you want to experiment with a different crop or燼爊ew aspect ratio. The workflow options are accessed by clicking the blue link below the image window. Here you can set a bit depth or color space that will be applied once you open the image into Photoshop. Similar settings are available in the Save options if you save in Camera Raw. SELECTIVE ADJUSTMENTS Camera Raw offers three main ways to adjust your image: the Graduated Filter, the Radial Filter and the Adjustment Brush. You define an area with the tool, then use the sliders to adjust it 01 GRADUATED FILTER You can make a straight blend by dragging a line between two points. To darken a sky, grab the tool and set Exposure to -1.00, then drag down from sky to land while holding Shift. We don?t want to include the cliffs in the adjustment, so we?ll switch to Brush mode in the settings, then paint to add or subtract from the area. 02 RADIAL FILTER Like the Graduated Filter, the Radial Filter creates a blended adjustment, but it?s circular rather than straight. It?s useful for subtly drawing the eye towards your subject by darkening the corners. When using either tool, click the plus or minus icons next to any slider to simultaneously load up the tool you want and reset all the other sliders. 03 ADJUSTMENT BRUSH The most powerful tool in Camera Raw, the Adjustment Brush lets you paint over an area (press Y to toggle the mask view on or off to see where you?ve painted), then use the sliders to adjust it. So you can dodge and burn, selectively boost color, and much more ? perfect for enhancing areas like the background here. GET CREATIVE WITH RAW Take your pictures beyond simple fixes with a range of creative effects in Camera Raw, from HDR images to classic monochrome BEFORE 01 GO MONO Camera Raw offers excellent control for stripping images of color. The HSL/Grayscale panel has a Convert To Greyscale checkbox; you can then use the color sliders to change the tones of eight different color ranges within the image. In practice, this means you can create a variety of mono looks, such as dropping the blues to add definition to clouds and drama to skies. Beware of adjusting sliders too heavily: it can break up tones in the image. Images will usually benefit from a boost in contrast too: this is best done by plotting an S-curve in the Tone Curve panel. 02 RETOUCH IN CAMERA RAW Although Photoshop offers more fine control, you can still give your portraits a quick, effective makeover in Camera Raw. The first step is to remove spots and blemishes with the Spot Removal tool. Once done, you can get stuck in with the Adjustment Brush. To soften the skin, grab the Adjustment Brush from the Tools panel and dial in Clarity -50. Then simply paint over the skin with the brush to give it a soft, smooth feel. Be very careful not to go over detailed areas like the eyes. (Hold Alt and paint to subtract if you do.) You can also use the Adjustment Brush to boost eyes by loading it with positive Contrast, Clarity, Exposure and Saturation. When using the tool there are a few vital shortcuts: use ] and [ to resize the brush tip; press Y to toggle the mask overlay on or off; and hold Alt to爀rase parts of the mask. BEFORE The HDR Merge dialog has three controls. Auto-Align helps if there are slight differences in the shot angle between frames. Auto-Tone enhances the tones, but settings can be tweaked afterwards in the Basic panel. Deghost fixes movement within the scene between frames. Once you?ve finished, Camera Raw will merge your image into a new raw file with the suffix .hdr. 03 RAW HDR EFFECTS For Photoshop CC subscribers, one of the relatively recent additions to Camera Raw is a real game-changer. The HDR Merge command lets you combine a set of frames taken at different exposure values into a single image with an expanded dynamic range. What?s more, the combined image doesn?t have the hyperreal look that plagues many HDR effects ? and the new file the command creates is also a raw file (in DNG format). To combine exposures, simply open a set of images into Camera Raw, hold Ctrl/ Cmd and click to select them in the Filmstrip, then click the flyout menu in the top-left and choose Merge to HDR. This opens the Merge dialog where, as well as options to auto-align images and auto-tone to reveal detail, you can also choose a Deghost value, which tidies up discrepancies between stills, such as moving clouds or people in the frame. BEFORE WATCH THE VIDEO http://tiny.cc/qzrjmy MASTER THE PATCH TOOL AND TIDY UP YOUR PHOTOS Get to grips with this powerful retouching tool in Photoshop and learn how to remove messy areas from your photos in a matter of seconds DOWNLOAD THE PROJECT FILES HERE http://tiny.cc/vibkmy ON YOUR PC OR MAC STEP BY STEP PRISTINE SAND Remove unwanted mess from your photos 01� SELECT THE PROBLEM Grab the Patch tool from the Tools panel. (It?s alongside the healing tools.) Whenever you use the Patch tool, your first job is always to make a selection over the area you?d like to fix. In this case, simply drag around one of the footprints to make a selection. You don?t need爐o be too precise about the 爏election at this point. 02� DRAG TO A SOURCE In the options at the top, set Patch: Content-Aware and Structure 1. Tick Sample All Layers, then go to Layer > New Layer. Drag the selected patch to a similar clean area nearby爐o爎emove the messy bit. If there are any rough results, try patching again or use the燙lone tool to tidy it up. PHOTOSHOP ANATOMY 1 MAKING A SELECTION You can make a lasso-like selection with the Patch tool over the problem area, or use another selection method then switch to the Patch tool. With the selection made, drag the patch to a similar area nearby to sample it. Where you drag is important: look for a similar but clear area, and follow the lines and shapes in the scene. 6 2 3 BLEND A PATTERN 1 4 5 6 Click Use Pattern and your selection is filled with the current pattern in the pattern picker. This might seem to have limited use, but it can be helpful if you need to add a texture to part of your image. More possibilities open up if you define an image as a pattern then sample it. 2 3 4 5 CONTENT-AWARE PATCH MODE CONTROL THE STRUCTURE NORMAL PATCH MODE SOURCE OR DESTINATION Set the tool to Content-Aware and it will analyze the surrounding pixels to deduce what to keep in the area being patched. It?s handy爓hen details around the selected area need to be preserved. It lets you patch onto an empty layer when Sample All Layers is爐icked. Structure determines how strictly the tool (in Content-Aware mode) preserves details. It?s not always easy to figure out which level is best for your image. If in doubt, try it at 7, then undo and try it at 1 to see which works better. Here, a爈ow setting worked best. Content-Aware Patch mode isn?t always燽est: Normal mode can be just as useful. When Normal mode is爏elected, the tool behaves much like the Clone tool, in that the main part爋f your selection is simply copied across, but the edges are blended with the surrounding pixels. In Normal mode, you can choose Source or Destination. This affects how your initial selection is used. With Source, you select the problem area then drag to a clean area nearby to fix it. With Destination, it?s vice versa: the selected area is preserved, while the draggedto area is affected. THE ?ERASE AND FILL? TRICK Try this when you?re Content-Aware filling? 7 1 4 2 6 WATCH THE VIDEO 3 http://tiny.cc/50rjmy 5 Content-Aware Fill is similar to the Patch tool: both create fresh pixels based on an analysis of the image content. Unlike the Patch tool, though, Fill analyses the entire image to determine how to fill the selected area. Sometimes it works better if you remove everything except the parts you want to analyze. Here, temporarily hiding the owl lets you爂et rid of the tree爏tump. Press Ctrl/Cmd +J to copy the background layer , then hide the lower layer. Click the Create Mask icon  in the Layers panel. Set the Brush to black  and爌aint over the details you don?t want to be analyzed . Select the area to be filled (the tree stump in this image) , then go to Edit > Fill and choose Use: Content-Aware . Right-click the Layer Mask thumbnail  and pick Delete Mask. TAKE CONTROL OF COLOR IN PHOTOSHOP Get the drop on color controls with four ways to shift hues in your photos WATCH THE VIDEO http://tiny.cc/k1rjmy HOW TO SHOOT WATER DROPS If you want to shoot ?frozen in time? water drops like ours, you?ll need a爉acro lens, a tripod, a flashgun, a爂lass, a pipette and a colored backdrop. For the very best results, you also need to be able to fire the flashgun off-camera, either with a sync cable, triggers or燼 wireless triggering system. Set the pipette up on a stand above the full glass, then focus manually on the exact spot where the drops fall. Place your colored backdrop behind (we used a green chopping board as a makeshift green screen), then position your flashgun behind the glass, angled on the backdrop. Use a low flash power and high ISO for a really short flash duration, then turn off all the lights and start dripping and shooting. It?s all in the timing, so be prepared to practice. DOWNLOAD THE PROJECT FILES HERE http://tiny.cc/vibkmy ON YOUR PC OR MAC 01 ADJUST THE HUE Go to the燣ayers panel (Window > Layers), click the Create Adjustment Layer icon and choose Hue/Saturation. Drag the Hue slider to alter all the colors. To target specific colors, click the Hand icon in Properties, then drag up or down over a color within the image. (Hold燙trl/Cmd while dragging to tweak Hue.) You can also tint the entire image with a specified color: tick the Colorize box, then adjust the Hue. 02 USE CAMERA RAW CONTROLS Another easy way to shift color is爁ound within the Camera Raw plug-in (or under Filter > Camera Raw Filter in Photoshop). Simply drag the Temp and Tint sliders to shift the colors from warm to cool, as we?ve done here. For more control in Camera Raw, grab the Targeted Adjustment tool, right-click and choose either Hue, Saturation or Luminance, then drag up or down over colors in the image. 0 03 REPLACE A COLOR The Replace Color command lets you target a color in the image then alter the way it looks. Make a duplicate of your original layer with Ctrl/Cmd+J, then go to Image > Adjustments > Replace Color. Use the eyedropper to isolate the colors you want to alter. Click on the eyedropper-plus tool, then drag over all爐he colors in the image. Use the Hue燼nd Saturation sliders to change the colors, then click OK to apply. 04 REMAP THE MIDTONES You can use Levels or Curves to map colors onto tones. Duplicate the layer and press燙trl/Cmd+L for Levels. Double-click the midtone eyedropper and choose a color, then click in the image to sample a midtone. Here we?ve made two Level adjustments, then used a mask to blend them. To do so, add a Layer Mask, grab the Gradient Tool then plot a black-towhite gradient. Use the Brush tool set to black (hide) or white (reveal) to爁ine-tune the blend. GET CREATIVE WITH LAYERS Learn how to use layer and blending skills to combine your photos for amazing results Layers are the foundation of almost all Photoshop projects. They let you blend images, adjust tones, add design elements like text, try out filters and take your images in many different directions. What?s more, by keeping each element in a composite separate and editable, they?re essential for a nondestructive workflow. Here we?ll explore some of the ways in which layers enable us get creative with our images. We?ll begin with the fundamentals and explore features like Blend Modes and Layer Masks, before explaining how to create stunning layer-based effects like the cover image. DOWNLOAD THE PROJECT FILES HERE http://tiny.cc/vibkmy ON YOUR PC OR MAC HOW LAYERS WORK Layers are like sheets of tracing paper laid out on top of one another. Any transparent or semitransparent parts allow the layers below to show through. When you copy in any image or part of an image, it?ll automatically appear on a new layer. These layers form a stack, which can be viewed and edited using the Layers panel (Window>Layers). As well as pixel-based layers like images, there are other types too. Adjustment Layers are tonal effects that work over all the layers below them in the stack; and vectorbased layers like text or shapes let you include design elements in your document. 1 2 3 1 Blended with the Overlay Blend Mode, this photo of stars adds a little sparkle to the overall composite. 2 Blended with the Screen Blend Mode, the bold shape of the elephants brings the composite together. 3 The Soft Light Blend Mode was used, and a Layer Mask hides most of the layer. 4 The layer was set to 70% opacity, then the edges were softened with a Layer Mask. 5 4 5 This sky photo?s layer was set to the Overlay Blend Mode to add color and contrast to the composite. 6 6 The base layer is the lion ? the positioning was tweaked to match the shape of the爀lephant. BLEND WITH OPACITY One of the simplest ways to blend two images is by adjusting their opacity. First open one image, then copy another on top. This can be done in several ways: either drag the image in with the Move tool, or copy and paste, or go to File > Place Embedded. Next, go to the Layers panel. You?ll see that there are now two layers in the Layers panel. Experiment by adjusting the opacity of the top layer using the Opacity slider at the top of the panel, then use the Move tool if you want to fine-tune the positioning of each image. 1. SCREEN 2. HARD MIX 3. SOFT LIGHT 4. SUBTRACT USE BLEND MODES As well as blending layers with Opacity, you can also try using the Blend Mode dropdown at the top of the Layers panel, which gives you 26 different ways to blend a layer with the layers below. Each blend mode is an algorithm that compares the pixel values on the selected layer and the layers below - for example, the Screen mode adds together the brightness values of the pixels on the blend layer with the corresponding pixels on the layers below, resulting in a double-exposure effect. It?s not always obvious which mode to choose, so it?s worth cycling through (Shiftplus or shift-minus) to see what works. COMBINE IMAGES WITH MASKS Layer Masks allow you to combine images just as if you were creating a cut-out collage with a set of prints and a pair of scissors ? but you can create incredibly precise cut-outs, and the cuts you make are never set in stone. A Layer Mask simply lets you hide or reveal parts of a layer. Add a mask using the icon at the bottom of the Layers panel, then simply paint with black to start hiding areas. If you want to reveal those areas later, simply paint with white (making sure the Layer Mask thumbnail that?s attached to the layer is highlighted ? Altclick it for a handy mask view). To be more precise with your cutouts, make a selection before turning it into a mask. CREATE STUNNING COMPOSITES Bring all your layer skills together to create amazing artwork like the cover image WATCH THE VIDEO http://tiny.cc/lcxjmy 01 BLEND THE ELEPHANTS Open lion.jpg and elephant.jpg. With the Move tool, drag the elephant image onto the tab of the lion image, then down to copy it over. In the Layers panel (Window>Layers), click the Blend Mode dropdown and change the elephant layer from Normal to Screen. 02 ADD A SKY Use the Move tool to adjust the elephant layer until it fits neatly with the lion. Next open sky.jpg and drag it in with the Move tool, as before. Go to the Layers panel and drag the sky layer below the elephants layer. (Double-click layer names to rename each.) Change the Blend Mode to Overlay. 03 POSITION YOUR燣AYERS Open hyenas.jpg and drag it in with the Move tool. Place this layer below the elephants layer. Press Ctrl/Cmd+T for Transform, then resize the bounding box and position the hyenas over the elephant legs. Press Enter to apply, then lower the layer opacity to 70%. 04 MASK THE EDGES The hyena layer has hard edges, but you can use a mask to soften them. With the layer highlighted, click the Add Layer Mask icon in the Layers panel. Select the Brush tool. Press D then X to set the foreground color to black, choose a soft-edged brush, and paint around the edges of the hyena image. 05 BRING IN BRANCHES Drag in tree.jpg and change the Blend Mode to Soft Light, then Transform (Ctrl/Cmd+T) and move it so the branches come in from the edges. As with the hyena layer, add a Layer Mask and paint with black to hide the areas you don?t want to include in the composite. 06 MIX THE STARS Drag in stars.jpg. In the Layers panel, move it to the top of the layer stack (or press Cmd/ Ctrl+Shift+] ). Change the Blend Mode of the stars layer to Overlay to blend the bright highlights and add contrast to the overall image. Next press Ctrl/Cmd+Shift+Alt+E to merge a copy of all the current layers. 07 FINAL TOUCHES With the merged layer highlighted, go to Filter > Camera Raw Filter. You?ll use this to make some final tonal adjustments. Begin in the Camera Raw Basic panel. Tweak the Temperature and Tint, then adjust the Contrast and Clarity using the settings shown. When you?re happy, click OK. LEARN LIGHTROOM TODAY! WATCH THE VIDEO http://tiny.cc/s0rjmy This month, discover how Lightroom Smart Previews can save time and free up space If you?d like to watch the complete course now, get the app from the Apple App Store LIKE THIS? NOW AVAILABLE ON THE APPLE APP STORE BIT.LY/TYLRAPP BUY NOW! Your quick-start guide and reference to image editing in Photoshop If you?re relatively new to editing in Photoshop, or you just don?t know where to begin, then this section is the best place to get started. Over the next nine pages, you?ll find an overview of the different versions of Photoshop available; a breakdown of the typical image-editing workflow in Photoshop; an overview of raw file editing; a guide to the six most useful layers; and a glossary of the most useful shortcuts. This guide condenses most of the tools and techniques you?ll use every time you import a new roll of pictures. LIGHTROOM 6 �9.99 OR �.10/$9.99 PER MONTH WINDOWS, macOS PHOTOSHOP CC �.10/$9.99 PER MONTH WINDOWS, macOS Photoshop is the software of choice for most professional and non-professional photographers. Beyond the standard photo-editing features, it boasts a vast array of more creative tools and filters. Layers are one of the key differences between Photoshop and Lightroom. They enable you to mask out selected parts to build up increasingly sophisticated images. Lightroom combines the professional rawprocessing tools in the more expensive Photoshop CC with the asset-organizing powers of the cheaper Photoshop Elements. Lightroom is available as a traditional boxed copy (Lightroom 6), and as part of a Creative Cloud subscription (Lightroom CC). Essentially, the applications are the same, except Lightroom CC has Creative Cloud support, ongoing updates, and access to the mobile and web workflows. LIGHTROOM MOBILE INCLUDED WITH CREATIVE CLOUD IPHONE, IPAD, ANDROID ELEMENTS 15 �.99/$99.99 WINDOWS, macOS Elements is the consumer variant of Photoshop, and contains many of its key tools and features within a simplified interface. It?s limited, but it does provide access to layers for those who have switched to a Lightroom workflow. Lightroom Mobile is the lightweight iPad, iPhone and Android version of the application, integrated with Lightroom CC but not Lightroom 6. To use Lightroom Mobile you need to sign up for an Adobe ID so that you can access the Adobe Creative Cloud. This enables you to create a collection of photos on your desktop copy of Lightroom and sync them via爐he Creative Cloud to Lightroom Mobile on your portable devices. You can then use Lightroom Mobile to edit or add ratings to your pictures. ADOBE SHAPE FREE IPHONE, IPAD, ANDROID ADOBE PHOTOSHOP MIX FREE IPAD, ANDROID Mix enables you to merge two photos together to create a composite image. It offers a simplified compositing process that makes it easy for beginners to start combining an object from one image with a background from another. You can then send the composite to Photoshop for further edits. If you like, you can also use Mix to edit a single image. It offers a few simple tonal adjustments and more complex edits such as Content-Aware Fill. ADOBE COLOR FREE IPHONE, IPAD, ANDROID If you ever need help selecting coordinated colors for your designs, try using Adobe Color. It enables you to create color themes from photos taken on your mobile device. This could be anything from a scene in your local park to a famous painting. So if you come across an inspirational scene, capture the colors and save them. Adobe Shape enables you to turn photos and sketches into beautiful vector shapes for use in your designs or artwork. The app smooths out jagged edges in images, resulting in gorgeous vectors that are endlessly scalable, just as if you?d drawn them by hand with the Pen tool. Make a shape with the mobile app and the next time you open Photoshop on your desktop, the shape will sync to your Library. Drag it in to any document to add color and make further adjustments. ADOBE BRUSH FREE IPHONE, IPAD, ANDROID Adobe Brush enables you to make your own custom brushes from photos or sketches for use in Photoshop, Illustrator or the Sketch app. The most successful subjects are usually those that can be easily isolated, such as a splash against white, or a leaf against the sky. You can capture objects for your brush tips using your device?s camera, choose from your camera roll, or use your Creative Cloud library. Once captured, you can then finetune the look of the tip and apply brush settings. ADOBE COMP CC FREE IPAD ADOBE PHOTOSHOP SKETCH FREE IPAD As the name suggests, this app enables you to paint freehand using a selection of brushes, colors and other tools. However, Sketch is more than just a painting app. It also enables you to connect with like-minded creatives, so you can follow artists and see their work updating. Once you?re done sketching the image on your iPad, you can upload to the Sketch community or continue working on the image in Photoshop CC. You can also bring in brushes made with Adobe Brush, and for those who can?t paint, there?s an option to overlay images so you can trace over a photo. Sketch is compatible with Adobe?s pen and ruler hardware, Ink and Slide, but you can get great results with your finger. PHOTOSHOP FIX FREE IPAD Fix is a retouching app for altering portraits and fixing marks or blemishes in your photos. Intelligent facial recognition locks onto eyes, lips noses and chins, making it easy to tweak a smile, tuck in a jawline or enlarge eyes, should you wish. If you?re a designer who wants to build a quick layout for a web or print page, then Comp is the ideal place to start piecing ideas, images and text together. You can draw common design elements such as text or image boxes with quick gestures. For example, a couple of squiggly lines with a dot makes a header, and a cross makes an image box. It makes it easy to mock up a layout in seconds. You can then add words and graphics. The app even spits out a Photoshop, Illustrator or InDesign document. BEHANCE CREATIVE PORTFOLIO FREE IPAD, IPHONE Behance is the online social space for creatives to share and showcase their portfolios, connect with one another, and find work. With work from the best photographers, digital artists and designers out there, it?s also a great place to find inspiration for a new project. If you?re a Creative Cloud subscriber you can set up a Behance page in minutes. The Behance app for iOS devices enables you to manage your page, while the Creative Portfolio app provides a polished portfolio. Manage your photos from capture to output in three stages The image-editing process begins as soon as you?ve transferred your photos from your memory card to your computer. 1 The first stage is to begin sifting through your pictures to discover which are the keepers. The image organizer that comes with Photoshop is ideal for this task. Adobe Bridge has controls for keywording, rating and filtering your images, and there are handy tools for batch renaming files, creating panoramic stitches, making contact sheets and more. Launch Adobe Bridge and navigate to a folder containing new images. Use the cursor keys to quickly flick through the images and click below a thumbnail to add a star rating, or use the keyboard shortcut Cmd/Ctrl+1-5. You can then filter your images by the star rating to group the ones you want to work on. 2 The next step is to open the images from Bridge into Adobe Camera Raw. ACR is the best place to make initial changes to your images to boost tones and correct any problems with exposure and so on. It doesn?t enable you to combine images ? you?ll use Photoshop for that ? but it does enable you to make the kind of edits photographers need. 3 In Photoshop, you can further refine the image with layers and adjustment layers, which offer a much more flexible way of working than ACR. Once you?ve finished, it?s time to share it with a wider audience. Go to File>Save, and your image will be saved as a Photoshop document (PSD). This keeps all the layers intact, which means you can go back and retweak the image at a later date. However, PSD files are large and take up lots of hard drive space. If you want to share your images online or via email or social media, save them as JPEGs. 1 2 3 Discover how to process your raw files to perfection The latest version of the raw file processor included with Photoshop is so powerful that most photos can be processed entirely in the raw processor, with no need for further editing in Photoshop. And by making your adjustments in Adobe Camera Raw rather than in Photoshop, you?ll ensure the best possible image quality, because raw files contain more picture information than bitmap images such as un-layered PSDs and JPEGs. Here?s our reference to the features you?ll use the most in the Basic panel. THE BASIC PANEL IN ACR CONTRAST Makes light pixels brighter and dark pixels darker HIGHLIGHTS TEMPERATURE Controls the brightness of the lightest pixels Use this slider to warm or cool an image if the White Balance tool fails to correct a color cast SHADOWS Controls the brightness of the darkest pixels TINT This slider enables you to correct a green or magenta cast, again, if the White Balance tool fails WHITES Sets a point on the tonal range at which pixels should be pure white EXPOSURE CLARITY Controls the overall brightness of the image BLACKS Sets a point on the tonal range at which pixels should be pure black Controls the amount of midtone contrast SATURATION VIBRANCE Controls the overall color intensity of the image Adjusts the intensity of the less-saturated colors The six most frequently used Photoshop layers for image editing, and how to use them to improve almost any photo Photoshop has many types of layers and adjustment layers available, but there are six that you?ll find you need to use again and again. Learning how they should be used may seem a little daunting for beginners, but once you?ve got to grips with them, you?ll find they play a part in the creative process of almost every image you make. 01 LEVELS This should be the first layer you add to an image, because it fundamentally alters the tonal range of the entire image. Create a Levels Adjustment Layer, drag the Black Point slider inwards until it touches the lefthand edge of the histogram, and drag the White Point slider inwards to the right-hand edge. This remaps the tones of the image to make more of the available tonal range. 02 CURVES Curves is one of the most powerful adjustment layers. An S-shaped curve brightens the highlights and darkens the shadows, resulting in extra contrast. Create a Curves Adjustment Layer and click the middle of the diagonal line to add a central control point. Drag down on the lower part of the line and drag up on the upper part of the line to improve image contrast. 03 HUE/SATURATION This adjustment layer is best used for altering the intensity and brightness of individual color channels in an image ? greens and blues in landscapes, for instance. Create a Hue/Saturation Adjustment Layer, click the Master menu and choose the color channel you?d like to adjust. Small changes are usually the most effective. 04 HEALING LAYER Most photos contain unwanted marks or blemishes. The Spot Healing Brush tool is effective at removing these. The best way to apply the healing is on a new blank layer, so that you can easily tone down or remove selected healing work later without having to start from scratch because you healed directly on the background layer. To do this, create a new blank layer, choose the Spot Healing Brush tool from the Tools panel and tick Sample All Layers on the Options Bar, then continue as normal. AFTER 05 BEFORE DODGE AND BURN One of the best ways to enhance a photo is by lightening or darkening selected areas of the image. This can be done with the Dodge and Burn tools, but rather than use them directly on the image, a separate grey layer gives you greater control. To create a Dodge and Burn layer, hold down Alt and click the Create a new layer icon in the Layers panel. Give the layer a name, then choose Mode: Overlay. Check Fill with Overlay-neutral color and click OK. Now use the Dodge and Burn tools (with Range set to Midtones) to work on the new layer. 06 SELECTIVE SHARPENING Once all other adjustments have been made, you need to sharpen the image for output. The traditional way is to create a merged layer at the top of the stack, apply Unsharp Mask, then paint on the mask to remove the sharpening from those parts of the image you want to remain soft. However, the Sharpen tool enables more control over the process by enabling you to build up the effect by brushing repeatedly with a low opacity brush. Create a new blank layer, select the Sharpen tool, tick Sample All Layers and set a Strength of 50% or lower. 14 keyboard shortcuts that will massively improve your speed and efficiency while working in Photoshop D X Reset the foreground and background colors to black and white Switch the foreground and background color swatches ALT+[SCROLL WHEEL] [ OR ] Zoom in or out of the image Resize the brush tip CMD/CTRL+SHIFT+ALT+E SHIFT+[ OR ] Create a merged copy of all the layers in the layer stack Cycle backwards or forwards through the layer blend modes SPACE BAR CMD/CTRL+ALT+Z Temporarily switch the current tool to the Hand tool, for moving around the image while zoomed in Undo the last change made to the document. Works multiple times ALT+[EYE ICON] CMD/CTRL+[LAYER MASK] Switch off the visibility of all other layers in the layer stack, for before-and-after comparisons Load the currently active layer mask as a new selection CMD/CTRL+I CMD/CTRL+T Invert the color of a layer mask to black Activate the Free Transform tool SHIFT+[LAYER MASK] CMD/CTRL+J Disable the effects of a layer mask Duplicate the current layer Future Publishing Limited, Quay House, The Ambury, Bath BA1 1UA Editorial +44 (0)tXXXEJHJUBMDBNFSBXPSMEDPN Editorial Editor James Paterson firstname.lastname@example.org Art Editor Justin Webb email@example.com Production Editor Richard Hill firstname.lastname@example.org Group Editor in Chief Chris George Senior Art Editor Rebecca Shaw Cover image James Paterson 9000 9001 All copyrights and trademarks are recognised and respected Advertising Media packs are available on request Commercial Director Clare Dove email@example.com Account Director Matt Bailey firstname.lastname@example.org 01225 687511 Account Manager Claire Harris email@example.com 01225 687221 International Practical Photoshop is available for licensing. 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