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LINUX FORMAT №8 2017

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LINUX ??? ???????!
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72
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╗ ?? ????????? ???? ???, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????
л????????╗, ?? ???????? GNU GPLv3.
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?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????, ?а????????????? ?????? ????? Microsoft ??н
?????? ????????? ?? ????, ?????????, ??? Linux ???????, ??? ??? ??? ??? ???н
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??????????? ??аLinux ???а????????? ?????????. ??а?а???аDocker ??? Windows,
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╗ info@linuxformat.ru
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??? ?ал?????????????╗ ?а??????? ????????????
?????????????а? ??а??? ????.
??? ? ???? ?????????
?????? ??? ??????????: letters@linuxformat.ru
???????? ? ?????????? ??????: subscribe@linuxformat.ru
??????????? ?????????: answers@linuxformat.ru
????? ???????: info@linuxformat.ru
???????? ? ???????: disks@linuxformat.ru
??????? ???????????????: sales@linuxformat.ru
????: www.linuxformat.ru, ?????? л?????????╗: vk.com/linuxform
> ????? ????????: ??????, ?????-?????????, ??. ???????, 5, ????. 7
> ??????? ????????: (812) 309-0686. ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?. 112
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?????? 2017 LXF226
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OBRevenge 2017.05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
???????? ?а????? ???????? ???? ??????...
??а???н????? ????????????? ??а??? ??????н
????? ??????? ???????.
Skype ??? Linux Beta . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Microsoft ?????, ??? Skype ??? Linux ?????
?????? ??а?????? ?????????, ??? Skype
??а?????? ??????????. ??? ?а????????.
AMD Ryzen 5 1500X . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
???? ??????????????? ????????? ????????
??????????? ?аIntel, ?а?????? ?а????????н
??? ???????! ????????, ?????? ??? ?????
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???????? ???????, ???????? ??? Windows
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?а????? ? ?????????? ? ??? ???????.
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?????????:
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?. 24
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Kentucky Route Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
?????? ????? л?????????? ??? ????╗ ???
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Lords ofаXulima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?аKickstarter ?????н
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4
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?? ????? ?????????? DVD
?????? ???????????
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Elementary OS 0.4.1
╗ ??????? ╗ ???????? ╗ ???????????????????
Zorin OS
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????????? ?? LXF!
12.1
????????????? ?????????????,
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LIVE-????: ????? ? ??????
??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? LINUX
64н??????
╗ ?????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????????
????: HotPicks, ??? ? ?????????? ?. 106
????????????? Raspberry Pi
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ? ??????
??????? Pi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
?????? Linux ??? ??????! . . . . . . . . . 46
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????????? Linux ?а???? Ubuntu.
Ubuntu Mate 16.04 LTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
??????? ???????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
?? ?????????, ????? ??????а?? ?????????? Ubuntu
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??а??????????!!!)
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??????? ??????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
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? ????? ????? ROSA, ?????????
???? ?? ??а???????, ?а?????????????
???а? ??а???????, AMD ??????? 7н??
??????????, ????????? IBM ???????
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????????????? ????? ??????? ????,
?а????н?????? ????????????? ??а???н
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?????н????? SSD.
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???? ??а??????: Buffered VPN, IVPN,
Mullvad, Perfect Privacy, SlickVPN.
?????
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Nokia ?????? ??а???? ??????????
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?????? ?а5G.
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KMail, Konv,аMin, Screencloud,
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???? Linux Format . . . . . 106
????????????
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????? ??????.
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?????? ???????? LXF225а?
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HotPicks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
????? ????? . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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????????? ????????????! ???н
??? ?а???? ??????? ??????????
??: ANGRYsearch, Curlew, Extreme
Tux Racer, Feedreader, Flowblade,
??? ??а????? ??????????! ??????????
????? ?а?????????? Docker, ?????? ???
?????? VirtualBox, ???????? ?????
??????????? ?????????, ?а??а??????!
???????????, ???? ???? ?????? ?????н
??? ????????? ?????? ??а??? ???????,
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????????, ???? ??а???? . . . . . . . 76
????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????
????? ??а???????????? ?? ???.
????? ????????? ??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
5
???????
???????
? ???? ??????: ????? ROSA ╗ ?????? ? ???????? ╗ ??? ?? ???????? ╗ 7 ?? ? ?? ?????
╗ ??????а?? IBM ╗ ??????? Xeon ╗ ?? ?????????: ??? ╗ ??????? ???????
????????????
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?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????? ????????.
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????????? ???????? л??? ?? ????╗
????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??н
?? ???? ROSA Enterprise Linux Servн
er (RELS) 6.9, ??а???? CentOS 6.9. ?????????
?????? ??????????? (?а?. ?. ????????????).
????????????, ???????? ???????? ???н
?????, ?????????? ????? ?? ???????? ??
RELS 6.7, ?а?????? ??а6.9 ?????????? ?а??н
?????? ??????. ??? ???? ?????????????,
????????????? ???????? ??а?? RELS 6.7,
??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??а??
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??а?????????? ?? RELS 6.x ??а??????? ??н
???????? ?????? ?? RELS 6.9.
???????? ??????? ?? RELS 6.9:
╗ ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????н
??? ???аISOн???????а? RelaxнandнRecover;
╗ ??? ??????? IPsec ?????????? ?аOpenswan
??аLibreswan, ??? ??????? ?????? ?а?????н
?????? ????????? ?????? VPN;
╗ ?аSSSD ???????? ????????????? ?аAcн
tive Directory ?а????????? ?????????????;
????????? ??????
??????????? (? ???
????? ????????????).
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TRIM, ??? ?????? 2н?? ????????? ????????н
??? ?? ???, ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? Winн
dows 10 ?аWindows Server 2016; ?аvirtioнwin
?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??,??????????? ??н
??????? Windows 10а?а??????????? KVM;
╗ ?аOpenSSL, NSS, GnuTLS, rsyslog ?аvsftpd
????????? ??? ?????? ????????? TLS 1.2;
╗ ????????? ???????? ????????????, ???н
???? ????????? ????? ??????????? Intel;
╗ ?????? ??????????, ???????? ???? ????н
?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????????????;
╗ ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??н
????? ?а???????? ?? CentOS/RedHat 6.?.
IPн?????????
???? ?? ???????
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?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???
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?? ?? ?????) ???а ??? ???? ?? ?? л????╗
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???? ??? ??а??????? ?????? 64н?????? ???
??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? л???н
????╗. ???????????? ??????? ??а????????
6
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
???????н4.4 ?а?????? ?????? ???????н4C
(1891??8?) ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??н
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???????????????? ???? ECSSн10 SOFTSWITCH ??????????
??а????????????? ?????????? ???????.
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?????????: www.angstrem.ru; www.theinquirer.net
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???? AMD ???? ???????????? [Mark
Papermaster] ?????? ??????? ????н
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?? ?а?????? ???????????? ?а????? ??а?????
??? ?????, ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???????
?????. Apple ?????????? Integrated Fan Out
Waferнlevel Packageа? ??? ????????, ???н
????????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??н
????? ?а?? ????? ?????????? ??????????
> CTO AMD ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????
7н?? ???????????.
????????????? ????н
???? ??????? ??????н
????? ????????????.
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???????????; ??? ??????????, ??????????
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??????? IBM
????????? ??????? ??????
???????????? IBM Z ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????
??а????? ??? 10а???.
?
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?????????? ??а????????? CMOSн???н
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??? 35н?????????? ?????????? ???????н
?? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???
???????? ??а????????? ?а?????????? ??н
?? ?? ?? ?? IBM z13. ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???
???? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??а?? ?? Linux ?а??н
??? ?? ?? ??а ?? ?? ?? IBM Z ??? ?? ???? ??
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???????????????? ??а????? ??????, ????,
??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????н
???, ????? ??? IBM Cloud Blockchain, ???а??н
???н???? ????????? ?????????? ?а?????н
????? ??а?????? ???????.
?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? IBM Z ?а?? ??? ??
?????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???н
??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???н
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?????????, ????? ??а???????? ?а2022а?.а??н
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????? ???????????
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Intel ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? Xeon ??а?????? ?????????????
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??а?????????? ????????? Ring, Mesh ???н
? ?????? ????????? ?? ?? ?а3Dн????? ?? ??,
??? ??????????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??????н
?? ????? ?? ?а????????? ??????????????
??????????. ????? ?????????? Intel ???н
?????????? ??а??????? ???????: ????????
?? ??? ?? ???, ?? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???? ???
???? ?? ??, 5G, ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????
(???а???????? ??а?????????? Xeon Scalable
?????????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???н
?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???). ??а ???н
??? Intel, ????? ?????????? Xeon SP ?а3,1
???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??н
??????????? ????? ?????; ????? Intel Key
Protection Technology (KTP) ????????????
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????? ??????????
Intel ?????????????
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?????? Bronze, Silver, Gold ?аPlatinum,
??????????? ????? ??????? Xeon Processor
Scalable Family, ???????????? ??? ??????
?????? ?????????????????? ?а???????? ??н
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Cloud, AWS ?а AT&T, ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???н
?? 500а???. ???? ????? ???????????. Intel
Purley ????? ??????????? ?а?аApple iMac Pro,
?????? ???????? ???????????? ??а???????.
?????????: www.theinquirer.net
I
ntel ??????????? ????? ????? ??????н
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(Scalable Platform), ??????? ??а28 ??????н
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?????? ????? AMD ??????????? ???? ??н
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Xeon Scalable ??а28 % ????, ??? ?аAMD Epyc
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??а????????? ?????????????????? ?а?????
Cinebench R15: AMD EPYC (32 ????, 64 ????н
??) ?????? 4000 ??????, Intel Xeon Platinum
8180 (28 ????, 56 ???????)а? 4200 ??????.
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???? ????? ??????????? PUE 1.44, ?а???н
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?????? Paragon NTFS USB Android
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????????: www.paragon.ru
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?????? 2017 LXF226
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OS ?????????? codecinstaller ??? ?????????
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?????? ??????? ??? LibreOffice, Thunderbird,
Gimp ?а??????? ??? ???? ?????????????
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??? ???? ??? ?а?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???
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?????, ???????, ?????????, ??? ????а??
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?????? ?????????? ??? ?????. |
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???????????: AMD
????: www.amd.com/ryzen
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????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??н
?????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????н
????? ????? ??????????.
? ??? 580 ?????? ??? ?? ??? ?????. RX
480 ????????? ??а580. ??? ?? ??а?? ?а??н
?????, ???? AMD ?????? ???? ?????? ?????
????? ??????????? ??? ????а?? ?????????
??? ????? ???????? ?а????? ??????????н
???????; ??а??? ????? ??а???. ?а???а?? ???н
???????? ???? ?? ??????????????? ??? ???
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?а475. ????????, ????? ??????????? ?????н
???? ?????????? ?????????.
?? ???????? ????????. ???а?? ??? ??н
??? ??? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ??????н
???? ????, ??а?????? ?? ??? ???? ??? RX
580а? ?????????????? ??????????? ????н
??? Sapphire Nitro+а? ?а????????? ?а??? RX
480. ??? ???????, ?а????? ??а1080p ??а??н
????? ?? ?????????? ??а10 ?????????. ???н
?? ??а??????? ??а???? ?? ??????, ?????н
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??а?? ??, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???? GPU.
???н??? ????????
???? ????????????? ??? ?????? ???????а?
????, ??? ??? ??а????????? ?а????? AMD
R9 300 ??? ?а??????? ????? ????? GTX 900
Nvidia. ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????н
?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??,
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ??н
?? ? ????????? ????????? ?а2017а?. ??? ??н
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???? Nvidia GTX 1060 3GB ?а??????? 1080p,
??а?????? ?а?????. ?а?а?? ??? ??????????
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????? FreeSync 1080p, ?а??а??????? ????н
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?????? 2017а?. ???????? ???????????? Vega
GPU ?????????? ?????????. |
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???????????: Sapphire
????: www.sapphiretech.com
????: ? 250
????????????????
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??????? 8/10
???? ??????
Kentucky Route Zero
л?????а?? ??? ?????????╗ ??????????? ??????? ????, ????????? ?????????
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??????? ????????????? ?аKentucky Route Zero ????? ????????, ??? л??????????
??? ????╗, ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????
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> ? Kentucky Route Zero ??? ?? ??, ??? ???????. ?? ? ???? ???н?? ????.
??????? ?? ??? ????? ???. ???? ???? ?? ???
?????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???н
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? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??? Kentucky Route Zero ???????????? ?а????????
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???? ???, ?????? ??, ????????? ???? ??н
??????? ?????? ??????????? ?а????, ??????н
?? ??????? ???????? Kentucky Route Zero.
??а?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????
??????? ?а????? ?а?? ?? ?? ????? ???????н
??? ???, ?? ?? ??? ??а??? ??? ??? ??? ???.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? ???? ???? ????????????? ??а???????н
?? ?? ?а?????? ?? ??а? ?а????? ??, ?????
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??????, ????????? ???? ????????, ??а???н
????? ?????????????? ??а????????, ?а???н
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Kentucky Route Zero ?? ??? ??? ??а??н
??????? ?????? ??, ?? ?? ??? ???? ?????н
?? ?а????? ??а???????????? ????????????
??? ???????. ?????? ?а???, ??? ?????????н
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???????? ?????? ???????, ????????????
????? ???????.
????. ????? ????: ???? ???????????? ??н
??? ??? ??????????? ?а?????? 2013а?. ??а??н
???? ??? ???? I. ??? ??? IV ????? ?а?? ??
2016а?., ?а?????? V ??? ?????????, ?а?а????,
??? ?а?а????? ????, ???? ???? ???????????
???????... |
???????
Kentucky Route Zero
???????????: Cardboard Computer
????: KentuckyRouteZero.com
????: ? 20
?????
???????
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????????????? ????
8/10
10/10
7/10
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╗ ?????????? ? ????? ???????????
????, ???????? ??? ???????????
????????? ??????? ??????, ???
? ????????.
??????? 9/10
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
19
?????? ????
Lords of Xulima
?? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????:
л???а????а? ????╗.
???????
╗ ????????н
???? ??????? ??н
?? ?????? ?????
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???????? ?????н
???? ????.
?
?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?а Kickн
starter. ????????? ?????? ?????????
??? ?? ??? ?? ??? Numantian Games
?а2014а?.а??????? ????????? ????? $ 10 000
(???? ??? ?а3,5 ???? ??????) ??а??? ?????
RPG ?а????? л?????? ?????╗. ????? ???
????? ??????, ??? ??????????? Baldur Gates/Arcanum/Fallout, ??а??а????? ??а????? ??н
???????????, ???? ??а????????? ?????????
??? ?????. ??????????? ???????????? ??н
??????? ???? ???????? ???а?????? ?????н
???, ??????? ???? GNU/Linux, ??а??? ??н
???, ??? ????????? (????? ?а??????? Larian
Studios), ??а??, ??? ??????? ?????? ???????
?????? ?а?????, ?а??а???? ??? ???????.
??? ?а??а?????? ??? ??? ????????, ???
?????????? ?а??? ????? ??????? ??????н
??????. ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????н
??????а? ????????????? [Explorer] ?? ???.
?????? ?а??? ??? ?????????????, ???????
??? ??? ??????????, ?а????????? ??????н
?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????????, ???н
????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???.
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?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??. ????? ?а???
???? ???? ????, ???? ??а???????? ????н
?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?а??? ??? ?? ?????? ????.
???????? ????? ??а?????? ???????. ?????
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???. ?????? ??? ??н
??????? ??????
????? ????? ????н
???? ??????.
???????? ?????????
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???? ???? ??????
??? ????????? ???? ???
Lords of Xulima ? ???????????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ???????
???? ? ????????????????
????? ? ?????.
?????? ????????????
? ??????? ???????? ????,
?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? 100 ?????
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|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
> ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ????. ?????? ????????? ?? ???????, ??????? ? ??????? ???
????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????.
???????????? ?????, ???????, ????, ?????н
??, ?? ?? ????, ????? ?а????, ??а????? ????
?????? ??????? ??????????? ????? [Divine
Summoner] ?а??????? ?? ??????? ????н
?????? ???? [Arcane Soldier]. ????? ????н
??, ??? ?? ? ???? ?????????? ???? ???????
????. ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???н
???? ????? ?а?????? ????????? ???? ?????
Valvetа? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ??????
??? ??? ?а??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???. ?? ??? ??н
???????? ???? ????? ???????? Raznet ???н
??????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?????, ??? ??? ???
?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??
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??? ??????????? ?а??????, ????? ???????н
?????? ?а?????? ????? Taliet, ???? ????????
????? ??а??????.
? ?????? ???? ?а??????? ????????????
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?? ????, ??????? ?а????, ?а??а??????а? ??н
?? ?а??????????? (???? ??а??????? Raznet
?аGolot ?а??????? ??аValvet ?а??????? ????).
???? ????? ?? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ??н
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?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ??
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??? ?? ????. ?? ??? ???, ??а????? ?? ??? ??
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????????? ??????? ???????, ?а??? ???? ??
???????? ??? ??а??????. ???а????????? ??н
????а?? ???а?????? ??????????? ????????
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?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???а? ?а???? ??,
?????? ??? ??а100 ????? ?? ??????? ???н
???? ??? ?????? ??????????, ???? ?а????н
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???а? ?а??????????? ??????, ??? ?????
???????? ???????? ?а?а????? ?а????? ????н
???? ???????. |
???????
Lords of Xulima
???????????: Numantian Games
????: www.lordsofxulima.com
????: 419 ???. ? Steam ??? gog
?????
???????
???????????????
????????????? ????
7/10
8/10
7/10
8/10
╗ ????????? ???, ??? ? ??? ??? ???.
? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????
???????????? ?????????????.
??????? 8/10
?????????
???????
? ??????
л???????╗ ???????
KFC ?????????... ????????! KFC Huawei Commemorative Edition.
?
?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??н
??? ?????????? ???????? ?а????н
????? ??????? ??????, ?а??????н
??? ????????? ??????????: ?а?????? 1987а?.
??? ?????????? ???? ????????н???? KFCа?
?????? Kentucky Fried Chicken [???????
??? ????? ??а??? ??? ??], ?????? ??а?????н
???? ??????? ????? McDonald?s ???? ????
?а????а? ??????? ???? ?????? л????????╗
?а?????, ?????? ???? ??а????? ?? ???????н
???? ?а??????. ?а???? ?????? ??? 30н???н
??? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ???
????????? ?аHuawei ????????? ?????????
???????? KFC Huawei Commemorative Ediн
tion: ??????????? ?а????? KFC ?????????н
???? ????н??????? ?????? ?а????????????
?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ????????н
?? ???????? ??а?????? ?????? ?а????????
л1987╗, ?а????????????????? ??????????
Kentucky Super APP ?аKнMusic (?????????
????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а??н
?????? ????н??????? ?а????????? KFC).
??? ?? ?? ??? KFC Huawei Commemoraн
ti ve Edition ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????
Huawei Enjoy 7 Plus. ??? ??????????????
?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??: ?? ???
??? ?? ?? ??? 5,5а??? ??? ?а??? ?? ?? ?? ??
1280 ╫ 720а????, ??????????????? ??????н
??? Qualcomm Snapdragon 425 ?а??? ?????
??? ????? 1,4а???, 3а?? ???, ?? ?? ???? ???н
??? ??????? ??а3020а??╖?, 32 ?? ???????н
??? ???? ?? ?а?????? ?????? ??????????
??а128а?? ??а???? ???? microSD, ?????? ??н
???????? ??????? (?? ?? ????????, ??????н
??? ????? ???). ????? KFC Huawei ?? ???н
???? ?а????????? ?????????? ???? Weibo;
> ????? ??аyoutu.be/
td_l8lXzEHk ?????н
???????? ??????н
????? ????? ????н
??? ?а??а?????????
?????? ?а1987а?.
????? ?? ??????, ?????????? ?????????н
??? ??? ?? ?? ?а5а???. ?? ???? ?????, ????н
???? 13 ???? ????????? ?????????? Tmall
??а?????????? ???? 1099 ????? (????? г 125
??? $ 162).
NOKIA
????? ???????
?
???? ????????? ?????? Androidн
??? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??
????? ???? Nokia 3, 5 ?а6, ?????н
??? HMD Global ?? ????? ?а????? ?? ????н
??????? ?????? Nokia 8 ?а?? ????? Zeiss
(?а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? HMD ?аZeiss ?? ??? ?? ??
?? ??? ?? ???, ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????
Zeiss ?а???????? Nokia). ?а???????? ????
?????? Nokiaа8 ???? ??????????????????
??а ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??,
?а????? ?а????????? ????? ???? ??а?????н
??? ??????????.
??????????? Nokia 8 ?а???????, ?????
??????????????? ??а31 ????, ???? ????н
?????? ??а16а?? ?? ???. ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???
5,3н???????? ??? ????? ?а???????????
QHD (2560 ╫ 1440а????) ?а?????????????
??????????? Snapdragon 835, ?а????? ??н
?????????? ? ??аAndroid 7.1.1 Nougat, ????н
??? ???????? ??????? ?а????? ?????????
??а13а?????, ?а??????? ???????? ??а6 ?? ???
?а64а?? ?????????? ??????.
22
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
?????? ??? Snapdragon 835 ?? ??? ????
?? ?? ??? Nokia 8 ?а???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??,
?????? ?? ????? ??а??????? ??????? ?а???н
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???????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????
Home, ?а??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???????.
????????? Nokia ???????? HMD ??????н
???? ?ал??????╗ Android ?а??????? ??????н
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????н
????? ??аGoogle.
Nokia 8 ??????????? ??а?????????????н
?? ??? Nokia 6, ?? ?? ??? ??? ??аSnapdraн
gonа430, ?а??? ???? ????????? ???????????
?? ????. ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???н
??? ???????а? ?????, ?????, ??????/?????
?а??????/????.
Nokia 6 ????????? ?а??? ?а???? ??а????
$ 229; ?????????????? ????????? ???? Noн
kia 8 ???????? ? 589 ($ 675).
> ??????????? Nokia 8 ????????? ? ?????, ??? ????????
??а?????? Androidн?????????? ????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????????: www.theinquirer.net; www.zdnet.com
? ??????? ????????? Nokia ???????????? ?????? Zeiss.
????????? ???????
????????? ??????????
????? ????, ??????????? ? ??????...
???????? Red Digital Cinema ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ?а??????????
л???????????????? ????????╗.
?
??????? Red Digital Cinema Camera
Co., ????????? ?????? ?????????н
???????? ???????? HD, ???????
?????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????н
???, ??? Guardians ofаtheаGalaxy, TheаHobbit,
?????????????? ????? ?? л???????╗, ????н
???? ?а?????????? л?????? ?а???? ??????н
??? ??????????????? ?????н??????╗а?
????? ????, ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????
??????????????? ?а3Dн???????.
???????? ???????, ????????? Hydrogen
One, ???????? ?аIа?????? ?? 2018а?. ??????????
???? ??? 5,7н???????? л???????????????
???????╗, ????? ???????? ???а????? ????н
?? Android, ?????????? ????? ?????????н
??????? ????? ?????? ?ал????????? ???н
?????????? ???????? ???????????????
????????? ???????????╗.
??? ?? ???????? Red, ????????? ????н
??? ?? ?? ?? ?? Hydrogen One ??? ??? ???н
??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? ???? ?? ?? ? ??
??? ????????? 2Dн?????????, ?????????н
?????? multiviewн?????????, 3Dн?????????
?а?? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ??, ?а?????????
?а?а?????????? ???????; ???а???? ?????н
????? ??????????????? ???? ??? ???????н
?? ??а???????????.
? ??????? ???? Red ???????? ??? Hydroн
gen One ??????, ????????? ?а??????????н
??? Red ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????
???????????? ?Hydrogen 4нView content?
(h4v). ??????? ??????? Apple iCloud, ?????
?а?????????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??н
????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????н
?? ???????? Red Channel. ???????? ??? ??
????? ?? ??????????? ????????, ???????н
?????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????н
??? ????????.
Hydrogen One ????? ???????????? ?а???н
?????? Red camera program, ??? ????????
??? ???????? ?а???????? 8K ????? ?????н
??? Scarlet, EPIC ?аWeapon ?а???????? ?????н
??????? ??????????. ?а???????? ????????
Hydrogen One ?????? ?????? USBнC, ?????н
??? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??? ????
microSD.
> ?? ????? ?????н
???????? (www.red.
com/hydrogen) ??н
???? ?????????
?? л?????? ? ??н
?? ????????? ??н
?????????????
?????н??????╗
Hydrogen One.
Hydrogen One ????? ????? ?????? ???н
????????????? [unlocked], ?. ?. ??а?????н
?????? ??а?а?????? ??????????? ?????????
????????? ?????. ?????????????? ???????
???? $ 1195 ??а?????? ??? ????????? ?Aluн
minum? ?а$ 1595а? ??а?Titanium? (????????
??? ?? ???????? ???????? ??а????????; ??н
?? ??а???? ??? ??, ???? ????а?? ???????? ??н
???? ??? ??????? ??, ??а???????? ???????н
??? ??????).
??????? SAMSUNG
????????? 5G
????? LTEн?????? Samsung ??????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????????
?????а???????.
?????????: www.computerworld.com; news.samsung.com
?
??????? Samsung Electronics ???н
????? ?а?????????? LTEн???????
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?а ?? ?? ?? ?? ??
????? ??????? (6CA) ??? ????????? ???н
????????; ????? ?????????? ????????? ???н
???? ???????? ???????? ??а1,2а????/?.
????? ?а???? ???? Samsung ???????????
?????? ?а????? ?? ????????? ????? ?а??н
???????? ?? ?? ???? ??? (5CA), Cat. 16 LTE
??? ??????????? Samsung Exynos 9 Series
(8895), ?????????????? ???????? ??????
??а???????? ??а1а????/c.
??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? Samsung
cа?????????н?????????????? ??????????н
?? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ??? ???н
??? ???????????? Anritsu (??????), ?????
LTEн?? ?? ??, ?? ?? ??? ??? ??а??? ?? ?? ???
Cat. 18 ?а?????????? ????? ???????, ?????н
???? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??а20 %,
??а1,2а????/?. ???а?? ??? ???????? ?????н
????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????
?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????
?а?????????? HD ????? ??а10 ??????, ??н
?????? ????????????? ???а?? ?????? ???н
??, ??? ?? ???? ?? ????н????? ?? ??? ?а??н
??????? ?????????.
??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? (CA)
?? ????????? ?а???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???????
??? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?а??? ??? ??н
?????? ???????? ????н
???? ?????? ? ???н
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?а??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? 6CA
???????????? ????? ???? ??? ?а???????н
??? ???????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а?????????? ?а??????????, ????? ???н
??????? ??? ????????? ???????? 4 ╫ 4 MIMO
(????????????? ????, ????????????? ??н
???) ?а???????? 256 QAM (???????????? ??н
????????? ?????????).
????? ????, ?а????? ??? ?? ????? ???н
?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???
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(Enhanced Licensed Assisted Access); ???н
?????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????????
?а???????????????? ???? ???? ??? ??а???н
???????, ??? ?а??а?????????? ??????????,
eLAA ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????н
???? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ???н
??? ????????????.
????????? ?????????? Samsung ?аLTEн
?????? ?? Cat.18, ?? ???? ??????? ????н
????????? ?????????? 6CA, ???????????
???????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??а???н
?? 2017а?. ??а??а????????? ???? ????????
???? ??а???????. |
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
23
????????? ??????? VPN
?????????
?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????
???????? ? ? ?? ?????? ????????!
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????а??????????? ?а????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????????.
??? ??? ????...
??? ???? VPN ????????? ???? ??а?????
?а???а?? ??????? Ubuntu 16.10. ???
???? ????? ????? ???????????? ???
????????? ????? ?а??????? ??? ????н
?? ??а???? ????????. ??а??????? ????н
????????? webн?????, ??????? ??, ???
??????? ??аspeedtest.net ?аtestmy.net.
????? ??а????????? ????????? ??? ???
?????????? ????????, ?????? ??? ??н
????? ??????? ???????? (?????????н
?????, ??????, ???, ?????? ???/????),
????? ????????? ??а?? ????? ?а?????н
??????? VPN, ????? ?????а???????.
???????? ??а??, ??? ????????? VPN
??????????? ??? ????? IPн?????, ???
???а?? ????? ???????? ?????????
???? ?? ?????? ?????????? IPн??????.
??а???? ?? ??????, ?? ???? ??аipleak.net
?аdnsleaktest.com. ????? ????, ??а???н
???? ???? ?? ???????, ???????? ??????
??????? ?? ? ???? ??????????. ???
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??? ??????? ???????? ????????????
?а????а?? ???? ?????н??а?????? ?а?????
?????????? ??а???????? ???!
?
????
????????
Buffered VPN
IVPN
Mullvad
Perfect
Privacy
╗ SlickVPN
╗
╗
╗
╗
24
|
??? ??а ?? ?? ?? ???а ??? ?? ???н
??? ?????????, Google ?аMicroн
soft ??? ??? ?а???а? ??а?а????
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??? ??а???? ????? ?????? ?а????????????
?????????? ??????. ??????????? ???????
???? ????? ??????, ?????? webн??????,
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?? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а???
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??? ???????? ???? ????????, ????????????
??? ????? IPн?????, ?а????? ???? ??? ??????
?а???н????????????? ??????.
??? ?? ??? ??? VPN ?????? ?? ??? ???,
???????? ?? ?? ?а???? ??????? ??????????.
LXF226 ?????? 2017
??? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? VPN
??????? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ????н
??? ?а???????? ?а??????? ??? ??????? ????н
?? ????? ????? ?????????. ??а?????????
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?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????????.
????????, ?а??????????? ????? ??????н
????? ?????? ??? ?????? Linux, ??а??????
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??а????? ???????????? ?а?????????????.
?, ???????, ??а??????????? ??? ???????н
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???????? ??????????????????; ??? ????н
??? ??? ???? ???? ???????????, ???????
??а????????? ????? ???????? ???? ??????.
?? ? ???? ????????? ?????
??????? ? ???, ??? ?????? ? ???н
????????? ?????????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? VPN ?????????
???????
??? ??а???????? ??а???? ???????
PN ?? ????? ???????? ????????,
??а??????? ????, ?а????????: ??н
????????? ?а????????, ???? ????
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???? ??а???????? ????? ???? ???.
?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???
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??????????? ?? ???. SlickVPN ???? ?? ????
?????????????? ?? ?а142 ??????? ??а?????
????. Buffered VPN ????? ??????? ?а37а????н
???, Mullvad ?аPerfect Privacy ??????????
????? 20, ?аIVPN ???? ?????? ????? ?????
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VPN, ?????? ???????????? ???? ????, ??н
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????????????. ???? ??? ??????? ?????????
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???? ??а?????? ????????? ?????; ????? ??н
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???????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ????н
?? ?? ?????????? ???? ????????. Buffered
VPN ?аMullvad ????? ?????????? ??? Linux,
Windows ?аMac; Perfect Privacy ????????н
?? Linux ?аWindows; ?а??? SlickVPN ?аIVPN
???? ?????? ??????? ??? Windows ?аMacа?
??а??а??? ????????. ??а?????? ?????????
?????? ??????? ????? OpenVPN ??? ??????н
?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????? ??н
????????, ?а??? ????? ??а??????????? Anн
droid ?а iOS. ?а ?? ? ??? VPN ???? ?? ?? ??
???????????.
?????? ????????? ??????????? ?аVPN ??н
??? ????????? ????????? ????????????а?
??????, ?? ??? ?? ?? ???, ???? ??? ?а ??.
Mullvad ?аIVPN ????????? ??а???? ???????н
?????? ???????????а? ?????? ??????????
??? ???????????; ???? SlickVPN ?аBuffered
VPN ????????? ??а????, ?а?аPerfect Privacy
?????? ??? ???????????. ?????? ???????,
??? ??????????? VPN ???????????? ????
???? ????? ?????????????, ?а???? ??? ??н
??????? ????????? ???????????, ??а????
??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??н
???, ??, ????????, ???????? ?? ????.
> ??????? ??? ? ?????? ????? ???? ? ?????????? ????? VPN
?а????????? ?а??????? ?а????а???????.
??? ????????? ????????????? ?????н
??? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??н
???????? (P2P), ?а?а???? ????? VPN ????
????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????. IVPN
?аPerfect Privacy ????????? P2P ??а????н
?????? ????????, ?аSlickVPN, Mullvad ?аBuffн
ered VPN ??? ????????? ??? ???????????.
?? ?? ??а????? ?????????????? ?а??????н
?? ??? ?? Netflix ??? ??????? ??? ???, ???
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??? ??????????? ???? ???? ?? ?а???? ????
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??????. ???????????? ????? ?????? ???н
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????, ???? ?а????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???
?????????? ????????????? ?????.
???????
Buffered
?????
Mullvad
?????
Perfect Privacy
?????
SlickVPN
?????
IVPN
?????
╗ ??????????????????? ?????? Buffered VPN
???????? ?????
?????.
???????? ??????????????????
?????а?? ?????? ????????? л???а???????????╗?
PN ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??н
?? ??? ?? ???? ??? webн??? ???,
??а??? ???? ??а????????? VPNн
?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????
?? ????? ???. ????? ??????? ??????????
?а?????? ??? ??? ???? ???, ??? ?? ?? ??н
????, ???? ????? ??а????????, ?а???? ???.
V
SlickVPN ???? ?? ??????, ??? л??а?????н
?????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???, ??????н
?? ???? ?????? ?а??? ?? ?? SlickVPN╗. ???н
??? ??????, ??а???? ??? ?????????? ?????
????????...
Perfect Privacy ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??: ???
??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??, ???
> ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? Mullvad. ????????? ? ???? ??????.
???????? ??а?????????? ??? ????? ??? ??н
????? ??? ??а?? ???? VPNн???????. ??н
????????? ?????? ??? ????????????, ?????
???? ??????? ??? ?? ?а???? ????? ???. ??н
???? ??а?????? ??????????? ????????????
?а?????????.
Mullvad ???? ??????? л??а???????????
??? ?????????╗, ??а??? ??а???. ??а??????
???????? ?????????? ???а??? ????? ?? ????
???? ??????? ????? ?, ???????????, ????н
???? ?а?????????, ????? ???????? ???????
??а???? ??, ??? ??.
IVPN ?????? ???????????? ????? ????н
??????? ?????, ??а??а?????? ??????????.
??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ????????????? ????
????? ???????.
?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? Buffн
ered VPN c????а ?? ????? ????????, ??а???н
??????? ????? ???????. ???????? ??а????н
?????? ?????????? ?а???, ??? ??а???????
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??????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????н
??? ??а??????, ???????????? ?????????
??? ????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????
Mullvad
?????
IVPN
?????
Perfect Privacy
?????
Buffered
?????
SlickVPN
?????
╗ Mullvad
?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
25
????????? ??????? VPN
?????? ??????
????????? ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ???????
V
PN ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?а ?? ????? ??,
?а?????? ?????????? ??а?????н??а????н
????? ?????? ????????????? Linux. ??н
???? ??а??????????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?????н
??? ?аLinux ???????.
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?????, ???????? ????? ??????????, ??? ???????
?? ?? ?? ?? ???, ?? ?? ??? ?? ?а??? ??? ?? ?????? ??н
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???? ?? ??а?а???????? ?????????, ????? ?????????
??а???????? ?а??????.
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??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?а ????????? ?а ?? ???? ?? ?? ????,
???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????
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??? ??? ??а?????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ???
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??????????? ??????? ???????? ?а??????????? л??н
?? ?? ??????╗ ?????? ????? ??а???? ??? ?????? ??
?а????????????.
Mullvad ?????
Mullvadа? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? VPN. ??? ??н
??????? ???????? ?а?????????? CAPTCHA ??а?????, ????? ???????? ????? ????н
??? ??????, ????????? ?а????? ????? ?????? ?а?????? Linuxа? ??? ?а???. ??????
??а60 ??а?????????????? ????, ????? ??, ?????????? ?а????????? ??????, ?а???
???????? ????? ???????? IPн?????. ? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???н
????? ??? ?????????????. ??а?????????? ??? IPн?????, ??????, ???? ?а?????н
??? ???????. ??????? ????????????? (???????) ??????, ?????? ??а?????? DNS,
??? ?????? IPV6, ?????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ??н
????н??????????? ??? ????, ??? ?а??? ?? ? ??????. ???? ????????? ????????
?а????????? ?а?????????????. ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? IPн?????
????? ???????, ?а????? ?а??? ?????? ?????. ?????????????????? ???? ?????н
?? ???? ???????. ??а???а?? Mullvadа? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????.
Buffered VPN ?????
Buffered VPN ????? ???????? ??а???????? ?????? ??????? VPN, ?????? ?????н
??? ??а????? ?? ??? ??????? ?а??????. ??? ??? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????.
???? ?????? Linux ?а??????? Beta, ??а???а?????????? ??а?????????; ??????????
??а??????? ??????? Legacy ????? ???????. ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??????
?????????? ??а?????????, ??а??? ??????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????н
?????? ?????. ???? ??а?????????? ??а????????? ???????, ??? ??а?????? ?????
??аbuffered.com ?а??????? л????????? ???? ?????????╗а? ??а??????, ??а?????
?????, ??а?????????, ??? ??????: ????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????
??? ??????? ??а????????; ?????????? ???? ?а????? ?????? ?????? Linux, ?а??н
??????? ??????? ??а??? ??????, ?а????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ??????????н
?? ?? ????? ?????. ?? ??? ???? ?????а?? ???? ??????? ?????, ?а????? ???? ???н
??????? ???????? ????????, ??? ?а????????? ????? ????а?? ???н?? ?????????.
???? ? ??????
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??? ????? ??????????. ?а??????н
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??? ???????, ?а?????? ????? ??????????,
???????????? ??а????? ?????? ????. ????
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VPN ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????
???а?????? г 3,20 ($ 4) ?а?????. Buffered VPN
????? ????? ??????а? г 6,60 ($ 8,25), IVPN
????? ???????а??а? г 6,66 ($ 8,33), ?аPerн
fect Privacy, ????? ??????? ??а????а? г 8,84
($ 11,05) ?а????? ???а??????? ????????.
?
26
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
???? ??? ?? ??? VPN ???? ???????, ????
????? ??????? ?????????. Mullvad ??????н
????, ???? ????? ????? г 4,24 ($ 5,30); ?????
??а???? ????? SlickVPN ?????????? г 8 ($ 10),
Buffered VPNа? г 10,40 ($ 13), Perfect Priн
vacyа? г 11,46 ($ 16,86), ?аIVPN ????? г 12
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???, ????????? ??? ????????? ??а????????
?????????? ?????? ??????????; SlickVPN,
IVPN, Perfect Privacy ?аMullvad ?????????
????????, ??аBuffered VPNа? ???.
??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????
??? ??????, ?????? ?а????? ?????? ???????
???? ?????? ?????? Mullvad. ?????? ??????
????????а? ????? ??? ????; ??а????? ???н
???????, ????? ??????????? ???????????
???????????.
?а ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??н
?????, ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????
???????. SlickVPN ?аBuffered VPNа? ?????
??? ???, ??? ???? ?????? 30н??????? ??н
??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???а???н
???? ?????; ??? ?????? ??а????а? IVPN,
?а??????????? ????????; ?аPerfect Privacy
???? ??????????? ??????, ??а?а???????
??????????? ???????, ??? ?а??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????
Mullvad
?????
SlickVPN
?????
Buffered
?????
IVPN
?????
Perfect Privacy
?????
╗ ??????????
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??????? VPN ?????????
Perfect Privacy ?????
??????? ????????????? ???? Perfect Privacy ????????? ??????????? ?а???????
?а???? ?? ??????. ?????????? ???: ????????? ??аwww.perfectнprivacy.com/howto,
?а??а????????? ???? ??, ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??,
???? ??? ????????? ???????????, ????????? ??а????????? ?а????? ???? ???.
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?????, ??????????? ?а?????????? ??а????? ???????? ?????????? ??а?????????
?????????. ??????? Perfect Privacy ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????н
?????, ??????? ?????? ?а??????, ??? ??????????? ???? ???????, ?а??а????н
??? ????????. ????????? ??а????? ??????????, ??? ?а????????? ??? ????????н
???, ??а??? ?????? ??а??????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??а????? ?????????. ?????
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??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????.
SlickVPN ?????
?????????? ?аSlickVPN ??????? Linux ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ?а??н
???????. ???? ???а?? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??а?????????, ?????????
OpenVPN ??аNetworkManager, ????????? ?????? ?а????????? PPTP. ???????????
?????????, ??? ?аBuffered VPN, ???? ?а??а????? ??????. ?????? Windows, ????н
??? ????? ????????? ????? Wine, ???????? ??????. ??а?а???????? ??????, ???н
??? ???? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ??а?????, ???????? ????? ??а????????, ????? ???н
?? ????? ??????? ???????, ?а????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?а???????? ??? ?????
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?????? ?а??????? ?????????? OpenVPN ????? NetworkManager ??? ?а??????
??????? OpenVPNн???????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?? ????? ??????????.
?а???????? ?а???? ????? ??а??? ????? ?????, ????????? ???? SlickVPN ??а????н
?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????.
IVPN ?????
IVPN, ??? ?аSlickVPN, ??а????? ??????? Linux, ??а???????? ????? ????????? ??н
???? ??? ????? ??????????? ??а????????? ?а??????? NetworkManager ??? ???н
???? ??, ??а???? ?????????, ?а??? ?? ???? ??????? ??а????? ?????? ??????
л??????? ???, ??????? ??╗, ????? ?????????????? ?а??????а??????. ?? ?????н
???? ?? ?????? Windows, ?????? ??? ??, ????????, ?????? ???????????? ????
VPN ????. ??а???? ?????? ???н?? ?? ? ????, ?а???????????? ??????н?н??????,
???? ??? ??? ????, ??а??? ?? ?а?а????? ???????????? ??????????? ??а??????
?????????????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????????. IVPN ??а????? ?????н
??????? ??????? ???? ????????, ?а?а??? ?????? ??а???? ??????? ?а?????????
?а?????? ???????. ??а?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????, ???????? ???? ?????? ???н
?? ????????? ?????????? ??а??????? ???????, ??? ?а??????. ????????????
?????? ?????????а? ??? ?????? Linux ????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ????.
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???????? VPN, ?а??, ??? ???????,
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??? ???????????. ??, ??? ??????
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??? ??, ??а??? ???? ???, ?а??????, ??? ??,
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???? ??? Linux, ??а??а???? ??а??????? ???н
????????. ???? ?а??? ?????? ?? ????????,
?а??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????н
?? ?? ????? ??а???? ??????? ??? ??, ?а???н
??? ???????? ??? live. ???? ??????? ??????
?
Mullvad ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ???н
???, ??а?????????? ???? ?????? ????????.
???, ?????? ?????? ????????? ??а???????н
?? Linux ??а????????? ????????? ????????
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????? ??а????? ??? ?????? ??????, ?а?????н
?? ??? ?????? ??а???? ??????? ?????. Slickн
VPN ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????
??? ?????????? ??а????????? ??? ?????? ??
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?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????,
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???╗. ?аPerfect Privacy ????? ??? ?? ???н
??? ?а???????? ??? ???, ??а???????????
??а?? ? ???? ???? ????????? ?а???????????н
?? ??а?????????. ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??н
???? ??? ?????? ??а???? ??????? ?????, ??н
??? ????? ?а?? ?? TeamViewer. IVPN ????
?? ?? ?????? ??????????, ??? Perfect Priн
vacy, ??а???а? ??? ??????? ?????????????
?а???????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????н
??? ??????. ???, ??? ?????, ??? ??????, ????
?а??? ????????????, ?а???? ???а? ?????н
???? ?а?????? ??????? ??а???? ??????? ??н
???, ?а????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ???.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
IVPN
?????
Perfect Privacy
?????
Mullvad
?????
SlickVPN
?????
Buffered
?????
╗ ?? ??????????? ?????????
?? ???????? ???????????? VPN;
??? ????? ???
???????????.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
27
????????? ??????? VPN
??????????????????
??? ??????? ???? ??? VPN ?а?????? ???????? ??????
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?? VPN, ?а?????? ??? ???????? ???н
?? ??????? ??????????? ?а??? ????.
?????? ?а?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????,
??? ??? ????? ????????? ??а?????, ??а?????
??????. ???????? Mullvad ???? ???? ????н
???. ????? ????????????? ??? ???, ?????н
???, speedtest.net, ?а??????????? ???? ?? ??
??? ??? ??????? 10 ??/?, ??? ????? ?????н
?? ??? ???????? ????????? ?а?? ?? ??????н
???? ??????? HD, ??аP2P ?а????????? ???н
?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???????
?????. SlickVPN ?а?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???
?????? ?????, ???????? ??а??????? ???н
??????? (??а???????? ?а????????), ??? ???н
????? ???? ????? ??????????. ??а???????
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?????? ????? ???? ?а?????? ??? ???? ????
??а?????? ????????, ?????? ???????????
???????? ?????? ???? ????? 15а??/?. Buffн
ered VPN ??? ??????? ?????. ?????????
?????????? ??а?????????? ??????? ?а???н
?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?????
??а????????? ?аMullvad, ???????? ??а????н
?????????? ?а??? ??? ?? ????????, ?а?????
?
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???????? ???????н
??? ??? ???? ?????н
??? ????????.
???????
Perfect Privacy
??????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????
?а???? ???а????????. ??? ?а??????? ?? ???н
????, ??а????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????н
????????????? ??????. IVPN ?а???????????
???????? ????????? Buffered ??а???????н
?? ?????? ???, ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???н
????????. IVPN ???????? ??????? ??????н
??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?а ?? ??? ?? ?? ???
?????????? ??а???? ????????. ???????????
????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ???н
?????, ??аPerfect Privacy ???? ?????????
??????? ??????????????????. ?????????
??????????? ?? ?? ????? 40 ??/?, ?а?? ??
???????, ??а??? ?? ??? ?а?? ?? ?? ??? ???н
????? ??????? 15 ??/?. ???? ??? ?? VPN
??а???????????? ?????????. ??а??а??????н
???? ????????? ?? ? ??? ?????? ?а???????
ipleak.net ?а?????? ??????, ???? ??? ?????
?????? ????? ?????????????, ?????????
???????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????, ?а??н
?? ?? ?????? ???????, ??а???? ???????????
VPN ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ?????н
??? DNSн, WebRTCн ?а?????? ?????? ?а????н
??? ???? ?????????????????? ?????????.
?????
Buffered
?????
IVPN
?????
SlickVPN
?????
Mullvad
?????
╗ ???? ?????
????????? VPN
??????? ???????? ??? ???????
?????? ? ????.
??????????? ???????
?????а?? ??? VPN, ????????? ??а????? ??????
?? ????? ??а????? VPN ???? ???
???? ?а??а?? ???????? ???????:
?????? ????? ????????? ??????н
???????? ???? ????????н?????? ????? ????
??а???????? ?????? ????. ?а????????? ??
???????? ????? ?????? ???? ?а??????????,
??а????????? ???????? ???? ??????, ??н
??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???
?????????????????? ?а??????????? ????н
???????? ??????.
??????? VPN ?????????? ??? ??????
????? ????? ????????? ???? ??????, ??н
??????. ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????,
??а???? ???н?? ??????, ????? ?????? ??а??н
??? ??аVPN ?а????? ?????? ??? ??? ????н
??? (????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????
?
?????????? ?а??????), ??а???? ?????, ???
???? ???н?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?а??н
????н?? ?????? ?????????? ??????. ????н
????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??????????
??????? ????????????, ????????? ??????
????? ????????? ????????.
?аIVPN ??????? ??????? ?multihop [??н
???????]?, ????? ??а?????? ????????????,
????????, ?а??????? ?а???, ?а????? ?????
????? ?????? ?а??????????, ??? ?????? ??н
??????? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????н
??? ?а????. ?аPerfect Privacy ???? ???????
???????, ???а????????? ?cascading [?????н
?????????]?, ?а?аSlickVPNа? Hydra tech ??н
?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????н
??? ???????.
> SlickVPN Hydra
?????????? ????
??????? ??????
????? ?????? ???н
???? VPN.
28
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
?????? Buffered VPN ??а????? ??????.
?а??? ???? ?????????? ?а????????? ????н
???, ??а?????? ????????????????? ?а?????н
?????? ????? ??????.
Mullvad ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????н
??? ????????, ??а??????? ????а? ??????;
??а??а????? ???? ????????а? ??????? ???
???? ????? ???????????. Mullvad ????? ??н
?????? ?а??????????????? IPv6, ????????н
?? ?? ?а?? ?? ??? ??а??????, ?а?? ?? ?аIPv6
????? IPv4. ???????? ???????????? Mullн
vad ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??н
??????, ?а??? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????
WireGuard, ?????? ????????? VPN, ???????,
????????, ??????? ?а???? Linux ?а2017а?.: ???
????? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ?????,
??? ??????. Mullvad, ????????, ?????? ?????
??????? ??? ?????????, ??аPerfect Privacy
??а????? ?????? ??а???? ???????. ????? ???н
???????? ???????а? ????????????? ???н
?????? ??????????, ????????????? ??????,
?????? ??а?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??н
????. ???? ??? ?? ?а??????? ??? ????????,
?а??? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????? Trackн
Stop, ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????н
????? IPн???????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????
Mullvad
?????
Perfect Privacy
?????
IVPN
?????
SlickVPN
?????
Buffered
?????
╗ ???????????
?????? ???????
????? ?????????
???????? ????
?????? ??????????????????.
??????? VPN ?????????
? ?????? ???????? VPN ??????????...
???????
????????? VPN ????? ?а???? ?????
??????, ?а????? ??????? ???????
??????, ???????? ??? ??а???????н
??? ?????????, ????????, ?а???? ?а????н
?????? ??????????????. ??а??? ??а??????
?????????. ????????? ????? ??? ????? ????
??????, ?а?? ?? ????? ????????? ?????
?????? ????????????????. ????????, ???н
????? ?????????????? ??а??????? ??? ???
??????? ????, ?? ?? ???а??????? ?? ??н
??????????, ?а?????? ???? ????? ?????????
????? ???????????????, ???? ??а??? ??а??н
?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???а?????? ???н
??????. ??а??????? ???? ????? ?????????
????? ???? ??а ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???, ???н
???? ??? ??а????? ??? ????? ????????: ??н
??? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ????н
???, ?????????????, ???????????? ???????
?а???????? ??а?а???????? ????.
Buffered VPN, ????? ????, ?а??? ?????
?а???? ?????? ??????, ??а??? ???????? ???н
???. ??а????????? ?????? ?а37а??????, ???
???? ???????? ??????????; ??? ??? ?а???н
??????? P2P, ?а???????? ???? ?????, ???
?
I
?а?????? ???????????. ??? ?????? ??а?????
??а?? ??? ??????, ?а?? ?? ???? ????? ???н
?????????? ?????а?? ???? ????? ???????,
??а?? ?? ?а??? ???? ????, ??а???? ???? ???,
??? ??? ?????. SlickVPN ???? ??????????
??????? ?? ???????? ?а????????? ?????н
??? ????????, ???? ????? ?????? ???????н
??????? (140+), ??? ?????????, ???а?????
?????? ???? ?а????? ??????. ??? ??????н
????, ??? ??а??а???????? ?а??? ??? ??? ??н
??? ????????, ??а???? ???? ??????????а?
???? ?а?????????? ??????????????, ?????
????? ??????? ???????. IVPN ????? ?????
????? ??????, ??? SlickVPN, ??а??? ??????н
????, ??? ??? ?????????????????? ?а?????н
??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????. ??а???
?? ?? ???, ?? ??? ??? ?а?? ??? ???, ?а??а???
????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???н
????????? ??а??? ??? ???????. ?а???? ???н
??? ???????? ??????????????????, ?а???
?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???
?а??? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???????
?????. Mullvad ??????? ??????????? ??а??н
??? ???????, ???????? ??? ??????? ???????
Perfect Privacy ?????
????: www.perfect-privacy.com ????: ? 8,84 ? ????? (?????? ?? ???)
╗ ??????? VPN, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ????
???????? ???????.
II
IVPN ?????
> ??????????
????? ???? ??????
????, ?? ??????
???? ?????????.
SlickVPN ?????
????: www.slickvpn.com ????: ? 3,20 ? ????? (?????? ?? ???)
╗ ?? ????????? ?????????? ? 142 ??????? ??? ??????
???????? ?????.
V
Mullvad ?????
????: www.mullvad.net ????: ? 4,24 ? ?????
╗ ?????????? ???????????, ?? ????????? ???????
?????? ??????.
III
IV
?????? ?а??????????? ?? ?а??????? ???? ??н
???, ?????? ??а?????? ?????? ??? ?????н
????? ??????????. ?????? ???? ??а?????
?а??????? ???? ??? OpenVPN ???? ?? ??н
???? ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????????
???????????????? ????????? ?????????
??????????? ??? ?????.
Perfect Privacy ????? ????? ??????????н
??? ??????, ?????? ???????????? ??????н
???? ??а???? ????????? ???????? ???????
??? ?а??????????. ??а????? ??????? ?а??н
???????, ?а???? ???? ?????? Linux, ??а????н
????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?а?? ???
?????? ?а???? ?????? ??????? ????? ????н
??? ??? ?????????? (?????????? ???????н
?????) ?а??????????? ??????????? ??????.
Buffered VPN ?????
????: buffered.com ????: ? 6,60 ? ????? (?????? ?? ???)
╗ ?????????? ????????? ?????? Linux, ? ???????? ? ????
???? ???????.
???????? ?????
????: www.ivpn.net ????: ? 6,66 ? ????? (?????? ?? ???)
╗ ?????? ????????, ?????????? ? ???????
? ????????????? ??????.
? ????? ??? ???? ? VPN, ? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????, ?? ????????
?????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?? lxf.letters@futurenet.com.
??????????? ?????...
? ????? ???? ??????? VPN, ???? ????н
???? ???? ??????, ??? ??????? ???н
????, ??а?? ?? ??? ?????????? ???????
??????????????????, ?? ?????????? ???????????
???? ??. IPVanish (www.ipvanish.com) ????????, ???
??ал???? ?????? ?а???? VPN╗ ?а500+ ?????????
??а60+ ????????. ??а????? ??????? ??? Windows,
?
Mac ?а?? ???????; ??а???? ???? ?? ??? Linux ???н
????? ??????????? ??????? ???????. VPN Unlimited
(www.vpnunlimitedapp.com) ???????? ?? ??? ???
Linux ?а????????? ??????????? ?????. ?аPureVPN
(www.purevpn.com) ???? ???? ?????? Linuxа? ?а???н
???? ?а140+ ???????, ?аNordVPN (www.nordvpn.com)
????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?аTor ??? ???????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ?????? ????????????. ??а????? ?????????
?????????? VPN. ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ????н
?? ???????????а? 500а?? ?а?????, ?а?? ?а??????а?
?аWindscribe ????? ???? ?????? 10а??. ???? ?????а8,
?а???????? ?а????????, ??? ?а??????, ?а????????
???????, ??а??а????? ???? ???????????? ??????н
???, ?а????? ??????????а? ???? ??а??????. |
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
29
?????? ? Windows
???? ?? Windows
???? ??? ????????? ?????? Linux OS,
??? ???? ????????? ??? ??????
?? ??? ???????? ????? ??????? ? Linux!
??????
Linux!
??. ???. 46
?
? ???а ?? ??? ?? ??? ??а ?? ?? ???
?аWindows, ??а??а???? ?? ?????????
???, ??? ??????, ?а?????? ????????????
????? ?? ????? ???а??, ??? ??????,
?а??? ???????? ?? ???????, ????? ???? ???? ?аLinux,
?? ?? ?а??? ???????? ????, ??? ??н
?????? ?а????????????.
???????, ???н??? ????????? ???н
??, ??а??? ????? ??????? ????????н
??????? ???????? ?а?????? Linux, ??н
????? ??????? ????????.
? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??а????н
??? ??а?????? Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (www.ubuntu.com/
download), ??а??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??
Linux, ??????? ??, ??????? ??а??????? ??аLXFDVD,
?а??а???????, ??? ???? ??а??????? ????????? ????
Linuxа? ??? ????????? ??????.
?? ??? ??? ?а ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??
Linux (?а??? ??? ?? ?????? ???, ?? ?? ???? ?????
?а ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??), ?а ??? ???? ???, ???
??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?а???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?а??? ?? ?? ???н
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??????? ???????? ?а??? ????????????), ?а????? ??н
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?? ???????? ????????н
??? ???? ??? ????????
? Windows ?? Linux.
30
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
?? ????? ????? ???????????, ????????? ??? ???
????????? ??????????.
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????? ????????????? ?????? ?а????????, ???????
?а?????? ???? ?????? Linux. ??а???????? ??????
????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? 10 ???? ??н
?????? ???????? ??? ??????????, ??а???????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? ?а????? ??а????????? ?????????? ??а??н
???????? ????? ?????? ??.
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??????? ???????? ??????? ??а?????н
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???? ??????? ??? ?а????????? ?а?????н
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????? ??? ??а???????? ????????? ??н
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?? ???? ??а??а?????? ?????? ????????? ?аWindows,
??а??????? ????????? ??а????? ??????. ??а????н
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?????? ? Windows
????????? ?? ???????? ???????
?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?аLinuxа? ??а????, ??? ?????? ???????.
?
?? ????? ??? ???? Linux (ext2, ext3 ?аext4) ???????? ??
??аWindows. ??????? ??????? ?а???, ??? ????? ?а???????
??????????????? ??а??? ???????????? ????? ??????,
?а??? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????.
???????? Dash ?а??????? ?disks?, ????? ??????? ??????? Disks,
??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???????????, ??? ??? ????????. ??н
?????? ???? ?а????? ????? ???? ?а????????? ?а???? Disks. ??а???н
???? ?????? ??а???? ????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ???: /dev/
sda. ??? ?????? ??а????? ????????? dev (devices), ?????? ???????
?? ? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????, ???
???????? ?????????? ?аsd (?. ?. ?????????? ????????а? storage deн
vice), ??а??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??аaа??аz. ?????????? ?????
????? ??????: /dev/sda ?????????? ????, ??? ??????????? ?? (?а???а?
Ubuntu), ?а??а??? ??????? ????? sdb, sdc ?а?? ???, ?а??????? ???????н
??? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ?а????? ??????? ?????????. ??????
?????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????, ?. ?. ?????? ?????????? ????????
(??? ?????) ????????? ???? ??????, Linux ?????????????? ?? ? ???
??а??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ??а????? sda1, sda2
?а?. ?. ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?аDisks.
????????? ??а?????? ???????. ???? ??? ???? ????????????н
??, ????????, ????? ????? ????????? ??а??????? MBR (Master Boot
Record), ??а???????, ??? ??????? ???????? [swap] ????????? sda5,
?а??аsda2. ??а????????????: ??? ????? ????????, ??? ?? ??.
?????? ??????
????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??н
??????? ?????а? ??? ??? ?? ???????????? ?а??????????? ?????
???? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?а????? ????? ??а??????????.
> ?а???????
??????? Disks
????????? ????
??а??????????н
???? ????????????
???а??????? Ubuntu.
??? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? (?????? /dev/sda1) ??? ?????? ??
?а???????? ????? ????? (/) ???????? ???????. ?????? ??????????
?а??????? ???? ??а??????????? ??а?????????, ?а?????? ??????н
?? ??а??????????? ??????. ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?а??????
?а??????а? ????? ????? ??? ??????. ??????????????? ???????н
?? Ubuntu ??а?????????, Files, ???????? ??а??????????? Nautilus
?а?????? ??аFile Explorer [?????????] ?аWindows. ???????? ??, ??н
??? ??а?????? ?а?????????? ?аDash, ?а??????? ?а????? ?????? ????н
????? ?????? ????????? ?????. ?? ????? ??а????????? ???, ?????
??? ????????????, ????? ??аComputer ?а?????? ?????????, ??? ??н
?????? ?а???????? ????? ?????, ?а??????????? /media/<yourname>
??? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ??а?? ? ??? ????????? ????????н
?????? ????. ????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??а?????????
?????а? ???, ?????? ???????? Linux ??????? ?а???????? ?????????
????????? ?????? ??? ????? /home, ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??н
???? ???????????? ?а??????, ??????? ????? ?????, ??? Documents
(?? Ubuntu, ???? ??а????????, ????? ??а??????).
???????????? ???а???????
> ??????? Disks ????????????? ??????, ??????? Linux ??????????
???? ????? ? ???????.
???????, ????? Ubuntu ???а??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????н
??, ???????? ??????? Disks (?а??? ?? Parted ??? Gparted). ????????
???? ???? ?????, ????? ???????? ???, ?????? ??? ??а???????????.
?? ??? ?? ??а?????? Settings ?а?????? ?? Edit Mount Options [??н
??? ???????? ????? ????????????]. ?????????? ?????????????
Automatic Mount Options [?????????????? ????? ????????????]
?аOn ?а??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????, ????? ???????? ??н
?? Mount Point [????? ????????????] ??а/media/<user>/label, ????н
??? user ??а???? ??? ????????????, ?аlabelа? ??а????? ????. ??н
????? OK ?а???????????????, ????? ?????????, ???????????а??
????? ?????????????.
?????????? ?????????: Linux ? ?? Windows!
??????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ????? Linux
????? ???????? ??? ????, ??? Linux ?аWindowsа?
?????? ???????????? ???????. ???????, ???? ?????
??????, ??? ???????? ???????, ??аLinux ???????
?????? ?а????? ????????????, ??? Windows. ?а????н
????? ???????? Windows ???????????? ??????а?
????????, ??а????? ?????????? ??а????? ?а?????;
??а?а????????? Linux ????????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??.
????????, ?аLinux ?????? ????????? ??????????н
?????? ?? ????а? ??? ???, ?????????? ???????н
??а? ??а??????????? ???? ?????? ????????????.
?????? ??? ???????? ?а???? ??? ?а?????? Linux
??????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???н
????? ?а???????.
???????? ??а??????????? ?????????, Linux ????н
???? ???????????? ????????, ??????? ????? ?????
???????? ??а????????. ?аUbuntu ??????? ?????н
????, ??, ??? ??а???????, ??а????? ??????????????
????????????? ????????? ?????? ??а??????? ??.
Ubuntu ???????? ????? ????????, ??? ????????н
??? ??????????? ??????, ??? Windows. ?а??? ???н
???? ?????????? (?а?а???????? ?????) ?????????,
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????н
??? ?????, ??а??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????
??????, ??а???????. ??, ??? Linux ???????? ?а???н
????????а? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????н
??? ?а????? ???? ???????а? ??? ????, ?а???? ???
???????? ??????????.
?, ???????, ????????????? ???????????? ???
??а???????? ????? ?????????, ??? ??????. ????
????????? ?????????? ??а????????, ??а???????????
????????, ?а?????? ??а??? ??а????????? ???????н
??????? ?????????.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
31
?????? ? Windows
? ?????? ?? ?????
????????????, ????????????????? ?а????? ??а?????... ???????, ??? Linux
???????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?а?????? ?а??????.
?
???? ??є???? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????
??????????? ?а???? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ????
??а????????????? ?а???????. Windows ??????? ?????? ???
?а????? ???????? ??????? NTFS, ??а??? ??а???????? ?????? Linux.
? Linux ??? ???????????? ?а???? ?????, ??????? ????? ?а??н
???????? ??????????. ?а????? ???????? ??? ???? ext ?????????
?а???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ????? ??????????, ???
???????? ?а??? ?????? ?а???? ????????? ??? ????????. ??? ????н
??????? ???????? ?а???? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ??: r (read), w
(write) ?аx (execute). ??а?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????
??а????????? ???????? ls нl: ?а??а?????? ????? ?а?? ? ??? ???н
??? ??а??????? ?????? ?????, ????????, rwx (?????? ??????) ???
rнн (?????? ??????). ?????????? rwx ??????????? ??? ?? ?а?а???н
???, ?а??? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???, ??? ?????? ???н
??? ??????????а? ????????, ??а??? ????? ?????а? ???????????
?а???????????? ?????, ?а??а?а????? ?????. ??????? ????? ??н
??? ????????????? (r), ????? ???????? (w) ?а????????? (x), ???? ???
?????????, ??а???? ???????????? ????? ??а????? ?????????? w,
??а??а??а?????? ????????? (??? ??? ????) ????? ?а???? ?????. ??н
??????а?? ???????, ?????? ????????????? ?????а? ?? ?? ?а???н
???????? rа? ???? ?а????? ??? ?????????? x.
???????????? ??? Linux ????????????? ?????, ??????? ?????н
????? ??а??????????? ???????? ?а?? ? ???? ????? ?а?????. ??????
????? ??? ??????????? ?а???? ?????????? ?????????????: ???????н
?? (????????????, ??????? ?????? ????), ???????? ?????? ??????н
??????? ?а?????? (???? ?????????).
> ??????????? ls нl
? ?????????, ?????
??????????? ?????н
????? ??? ??????
? ????? ? ???????
??????????.
?????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ???????????????? ??????,
??????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????, ?а????????? ??????
?а????????????? ?а???????. ???? ?? ?????, ??? ??? ????????? ?а??н
??????????? ???????????? (????? ?а????, ??????? ???????? ???н
??????? ?????), ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????н
?????. ????? ??а???????? ?????? ????????????, ?????? ?????????
?????? ?а???а?? ??????, ?а??? ???????????? ??????????? ?а????
??????; ??а???н?? ?а????????? Linux. ????? ??? ?? ????????? ????н
?????? ??? ?а?????????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ????????н
????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ?а??? ?????????????, ?а???
???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ???
????? ??а????????? ???? ??????, ?а??????? ??? ?????????.
??????? ??????????
??????????/????? ???????? ???а???????? ?????, ?а???????? ???н
?? ??? ?? ????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??а????????? ???
????? ?????. ???????? ????????, ??? ???? ??а???????? ???? ?а??н
???? ?а??????????? ??????? (????????, ????? sudo ?а?????????),
??а??? ??????? ????? ?????????????????нroot, ?а??а??. ?а??? ??????
?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ???
?????, ????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????????
????? ???????????? ??????, ?????? ??а????? ???????????? ??н
??? ?????????????. ?? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???н
??? ?????????????, ?????? ?а???????? ??а????? ???????????? ???н
??? Home ?а??а??????????, ?а?????? ????????????? ?????? ?а???
????????????. ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????а? ??н
?????????? ????? ????????, ??а???????????а? ??? ?????? ???
??????, ??? ?????? ?а??? ????????? ????????, ??а???? ????? ????
???? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? root. ?? ?? ??а? ??? ?????
????? ??? ?????, ??а?????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????н
??? ?????? Nautilus. ???????? ?????? ??????? ??а????? ??? ?????
?а???????? ??????? Properties > Permissions [???????? > ???????н
???]. ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????, ????? ?а???н
??? ?а??????? ????????? ?а??, ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????
??????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ??. ?? ????? ??а???? ??????
???? Group [??????], ?а?а?????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ????а?
??? ????????? ????????????, ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????н
?????? ?? ??? ???а????????? ????????????, ?а??а????? ??а???????.
???????? ????? ?????
???? ??а????????? ??????? ?????? Linux ???????н
???? ?а???, ??? ?а???????????? ??????????? ??? ???
л??? ?????? ????????╗. ????? ??а?????????????? ??
Linux, ??? ??а?????????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?????.
Ubuntu ??????? ???? ??? ?а????? ???????????
??? ????????, ???? ???? ??а?????????? ??????н
?????? ???? ?? ??? ???, ???, ????????, ????????
?????????? ?а????????? ?????????????. ????????н
???? NVIDIA ?аAMD?????? ??????? System Settings
[????????? ???????] ?а??????? ?аSoftware & Updates
>аAdditional Drivers [????????? ?а?????????? > ??н
???????????? ????????]. ??????? ?????? ????????
????? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ??? л???????н
??????, ??????????? [proprietary, tested]╗ ?а?? ?????
32
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
Apply [?????????]; ????? ???? ?а????? ??????????
???????????????.
???? ??а?????????? ???????? ???????, ??а?????н
???? ?аSystem Settings > Printers [????????? ?????н
?? > ????????] ?а?? ?????аAdd [????????], ?????
??????????, ??а???????????а?? ??а?????????????;
????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ????? ??????,
????????а?? ????????. ???? ???, ????????? ??а????
?????????????, ????? ????????, ????а??? ???????
??? Linux. ???? ??? Debн????? (.deb), ??а?????????
??????; ???? ???, ???, ????????, ???????? ????????
????????? ????????? .shа? ?????????, ????? ????
??? ??????????? (???????? Allow executing file as
aаprogram [????????? ?????????? ????? ?а????????
?????????] ??а??????? Permissions [??????????]
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ???????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????н
???? Ubuntu, ????? ?????????? Software & Updates.
??????? ????? ?аNautilus), ????? ???????? ????????,
????????? ?а????? ????? ????? ?а????????? ???:
$ ./filename.sh
?????? ? Windows
????????? ????????
???? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? Linux, ??? ? ?????????, ??? ? ??? ???.
????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????
?
????? ????????? Linux ???????? ?а??? ?????????? ??н
??????????. ??? ??????н??????, ??????? ??????????
????????? ?????? ????, ????????? ??? ????????????
?????? ????? ????????????, ????????, Ubuntu (??????? ???????????
Ubuntu 16.04 ?????????? ??а???????????? Ubuntu 14.04 ??? 16.10).
???? ???????? ??аUbuntu, ?? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????
??? ?????? ????????? ??????: Main [????????], Restricted [??????н
??????], Universe [?????????????] ?аMultiverse.
???? ?? ????? Main ???????? ????????? ?а?? ??? ??? ?????,
??????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??? ?????????н
?? ?а????????? ??????????? ???????? Ubuntu. Universe ????????
????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?а???????? ?????, ???????н
??? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????????. Restricted ???????н
?? ????????????? (?а???????? ?????) ??????????? ?а????????,
??????????? ??? ??? ?????? Ubuntu ??а??????? ????????????,
?аMultiverse ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??а???????? ??а??????н
????, ??а??? ????????????.
??? ??? ?а???? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?????н
???? ???????: ????????, Software Centre ???? ??? ??????? ???н
??? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ?а??????????????? ???????н
??? ???????.
??? ????????????
??????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ?а???? ???????
???????? ????????????. ???? л????????╗ Software Centre ???? ???н
?? ??? ????????? ????????????, ?????????? ????? ?????????????
(?а??????? ????? ???????????) ????? ??? ???????, ????? ?а??н
???? ?Synaptic?, ????? ?????????? Synaptic Package Manager. Synaptic
????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??а????????????, ??????? ???
????? ?????? ??????, ?а???? ????? ???????????? (????????, ?? ??
???????) ?????? ???????? ??а?????????.
??а??? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??а??????н
???а? ?????? ??? ???????? ?а????? ??????????? ????????????, ??н
????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??а????
????????: ??? ????? Settings > Software & Updates > Other Software
[????????? > ????????? ?а?????????? > ?????? ?????????], ???
????? ???????? (?а??? ???? ?????? ?????). ????? ????????? ???н
???? ????? ???????? ??? ???а???? ???????????, ?????????? ???н
???????????? ????????.
> Ubuntu Software
Centre ?????????н
???? ?????????????
???????? ??? ????н
????? ? ??????????
???????????.
?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?а???? ???????, ??н
????? ???????? ???а??, ??? ????????? ????????? ?аWindows. ?а???
???? ???, ??? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????а? ??а??????
???? ?????????, ??а?а?????? ??а???????????, ??????? ??? ????н
????? ??????????, ???? ??а??? ??? ?а????? ???????.
??? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? .deb. ????????? ??? ?а????
????? Downloads, ????? ??? ? ?? ???????? ??а?????а? ?а???? ??н
???? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ??? ????? ??? ???????. ??н
?????? ????????, ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????????????
?????????, ??а??а?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????????а? ??? ??н
????? ??а????????? ??? ??а????????????.
????????? ??а?????????
????????????? ?а???????? ??????? ???????????? apt, ?а??а???н
????, ??? ??а??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???н
???????? ??????? ???????? ????????. ??????? ?а??????? $ sudo
aptнget update. ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? (????н
??? ??????????? ??????) ??а???? ????????????? ????????????.
????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?а??? ???? ?????????:
$ sudo aptнget install <package>
$ sudo aptнget remove <package>
? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????:
$ sudo aptнget update && sudo aptнget upgrade
????? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????. ???н
??? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??аhttps://launchpad.net,
?а???а??????????? (???? ??а????????? ?????????) ????? ????????:
$ sudo addнaptнrepository ppa:<??? ???????????>
??????? ? ????????...
???? ??????????? ??????? ???? Linux, ???, ??н
??????, Ubuntu Unity ??? Gnome, ???? ?????? ???
?????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????
л?????? ?а??????╗, ???а?? ??а?? ??? ??а??? ????
?а???????????????, ??????? ???? ?????? л???н
?????╗ Linux, ??????? ?а?????? ????? ?????????
??????. ?а????????? ????????? ??а?????? ????н
????????????? ???????? ?а?????????, ??а???????
????????а?????.
??????????? ???????? Linux ?????????? ????
???а????????? BASH ??? ??????? ????????????
?????? ?а??????? ????? ????????????. ?? ? ???
??????? ??????? ????? ?а???а?? ??????? ????? ????:
$ ???_??????? <???????> н?????
????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????н
???, ??????? ??а?????? ?????????а? ????????,
cd ??? ????? ????? ????? ??? aptнget ??? ???????
??????????? ????????? ????????. ????????? ???н
???? ????? ????????? ??????????????а? ???????,
????????, ls, ?а??а???? ???? ???????? ?????? ????
?????? ?а????? ?а????? ?????.
??????? ?а????? ???????, ??а??????? ???????,
???? ?????? ?????? ??а???????:
$ aptнget install <???_?????????>
??? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????н
??? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?,а???????, ?????? н????? (???а??а? л????╗,
л????????╗ ??? л????, ??? ???╗ ???????)а? ???
?????, ??? ??а?????????? ???? ??? ????? ???????н
?????. ????? ?? ? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? (н)
??? ??? (нн) ??????.
????????, ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????????
?????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????, ???????
???????
$ ls нl
???? нl ????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????,
????????, ?а??????????? ??а????? ?а??? ???????
???? ??????, ?а??? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????????
?а????? ?????? ?а??????.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
33
?????? ? Windows
???-10 ????????? ?????????
???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????.
?
? ????????????? ????????? ??а???????????? ????????
??????? ?а????????? ????????? ?????????? ??а?????н
?? ?????? ????????????, ?????????? ?а????? ?????????
?????????? ??????????.
1 ?????????
???? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????????:
?????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ннhelp:
$ ls ннhelp
??? ????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????????
?????????? whatis, ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???н
?????? ???????????????? ???????:
$ whatis aptнget install vlc
?? ?????? ?????????? aptнget, ???????? ?????????, ?а??? ?????
????? vlc. ?????? ???????, ??? whatis ?????????? ??? ?????.
?, ???????, ???????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?а??????????? ????н
??? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? man. ??????? ?аman intro, ????? ???н
?????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а??? ????????, ?аman man,
????? ???????? ???????????? ?а????????? ??а???????????. ?, ??н
?????, ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????а? ????????,
man aptнgetа? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????н
?????, ??????????? ??????????????.
2 ????????? ??а???????? ???????
???????? ????????, ?а??а??????? ??а????? ???????? ?????. ??н
???? ????? ??????? ls нl ??? ?????????????. ?? ??а?? ?? ???? ??
> ??? ????????н
????? ????????
?????????? ?????н
??? ??????????
????????????
?а?????????.
??????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?а????? (??? ?????, ????? ????н
??? ?????????? ?а?????а? ????????, .hidden.sh), ??????????? ls нa.
??а??? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????
?????, ?а??????? ls ннrecursive.
??????? cd ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??а????? ??????.
??? ??????????? ?а???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????
cd <???_????????> (???????, ??? ?аLinux ??? ???? ????? ?а??????
?? ??? ???????). ????? ????????? ??а??????? ?????, ???????????
cd .. ??? cd ../.. ??? ???????? ??а??? ?????? ?????. ??? ????????
?а???????? ????? ????? ???????? cd /, ?а??? ???????? ?а???? ??н
??? ????? /Home ??????? cd ~. ??????? cd /????/?/?????, ????? ??н
?????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????, ????????? ??а?????? ???? (??? cd
~/Documents, ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? Home). ?, ???????, ???н
???? cdа? ??? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????, ??? ??а????.
???? ???? ?а????? ????? ???????? ???????а? ????????, ????? ??н
???????? Star Trek, ???? ????????? ???? ???? ?а????????? ???????:
$ cd ?~\Videos\Star Trek?. ????? ??????, ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??а???н
???? Tab ??? ?????????????? ???? ??????.
3 ???????????, ???????????
?а????????
??? ?? ?? ???????? ?а??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??а??????????
?а????????????? cp (copyа? ???????????) ?аmv (moveа? ??????н
?????), ?а??????? ?????????? ?????????:
$ cp нi ????????_????? ?????_?? ????????
? ?? ??? ???, ?а?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????
?а?????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????, ???? ??а??? ???????
?а?????, ?????????? ???????? ????; ?а???? нiа????????? ????н
????? ??????????? ???а??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????
?а???а?? ??????. ????????:
$ cp нi invoice.odt ~/Documents/Backup
?? ?? ??а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ????, ???н
??? ???????????? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??????????: ????????,
~/Documents/Backup/invoicebackup.odt. ????????а?? ???? ???,
cp invoice.odt invoicebackup.odt ??????? ??????????????? ?????н
??? ????? ?а???а?? ?????. ?????????? mv ??? ??????????? ??? ??н
???????????? ?????. ????? ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ????
нr ??? ?????? ????? ????????а? ??? ????????, ??? ????? ?а??а?????н
????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????.
9 ????????? ????????? ??????????
???????? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???
????????? ???????????? ?а????? ????????????.
??????? ??а????????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???н
????? ?а????? ???????????? ?а???? ??????? (??????
????????????):
$ sudo lshw нshort
????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????
??? ????????? ?а????????:
$ sudo lshw нhtml > sysinfo.html
????? ??????? ????????????а? lscpu (list processor
informationа? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????????), lsblk
(list block storageа? ?????? ???????? ????????), lspci (list
internal hardwareа? ?????? ??????????? ????????????)
?аlsusb (?????????? USB). ??? ??? ???????? ???????
??н???????а? ????????, sudo lspci нv ?????????????
34
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
??????? ??????, ????? ??? lsusb ???????? ????? ???н
??, ???? ????? ?? ??а??? ???? ??????????, ??????????
?а??????? ?????? ???? ????, ????? sudo lsusb, ?а?????
??????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ??а????
?а??????а??????????:
$ sudo lsusb нD /dev/bus/usb/00x/00y
? ????????? ??????????а? dmidecodeа? ?????
???????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???? нt
?а???????? ?????, ??????? bios, baseboard (motherн
board) [??????????? ?????], processor [?????????],
memory [??????????? ??????] ?аchassis [?????]а?
????????, sudo dmidecode нt memory. ???????, ??н
????, ??? ????????? ???????????? ??а??????? DMI
??а?????? ?????, ??а????? ??????????, ???? ???н??
??а?????а???????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ??????????? lshw ??? ???????? ???н
?? HTML ?? ??????? ?? ????????????
?????? ??.
?????? ? Windows
??? ???? ????????? ????? ?а??????? rm, ?а?????? ????? ??н
??? ??? ???? ?а??????? ??????? rmdir (???????? ???? нr ??? ???н
????? ????? ?а????? ????????????? ???????????):
$ rmdir нr ~/Documents/Backup
?, ???????, ???????? ????? ????? ?а??????? ??????? mkdir
???_????? (?????а??, ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??) ?а??????н
????? touch ???_??? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??а?
?? ??? ???, touch config.sys. ???а??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?а??? ?? ?? ??
?а???????? ??а???????? ????????? ??а?а????????? ??????? ??? ??н
?????????? ???????? ???? (\) ????? ???? ????? ????????, ?????н
???: mkdir Star\ Trek.
4 ????? ??????????
Nautilus ???? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????н
?????, ??а??????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? chmod, ??а???н
?????? ???????????:
$ chmod 777 file
???????????, fileа? ??? ??? ?????, ??? ????? ???????? ??? ??
?????. ???? ??а?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????а? ????н
??? ??? ????? ?????а? ??а??а?? ??????????, ??? ?а????? ?????, ??н
?????? ???? нR, ??? ???:
$ chmod нR 777 folder
???????? ??????? ?????а? ????? 777 (??????? ??а?? ????н
????? ???а??? ????????? ??????), ??????? ????????? ?а?????????н
?????? ???? ???????????. 7 ???????? rwx (?. ?. ?????? ??????),
?а?????? ????? ????????? ?а??? ?????? ?????, ??????а? ?а??????
?????, ?а??????а? ??ал???? ?????????╗, ??? ??? ?????????? ??н
??? ?а???? ??????.
??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? 6 (rwн, ??? ??? ???/?? ????,
??а??а??????????), 5 (rнx, ??? ?????? ?а??????????), ?а4 (rнн, ???
?????? ??????). ???, ???????? ????? ??? ????? 644, ??а?? ???? ???н
?????? ????? ?????? ?а??????, ??а?????????? ???? ????????? ??????
???????. ?????????? 775, ?а??а???????????? ????????? ?а?????????
?????? ?????? ??????, ?а??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????
????. ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????????, ??????????
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/FilePermissions.
5 ????? ???????????? ?а?????????
????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???н
??, ??????????? ??????? chown:
$ chown ???_???? ?????? ?? ???_?????
????? ???????????? chgrp ??? ????? ?????? ????? ?а????н
??? ????а?? ?????????? (chgrp ????????_?????? ???_?????), ???
chown ??? ????? ?а???????????? ?а?????? ????? ????????, ??? ???:
$ chown ???_??? ??????:?? ??????_?????? ???_?????
6 ?????? ?????????? ??????
???? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?а??н
??? ?????? (??? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????, ???? ??? ?? ??н
??? ?????????). ???? ??а??????, ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??
> ?????? ?????н
?????? ???а???н
????? ????? ?а???н
?????? ?а?????а?
??а???????, ???
??? ????????
?????????.
?????? ???а???????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ????????
&&, ????? ???????:
$ sudo aptнget update && sudo aptнget upgrade
???? ??? ?? ??, ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??, ?????? ????
?????? ????????? ??а??? ????, ????????? || ?????? &&. ?, ???????,
??????????? ????? ?а??????? (;) ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????н
?????? ??а????, ??? ?????????? ?а??????:
$ sudo aptнget update ; sudo aptнget remove vlc
7 ?????????????? ?аnano
????? ??а?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????н
?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ???
????? ???????? nano, ??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ??н
??? ???. ????????? ??? ?а???????
$ sudo nano /path/filename
?? ???????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ?а????????? nanoа?
??? ?? ??? ??? ?а?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??????, ?а??? ??? ?? ??????
?????? ??????? ?????а? ?????? ^ ????????? ?а??????? [Ctrl].
???а?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??н
???????? nanoа? ????? ??? ????????????? ??????, ??????? ?????
?????? ??????? $, ??????????? ??а??, ??? ?????? ??а???????????н
?? ??????? (???????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????? [End] ???
???????? ?а????? ??????).
??????????? [Home]/[End] ??? ???????? ?а???? ?? ?а????? ????н
??, ??? [PgUp]/[PgDn] ??? ??????????? ??а????????. ?? ??? ??
[Alt] + [/] ??? ???????? ???? ?????????, ?а[Alt] + [\] ??? ???????? ??н
????. ??????????? [Ctrl] + [W] ??? ?????? ??а?????, ?а[Alt] + [W] ??н
??????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ?????.
8 ?????? ??а???? USB
? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? USB ??а??????н
???? ???? ????? ISO? ??а?????? ?????? ?????????? dd, ??а??а??н
?????? ???????????? ??? ?а?? ????? ??????а? ???а???????? ??н
?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????, ?? ??? ??
?????????, ??? ??а????????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?а????н
??? sudo fdisk нl:
$ sudo dd if=filename.iso of=/dev/usb status=progress
?? ???? ?????, ?? ?? ???????? /dev/usb ??а???? ??? ???? (???н
???, /dev/sdc).
? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????? Sudo
???????? ????????, ??а??????? ?а???????? ?????
???? ??????? ?????? ????????????. ?????????
??????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а????н
???? ?????????????????нroot (????? ?????? ?Perн
mission denied [?????? ????????]?), ?а????? ?????
???????, ????????? ????? ???????? sudo, ??? ???:
$ sudo aptнget install vlc
??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????
??????, ?а?????? ??????? ????? ???????????а? ??н
???? ??а??????? ???????????? ??????? sudo ?????
??а????? ?????? ????????? ???а????????????? ???н
???? ???? ??????. ??????, ???? ??а???????? ???????
sudo ????? ???????? ?а??? ???? ????? ???????????,
?????? ??????? sudo !! ?а?? ????? [Enter], ????? ??н
??????? ??????? ??? ?а?????????? sudo.
???? ??а?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????
????? ?а??????? root (????????, ????? ??? ??????
Nautilus), ??????????? ?????????? gksu (????? ??
?????????? ???):
$ sudo aptнget update && sudo aptнget install gksu
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
$ gksu nautilus
Nautilus ????????? ?а??????? ????, ??а?а????н
??????? ??????? ???????. ????????, ????????
???? ??????????, ????? ?? ????? Ctrl + C ?а?????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
?а?????? ??? ?а????????? ??????.
????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ?а???????
??????????? su ????? ?а????????? ?????? ??а?????
root, ??аUbuntu ????????? ???, ?а?????????. ????н
??????? ?????? ????? ???????????? sudo.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
35
?????? ? Windows
?????? Linux
? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????????, ????? ?? ?????????? ???? Linuxн???
???? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????.
?
??, ??? ??а????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а???, ???
?????????? ?а?????? ?аLinux. ??? ?а???, ??? Linux ???????н
????. ????? ???????? Linux ?а???, ??? ??а??? ????????н
???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???а???? ????????, ???? ??а????? ??н
????. ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????н??а???????????,
??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??н
??????. ??а?????????? ???? ???????, ??????? ?а???? ???????, ??н
??? ??а????????? ?????? ???????, ?а??а????????? ???????? ?????.
??? ????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????:
╗ POST ╗ ????????? ????????
╗ ???????? ????
╗ ????????? ramн????
╗ ?????? ??????? ?????????
╗ Init ╗ ?????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????
╗ ????? ??? ?????? ?????
╗ ?????? ???????? ?????
?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??а??? ?? ??, ?? ?? ???, ??? ???н
??????? ?а????? ?а??? ???? ?????. ??? ?а??а??????? ????? ????
Linux, ?а?? ? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????
???????а??????.
??????? ?????? ?а?????? ????, ??? ?????? ?а?? ? ??? ??? ???.
POSTа? ??? Power On Self Test, ?????????, ??????? ????????н
?? ????????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??????, ?????
???????????? ?????? ?а?. ?. ?????? ??а???? ??? ??? ??а?????? ???н
??????? ??????? ????? ?а???? ????????? ???????????? ??? ??н
????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????.
????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ????, ??? ?а???????? ?а????н
??? ????????? ??а????????? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??н
??? ????????. ?????? ???? ?????? ?а???? ????????? ??????, ?????
??????????? ??а?????????. ?????? ??? ????? ???????, ???? ?а????
?????? ?? ???? ??а??????. ????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???? ??н
??, ????????? ??? ????????? ?????, ????????, ?????????? ?????н
?? ????? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????????? ramн????.
??? ????? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ???н
??????, ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????????.
?? ??? ??? ????, ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???а?? ??? ?? ??
init, ??????? ??????? ?а????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ???.
??а???? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????а? ??? ??????? ?????????,
????????, ????? cron ??? ????????? ??????. ??????????? ????н
???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? [runlevel]; ??? ????
??а????? ???? ????????, ??????? ??????????, ??? ?????? ?????н
?????? ?????????. ????????, ??????????? runlevel 1 ??? ???????
?????? ????????????, 3а? ????????????????????? ????????? ??н
?????, ?а5 ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????. ????? ??? ??????н
??а? ??? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???
????? ?а??????? ?а????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???н
?? ???????? ????? ????? ??а?????????. ?, ???????, ????? ?????? ???
??????? ????, ?????? ??, ???????? ????????? ????????? ????н
?? ???????????? ?а???????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.
??????
> ???? ???????? Grub ? ???? ????????? ?? ????, ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????
??????? ?? ?????? ????. ????????? ????? ?? ??????, ??нUEFI, ????????.
? POST ????а?? ????? ??????? ??????. ??? ?? ?? ????????? ????н
?????? ??а?????? ????????????, ????? ?????? ??а????????? ??н
????. ??а????? ???? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??а?????? ????????
?????? ???? BIOS. ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????, ?????н
???, ????????? ???? ?????????а? ?? ?? ?а??? ?????? ??????, ???
???????? ??? ?а????????? ??а?????????а? ???? ??а??????. ?????
????????, ??? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??н
???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ?а??? ??????????
??а????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?а????? ???н
????????? ???????.
?????? ??а??????? ?а?????? ??а??? ????????, ????? ????? ??н
???? ?????. ?а?????? ???????? BIOS ???????????? ????? ?? ?? ???н
?????? ?а?????? 446а?????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ?????н
?????. ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ?аMaster Boot Record
???????????? ???????? ??????
???? ??а?????? ?????, ??????? ?????? initа? ???н
????????? ????? ???????? ???????. ???а???????
???? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????? root,
??а??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????. ???н
????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????н
??? /etc/fstab, ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???
????????????, ??а????? ???????????? ?а??? ?????
??? ????????????? ???а????????????. ????????
36
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????
?а??????, ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????
???????? ???????, ??????? ????????. ????? ???н
????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????? noauto ??а???н
????????, ?а??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????н
?? ??а???? ???????, ????? ????? ???????? ????.
???? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? init,
??????? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????
???????? ?? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????н
??, ?а?????????, ?а????????, ??????? ??????????
????????? ???????? ??????? ??? /usr, ???????
??????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????????
????????? ???????? ???????, ???, ??а???????
????, ?????????? ??????, ??аinitramfs, ?а?? ?????
???????? ?????????? init.
?????? ? Windows
> ??? ????? ?????н
???? ????????
rEFInd ??? ??????
UEFI. ?? ??????
??????? ?? ????н
????? ???? ??
?????? ??? ??????
?????????.
(MBR, ??????????? ??????) ?????? ???????? ??а??????? ????? ??н
??????? ????? ????????? ????????; ???? ????? ??? Grub. ??????н
??? Grub, Grand Unified Boot Loader, ???? ?????? ????, ??? ????? ??н
????? ????? ????????. ?????? ???? ????? ??а?????????, ???????
?? ??????????, ???? ??а??а????? ?? ????? ??а????????????? ?????.
???? ?а?????? ????????? ????????, ????????, LILO, ??аGrub ????
??????????, ?????? ??? ??а???????? ?а?????? ????????????? ?а??н
??? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ????, ??? ????? ???а????н
????? ?????? ???????? ????, ???????? ??? ??????? ????????.
???? ???? Grub ?? ??????? ?а/boot/grub/grub.cfg. ???? ??? ??н
??? ????? ???????? ???????, ????????????? ???????? ?????????
?а/etc/default/grub ?а????? ????????? $ sudo grubнmkconfig нo /boot/
grub/grub.cfg ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ????. ????????? ??????н
?? ???? ???????? ????, ????????? ??? ?????? ???а?? ????? ??а???н
????. ???, ??? ?а????? ????????, ????? ????????, ??????? ???????
/etc/default/grub ??? ??????? ????.
Grubа? ??? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????? ??а???????? ??а????
???????????? ???????, ??????? ??а??? ??? ????. ?????? ??а?????н
?????? ???????????? ?аUEFI ?а???? ??? ??? ?????????????: ???а??н
????????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ????????. UEFI
????????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????н
??? ??????? FAT, ?а???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????. ?????????? ??н
?? ??а?????????, ??????? ????????? ?а????????, ??? ????? ??н
???? ??а??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??а????? ???????.
??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?а?? ???? ?? ??, ?? ?? ?? ????н
??????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????? ????? ????? ??? ??????н
??а? ??? ???? ??а??????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???
???? ???а????????. ??а??н???????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????
Grub, ??а??? ??????? ???????. ????????? bootctl ?аSystemd ??????н
???? ??????? ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ????, ???????
???? ?????? ?а??????? ????????? ????. ?а???????? ??????????н
?? ?????? ???????????? rEFInd (www.rodsbooks.com/refind), ????н
??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????? ?????
??????? ??? ?????????????, ??????????? ??а???, ??? ??????? ?а???
??а??????? ?????.
??????????? ?а???????? ?????????? ????. ?????? ??а?????? ???н
???????? ?????????, ???????????? ??? ???????? ???? ??а???????н
??? ???????, ?а???????
$ cat /proc/cmdline
????????? ??а???? ????? ?????????????а? ????????, ??, ??н
????? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????; ??а????????? ??????????
?????. ????????, ???????? root= ???????? ????, ??а????? ???????
?????????? ???????????? ???????а? ??а???? ???а????????? ?????
?? ???????? ?? ?? ?????. ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ???н
???? init ??? ?????????????, ?а???? ??а?????? ????????, ??? ???н
?????? ???? ?аinitrd.
Linux ????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????. ?????????? ???? ??н
?????? ???? ??? ?а????????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ??, ?а???н
?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????
??? ?а????? ???? ??? ????????? ??а??????????. ????? ?а???, ???
?????, ??а???????? ??? ?????? ????, ??а?а???????? ????? ?аLinux
???? ?а??, ?а??????.
??а???????, ????? ??а???? ??????????? ?? ????, ??а?????? ??
?а???? ?????, ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????: ???????? ???
???????????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ???? ???????? ???н
????, ??????? ????? ?а?. ?.
? ?????????? ?а??? ???? ???? ??а????, ??? ??? ??????? ????, ??н
???? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??а?????. ?а???????? ????? ??????
???? ??? ???????????, ?? ??а?????? ???????а??а????????? ????н
????? ??? ???? ??? ??????, ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???н
??? ??????. ??? ?????????????? ????? ???? ????????, ???????
???? ?аramн?????
?? ?? ??а?????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ???
?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? UEFI, ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??,
> ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
????????, ? ???? ?? ?????? ?????, ??? ??????????, ????????? ??.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
37
?????? ? Windows
???????? ??
Linuxа? ??? ????, ??? ????? ???? ?а/boot. ???
?????????, ????????? ????? ???????????? ???????
GNU/Linux, ???????? ?????? ????? ????. ????а?
?????????? ??: ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????н
???? ?а????????? ?????? ????????, ?а??? ????????
????? ????, ??а??? ??а???????? ??????????? ??. ???
???а?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????????
??????? ???????? root=, ??????? ?????????
???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???н??а?а??????????
??? ?????????а? ?а????????? ???а????????? init,
??????? ??а????????? ?? ??????? ?а/sbin. Initа? ???
?????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ????, ID
??а????????а? ?????? 1, ??? ????????? ????????
???????? ??а????????? ?а???. ??? ???? ??? ?????,
?????????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????? systemd,
??? ??а????????, ??? init, ??? PID1, ?а??а????? ?????н
????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??а????? ?? ????. ????
/sbin/init ???????? ?????????? ??а?????????, ??а??н
???? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??????????, ??? ???
?????? ???????? ?аsystemd, ?а?? ?? ?????? ????????
??? ?а????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????. ????
?а??? ???????? ?а????? ???????????, ???????
??а????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????, ???н
??? ??а????? ??????, ??????? init=/bin/bash ?а??н
???? ???? ?а????????? ????????. ??? ????????, ???
???? ?? ?? ??а????? ???????? ????????? init, ?а??????
????? ????????? ??? ?а???????? ?а???????? root. ???
??? ??? ???? ??????? ????????? ??а????? ????????
????? ???????? ???а?????? ??а????? ??????????,
??????? ??а?? ??????? ??а????????? ???????.
????? ?????? ??а??????????; ??? ????????? ????? ??? ???????
??? ????? ??????? ????? ?а??а????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??????
????? ????????? ????? ??а??????? ?????.
??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?а???, ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ???
????, ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?а?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??а???? ?? ???
?????? ??? ??? ?а?????? ????????? ramн???? [initial ram disk]. ???
????, ?????????? ????? ????? ??а???? ???????????. ??а??????н
?? ?а???а?? ????? ?????, ??? ?а????, ?а???????, ??? ?а????, ????н
?????? ???????????. ???? ????????? ???? ???? ??а??щ?????? ??н
????????????, ????? ???? ?а???? ??????????? ??????, ?а?????
???????????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??а????н
????????? ??????????????. ????????? ????? ???? ramн????, ?а??н
?????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ??а????? ?????? ?а?????? ???н
?? ??а????????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ??? ??????. ?????? ramн????
???? ?? ?????? ???????? ??н
?? ? ???????????? ?????????н
??? ? ???????? ??? ?????????.
????????? ???а????, ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????н
?? ????? ??, ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ??а???????? ?????????????
??????? ??? ???н??а?а????.
????? ramн????? ?????а?? ???????? ?а???? ????, ??а??? ????н
???? ??? ??? ?? ??, ????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??, ?? ???? ?? ??
??? ???? ????????? ????. ????????? ?а???? ????? ????? /boot,
?а??а??????? ??????????????? ???? initramfs ??? initrd ??? ??н
? ???? ????. ?????? ??????, ?а????????? ????? ???? ??????????
initramfs, ??а?????? initrd ???? ??а????? ???????? ??а?????????.
> ??? ??? ??а?????????, ???????? ?????н????????. ???????????
??а?????? ??????? OKа? ??? ????? ??????? ????.
???????а? ?а????? ????, ??????? ?а??а??????; ??а?а????? ??????
???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????.
???? ??а????? ?????? ???????? ????а? ???????????? ??????н
???? ???????????? ?а???????? ??? ?????????. ?а??????? ??а??????
???????????? ??????, ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????н
??? ?????????, Linux ??а????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????н
??? ????? ????????????. ??а?????? ?????? ??а?а?????????? ????,
?????? ?????? ???а??????? ???????
$ dmesg | less
?? ???????, ??? ??а?????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? CPU, ????н
??????? ????? ?а??????, ?а????? ????????? ?а?????? ????????? ???н
??????. ??а??????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??н
?? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ???.
?????? ????????
> ???? /etc/fstab ??????, ????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???. ?????? ???? ?
????а??????????, ?? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ??????, ??? fstab ?? ?????????.
38
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????, ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???а??н
?????? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ??а???????????? ?? ??н
?? ???а????????, ??????? ???????? ??? ??????. ?????? ??? ????н
???? ??????????? ?? ????? ??аEsc ???а??? ?????????, ??? ??????
???????????? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????
??а?????н???????? ???а???????? ??а????? ????. ????? ?????, ??а???н
???? ?????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????? ????????, ??? ??? ????
??????. ??? ??????????? ???????.
???????, ??? ?? ?????????? ????????а? ??? ?????????, ??н
????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????, ?а?? ? ??? ??а??? ???????н
?? ???? ?? ????. ??? ????? ???? ???????, ???????? NTP (Network
Time Protocol), ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???н
???????, ??? cron, ?????? ??????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????н
???, ??? ????????? ?????? [system logger], ?????? ???????? ???
???????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??а?????? ???????? ??а?????
??????????. ??? ??????? ???????? ??а??????????? ???????????;
????? ???, ???? ?????? ???????, webн??????, ??????? ???? ????н
??? ????? ?а?. ?.; ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? ? Windows
??? ????????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ?????
????а? ????? cron, ?а????? ??????????. ??????? init ???????????
??????, ??????? ???? ??а??? ?????? ??????????? ???? ??, ??? ??н
???????? ??????. ??? ???????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ?????н
?????? ??????? ????????, ???? ?а??????н?? ?????? ??????? ??????
??а?????? ????? ???????, ??а??? ???????????? ??? ?а??? ???, ?????
????? ????????? ??? ??, ?а??? ???????.
???????? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ????, ??? ?? ? ??? ???????????
??? ?????? SysVInit ?а??? ?????? ???????, ????? ??? ???????? ???
??а?????????? ????????, ??? ?а??а??????????? ??????? ???????.
?? ??????????
> ????????? ????????????? ??????? init (?????) ? ?????? systemd
unit. ? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? init.
?????? ???????????, ??????? ??, ????????, ??а?????????? ??а??н
?????? ?????.
? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ???. ???
??????? ?? ????: ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???а???????? ???н
??????? ?а?? ????? ???????? ???а?????????? ??? ???? ????????,
??а??? ?? ???? ??а???. ???? ???????, ????????? ??а??????, ?а????н
??? ??а??????? ?? ???. ??? ?? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ???н
??????? ???????? ?а??? ?а??? ??? ?????? ??????н??а??????? ?????
??????????? ????.
??? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? Unix ?аLinux ???????
??аSysVInit, ???????? ???? ?? ??а?????? Unix. ??а?????????? ?????
??????? ???????, ?? ? ??? ??а??????? ???????????? ????????????
????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? ???????:
0 ???????
1 ????? ?????? ????????????
2 ????????????????????? ?????
3 ????????????????????? ??????? ?????
4 ??а????????????
5 ??? ??????? 3 ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????
6 ????????????
????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?а?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??, ?? ??н
??? ???????? ?а/etc/init.d. ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???????
???????, ??а/etc/rc0.d ??а/etc/rc6.d. ??? ???????? ?????????????
?????? ??а??????? ?а/etc/init.d. ??????? ????? ??а????? ????? ???н
?????? ??а?????? ??????? 3, ??????????? ??? ??????? ??а/etc/rc3.d.
???а??????? ??? ???????? ??а??????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????
?start?. ???а?????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?а??н
?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?stop?.
? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????
??? ???????? ??а?????? ????????а? ??? ??? ?????????? ?а????,
??? ????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ???????.
????:
S01syslogнng
S02cron
S03firewalld
???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????, ?? ??? ??? Upstart (???? ????????) ?а???????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????н
??? ??аGentooа? openrc; ??а??? ??а?????? ?????? ????????????,
??а?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??. ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???н
??? (?????? ???а???? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????, ?????,
?а??а?а???????????) systemd ???????? ????????? ????????? ??а??н
????????? SysVInit.
???? ??а???????? ??????? ?а???, ??? SysVInit ?????????? ???
??????? ?а????????? ???????? ??????? ????????. ?? ? ??? ??????
????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????, ?а??????????? ???????????н
??. ???? ?? ?????? ???????????, ?? ?? ???а???, ??? ????????? ???н
???? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????,
????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????? ???а??????????? ???????а?
??? ????????? ?? ????, ?а??? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????н
???, ????????? ?? ? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ?а????н
???????? ??а????? ??????? ????????.
> ???????? ??????????? ? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????. ? ????? ????? ????? ????,
??а???, ??? ??? ????? ????? ? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????, ? ????? ?? ????????!
????? ??????? ???????
??????? ??????? ??а????????? ????????????
?а????? /etc/inittab, ?а??????
id:5:initdefault:
????????, ??? ??? ??????? ??а????????? ????? ??н
???? ??а??????? ??????? 5. ??? ????? ????????,
??????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????
?а?????? ????? ???? ???а????????.
???? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??а??????, ?а??? ??н
??? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ??????????, ?????
??а????? ???????? ??а???. ????? ????, ??? ?????н
???? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ????? ????????
???????? telinit. ???? ??а??????????? ?а?????????
???????, ?а?????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ????, ??а??н
???? ????????? ??а????? root
$ telinit 5
? Systemd ??? ??????? ???????; ??а?????? ???н
???? ???????? target [????]: multiнuser.targetа?
?????? ???? ?????? ??????? 3, ?аgraphical.target
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????????? 5. ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???
??????? telinit ??? ???????????? ??а??????????
?????? ?а??????????? ?????
$ systemctl isolate graphical.target
?? ????????? target ????????????? ???:
$ systemctl setнdefault graphical.target
? ??а?????? ??????? ?????? targetа?а?????? ???????н
?? ???????? ?а???????
systemd.unit=multiuser.target
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
39
?????? ? Windows
Systemd, ????????, ?????????? ????? ????????, ??????? ???н
??? ????? systemd ???н?? ??????, ?????? ????, ????? ?????? ??? ??н
???. ????????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????
?? ??????? ?????, ?а??? ?????? ???, ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ??,
?????? ?????????? ????? ??а??? ?????????. ????????? ??? ????????
?????? ??????????? ????? systemd, ??? ??? ?? ????????, ??? ?????
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42
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
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????, ??????????? ?а????????????. ????? ???
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?????????? ESX. ?????? ??????? ?а????????????н
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??а????????? ?а???????? ???? ?а????????? ?????,
????, ????????? ???? ??а??????? CentOS, ?а?????,
???????? ??????, ??????? ??а???????? Amazon.
??? ?аLXF ????? ????????? ?а???????.
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?????, ?а?? ?? ???, ????????? ??а?? ?? ????? ???.
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??? CA ??????????????? ?а????????? ?????а? curl.
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?????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????????????. ???н
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???, ??а??а?????н???? ???????, ????? ????, ??????
??? ??? ???н?? [??????? ??? ???? ?а???, ??? Mozilla
???????? ?????????? ??? ??????, ??. https://blog.
chef.io/2015/02/26/bentoнboxнupdateнforнcentosнandн
fedora], ??аCA Amazon Web Services ??? ??а???? ???н
???. ?а?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????????
?????? ?????? ??а??? ?????????? ?аAWS ??? S3.
??? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????, ????
??а?????????? SSLн??????????? ??а??а?????????,
?а?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? AWSн??????н
????, ???? ??????????, ????? ????, ?а?????? ??н
???, ?????? ???? ????, ???????, ?а??? ???? ???????.
LXF: ??а???? ??? ???, ??? ??а???????? ??а?????
??н????????????, ????????????? ??а???????????
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?? [??. https://www2.cs.arizona.edu/stork/packageн
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?? ?????????.
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??????? ???????? ??аhttps://curl.haxx.se. ??а????
?????? ???????, ????????? ?а??? ????? ???????н
?? ???, ?????? ??, ???????? ??а??? ??? ??, ???????
????? ??а?????? ????????.
LXF: ??а??? ?? ????????, ??? ????? ??а??????
??????? ??????????? ???????????, ??а?а????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? ??а????????, ??????? ?а??а??????? ?а???н
???, ?а???, ??? ???? ?????, ??????? ?????? ???н
????, ?а??? ?? ??, ????, ?а??а?? ?? ???н??а??? ????
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?а??????????????? ???????????? ???????????.
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????? ????? ??? ???? ?????????: ??? ??? ??????н
?? ????????????, ?а??????? ?а???????, ?????????
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???????? ?а???? ???????, ?????? ????, ????? ??н
?????? ???н??а??????? ?? ??????????????. ??????
??? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????. |
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
45
????????? Ubuntu
?????? Ubuntu
??? ???? ??????? ???, ??? ???? ????? ?а??????????
????????? Ubuntu ??а??? ??, ???а??????????? Windows
(?а????????а?а???? ??????????).
?
???? Ubuntu 17.04, ?а??? ?????? ??????,
????? ????????? Windows ?а???????
??аLinux. ?а???? ???????а? ??а???????н
???????а? ??????????? ??а???????,
??? ????????? ?????????? Ubuntu (?а?????? ??????н
??????) ?????? ?аWindows,
???????? ??? ?????????? ??н
?????????? ??? ?????????н
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??? ??????????.
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?????? ????? ??а????? ?а???н
?????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? Windows, ???а??, ????
?а??? ???? ????? ?????? ??, ?????????? ??а????
Ubuntu ?а???????? ????????? ?? (??а????? ?????н
???????, ??? Windows, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???н
??? ???????? ????? ????? ?а?????????? ???????
???????, ?????????? ??а???????? ??а??а??????).
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?? ??????? Windows ?а????? ?а?????????? Ubuntu
??а??? ?????.
??????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????? ??а???
???????, ??? ??????? ?????????????, ??а???????н
?????? ???? ???????????????? ????? ????? ????н
????????? ????? ??а??????? ????? ????? ??? ??н
????? ????????? (????? DVD ??а????? ?????????
??н??а??????????? ?????????? ??????????? DVD).
?????????? ??????? ???????, ??а???а?? ??????
???????? ??? ?а???? ?????????????? ???????а?
?????????? ??????????? DVD
??а??????? ??????????? ???
?????????????? ?????? ??н
??? ???????, ???? ?а????????
????????? Ubuntu ???н?? ???н
??? ???????????. ????? ??????
??а??????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ?????????, ??а??????? ??????? ??????.
????????????, ??? ??? ???????????а? ??? ??н
???? DVD ??? ?????? ??а2а?? (??? ??????) , ??а??н
????? ??а???????? ???????? ????????? Ubuntu.
????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????, ?????
????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?а????н
??? ????????? Ubuntu/Windows.
?????? ???????? ????? ?????
? ??????? ???????, ??????????
?? ???????? ?? ?? ??????.
46
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
??. ???? ??а?????????? ?????????? Ubuntu ??????
?а???????????? ???????????? ????????, ??а?а???
??? ?????? ????????? ????? Windows, ?????????
?аSettings > Update &аsecurity > Backup (Windowsа10)
?а??????? Go toаBackup and Restore (Windows 7).
???????? Create aаsystem image [??????? ????? ??н
?????] ?а????? ???????? ??????????? ??а????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? Ubuntu
?
????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????????
?????????, ????????: ?а??????а?? ??а??н
??? ????? ????? ??? Ubuntu? Ubuntu ???н
????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??а5а??, ??а?????
??а????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????
???????? ????????? ???????, ??? ??? ?а?????? ???н
???? ???? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????
??а????? ????? ?аWindows.
???? ???н??а?????????? ?????? ???????????
?а???? Ubuntu, ??а?? ?????? ????????? ????????
??а24 ??, ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????.
??а???? ??а?????????? ??????? ??а?????????? ??н
????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ???н
????? ???? ??а??????????? ??а????? ????? ???н
??????? ?аLinux ?????? ?а????.
???? ??????, ????????, ????? ????? ??????н
??? ??? ???, ?а???? ??????? SSDн????а? ??????
??а??????? ??????. ???? ??а?????????????? Ubuntu
??а?????????? ?? ?а?а??? ??????? ???? ?????? (??н
?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?а??????? SATA
?а??????? ???????), ??а????????? ??????? ??????н
???? ????? ??? ??????? Ubuntu ?а????. ????? ??н
?????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? Ubuntu
??а?????????? ????. ????? ??а??? ???????, ???
??? ????????.
?а??????? ??аSelect [???????], ????? ??????? ????
???? Ubuntu ISO. ??а?????? ?????????? ??? ??н
????? ???? ?????? (??????? Change [????????],
???? ??? ??а???), ??? ??? ??????? Flash! [??????!]
?а??????????, ??? ???????? ?????.
??????????? ????????
????????? Ubuntu
???? ??а??? ??а??????? ???, ???????? ?????????н
??? ???????? Ubuntu ?: www.ubuntu.com/download/
desktop. ??? ???????? ?а???? 1,5н?? ????? ISO, ??н
????? ??а??????? ???????? ??аDVD, ????? ??а????
?????? ??????? ???? ?аWindows ?а?????? Burn
disc image [??????? ????? ?????]. ???? ?а??? ????
?????? ?????? ??а2 ?? (??? ??????), ??а?? ????н
???????? ???????????? ??а? ??? ??????? ???????
?????????. ?а???? ??????, ????????????? ?а??????
???????? ?а??????? ????????? LXF225, ??а?????
???????? ??????? Ubuntu 17.04.
?? ??а?????? л????????╗ ????? ????? ?????н
??? ??аUSB; ?????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???н
?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????н
?? USBн?????, ?а??а??????????, ??? ????? ????
?а?????????????а? Etcher (https://etcher.io). ??н
??? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????????
? ???? ??? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????
BIOS ??а????? ???а????????? UEFI. UEFI ?а???????,
?а??????, ?а???? ?????????? ??? ???????????????
??? Windows, Ubuntu ????? ?????????????? ?а??н
???? ?а?????? ?????????, ???аSecureBoot.
?????? ???? ???????, ???а????????? FastBoot
(????? ???????? ??? FastStartup ??? QuickBoot),
Ubuntu ??а????????????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??н
??????????? ???? ?? ?а????? ??????????? ???????
??????? ?????????. ?????? ???? ?????? ?????н
?? F2 ??? Del. ????????? ?а??????? ????????? UEFI
?а??????? ????? FastBootа? ?????? ?а???? Boot
??? Windowsа? ????????? ??а???а?????????????.
?????? ????? ???????????????, ????????? ????
???????? ????????? Ubuntu, ?а???? ??? ??а??????н
?????? ????????????? (??????? ???????, ???? Winн
dows ??????????? ??? ??????), ??а???????????????
> Etcher ? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????? USB ????????
????????? ?? ISOн??????.
?????, ??а??????? ????? ????? ?а???? ????????а?
????????, ??аF11 ??? F12. ??????? ???? DVD ???
?????? ?а???????? ??. ???? ??? ?????? ????????н
?? ?а??????, ???????? ????? UEFI.
????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ??н
??? Install Ubuntu [?????????? Ubuntu]. ????? ???
??? ?????????, ???????????? ?а????? ???? WiнFi,
????? ???????? ??? ????а? ??? ?????????? ?????н
????? ?а????????? ????????? ????????а? ?а??н
????? Continue [??????????]. ????? ?????????
????? ???????? ???? Installation Type [??? ????н
?????], ?а??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????
?????????.
???? ??а???????? ?????????? Ubuntu, ??а???
???? ???????? ????? Erase disk and install Ubunн
tu [???????? ???? ?а?????????? Ubuntu], ??а???н
???? ??????????? ???????????? ??а??????? ???н
??. ???? ????? ??????? ???????? Ubuntu ??????
?аWindows, ??? ????? ????????? ??а????? Install
Ubuntu alongside Windows 10 [?????????? Ubuntu
?????? ?аWindows 10]. ???? ??? ????????, ????????
??а????????? ?а??????? Continue.
????а?? ????? ????? ???, ??????, Ubuntu ??а??н
???н??а??????? ??а???????????? ???? ?????????
????????? Ubuntu ?? ??
???? ??а???????? ??????? Windows ?а????? ?а????н
?????? ???? ????????????? Ubuntu, ??а???????
????????? ????? ???????. ???? ??а????? ????? ???
?????? ???????, ??? ??? ????????а?? ?????????,
??а?????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ??а?????
???????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? Erase disk and
install Ubuntu [???????? ???? ? ?????????? Ubuntu]
??а?????? Installation type, ?а???????аContinue.
????? ???? ???????? ????? ?а??????????, ???
??а??????????? ?????????? Ubuntu ??а?????????
???? (/dev/sda) ?а??? ????? ??????????? ????
????. ???? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????,
??а?????? ????? ?????????? Ubuntu ???а? ?????н
?????, ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?а????????? ???????
???аUbuntu.
? ???? ?а??? ????????? ???????? ?а?????????
??? ??????, ?а?????? Windows, ??а?? ??????
????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ??а??????н
??: ??????? ??а?????аAdvanced partitioning tool
[??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а???????]
??а?????? Erase disk and install Ubuntu ??? ????????
Something else [??????] ??а?????????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? Windows (??????н
???? ??? ??а???????? ?а??????) ?а??????? ?н?, ?????
??????? ???. ???? ??а?????, ??а??????????? ?????
??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ?а?а?????
?????. ???? ??а??? ?????? ??????? ??? Windows
?а????????? ?а??????? ????????.
????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????
?а?????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ???? 6 ????н
??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????? Ubuntu,
????? ??????? Install Now, ????? ???????? Windows
??аUbuntu.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
47
????????? Ubuntu
Windows 10. ??а?????? ??? ???????????? ???а? ???
????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????????. ??н
??????? ??????????? (??. ???.а49) ?????????, ?????
??????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??а???н
???? ?а?????????? Ubuntu ????? ?аWindows.
???? ????? ??а????????? ?????? ?аWindows ??н
???????, ??а????????? ????? ?????? ??????????
?????????? ??? ??????? ????, ??? Ubuntu ?????
?????????? ??????а? ?. ?. ?а????? ?????. ??а????н
????? ??а???? ????????? 25 ??, ???? ????? ???????н
??, ??а??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????????н
?????? ??????? ???? ????????, ????? ?????????
??? ????????? ?????.
?????? ??????: ???? ?а??? ???? ?????? ???????
????, ????????????? ?а????? ??, ????????, Ubunн
tu ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???. ?????????
??а?????????? ???? ?????? ?????, ????? ???н
???????? (??а????????? ???????а? sda, sdb ?а?. ?.а?
?а??????? ?а??. ??? ???? Windows ?????а?sda?).
??? ????? ????????? ??? ?????а? ????????,
????????, ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ????
??? ??а??? ?????? ?????????? ?????. ???? ????
??а?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??? Ubuntu,
> Ubuntu ???????? ??? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????.
??а???? ????? ??? ????????. ?а???? ?????? ?????
??????????? ?????? ??а?????????? ????, ?????
??????? ?????? ????, ??а?а??????????? ???????
sda ????? ??????????. ????? ????????? Backа?
?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????
?? ??????? ? ?????????? Ubuntu
????? ? Windows...
> ????????? FastBoot ? ????? ??????? ????????? UEFI, ??? Ubuntu ?? ???????????.
?а???????? ?????????? ???????????, ????? ??????н
??? ??? ???????.
?????????? ?????????
???? ??а???????? ??????? ????? ?а???????? ???н
?? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ???????, ??????? Install
Now > Continue. ??????????? ????????? ?а????? ??н
????? Continue. ?????????? ????? ????????? ????
??????? ?????: ??????? ???????? ???? ???????н
???????, ?????????? ???? ???? ?а????????? ???н
???????. ????? ??????? ???? ???а? ??а??? ??????
Ubuntu ??????????? ??? ?????????? (??? ???????
?????????????) ?а??? ????????????, ??а?а??а?а???н
??? ??а?????? ???а????????????? ????????. ???
????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????а?
??а??????????? ???а? ?а??а?????? ???????, ???н
????а?? ????? ??а??????? ???? ???а?? ?????????
????? ??????????? ???а?????? ???????? Ubuntu.
??????? Continue ?а???????????? Ubuntu ?????н
???? ???? ??????.
? ????? ???????? ??????? Restart Now [????н
????????? ??????], ??????? ??? ????????? ???? ??н
????????? ????????, ????? ?????????, ?а???????
Enter. ???? ??? ???? ??а?????, ??а?????? ???????
???? ???????? Grub ?аUbuntu, ????????? ??а????н
?????, ?а??????? Windows 10. ??? ???????? ???
???а????????????? ????????????? ????? ???н
?????????? ?????????а? ???? ??а???????????
?а?????????? ????????, ????????? ??а?????? ?????
???а??????? ???????. |
??????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????
???а????????? Ubuntu ?????????? ????????
???????? ???а????????? Grub, ??????? ??????
?????????? Windows ?а????????? ??? ???????????н
?? ????? Ubuntu ?аWindows ???а?????? ???????.
?????? ???а??а????????а? ???????? ???? ??а?????н
???????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????а? ?аWindows
??а??????????????. ??? ??? ????? ???????, ?????
?????????? ??????? Windows.
?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????н
???????? Windows ?а???????? ????? ??????? ??.
??? ?????? ????? Windows, ??а?????? Grub. ?????
48
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????? Linux
?а???????? Try Ubuntu, ????? ?????????. ??????
???????? ???? ????????? (??????? Ctrl + Alt + T)
?а??????? ?????????:
$ sudoаaddнaptнrepository ppa:yannubuntu/bootнrepair
$ sudo aptнget update
$ sudo aptнget install нy bootнrepair && bootrepair
????? ???????? Boot Repair ??аDash ?а????????
????????????? ??????????????. ??????? ????????
??????? ??????????? (Ctrl + C) ?а??????? (???????
?????? ??????? ???? ?а????? Paste) ?а?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ??? ?????????н
??а? Tab ?а??????? ??а????????? ??? ???????????
????? ???????, ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?аEnter
??? ???????????.
??????, ????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????
?????????. ???? Grub ????, ??а????? Windows ???,
????????, ??а????????? ?а???? ???????? UEFI.
??????? ???????, ????? ????????? ??? ?а??н
??????, ?, ????????, ??а?????????? ????? ???
???????????? ????? Windows ?аUbuntu, ???????
???????а????????????.
????????? Ubuntu
?????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????
1 ??????????? ??а??????? ???? Ubuntu live
2 ????? ???????? ?????
??????????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????? Ubuntu ?а???????? Try Ubuntu, ????? ???
?????????, ???а??, ???? ??а?????????? ?а???? Installation type ??а????? ?????????
Ubuntu, ?????? ??????? Quit. ?а????? ?????? ??а????????? ??а??????? ?????
Ubuntu live. ??????? ??а?????? ?а??????? ????? Launcher ?????, ????? ??????? Dash.
??????? ?gparted?, ????? ??????? ?GParted Partition Editor?, ????? ??????? ??а???? ???
??????? ???????????.
??? ???????????? ????? ??а????? ??????? ????? ??? Ubuntu ??а??????????
GParted. ??а????????? ?а???? GParted ?????? ???? ??????? /dev/sdaа? ??? ????,
??? ????? Windows. ???????? ??? ????? ?а?????? ???????? ???а???, ?????? ????????н
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????????? ?????? ?????? Linux.
?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?а????н
?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????, ??????н
??? XXI ????.
??????? ?????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
????????? ???? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
?????????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????
???????? ??? ??а???? Arch. ???? ?а??????????? ??а??????н
??? ???? ???? ?????.
????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????н
???? ????? ?а??????, ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??а??????н
?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????.
????????????
????????????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
??????? ????????? ??????? sed ??а?? ????? ?????н
???? ????????. ??а?????????, ??а?а??? ?????? ??? ?а???
?????????а???????.
?а????????, ?а????!
?????? ??????? ????? ???????
????? ?????? ?????????
??н??, ??????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
????????? ????? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
?????? ????? ?????????, ??????? ??????? ????????
????? (??? ??а?? ??????) ???????????а? ?а?? ?????н
?????н?? ??? ????????.
???????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????н
???????? ????? ?а???? ??????? ????????, ??а??????
?????? ????????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
55
Terminal ???????, ??? ?????? ??????????????
? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????
Terminal: ????
? ??? ? ??????
??? ???? ?????????, ??? ? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????, ??? ??????
?????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ?????? ? ???????????.
?
???
???????
? ???? ?????
?????????? ???н
???????? ?а?????н
??? ?????, ????
??а???????? ??? ??н
??????? ???????
?а???? DVD, Bluн
ray ?аCD, ???????
?????? ?????????
???????.
????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?а????? ?? ????н
??? ???????, ?а??? ??а??????????? ?? ?????? ??а????н
??? ????, ????? ????? ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??н
????????? ?а??????????? ?а??????????: ????????? ?????? ????
???????????? ?????? ??а????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????н
???? ??????????, ??????????, ?????????????? ?а???????? ????
?????н?????.
??? ???? ?? ????????? ?аUbuntu ?????? ??? ?????? ????????н
???. ?? ?? ???? ??а??а????? ????????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????н
????? ?????????? ??, ??? ???н???? ??а??????? ?????????? ?????н
??? ?????? ???. ??н??????, ????? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????
?restricted?, ?а??а?????? ??, ??? ????????? ??а????? ?????????. ??н
?????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????:
$ sudo aptнget install ubuntuнrestrictedнextras
?? ???? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??н
?????, ?а????? libavcodec-ffmpeg56 ????????? ??аlibavcodec-ffmpegextra56, ?а??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? GStreamer (??.
https://gstreamer.freedesktop.org) ??? ????????? ???????? ??????н
?????, ???????????????, ????? ????????? ?а?????????. ??? ?????
???? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? Microsoft TrueTypeа? ?? ?????
Tab, ????? Enter, ?а????? ???????? Yes ?а??????? ?????? ???????,
????? ???? ????? ?? ????? Enter.
??? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? DVDн?????? ??н
????? ????????
$ sudo aptнget install libdvdнpkg
????? ????????? ????????
$ sudo dpkgнreconfigure libdvdнpkg
?? ???? ??????? ????????. ?? ?? ??а???? ?? ??????????????
Bluнray ??а????? ??, ????????? ?? ????? (??. ?????? ?????? ????н
?? ??а???.а57).
> ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? Bluнray ? VLC ?
????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????.
???????????? ???????????
??? ??????????????? ??????????? ??а?? ????????? ?????????,
?а????????? ?????а? VLC, ???????? ?? ?? ??а?????? ????????н
?????? ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ??? ?а??????? sudo aptн
get install vlc, ?а?а??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ?а????н
???? ????? ??? ????? ??а????????? ??????, ???а???? ??а???????
????? ????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????????. VLC ?????н
???? ??????????? ??а????????? ??????а? ???????? vlc ннhelp ???
???? ????? ?????? ??????, ?а??? ???????? ??????????????? ???н
??????? ??????? vlc ?а??????а? ???????? ?а?????? ???????????
(file:///path/file), DVD (dvd://[device]) ??? Bluнray (bluray://[device]),
????????:
$ vlc dvd:///dev/sr0
?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? (http://
host[:port]/file, ???а????????????? ???????? http ??аftp ??? MMS)
?а????? ????????? ?????? UDP:
$ vlc udp://[[<source address>]@[<bind address>][:<bind port>]]
??????? ??????????? CD
???? ??а????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? [rip]
???????н????? ??а?? ??а????????? ??????, ??н
???????? Abcde (sudo apt install abcde). ??а?? ?? ???
??????, ??????????? ?????? ???????????а? ???н
???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????н
??????, ???????????, ???????? ????????????? CD
?а?????????? ?а?. ?.а? ????? ?????????? ???????
л???н?н?????╗ ??? ??????????? ???????н??????
?а????????? ??????.
????? ????????? (???????? No configuration, ????
??а????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????), ??а??????
?а?????? ??а????????? ??????? ????????:
56
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
$ abcde нo mp3
?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? vorbis (???
OGG), FLAC, m4a ?аWAV ??а?????????. ??? ?????
???? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????н
??? ??????????? (????????, Abcde ???????, ?????
eyeD3 ???????????? ????? MP3).
????? ??????? CD ?????????????? ?а????? ???н
??? cddb. ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????
??? ?????????? ?а????????? ????? ???? (???????
nanoа? ????? ???????), ?а????? ???? ??? ??????н
????? ???????, ???? ??? ????????? ????????????
???????? ??а???????н?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? ??а?????? ????????? ???????????? ??н
??????? ??а?????????, ??????? ?????????а??
?????????? ???????н?????, ?????? ??????? ????
?а???????? ?а?????? abcde, ??????? ??????? ????
????????????:
$ sudo nano ~/.abcde.conf
?? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????
????. ????? ??? ?????????, ???????? www.andrewsн
corner.org/linux/abcde, ??? ??а?????????? ???????,
??????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?а???? ????
?а??????????? ??а???????????? ??????? ???????н
??? ?????.
Terminal ???????
?????? ????????? ??????
???? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ??н
??????? ?????? (???????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ???
????????????? ??а????????? ???????? ?????), ???? ????????? ??н
???? ???. ?????? ?а???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??????н
?? ???? ??? ??????????? ???????? (FLAC, OGG, MP3 ?а?. ?.) ????н
??????????? ??а????????? ?????? ???а????????? SoX:
$ sudo apt install sox libsoxнfmtнall
?????????? libsox-fmt-all ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????
????????, ????? ??? MP3. ????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ?а??н
??? ??????? ?а?????????? ??а???????? play:
$ play *.mp3
? ??????? Ctrl + C ????????? ?а?????????? ????? ??? ????н
???? ??а????? ??? ? ??, ????? ?????????? ???????????????. ???н
???? play ннhelp ??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????н
??????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?а????????, ????? ???
$ play *.flac bass +2 gain +1 reverb
???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ?????????? cmus
(sudo apt install cmus). ????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????н
?? ???? ?а????? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????
?????????? ????? ???? Viа? ????????, ????? ????????? ???? ?????
Music ?а?????????, ???????
:add ~/Music
????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????н?????а? ???????
man cmus, ????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????н
??. ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????н
????? ???????? ??????????а? ??. https://github.com/cmus/cmus/
wiki ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????.
???? FFmpeg
???, ???????????, ???????????, ????? ??а?????? ?????????????? ??н
??? ?а?????, ?????????? ??а??? ???????? (????????, AVI ?аMP4),
???????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ???????,
????????, ??????????? ????????? ?а????. ????? ??а????????????
???????????? ??? ?????? ???????? FFmpeg (sudo apt install ffmpeg).
??а?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????? ???????? ??н
????????? (ffserver, ffplay ?аffprobe) ??? ????????????????, ??????н
??? ???????? ?а??????????????? ?????.
?? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ??н
??????? ???????????? ??? ?а???????? ????. ????? ??а? ??????н
????????? ????? ??а??????? MKV ?аMP4:
$ ffmpeg нi inputfile.mkv нvcodec copy нacodec copy outputfile.mp4
????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? (???, ??н?????н
??, ????????????????????) ????? ? ???????:
$ for i in *mkv; do ffmpeg нi ?$i? нvcodec copy нacodec copy ?$i.
mp4?; done
???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? (??? ?? ????????? ???
?????????), ??а??а?????? ??? ?????? (?????н ?а????????????). ????н
???? ????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????????????, ??????????н
?????, ?а????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????????:
??? ?????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??а??????.
???? ??а?????? ?????????????? ????? ?????, ?а??? ?? ??? ???н
?????? (??????? ffmpeg нcodecs, ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????
??? ??????????? ???????), ???????? ??, ?????а?? ???????? ???н
?????? ?????????:
$ ffmpeg нi inputfile.wmv нvcodec h264 нacodec aac outputfile.mkv
??????н??а??, ????????, ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?too many
channels [??????? ????? ?? ?? ???]?, ??? ???????? ??а?? ?????
?????????? ?? ???н ?/??? ????????????, ??аFFmpeg, ??а???????
?? ??, ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??????? (??? ????, ?? ?? ??? ???
?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??). ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????
????????????а? ????????? ?а??? ????????? ??????? ?????????н
??? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? нvcodec.
??? ????????? ????? ??????????, ?????? ???????
$ ffmpeg нh encoder=h264
???????? ????????? Bluнray
? ??????? ??аDVD, ??????????????? Bluнray
?аLinux ????? ????????????? (??.аLXF223)
??н??а?? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ???н
???????. ?????? ?????, ??????????????
?а?????????????? ?????????? AACS,
?а??????? ???????????? ????? ????????
?а?????? ???????; ????????? ?????,
????????????? BD+, ????? ????????,
???? ???????... ??????, ??? ???? ??? ???.
????????? ??????? ????????????? ????н
??????? ?????????? ?????? ?аVLC Media
Player, ??????? ???? ??????? ???а???н
?????? Bluнray:
$ sudo aptнget install vlc libaacs0 libblurayн
bdj libbluray1
$ mkdir нp ~/.config/aacs/
$ cd ~/.config/aacs/ && wget http://vlcн
bluray.whoknowsmy.name/files/KEYDB. cfg
????? ????????? ???????? Bluнray
?а???????? ?а????????? VLC ??а??????н
??? ??????:
$ vlc bluray:///dev/sr0
???????? /dev/sr0 ??а???? ?а?????? ???н
???? Bluнray, ?а???? ???? ??? ???????????,
??а?????? ????????????? ????????? ??н
?????? ???????.
????????? ??????? ??????? ??????а? ??????????? ??а????н
??????? ?а??????? ???????, ????? ??? H.264, VP8/9 ?аAAC, ?????н
????? ?????? Encoding ??аhttps://trac.ffmpeg.org/wiki.
?????? ???????????
??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????н
???. ????? ??а? ffprobe, ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?аFFmpeg.
??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????, ????????????? ?а???н
???????? ????? ???????????:
$ ffprobe file.mp3
?? ???а? normalize, ???? ?? ????, ?? ?????, ??а?? ??, ?? ??? ??н
????, ??? ??? ???? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???н
???? ?????????. ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ????н??? ???, ?????
??а??а?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????н????:
$ sudo apt install normalizeнaudio
?????? ????????? ? ????? ? ??????? ? ???????
$ normalizeнaudio нbv *.mp3
????????????? ??? ????? ?а???? ????, ?а????? ????????? ????н
??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? (????????????? ???????н
??? ????????????), ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??а???? ???н
???, ?а??? ????? ?а?????????????? ????????????, ????? ????????
??а?а???????????? ???? ?а??????. ???? ??? ??а?? ??? ????????? ??н
???, ?????? нbv ??????????? нb.
???????, exiftool (sudo apt install libimageнexiftoolнperl) ??????н
???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????н????????, ?а??? ?? ???????? ??н
???????? ???? ?????? ??а?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????н
?????, ??????? JPG, TIF, GIF ?аPNG. ???????? https://linux.die.net/
man/1/exiftool ??? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а??? ??н
???????????. |
??????
??????
??????????? ???н
?????? ??????н
????? ????? ????
???????? ??а???н
???? ??. ??а????
??а???????????н
?? ??а?????????
???????? ?????
?а????????, ????н
?????? fbi (sudo apt
install fbi) ??? ???н
?????? ????? ???н
??? (sudo fbi path/
picture.jpg).
> ??????????? ????????????? CMus ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? Vi.
??а????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? (:).
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
57
???????? ???????, ??? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?????
????????: ?????
?????? ????????
????н???? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????, ??????? ?а?????:
??????????????? ?????? ?а??????.
???
???????
????-????
?????????? ???н
??? ??а???? ????н
??? ???, ?????????
???? ??????????
???????? ??аLinux.
?а??????? ?????н
?? ??а??????? ???,
?????? ???????н
?????? ???????н
???? ??????????н
??. ?????? ???????
???????????.
??????
??????
???а??????????н
??? Blender ?????н
???? ?а????????
??? ??????????
?а?????????. ???н
??????? ??????
???????? www.
manuelbastioni.
com. ????????
?????? ?????? ???
?????????? ?????,
?а???????? ?????
????????. ???????
????????? ????н
???, ???????????н
?? ??а?????????н
?????, ????? ????,
?????? ?а?????н
??а? ??а?????? ??н
??? ??а???????.
58
|
> ??? ??? ???????? ????? ????, ????? ?? ????????????. ????????н
????? ??????? ?????????????, ????? ??? ??????????????? ?????
????? ????????.
????? ?????? ?????? ??а???????, ??? ??????????? ????н
????, ??????? ?????? ?а????????????? ???????, ?а?????
???????? ??????????? ??? ?а???????? ????. ?????? ?????
?а??а??????? ???????????, ??, ??? ??а?????? ?????? ????, ????
????????? ???? ???, ??а??????? ????? ???????? ????????, ???????н
?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?а?????????????? ???, ??? ?????? ??? ????
??а??????.
????? ????????? ?а???? ?а???????? ????? ?а????? ??: ???????
????, ???, ????????????? ??????? ?а???????. ?????????? ?? ? ???
??????? ???????????? ??????а? ?а????? ??????, ???а? ??? ??????
?????; ??а????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???????????, ?? ?? ????????, ???
????????????? ???, ????? ??а?????????? ??а?????, ?а??? ??а?????
?????? ??а????? ??.
??????? ????? ??а????? ?????????, ???? ??????? ?????? ???н
??? ?а??????. ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???, ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??.
???????????, ??? ??а??????????? ????????? ??? ?а??????: ?????н
?? ??а???????? ??????, ?а????? ?????? ?????? ?а????. ??? ??? ?????
????????, ???? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?а?? ?н
??? ?????. ???????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ?а24а??????? ?а??н
?????, ???? ?а???? ????? ??????? ????????.
????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????????,
????? ??а??????? ??а???????????а? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????.
?
LXF226 ?????? 2017
?а???????? ????? ??а?? ?? ??а???????? ????? ????????? ?????,
??а???а???????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????. ??????
?????? ????????????????? ????????а? ???????????? ??? ???
????? ?????? ??????? ??а????????. ?а?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????
?? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????!
????????, ??а?????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????н
??? ??а?????? ??????? ????????, ?а????? ???????? ????? ?????н
?? ?? ????, ?????? ??? ??????? ??а?? ??. ?? ?? ??а???? ??, ?????
??? ????????? ????????????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ?????
???? ???? ???????, ??? ??????? ?????, ?а????????? ??? ???????
???????. ????? ???????, ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????н
???, ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?а???????????. ??н
???????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ?????н
??? ????????.
???????? ??????? ?????
???а????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ???н
??? ?а???????, ????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ????????. ??н
???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?? ? ??? ????. ???????
(???????? [key]) ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????н
??? ????????, ??? ??а???????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????н
??? ?аLXF225. ??????? ?????а? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????
??? ????? ????????. ????????, ????? ??а????????????? ??????
??а??????? ?а???????, ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????н
???, ????????? ?а???????? ?а???????? ???????. ? ????????? ??н
?????? ?????????? ?????????????а? ??? ?????????? tweening.
?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ??а?? ????? ???н
?? ???, ????? ????? ?????? ??а?????? ????????? ?а????? ???????
???????? ???а????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???. ??????? ??????????
??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??? ????? ??? ??н
???????? ????????. ??????????? ?а???????? ??????а? ???? ?а???
?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??, ??а?а?????????? ??а?????? ???? ????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ???????
?? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ???? ???????? ????????а? ??????????
???????. ?а????? ???????? ???????? ???????
?а?????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??а???????? ??а???? ??
??а?????, ??а?? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????
??????? ?? ?? ?????????, ?????????? ?а??????н??
??????????? [???.:а? ????????, ?????? ???????],
??????? ??а????? ????????????.
?????? ?????? ?????????????? ???? ????????
?а???? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ???????а? ???н
????? ???? ??? ???????а? ??? ??????? ?????????н
??, ?????????? л????????╗; ??? ???????? ?????н
??? ??????? ????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ????
??????? ??????? ?а???????? ??а???? ??????. ???
???? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????? ?а?????
??????? ??? ?а????? ???????.
???? ?????? ?????? ???????, ??а?? ? ??? ?????
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????
??а?????. ???? ??а????????? ?а????????, ??а??????
??а??????? ????????????? ??? ?? ?? ??????.
???? ?????????????а? ??? ????? ??а?????н
????????? ????? ??????? ???, ??а???? ??, ????
?а??????а? ??? ?????, ???? ??? ????????. ??а??н
???????? ?а??? ????? ?????? ??? ????????, ????н
??? ?а????????.
??????? ?????? ???а??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????н
??? ?????????.
????????, ??? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???
?????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????. ??????, ???? ?? ???
????????? ??????, ??а??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????н
?????? ???????.
??????? ???? ??? ??????н?????? ?????????, ?? ???????? ??н
??? ?????? ???????, ?а??а??????? ???? ??????? ?а????????. ???
?????????? ??????????????, ?а??? ?????? ????? ??? ????, ?????
???????? ????????? ??? ????????, ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????.
? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??н
??????? ??а?????, ????? ????????? ??????? ??а????????? ????.
?????? ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????.
????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?? ???????,
??? ????? ???????? ??а???????????? ?????????, ?а?????? ??????н
???? ?а?????????? ????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?а????, ??? ??????
?????? ???????????. ???? ?????? ???? ??????а?? ????????????н
?????? ??а????? ??????, ?а???а???? ??а??????? ??? ????? ??? ??н
??????? ??????.
??????? ??????
????? ??????? л?????? ??╗, ?? ?? ??????????? ?а??? ??? ??????.
???а?????? ??а???????? ?????, ?????? ?а????? ???а??????? ????н
??. ??? ?? ????? ?????????, ??а???? ?? ????? ??????, ?а??а????н
?? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????. ?????? ???????? ????????н
?? ?а???? ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???н?? ?????. ??а?? ?? ??????
???? ?????? [???.:а? ????!], ?а????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????????.
??? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ?аSynfig. ????? ???? ??н
? ???? ??а??? ????? ???????? ?, ?а?????? ?а??????, ?????????????
??? ?а?????? ???????. ????? ????? ??????????????, ??? ????? ??а??н
??? ????????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ??? ????. ??????????
???? ?а????????? ??а????????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ???? ???н
????, ?????? ??????? ????? ??а???????.
????????? ??????? ?а??????, ?а?а??? ????????? ?????? ?????н
??. ?????? ?????????? ??????... ???? ??а??а??????????? ??????? ???
?а?????? ???! ??, ?????? ???????????, ??а??????? ????????? ??н
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> ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ????????????, ????? ???????? ??????????
???????????: ????????, ????, ?????? ??? ??????? ???, ???? ?????? ???????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
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60
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
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62
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
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ETHICALHACKING10. ??????? ?????? ????? ??????н
??? ????? ?а?? ????? ???????? ??????. ??а???????
nmap 192.168.1.1/24
???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ????
192.168.1.100, ??????? nmap ????????:
Scanning 192.168.1.100 [1000 ports]
Discovered open port 80/tcp on 192.168.1.100
Discovered open port 443/tcp on 192.168.1.100
??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??: ???
??? ?????????? ????? ????? ?а?? ?? ??? ???????????? ?? ????н
?????. ??а?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??а?? ????н
?? ??????????? ??????? Windows 8.1, ?а???? ?????? ??????, ???
??а?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????. ???? ????? ARPн???????? ??н
??? ????????? ??? (????? ??а????????????, ??? ????? ???????????
??а????????????? ?????????? wlp2s0:
# arpspoof нi wlp2s0 нt 192.168.1.100 нr 192.168.1.1
???????? нtа? ??? ??????? ?????????, ?а???????? нrа? ????
??а?????? ???. ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??
??а???? ????????? ??????. ????????? ????? ??а???????? ????н
????? ?а??????? iptables, ??????????? ?а???? ?????? ??а????? ??н
????? ??, ??а??????????? ????, ??? webн?????? ????? ??????????
sslstrip, ??????? ??а??? ?а????????:
# sslstrip нl 8080
??? ?????? sslstrip ?????? ????????????? ??????, ??? ????н
??? ???? ???????????, ??????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?а?????
??????? ???? ??????? ?? ?а???????
# tail нf sslstrip.log
?????? ??а??????? ?????? ???????? Internet Explorer ?аFirefox.
?????? ?а?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????????, ?а?а??? ???а? ???.
?????? ??а??????????? ??а?а???, ??а?а??? ???; ??а??????? ??а??н
??? ??а???? ????????????. ?а???????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??н
???????, ???? ??а???????? ???????? webн????????. ??????????
???????? https://gmail.com ?аInternet Explorer. ???? ????? ??????н
??, ??аsslstrip ?????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ???????? ????н
???? ???? ??аHTTPа? ????????? ??? ??? ??, ??????? ??? ??????
URL. ??? ??????????? ??а????? ???????? ?а????? ?????? ??????н
????, ??а?а????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???
??????????.
??????? ?а????? ????? ?????н?????? ??????? ?????? ??????,
??? ???, FAKE ??? ????? ???????????? ?а??????, ?а?? ????? ???н
??. ?????? sslstrip ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ????н
??? ?а????н?? ?????
2017н01н07 00:01:02,345 SECURE POST Data (accounts.google.
com)
?? ???н?? ????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?????
...checkedDomains=youtube&Email=FAKE&Passwd=FAKE
? ??? ??????????, ??? ????? ?????? ???????. ??а????? ???????
?????? ??? ????? ??а??????? ?? ?аFirefox ??? Chrome, ??а??а??????
????????? ?????? Netmarketshare, ????? 18 % ??? ??? ??????????
????????? ??а????! ??????
?а??? ???? ?????????? ????н
?????????? ??????.
????????? Udemy ???? ????н
???? ?а2010а?., ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????
????? ??? ??????. Udemyа? ??? ?????????? ?????
??? ??? ????? ?а???????????? ?а?????????, ??? ??н
??? 15 ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а????????н
?? ??а45000 ??????, ????????????? ??????????н??н
????? ?????? ??а80а?????????а??????.
?????н?????? ??????? Internet Explorer, ??????? ??а?????????, ???
?а?а?????????? ??? ???н?? ?????????. ?а????? ??????, ?????? ?????н
????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?а??????н
???? ????????????? ??а??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???????
?????????. ?????а?? ??????? ??а??????????? ???????????????
?????? Facebook ??аInternet Explorer. ???? ?а?????? ????????? ?????
sslstrip ??а??????? ?? ?а????????? ???????, ??? ??а??????, ??? ???
??а????????? ???а??????.
??? ???????? ?аsslstrip
???????? ????????, ??? ???? ????? ??а????? ?????? ???????? ???н
?? ?а??????? HTTP, ??? ?????????? ??а???? ????????? ??????
????? HTTPS, ?а??а?????????? ??а?а??????? HTTP. ????? ???????,
??????????????? ????? ??а??????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ???
?????? ????? ??????? ??????? HTTPS.
?????? ??????а? ???????????? HTTP Strict TransportаSecurity
(HSTS). ???а???? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? HTTPS ??н
???????????? ????????? ?а?????? maxнage. ??? ???????? (?а?????н
???) ????? ??????? ???????, ??а?????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??н
?????????? ?????? HTTPS. ????? ???????, ???? ?????? ??? ????
?????? ?? ????? ??а???? ???а?????????? ?????????????, ??а?????
??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????? HTTP ???????
????? ?? ????????.
?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?а???, ????? ???????? ????????н
?? ??? ?аhttps:// ?????? ?????? s ???а?? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????
???????. ??а???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????. ?а??? ??????????
???????? HTTPS Everywhere ????????? ????? ????? ??а?????, ?а??н
????а?? ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????????? webн???????. |
??????
??????
??????, ??? ??н??
???????????? ??н
??? ??????? ??н
??? ??????????
????????????
????????. ?????
?????????? ????н
????? ??а????н
???, ????????н
????? ?а?????????
??? ??????????
??????????????
?????????. ??а???н
???????: ??? ???н
?????? ?а????????
?????? ????????
??? ?????.
> ????? ??????????, ??? ????????? Windows 8 ? Internet Explorer ? ??? ????? ??? ????????
?? ??????? ? ?????, ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? (???????) ???????.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
63
* ?????? ????????????? ?? 7 ??????? 2017 ?.
????????
?????? ??
?а???????
?
г 185! ??
??????? ? ????????? ? Udemy
???? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????
????????? ? ??????? USB Rubber Ducky
????? ??????:
??????? ????
USB Rubber Ducky ??????? ??????? ???????, ??а?а??? ????? ???????,
???а?а??????????. ???? ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????.
????????? ???????? ?????. ???? ?????????? ??????н
????. ?а???? ??а?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????
???????????? ????????, ???? ?????????.
USB Rubber Ducky [????????? ??????], ???????? ??а???? ???н
??????? ????????, ???????? ????? ??а?????????, ??????? ?????
????????????. ?а??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????????? HID
(?????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????), ??????? ????? ????н
???? ?аUSBн???? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?а????? ???? ??????
?????? ??а????????? ??????. ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????
?????????, ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? [Angela Moss] ??????н
???? ?? Ducky ????? ??????? ??а??????????? ???, ??????? ?????н
????????? ??????.
??????? ?????????? USB Rubber Ducky ???????? ?а2010а?. ?а???
??? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ?а???????? ?? ?? ??н
??, ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?а????? ??????. ???
?????? Ducky ???????? ???????????? ????? ??а????? ??? Arduino,
???а????????? Teensy (www.pjrc.com/teensy), ??????? ???? ?????н
??? ??? ???????????? ??а?????????, ??а??а??? ????? ?а??????????н
??? ??а?????????.
?
???
???????
???? ?????а?
????? ????н???н
?????? ?а???????
??????????, ???н
??? ????????????
?а????????? ???н
??? ?а?????????н
????????. ??а???н
??? ?а????????
??а????????????
??????????.
???????? ??????????
??????
??????
???? ???? USB
Rubber Ducky
??аhttps://hakshop.
com/products/
usbнrubberнduckyн
deluxe ??а$45 ????
????????.
??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??а????? ????? ???, ??? ??а??н
???, ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????? Rubber Ducky. ??????
?????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ???????, ????н
?? ????????????? ??а?????????, ??а??????? ???? ??????, ??? ??н
?? ?????????? ???????? ??а?????? ???? ????.
?? ?? ????? ??а?? ?????? ????? ???, ??? ?????? ??? ???????н
???, ???????? ??????? ???????? [payload] ??? ??? ????? ????н
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??, ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????, ????????? ???
> Rubber Ducky
???????????? ???н
??? ? ????????, ???н
???????? ??? ???
??????. ????????
? ??????? ????????
????????????!
64
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
??? ??????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ????? WiнFi, ?а?. ?. ?????н
?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ??а??????? ????? ?????н
??? (Ducky Script) ?а???? .bin ???????? Duck Encoder. ??а????? ???н
?? ??а??????? ??? ?????? ????????? Duck Encoder ??? ???????
????? ????????.
Duck Duck Go
???? ??? ??а???????? ??????????, ??а??????????? ?????????? ???
??????? ??? ?????????? Rubber Ducky ??аHak5 (??. ?????? ??????,
?????). ????? ??а?????????? ??а????????, ?а????? ??????? ???? ???н
??? ?????????? ?????, ????????????? ????????????? ??а??????н
???. ??а???? ?а?????? ?????????? ???н?? ?????? ????? ???????
???????? ?а????????? ?? ??а????? ???????????. ??? ????? ??????
?????? ??а???????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????н
???? ?а??? ??? ??? ????. ???? ??а??????? ??????? ?????? ?????н
??н??? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ??а?? ????? ?а??? ???н
?????????, ??а??????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????
??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????.
??????? ????? ??????? ??а?????? Rubber Ducky, ????? microSD
??а128 ??, ???????, ??????? ????????? Rubber Ducky ???а??????,
??????? microSD ?а???????? OTG Micro USB. ???? ??? ?? ?????????
??????? ?а??????????.
?? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????н
??? ?а???????? ?????????? ??? ??а?????????????. ??а????? ???н
?? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??????
?аUbuntu 17.04 (Zesty Zapus), ?а??????? ??????????? ??? ??????
Lenovo ?аWindows 10. Duck Encoder ??????????????????, ?а?????
???????? ??а????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? Java, ??? ??? ??н
???? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? Linuxа? ???а???????,
??? ?а??? ??????????? Java Runtime Environment.
???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??а?????????? ?аWindows ?а???н
??? ????????? л??? ????????!╗. ??????? ????? ????????????
???????? ??а?????? ????? ??а???????? Hak5 Github (https://github.
com/hak5darren/USBнRubberнDucky/wiki/Payloads), ??????? Hak5
(https://forums.hak5.org) ?а??а????? Duck Toolkit.
???? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????н
???? ???????, ????????????, ????? ??а?а??? ???????н???????????
(???? ??????? ???????) ????? ?? ????????? ????? ???? ?????????,
??а??????? ????? ?????????????? Rubber Ducky.
?аRubber Ducky ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???, ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???
??????, ??а??а?????? ??????????? ????? ?? ???????? ???а????,
?????? ???, ?????? ?????, ???? ????? microSD ??? ???????? ??а???
??????????? ?а?????????.
???????? Ducky Script
???????? ????????? ?а??????? Ducky Script. ??????, ??? ??????н
????? ???? ???????????????? BASIC ?а????? ???????, ??? ????н
????? ??????? ???????. ????????? ???????? ????? ??а???? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ?????? ???????
??????????? ???? Rubber Ducky
1 ???????? Duck Encoder
2 ??????????? ???? ????????
3 ????????? ????????
???????? ??а????? ?????????? Terminal ?а?????????,
??? ?а??? ?????????? Java, ??????????? ??????? sudo
aptнget install defaultнjre. ???????? Duck Encode, ?????н
??? ???????
https://github.com/hak5darren/USBнRubberнDucky/
blob/master/duckencoder.jar
????? ???????? ????? microSD ?аDuck ?а???????
?а???????? ??????? ?а????????? ???? USB. ?????????
?????? ??? ????? ????? ?а????? ????? /media, ?????н
???, /media/nate/A87BнA154/. ????? ?????? ????????
Terminal ?а????????? nano helloworld.txt ??? ????????
?????????? ?????
???????? ?????????:
REM ??? ?????? ??????
DELAY 5000
CTRL ESC
DELAY 5000
STRING notepad.exe
ENTER
DELAY 5000
STRING ??? ????????!
ENTER
?? ????? Ctrl + X, Ctrl+Y, ?а????? Enter, ????? ?????????
?????? ?а?????.
????? ????????? java нjar duckencode.jar ?iаhelloworld.
txt нo <sd location>/inject.bin, ??????? <sd location>
??а??????????????? ?????????????? ?а????? ?????н
??. ????? ????????? ??????? ????? microSD, ???????н
??????? ????? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ?????????
ejectа<device>.
?????? ????????? ????? ??аUSBн??????? ?а????н
????? ???????? ??а?аUSB Rubber Ducky. ??????? ???н
?????? ?аWindows, ?а???????? ?а??? ???? ?????????
??????, ?а???????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? ?????
????? ????????????. ??? ?????? ????????? ?????н
???, ????? ???????? ?????? Rubber Ducky.
????? ??? ???? ????????, ?? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ???
?а?а?????? ?????? ???????? REM. ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???
????????????? BASIC, ????? ????????? ?REM? Ducky ????? ??????н
?????? ?????, ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????,
????? ??? ?Disable Firewall [????????? ??????????]?.
?????, ????? ????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???н
????. ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????, ?а?? ? ??? ????н
?????? ?а????? ??????. ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? DELAY
<value>, ??? <value> ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ?а?????????????,
??????? Rubber Ducky ????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??н
??????? ????? ???????. ??? ?????, ????????? Ducky ???????? ????
??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??, ?а?????????? ??н
??? ????????????? ????????? ????? ??а????????????? ??????????
?/??? ?????? ????????. ?? ??????, ?????????????? ?а????????
???????? ?а???????????, ?????????? 5 ?????? (5000 ???????????),
??? ??? ??а?????? ????????? ?????, ??а??????? ???????? Ducky,
??а???а??????? ???????? ??? ????????.
??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??
??а???? ?????????? ??????? ?а????? ??????. ????????, WINDOWS
????????????? ?? ????? ??а?????? Windows ??а?????????? Microsoft.
?????? ???????, ????? ??? CTRL, ESC ?аSPACE [??????], ??а?????н
?? ??????????. ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????
STRINGа? ????????, STRING ??? ????????!. ????? ????????????
???????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????????????? ????? ??а???? ?????
?а????????? ???? ?????? ?а???? ???????? ?????????? (.txt) ?????.
????? .bin ???? ?????? ???????? ?а???а?? ?????, ??? ??а???????н
?? Duck Encoder.
?? ?? ??а???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? GUI, ???? ??? ?? ?а???,
????? ????????? ??аhttps://ducktoolkit.com. ????? ?????? ??????
Duck Toolkit ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? Windows, Mac ?аLinux.
?? ????? Payload Generator ??? ??а?????????. ?? ????? ??а?????н
?? Encode, ????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?а????? ????????, ?????
?? ????? ??а?????? Generate Script ??????. Duck Toolkit ?????????н
?? ???? inject.bin, ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??а????? microSD,
??? ??????? ??? ??а???????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????.
?? ??? ??? ???????????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ???н
??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??а?????? ??????? Ducky. ??? ???н
????????, ?? ?? ???? ??а??????, ??? ??а????? ???? ????? ??????
?а?????? ???????? ??а????? ???????? (?а???????? ?????). ????н
???????????? ????? ????а?? ?????????????? ?????????? ????н
??? ?а???, ?а??? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???н
???? ??????... |
??????
??????
?? ????? ??а??????
User Scripts ?????
Duck Toolkit, ?????
??????? ????????,
?????????????
???????????.
?????????????? Ducky
??????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ??????????? Ducky
Encoder, ????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???? .txt, ??????????
??аDucky Script, ?а???????????????? ??? ?а????????? ?а???????н
????? ???????? (???? inject.bin). ????????? ?????? ??а???????
???????, ?а???? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????, ????????? java нjar
duckencode.jar, ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ???а????н
??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? microSD,
> Duck Toolkit ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??
???????? ?а???? ????? inject.bin.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
65
????????? ????????????????? ?????????
???? ? ??????? ??????
????: ??????
? ?????????
?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???? ? ??????? ?????????, ??????????????,
????? ???????? ??? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ????.
??? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?а?????? ???? ??????
Linuxа? ??а????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????н
???? ?????????? ??а?????? ???????? ?? ?????????????.
?????????????, ??? ?а??????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??а?? ?????н
??? ?? ????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?а????????????; ????????н
???? ??а??????? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ?а??? ????
?? ??????; ?????????? ?????н??????; ???????; ?????????? ???н
???; ?????????????; ?????? ?а??? ?? ???. ?????? ????????? ??н
??????? ?????? ???? ???а????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ?????
???? ??н???????.
?? ???? ????? ??а????????? ???? ??????????? ????? Linux
Foundation LFS201 Essentials ofаLinux SystemаAdministration. ?????
??а?????????? ????? 6: ??? ?????? ???? ?а??? ??? ??? ??????, ??н
??????? ????????? ?????? ???? ?а??????? sysctl ??? ??а?????????.
??а??? ?? ???????? ????? 7, ??? ????? ??????? ????.
? ????? ???? ?? Linuxа? ??? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???н
????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ???, ?????
??? ?????????? ?а??????????, ????????????????? ?а?????. ??н
?? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ??н
????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?а??????????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?а?????н
???? ??? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????
?а????????????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ????????????
?а????????. ??? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????????????
?а??????? ????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??????????
??? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????. ??? ????, ???????н
??? ?????? ?а?????, ????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????н
?????, ?а??а????? ????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ??????н
?????? ???????????.
???????? ????? ??????????????? ???? ??????:
╗ ?????? ??????? ??????? ?а????????
╗ ???????????? ?????????
╗ ?????????? ???????
╗ ?????????? ???????? ?а????????????
?
???
???????
?????? ???????
??????? ??????н
??????? ???????н
???. ????? ??????
???????? ?????
???????????? ???
??????? ????? ??н
?????? ????? ???
?????? ??а??????
> ??????? ??????н
?? ?????????? Intel
PRO/1000 ?????н
???? ??? ???????н
???, ??????? ??н
??? ???? ???????
?а????? ??????????
modprobe.
66
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
╗ ????н????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?а????????????
????????а??????
╗ ???????? ????????????а? ??? ???????? (????????, ???????н
??? ???????? ???????), ??? ?а????? ????
╗ ??? ??????? ????????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????
╗ ?????????? ???????? ????????????
???а???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?а??н
??????? ?????? ????. ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ?а?????? linux ?а???н
?? ????????? Grub, ??а????? ???? ???????? ???а????????. ??????
????????? ?????? ???? ?аGrub, ???????????? ?а/boot/grub2/grub.
cfg, ????? ????????? ???:
linux16 /boot/vmlinuzн3.19.1.0 \
root=UUID=01234567н8888н9abcнdef0н fedcba987654 ro \
vconsole.keymap=us crashkernel=auto \
vconsole.font=latarcyrhebнsun16 rhgb quiet LANG=en_US.UTFн8
???, ????????, ????????? ?????, ????????:
linux16 /boot/vmlinuzн4.7.3 root=LABEL=RHEL7 ro
???, ??? ??????? ????? ????? vmlinuz, ???????? ??????????.
????? ?????????, ??а???????????? ?????, ????? ???????? init а?
??????? ????????????????? ???????? (pid1), ??????? ???????????
?а???????. ???????? ????????, ??? grub.cfg ??а??????? ????? ????н
???? ????????, ??? ??? ???а?????????? ???? ??а????? ???????????.
?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ????? ????, ??????? ??????? ?????
?а/etc/grub ?а???????? grub-mkconfig. ????? ??????, ?а????? ??????н
??? ??????? ????? ???? ???????, ???????
$ cat /proc/cmdline
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????,
??а??????? ???? ??????? ?????
BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuzн4.7.3 root=LABEL=RHEL7
????????? ????????
?????????? ??а????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????, ??н
?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??аhttps://www.kernel.org/doc/
Documentation/adminнguide/kernelнparameters.rst, ?а????? ?????н
????? ???? ?аDocumentation/kernelнparameters.txt ??? ?????? man
bootparam. ????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????, ??н
?????? ?а???????? ?????????, ??? ?а????? param=value, ??? ?????н
??? value ????? ???? ???????, ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????
?????, ??? ??????? ?а????????????.
?????? ??а?????????? ?? ?а??????? ????????? ?????? ??????н
??? ?????????:
╗ root ???????? ???????? ???????
╗ ro ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????
???а????????
╗ vconsole.keymap ????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????
╗ crashkernel ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ??? crashdumps
[?????????? ?????????? ?а????] ????
╗ vconsole.font ????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
? ?????????????? ? Linux Foundation ???????
????????
??? ???
?а??????????
???
??????? ? Linux Foundation
ofаSystemаAdministration, ??????? ???? ???????н
??????? ??? ????????? Linux Foundation Certified
Sysadmin. ???? ????????? ??????? ?????, ????????н
????? ?а????? ????? 80а?????????? ????????????
????? ?а????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????
????? ???????.
????? ???? ???? 10н?????????? ?????? ??а??н
??? ????, ????????? ????????? ????????: ???????
??аhttps://training.linuxfoundation.org/linuxнcourses
╗ rhgb ??? ??????????? ???????? (????????, ???????? Plymouth)
╗ quiet ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??
╗ LANG ???? ???????
?? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????н
??? ???? ??а??????. ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ?а???????н
?????, ?а??????????? ?а????????? ???? ???? ?а?????? ?????????н
?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?а???? ????????????.
????????? sysctl ????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????
?????????? ???? ??а????? ??????????. ??????? ???????? ?????
?????? ?????? ???а??????
$ sysctl нa
?? ???????? ?????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????, ?????
???????? ?????? ?????????:
abi.vsyscall32 = 1
kernel.ctrlнaltнdel =0
kernel.pid_max = 32768
kernel.threadsнmax = 62409
net.ipv4.ip_default_ttl = 64
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
vm.nr_hugepages = 16
vm.swappiness = 10
????? ?? ? ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????????, ?? ??????н
???? ?а/proc/sys, ???а???? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????н
??. ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????:
$ sudo sh нc ?echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward?
$ sudo sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
?????? ??????? ??а????? ????????, ???? ?????? ????? ?????????
???? ????? ??. ?????? ??????? ???? ???, ??? ??????? sudo echo
1>..., ????????? ????? ????????????? (>) ??а??????????? sudo, ???
???????? ?а?????? ?????? ?а???????. ??????? ?? ?? ???? ???????
?????? ???????? ??а????? root ?а???????? ??????? ??а(??? ?а??????
???????), ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ?а???????? ?а??????? root.
???????? ???????????? ?а/proc/sys ????????? ??а?? ???????н
???, ??? ?аsysctl нa. ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???,
??? ???????????? sysctl, ???????? man 8 sysctl. ??? ????????? ??н
???????? ??а????????????? ??????? sysctl() ??а????????, ???
?????????? ???а?? ????????, ????????? man 2 sysctl. ???? ????н
????? ?? ??????? ?а/etc/sysctl.conf (?????????а? ??. man sysctl.
conf), ??а????? ????????? ??а????? ????????. ????????? ?а????
????? ????? ???????, ????????
$ sudo sysctl нp
? ??? ????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????н
?????. ?а???????? ????? ??а?????? systemd ????????? ?????????н
?? ??а/usr/lib/sysctl.d/00нsystem, ??а???????? ???? ??н????????
??? ???????????.
?????? ????
???? Linux ?????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ???н
???????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??н
???? ?а????? ?????? ??а???? ?? ????????. ?????? ?????? ??????н
?? ???????? ?????????. ??????? ??????, ??????????? ????????
10 %
?а??????????? ???? ??????
????????? ??????.
???????? ???, ??????? ???
??????????, ????????, ???????н
??? LFS201 Essentials ofаSystemаAdministration.
???????, ?? ????? ?????? Register ?а????????
??????? ??????, ?????? ????? ??? ??????* TECH10,
????? ???? ???? 10н?????????? ??????. ?а??
???а???????!
* ????????? ?? 30.12.2017
??????????? ??а????? ??????? ???? Linux
Foundation ??????? ?а???? ???? ?????? 10 %*
??а??????? ????! ???????? ??аLinux Foundation
????? ?? ?????, ???????????? ???? ?????? Linux:
??а???????????? ?????? Sysadmin ??а????? ???????н
???, ????? ??? OpenStack ?аOpen Daylight.
???? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????? ?????н
??? ?а??а?????? ?????? ??????а? ??а????? ???
????? ??а????? ??????????? ????? LFS201 Essentials
> ????? ???????н
?? Grub2а?а???? ???
??????? ?а?????н
??????????, ????
???????????? ????н
?????????, ?а????н
????????? ??а????
??????? ????. ????н
?????? ?????? ??н
??????? ????.
???????????, ??? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??н
?? ?а??????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????. ????????? ????? ????
??????? ???а???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??а?????????. ?а???н
?? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?а???????? ????????????
??а?????????? ??????? ?а???????????.
?????? ????? ?? ?а???? Linux ????????????? ??? ???????????
?а?? ?? ???а?????? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ????? (??? ??? ?????)
????? ?а???? ??????? ??а???? ?????????????. ??а????? ????, ???
???, ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????, ???????н
?????? ????? ???????. ?? ?? ?а??? ??? ?? ??, ????? ???????????н
????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????, ????????? ???????????
???????? ?а???????? ?а???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????, ??н
???? ??? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ??а???????н
??. ????? ???????????? ??????? insmod ??? ????????????????
???????? ??????:
$ sudo /sbin/insmod /path/to/module_name.ko
?????? ???? ???????? ?а/lib/modules/<kernelнversion> ?а?????
?????????? ????? .ko. ?????? ??????? ??а?????? ?а?????? ????н
??????????? ??????????? ????, ????? ??? ??а??????????. ???????
lsmod ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??а??????н
?????. ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?а??????? rmmod. ????????, ???
????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????????? .ko.
? ??????????? ??????? insmod ?аrmmod ???????????? ?а????н
?? ??????? modprobe. ?????? ???? ??а?? ?? ?????????, ?????? ???
modprobe ?????????? ??а??????, ??????? ??????????????? ?а???н
?????? ??? ??, ?????? ?а/lib/modules/$(uname нr). ??????? ????н
????????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ??? ?????
?????? ?????????????? ?а??????? ????? нr, ??????? ??? ?? ??н
??? ???? ????? ??????, ???????????????? ?а?????????, ???? ???
??а????????? ?а?????? ?????.
??????? modinfo ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????? ?? ??,
??????? ????? ??а??????, ??????, ??? ??????????? ????????????
?а????? ?????????, ?а???????? ??а????? ?????????. ???????н
??? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ?а/sysа? ?????? ????н
????? ?????????????? ???????. ????????, ????? ?????? ?аe1000
??а?????????, ????? ?????????? ?а/sys/module/e1000. |
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
67
??????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????
??????????? ????? ???????? ?????
??????? ?????:
??????? ??????
?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?? ??????????,
???а???????? ??????? ???? Linux ??? ?????????? ??????? ? GUI ??????? XX ?.
???
???????
?????? ???????
???????? ?? ? ???
??????? ????
?а????? ??? ?а??н
???? ???????? ???н
??. ?а????? ???
??а??????????? ??н
??????? ??а?????
??????? ?а?????
?а??????????
??????.
> ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????, ??????????? ???????? ????н
?????? ????????. ?? Gnome ??? Guake, ?? ???????????? Plasma
????? ??????????? Yakuake.
?
??????
??????
?????а?? ???????
???? ??а??а??н
?????, Conky ?????
????? ????????
???????????. ????
Harmattan ??????н
?????? ???? ??н
???????, ??? ????
?а?????????? ???н
????? ?а???????н
?????? ???????
????.
68
|
?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???
??????? ?? ????????? ?ал???? Linux ??а??????? ?????╗. ??н
???н??, ???????? ??а????? ??????? Windows Vista, ????
?? ??? ?? ??а??, ??? ??????? Windows ?аMac ?? ???. ??а??????? ??
?????? ??????????, ???? ?????? ?а?????? ????????????? ??????н
???, ?а?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????.
?? ??а????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????а? ?????????? ????н
???? ????? Linux ??????? ??а???? ????? ???????; ?????? ??? ??????
??????? ??????? ????????, ?а??а???????? ?????. ??а???? ????, ???
???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????н
???? ?а??????? ?????????? ?а?????????, ?????????? ??? ???? ???н
?? ???????? ?????. ??, ???????? ????? ????, ??? ?а??????, ?????
??а?????????? Windows ?аMac, ????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????н
?????? ????????, ??а??? ????????? ???? ????????? ?????????
?????????? ?а???? ???? ?????? ??, ??а??????? ??а?????н??а????н
???, ??? ????? ?а?????.
? ????? 1990н? ?а???????? ??а2010а?.а???????? ??????? ???н
??? Linux ???? ???: Gnome ?аKDE. ??? ????????? ????????? ??н
????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????????. ?а???а?? Enlightenment?
DWM? CDE?! ??, ??? ???? ?????????? ??, ?а??а??? ??? ????????н
??, ??а???? ?а???????? ?а???????????. Gnome ?аKDE ??н????????
LXF226 ?????? 2017
?????? ?? ?? ???????, ?а??????? ???? ????? ??? ????, ??? ??? ??н
???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ??а???н
???????? ?????? ?????? ?а???????, ??? ?????н????. ?????? ?????
??? ?? ?????? ?а???????? ???? ???? ???? ??а????????? ???????
(???? ??а?????? ??? ?????) ???????????? ??а???????? ???????.
Ubuntu (??????????) ?аUnity ??? ?? ?????????? ???????, ????н
?? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????н????????? ????н
??? ??????, ??? ??????? ?а?????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??н
??. Mint ???? ?????? ????? ??? ????????? Cinnamon; Bodhiа? ????
???????? ???????? Moksha; elementaryOSа? ??????? ??аmacOS
Pantheon, Solusа? Budgie... ?????? ??????, ?????? ????? ??????н
????. ???? Ubuntu ? Unity ??? ????? ???, ?????? ??? ?????? ???
???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а?????? ???????? ???? (??н
?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????????? Gnome ??а??????? Ubuntu),
???? ????? ??а???? ??? ?а????? ???????.
???????? ??????
??? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??
??а????? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ?а???????? ?а???? ?????н
???????? ??а??????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ????? Linux.
????????, ?? ?? ??а???? ?? ??????????? Cinnamon ?а?? ??? ?? ??
???? ???????? ??а????????? ???????? ????? [Cinnamonа? ????. ??н
????] ??аUbuntu, ??? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???????
$ sudo addнaptнrepository ppa:embrosyn/cinnamon
$ sudo apt update && sudo apt install cinnamon
???????, Gnome, KDE Plasma, Xfce ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ???н
?? ?а?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??а???????? ?????, ????
???????? ???? ??н???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???а??а??????н
?????. ??? ?????????а? Gnome, ??????? ??а????????? ??аUbuntu,
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? ????? ???????
???????? Gnome (?????) ??? Unity
??????? Unity [???.:а? ??? ?а??? ????!], ???? ??????
????????? ??аGnome ?а????????? ?????? Ubuntu,
??а?а??? ???????????. ??н??????, Unity 7 ?????????
???????? ?а????????????. ????? ????, ????? ???н
????? Unityа8 ????????? ??????????? ?а?????н
????? ????? ???????????. ?????? ?? ????? ????????
????? Gnome, ?????? ????????????? ??????? ???н
??????, ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?а????
?????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????. ??а??? ?????н
?? ?? ?????????? ?????????? DashнtoнDock, ????н
?????????? ???, ??????? ????? ?????????????
Gnome, ????????, ??????????. ??? ????? ?????????,
??? ??аGnome Tweak Tool, ??? ????? ???? ?????н
?????, ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ??аUnity.
???а????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??????????
?а????? ??????? ???????? ?????. DashнtoнDock ?????
???????? ???? Applications ??а???? Activities, ?а???
????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ??а??????? ???
HUD ???????. ????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????н
??????? ??а?????? ?????. ????????? ??а?а?????
Panel ???????? ??? ??а?????/?????? ??????, ?????
??? ?????? Unity. ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????
?аUnity ??????, ??а??а????? ?????????? ?аGnome,
????????? dconf-editor, ??????? ?аorg.gnome.desktop.
wm.preferences ?а??????? ???????? ?????????
?????? buttotнlayout ??аclose,minimize,maximize: [??н
?????, ????????, ??????????:] (???????? ????????
??а?????????). ???? GTK Ubuntu Ambiance ??????
?а???????? ????????? ??? Gnome, ?а??? ????? ??н
?????? ?а??? Gnome ??? ??????? ????? Unity. ???
???, ???? ????? ??? ????? Unityн???????? ????н
??? ????, ???? ????а??? Gnome Shell ??аb00merang
???????? (??а??????? ??? ?????? ?а??? ??????, ???? ??а??а??????
????????? ????????? ???? ????????? Unity)
$ sudo aptнget install ubuntuнgnomeнdesktop
?????????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ?? ???????????,
???????? ????????? ? Arch:
# pacman нS gnome
??, ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?а?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??н
?? ???? ?????????? ????? ?????а? ???????????, ??????????
??аWindows 95а? ??а????????, ??? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????
?????. ??а????? ????, ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???н
???????? ??н??а????????? ????? ????????? ???н?? ?????, ?а??а??н
?? ????? ??????????. ??? ???????, ???? ??????????? ????????н
????? Linux ??????? ??а?? ??????? ???? ???? ??аWindows ?а?????
??а?????? ????????.
???????????? ??? ??????? ????
?????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????
???????? ?????. ???????????? ????????? ??, ??? ?????????? ????н
?????? ?а??????? ??а??????? ????? (?????? ??????????? Windows
95) ??? ??а??????????. ??а????? ????, ??? ??а???? ???????? ?????н
?? ?а????? ???, ????????? ??? ????? ?? ?а???????? ????? ????? ??н
????????? ????????????.
??? ??а?????, ??????????? ??????? ???? ????? ????????? ???н
?????? ????????? ??????? ????, ?а???? ??? ????????????? ?????
????? ???????, ??а??? ??? ????. ?? ???, ?????? ??????, ??? ??? ??н
????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????
??????. ???????, ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????, ??а??? ??н
???????? ??а??????????? ????? ??, ??????? ??? ??а???????, ?а????н
??????? ??а??? ??а???????? ???? ??????. ??????н??а???????????
??а??? (Alt + Tab, Alt + F4) ?????а??, ??? ?а????? ???????????? ??,
???????, ???? ??а?????, ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????н
???? ?а???? Linux.
????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???н
???? ??????, ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????. ?????н
????????? ????? ???????? Pantheon, ??????? ????, ????????????
?аelementary OS. ?а???????, ?????????? ?????????? Pantheon ??н
??????? ???? ????????? ????? ????????, ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????
?? ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а????????, ??? ???????? ???? ??н
????, ???? ?? ????? ??, ??? ??? (???? ??? ??, ????? ?? ??, ?? ????
???) ????? ????????? ???? ?а????????? ???. ????? ???? ???, ??н
?????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????н
?? ?????? ??а?????? ?? ??? ?а??????? ?? ???. ??? ?? ??? ?? ??н
??? ?????? ??, ??? Pantheon ?? ?? ????? ??а?????? ???????????.
??а??? ??? ?? ???????????? Gnome, ??а?????????? ??а???? ?????н
??. ?а?????? ?аGnome...
(https://github.com/B00merangнProject/unity7)а? ??н
?????? ??а???? ????? ?????????? ?а?а????? Ubuntu
icon ?? ?? ???????? ????????, ??? ??а???????.
> ???? Unity 7 ?? b00merang ?????? ?? Unity,
????????? ??? ???????? ? Gnome.
Gnome ?а?????
[?? ????? ??а????????? ???????????? ????? ?Home on the ranн
ge?,а? ????. ???.]
??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????, ????????? ?а????????н
?? Linuxа? ?, ???? ??а?????, ???а???????????а? ?? ?? ?а??? (???н
?? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???? systemd) ??????? ??? ?????, ???
?аGnome 3. ???? ??????? ???? ????????? ??а????? л???????╗, ???
???? ??????????, ?????? ???????????, ????????? ????? ?а????н
?? ?? ???. ? ?а2010а?. ??????? ?????? ??а?????н?? ?????????? ???
??????? ???.
??????? ???? Mate ????? ??а?? ?????? ??? ???????????????,
Gnome 2, ?а?а??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????
?? ??. ??а??а??? ????? ?аUbuntu 11.04, ??а?? ?? ????? ??а???? ??н
???, Ubuntu, ???????? ??а??????????? ?а???????? Gnome, ???? ????
??а????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? Unity.
? ??????????? ??а????, ???? ??а????????, ???а??????? Unity ???
?????а?? ????????????, ??? Gnome 3 (??? ???????? ???? ???????
??а??, ??? ??а?????????? ???? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????????
??а????????? ?????????? ?а???? ??а??????а? ??а??????? ?????,
???? ????????? Linux ??а??? ?а??а??? ??а??а???????? ???н??а????н
?????), ??а?????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????. ?а?а??????
????? ???? ???? ????????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????: ?????????
Ubuntu ????? ???????? ??аGnome (?????? ??? ????????? ??а??????н
??? ?а?????? 17.10), ?а???? ?????????.
Gnome 3 ?????????? ????? ??? ???? Mutter (??????? Metacity,
??????? ????? ???? ???? Gnome, ?аClutter) ?а?????????? Wayland.
?????????? ?а???????????? ????? ???????? ?????, Gnome Shell,
> ?????????? DashнtoнDock ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????
??? ????. ????? ??? ??????, ????? ?? ??????? Welcome to Jamrock.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
69
??????? ??????? ?????
> ???? United ??????? ??а???? ????????? ???????? ?а????? Unity, ?а??? ????? ?????
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ???????? ?????.
??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? Mutter. ?аMutter, ???? ?? ?? ?? ??,
??а?????? ????????? Gnome ?а????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????н
??? ??????. Muffin, ??????????? Mutter, ???????????? ?аCinnamon.
??? ??? ?аGnome
????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????? ?а????????н
???, ?а?????? ??а?????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ??????? ????
?а?????????? ???? ?????????? (??а??????????) ??? ???? ??????н
?????/??????? (??а??????????). ?а???????? Gnome ????????????
??????? ??а????? ??????????? ??аsystemd, ???????? ??а??????????
systemd-logind. ????????????? ??? ??а?????? ?????????? ????н
??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????, ????????? ???????????
???????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? Kool Aid [????. л??? ??? ??н
????????╗а? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ??н
??????,а? ????. ???.] ??аsystemd.
?? ??? ?? Gentoo Linux ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??аsystemd
Gnome ??????????? ?? ??? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? systemd ????
??? ???????????? Gnome. ??? ??а??????????? ?????? systemd ???н
?? ???????? init, ??а?аGentoo ??а?????? ??????????????, ???? ??а??н
???? ???????????? Gnome ???а????????? ?? ??????? (??. https://wiн
ki.gentoo.org/wiki/GNOME/GNOME_Without_systemd). PCLinuxOS
??а???? ?????? Gnome 3, ?а??? Devuan (????????? ??аsystemd ???н
?? Debian, https://devн1.org) ???? ?а???? ?????? ????? Gnome, ??а??н
??????? ????? ?????. Devuan ???????? ?????? ?????? 1.0.0, ?а???
???? ?а?????? ???????, ?? ?? ?? ???????, ????? ??????????. ????н
??? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ????????, ??? ??а?????? KDE ?аCinnamon
???? ?????? ????????.
?????? ??а???????, ??? Gnome ?? ?? ???? ????. ????????, ??н
??? ??а????????, ??а?а??? ??????, ??а?а???? ???? ????? ???????,
?а?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????
????, ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????, ??, ????????, ???? ????н
??? ??а???? ????????????.
?????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??????????? ?а????н
???? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? Activities ?????? ?а??????????????.
?????? ?? ????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????н
?????? ??а?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????????, ??а?а???а?????
??????????. ??а??? Activities ????? ???????, ?? ??? ??а???????
Super (???а?? Windows), ?а?????? ????, ????? ??????? ?а???? Show
Applications, ????? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????? ???н
???? ?????? ????? ??а?????.
????????????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ?а????н
??? Alt + Tab. ?? ?? ??а?????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????,
??а??? ?????????? Alt +` (?????? ??? ??????? ???аTab). ??? ?? ???н
??, ??? ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?????????? ??н
???? ?аGnome ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????. ????????? ????????н
???? ???????????? Alt + Tab ?????, ?а??а????? ???????? ????????
??а????? ??????????, ??? AlternateTab, ??????? ??а?????????? ????
??а???????????.
?????? ?а???????? ????????? (?????а? ???????????? ????н
???? ???????) ?аGnome ??????? ??а???, ??? ??????. ?????? ???н
??????????? ??а??? ??, ??? ?????????????? ???????????, ?а???н
??? ???? ??????, ??????? ?а????, ????? ??а????????? ??????????.
??? ????????? ???, ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??н
????? ??????????? ???????????? ??а???? ??а????????, ??аGnome
Tweak Tool ????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??н
??. ??? ?а?а??? ?????????, ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????????
??а??????? ????????, ????????? ???????????: ??? ????????а?
Ctrl + Alt + ??????? ?????/????.
Gnome ???, ??? ??????
????? Gnomeа?????? ????????, ??? ????????? ?? ??а?????????? ??н
???????????? ?????????. ??? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?а?? ??
????? ??а?????????. ???? ?а???, ??? ??????? Gnome ?????? ???н
?????? ???? ?????????????, ?а???? ??????? ???????? ?????????
????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????. ??а?????? ??? ??? ?????
??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? Gnome Tweak Tool (sudo aptнget
install gnomeнtweakнtool).
Gnome 3 ?а?????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??????????. ???, ???
?а???????? ???? ?????????? Gnome Shell, ???????? ??аGnome Javaн
Script (gjs), ??? ??? ?а????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ????????н
???? ??????? ??а????????? ????? ???? https://extensions.gnome.org.
????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??а?а??? ????????, ??????? ????????????
????? Gnome, ?? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????н
???н??????????. ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????,
?а?????? ????? ?????????? ??а????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????н
?? ????. ??а????? ?????????? ???н?? ????????? chrome-gnome-shell.
????? ????? ?????????? ??????????а? ??, ??????? ??????н
???? ???? ??? ??аGnome 2, ????????, ????????? Places ?а????
?????? ??????? Gnome
????? ??????? ?аGnome ??????????? ?????н
????. ???? ??а????? ?????????, ???????????
?аGnome 3.24а? Night Light, ??????? ???????????
???????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ??а???????
?? ??? ?а??????? ????. ????? ?????? ???????????
?а?????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????
?а???? ?????.
??? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????????
????????? RedShift, ??а??????? ??????, ??? ???н
??? ??? ???????? ?аGnome. ???????? ?????????
RedShift ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?а??? ???н
??? ?????, ??????? ??а????????????? ????????
70
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
Gnome. ?аGnome 3а??? ?? ??????? ??????????
????????? ?????? ??????а? ?????? ?? ?????
Ctrl + Alt + Shift + R, ?а?а??????? ?????? ???? ??????н
?? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?????????, ??? ???????
??????. ??????????? ??а?? ?????????? ??????,
????? ?? ???????? ??????, ?а???? ???????? ?а??н
???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ????????
?а????? ????? ~/Videos.
?????????? ?????????????????? ?????
Linux System76 ?? ????? ????????? ???а????? ??н
??? Gnome, ???????? ?а???????? Ubuntu ?аUnity.
??? ?????????? Pop ?а???????? ????????????,
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????
Adapta. ??? ????? ??а??????? ????????? Gnome
?????????, ??? Unity (??. ?????? ??а???.а69, ?????
??????, ??? ??? ???????), ???? ?а???? ?????? ?????н
?????? ??????? ?а????????? ???? (????? System76
?аUnity). ??а????? ?????????? ?аUbuntu ?а???????
$ sudoаaddнaptнrepository ppa:system76нdev/stable
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt install system76нpopнtheme
? ????? ?????????? ??а?а?????? ????????, ???н
????? ??????????? ??аhttps://github.com/system76/
popнtheme.
??????? ????? ???????
???????? ? ??????? KDE neon
?????????? KDE ??????? ?????????? ??????а?
?????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ???? ??а????????
??а???. ????????, Plasma 5.10 ????? ?а????? ???,
?а????? KDE Applications ????? ???????? ?а???????,
??а??????????? [upstream] ????? ?? ? ??????
?а????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????????????н
??? ?? ? ??? ???????? ?????, ?а??????? (??? ???,
???? ????????? ?????????? ?????н?? ????????????н
??? ?????? Qt) ??? ??а????? ?????????? ??а??????н
???? ??????.
???????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????
?????? ??????, ?а???? ??а????? ???????? ??н
???????????? ????????? ???????????? (?????
??? PPA Kubuntu Backports), ?????????? ??????
?????????????.
?? ???? ??????? KDE ??? ????????? ???? ???н
????, ?????????? ??а?????? Ubuntu LTS ?а????н
???????? ????? ????????? ???? KDE ???а??н
??????? KDEаneon. ??????? ??? ???????? ?????
????а?? ???????????, ?????? ??? ??? ???????????
??а???????? ??????, ????? ???????? KDE. ???а??
??а??а???а? ???, ????????, ?????? ?????? ??????н
?????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????н
??? KDE.
?????? ???????????? KDEаneon ????????? ??н
?????? ????? KDE (????????, Kubuntu), ??а??????
??н?? ????? ????? ???????????, ??а??н??а??? ????н
???? лKDE, ??????????????? ??? KDE╗. ????????
??? ?аhttps://neon.kde.org ?а?????????? ???????????,
??а?????? ???? ???????? ????? ???.
Application, ??????????????? ??а??????????. ??? ????а? Dashнtoн
Dock, ??????? ?????????? Dash ??аActivities Overview ?а????????н
??? ???, ????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??н
???? (??? ??? ??а??????н?????? ?????????????? ????? ??а??????
??????????).
??? ???? ???????? ????а? ??????????? ????????????? ????н
???????????? ???? ????? Tweak Tool, ?а??? ????? ???? ??????? ???н
??????? User Themes, ??????? ??а??????? ?а??????? ????? ??????
??а????? ??????????. ?а??? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????
????, ?????? ???????????? ??а?а????? ~/.themes.
???? ?а??????? KDE
KDE ?????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ???а???????? ?аKDEа3
??аKDE 4 ?а??????????? ???????????? ??????????. ????????????
????????? ????? ???а??????? 5 ???????? ????? ??а?????? ????н
???????????, ?????? ??????? ?а??????????. ?а?????????? ????????
?? ?? ??? ????????, ????? ??? ???? л???а??, ??? ??????╗ ?аKDEа4.
?????? ????????? ?а?????? ????? ?? ??аKDEа3, ??а????? ???????, ???
????????? ??? ??????????? ???а????????? Trinity. ?????? ??а????н
?????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????????, ?? ???, ??? ??? ?? ?????н
?????? ???????? ??? KDEа5 (??. LXF205/206, Plasma 5). ??????
?????, Plasma 5 ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????, ??? ??? ????н
????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ?а????????????
?а??????????????.
?????? ?????н??а???????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????,
??????? ???? Plasma ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??????, ???
Gnome, ?а????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? Qt ??н
??? ????? ?а????????а? ???а?? ????? ???????????????? (??а????
??а?????? ?????? ???) GPU.
?????? Plasma 5 ????? ???????? ? Ubuntu ? ??????? ????????
$ sudo aptнget install kubuntuнdesktop
??? ?а?а??????? ubuntu-gnome-desktop, ??????? ??? ?????, ??н
????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????, ??? ?аKubuntu, ???????
???а???????????? ??аUbuntu 17.04 ????? 1,5 ??. ??а??? ?? ???? ??н
??? ??? ??а????? ????????????? sddm, ??????????? ??аQt, ???
??? ?????????? ????? ???? ????? ?а??? ???? lightdm. ?? ?? ??а??н
????????? ????? ?????? ?????? Ubuntu, ??а??а?????? ????????н
???? ??????????? PPA ????? ??? ?????? Kubuntu ??? ???? ?????
????? ???????????, ??а??а??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????н
??? KDE. ???? ????? ???????? Plasma 5.8 ??? 16.04 ?а16.10, ?а??? ??
Plasma 5.10 ??? 17.04.
GTK+ ??? ??аGTK+
????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????н
??? ??? ????, ??а??????? ???????? ??? ??????????. Plasma ??????н
???? Qt (Qt, ??а?? ??, ????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????),
?аGnome ?????????? GTK+ 3. ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???н
???? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?а???????? ????? Xfce ?а???, ??? ??н
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??аGTK+2а?а3
???????н?? ?????? ?а??????????.
> Plasma 5 ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????, ????? ??а????? ?????????
????? ????????????? (?????а? Spotify) ??а?????????? ????? ????.
??????? ???? LXDE, ??????? ?????? ?????? Raspbian ?а??н
????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? Pixel, ??????????
???? ?????????????. LXDE ??????? ??а?????? ?????????? GTK+ 2;
?а2013а?. ??? ????? ?????, ??? GTK+ 3 ??? ??а??? ?????, ?а?а???а??
2013а?. ????? ?????? ??а???????????? LXDE ??аQt. ?а??? ?????? ???
??? ???? ??????, Razor-Qt, ????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?????н
??????? ???????? ????? ??аQt, ?а??а??????? ?????? ?????? ???н
??? ??????????? ??? ????? ??? Linux, ??????? ?????? ?а??? ?????
LXQt. ??????? ???? LXDE ??н???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?аLubuntu,
??а??? ??? ???????.
???? ???? ??? Solus ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??а????? ??????? ??????
Budgie ??а???? Gnome, ??? ?? ????????? ?а?а?????? ???????? ?????.
Ubuntu 17.04 ?? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? Budgie.
?????? ??а????????? ??аGnomeа? ?? ???? ????????, ?а?????????
????? Budgie ????? ??????? ??аQt. ??????? ??? ??а???? ??аhttps://
budgiedesktop.org/2017/01/25/kickingнoffнbudgieн11.
??????? ??аBudgie [???.:а? ?а??????????, ??? ????? ??а?????]
?? ????? ?а??? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ???, ??? GTK+ ?а??? ??????
?а??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?аGnome. ??? ?????????
?? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ??а???? ??????????? ???а????????
??? ????????????? ????? ?????? ????? Gnome. ????????? ??? ???н
??????? ?????????? ??? ????? л??????????╗, ??????? ?????????
?? ???н?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ????.
Budgie ?? ?? ????? ??а???? ??????, ?а???? ?? ??????? ?а????н
??? LinuxаMint ?а??? ???????? ????? Cinnamon. ?????? ????? ??н
??? ????? ?????????? Gnome (??? ???????? XнApps) ?? ??????
???????????? ????? ?а??????????? ???????, ??а?а????????????
??????? ????, ?а??????????? ??а????, ??? ????? ??????????? ??? ???н
??????, ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?????
??????????????? ????????? ?а???????????. ??а????? ???????
??? ?а?????. |
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
71
Arch Linux ????????? ??????????? ???, ?????
?? ??? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????
Arch Linux:
???????????
?? ?????, ???? ?????? ??????????. ???? ??????? ????, ??? ??????? ???????????
??????????? ?? ?????? Arch Linux ??? ???????? ????? ??????.
???
???????
???? ???????
Arch ?????? ???н
?? ??а????????
???? ???? Linux.
??а??? ???????н
?? MorpheusArch
Linux, ???????
?????? ??????????
??а??????????????
??????.
?
??????
??????
??????? ??????
?????????? ??н
???????? ?????
Arch Linuxа? ??н
???????? ??а???н
??? ???????? ????
??а?????? Arch,
?????????? ???н
???????? ???????н
???, ????? Archн
Anywhere (https://
archнanywhere.org).
72
|
???? ????? [Judd Vinet], ????????? Arch Linux, ??????? ???н
???, ??? Arch Linuxа? ??? ??, ??? ??а??а???? ???????. ????
??? ?а????, ??а???????, ??? Arch Linuxа? ????????? ????н
?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????.
?? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????н
????? ??????, ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???????
??? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ?а???????? ?????н
????, ?а????? ??а????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????, ??? ?????
???? ?а??? ????. ??????? ??а???? ???, ??? ????????? ??? ??????,
????? ????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ????, ??????? ?????????н
??? ??а????????? [pen test].
Arch Linux, ????? ????, ????? ?????????????, ??? Gentoo, ???
???????? ??? ??????? ?????????????? ?а????????????, ??а??? ??н
?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????
Arch Linux.
???????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?а??????????????
?????? archiso. ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????н
??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? Arch Linux, ??????? ??а??????
LXF226 ?????? 2017
???????? ??а????? www.archlinux.org/download. ?? ??а??????????н
??? archiso ??????? ??? ???????????????. ????????? ?????????
x86_64 (32н????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????? 2017а?.).
?????? ???????а? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??а????? root. ??а????? ?????,
?а????????? LXF, ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ???
root. ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????????
?????? ??????????, ?а??? ????? ???????? ??а???, ??? ??????????н
????: ???, ??а?????? ???????? ??а????? ????????? ISO ??а????????н
????? ????? ?а??????? ???а??????? ??????? ????????????. ?????
??а??????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?а?а???, ??? ??а???н
?????? ??????????.
????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? Arch Linux. ????
??а??? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ??????????? ??????. ???
???? ?? ???? ???????? Qemu ??? VirtualBox, ?а??????????? ??а????,
????????? ?????? ??а??????????????? ??????? ?? ?а????? ???н
????. ??????? ?????????? ?????? Arch Linux ?????? ???????????,
?а??????? ????????????, ?а??а??????????? ????????? ?????????
????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??а?????????.
???а????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????н
???? ???????????? ??? ??????????????? ISO, ??????? ?????????
??????? ?????? ???????, ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????.
???? ???? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????
??????????, ??????????? ???? ??а???????, ??????? ??? ??????.
?????? ??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??
???? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???н
?? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???? ?? ????
????? ???????? ????н?????? ????? ????????? ???????????? KDE
??н?? ??? ?????????????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ??????
(???? ??а???????? ????????? ???? ?? ????) ?а?????, ??????? ?????н
?????? ??? ISO.
????????? ArchISO
Archisoа? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? Bash, ??????? ????????
???????? ????? ???????. ??? ????? ????? ????????? ?? ????н
??? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??? Arch Linux, ??н
????????????? ????? ????????????? ??, ?а?? ?? Arch Linux, ???
????????????? ??? ???????????, ????? ?????????????? ??????н
??? Arch л???? ?????╗.
???????? ?????? archiso ???????? mkarchiso. ????? ?????????
??????????? ?????? Arch Linux ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ???н
????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????? ??а????? root:
# pacman нS archiso
Archiso ?????? ?????? ?а??? ?? ????? ????. ????? ??? releng
??а??? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??н
???, ?а??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????????? Arch ???????
???а?????????? ?а???? ???????. ????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???,
????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? Arch Linux.
??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????н
??, ???? ???????? ?а??? ??? ??????:
# mkdir ~/archlive
C???????? ???? ??? archlive. ??? ??а?? ???, ????? ??а????? ???н
???????? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ?????????. Archiso ?? ?????????н
???? ?а???? ??? /usr/share/, ?а??????? ??????????? ????? ??а????
?а~/archlive. ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????:
# cp нr /usr/share/archiso/configs/releng ~/archiso
???? нr ?????????? ???????? ????? ?а??? ?????? ??а???? ????
/usr/share/archiso/configs/releng. ??????? ?????? ????????? ????н
???? ?а??????? releng. ???? ??? airootfs ?????? ???????? ???? ?????
??а????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????. ??? ?а??????? ?????н
?? Arch, ??? ??а?????? ??????????? ?а????? ????? ?????, ????????,
/etc/dhcpd.conf, ???? ?? ???? ??????????? ?а???? ??? ~/archlive/
releng/airootfs/etc/.
????? ??а????????? ??? ????????? ?????. ???? ??? efiboot
?а??????? releng ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?а???н
????? ?аUEFI, ?а??а??а?????????? ??? ??????? ??а?????????? ?????
?????? ?????. Package.both ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????
?а??????? ??????? ?????, ??а????????? 32н????????? ??? ????н
?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??, ??а?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?а?? ??? ?а???, ?аpackages.
i686. ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? package.x86_64. ?? ?? ??а?????? ??
package.both, ??а????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????
????? ????? ??????, ????????? ?? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ?а???
32н, ?а??? 64н????????? ??? ????. ???? pacman.conf ???? ?? ??н
??? ??? ????.
??? ??? ?????????? ?аbuild.sh, ??????? ??а??????????? ?????н
???? ?а????, ??а???????
# nano ~/archlive/releng/build.sh
??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?аvim, ?? ?? ???а?? ?? nano ??? ???????
?а?????. ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??, ????? ?????? ??а????????
?а????? build.sh, ????? ????? ??а???. ???, ??? ??а????? ??????,
??а???????? ????????? ?а??? ????????? Arch Linux ?а??а????? ????
??????????, ??? ?? ?????. ?а?????? ??????а? ??, ????????? ????
?????? ?????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????????.
????????? ????????????
?????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ?а??? ???? Arch. ????? ??а??н
??? ??????????? ??а?а?????? packages.x86_64. ???? ????? ???н
?? ?а??????? ???????? ??а?????, ??а?? ????? ??а???????? ??, ????
??а??а?????? ??????, ????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???н
???? ??????. ?????????????? ???????? ???????, ??? ????? ??а??н
???????? archiso, ?????? ??????????? lynx. ????? ??а??????? ????н
???????? ??а?????? ???? ????????? elinks. ?а??а?????? ??????????
???? ???, ????????? ??? ?????????? ?а??? ????? ????????? ??а???н
????? ?????? ??????. ????, ??????? ???????
> ?? ????????? ??????? ?????? build.sh, ???????????? ?????? /root/archlive/releng/.
??а??????? ??????, ????? ?????? ????? ???????!
# pacman нS elinks
?????? ??а?а??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??а???н
??? ??????, ??а????????? ?????? ??а???????? ?? ?? ???????????н
??? ??????, ?? ?? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??н
??, ????? ??? photorec, testdisk ?аddrescue.
????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????, ????? ????????:
# pacman нS testdisk ddrescue
???? ??? ?????????, ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??н
????, ??а???? ?а???, ??? photorec ?????? ?а????? testdisk. Testdiskа?
??? GPLн?????, ??????? ???????? ???а?????????????? ????????,
?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????, ??????н
??? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ???, ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???
??????? ????????.
Photorec, ?????? ?? ??ал???а?? ??????????╗ ???, ????????,
????? ????, ??? ???????????? ????? 400а????? ??? ???. ??а??н
???? ??????, ????? ???? ??? ??????????? Photorec, ??????? www.
cgsecurity.org/wiki/File_Formats_Recovered_By_PhotoRec. ?? ???
ddrescue ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????, ????????
????. ??а??????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ???? ????? ??
??????
??????
?? ??????? ??????н
???? ?????? ?а??н
??? ??????? ???н
??? ??? ???????
?????????? ????н
??? ??????. ???н
?????? ??. http://
bit.ly/2rdgZ3s. ????
??? ??????????,
??? ???????????
??? ?? ??? ???? ??н
????? ???? ???,
????? ??????н
??????? ???????
??????.
?????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????????
???? ???????????? ???????, ??а??????? ????????н
???? ????? ????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ?аsudo.
???? ?а???, ??? ??? ??????. ??а????? ???? ??? ???н
????, ??? ??а?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????
????? Arch Linux, ?????????? ??? ??аSourceForge
?а??????? ?аDistrowatch, ??а?????? ??а??????
?????? ??? ??????.
?? ?? ??????????, ??? ????, ???????????
??? ISO, ??а????? ????? ????а?? ????????????,
??а??????? ??а?????? ??? ??????????????. ?????н
????? ????????? ??а???????, ?а???? ????????
?????? ?а?????????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ????
Linux, ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????н
??, ??????? ??????? ?а??????. ????????? ????????н
???? Linux ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????
??а?????????????.
???? ??а??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??а????? ?????,
??? SourceForge, ??а??а?????? ??? ????? ?а?????
????? ????????? ?а???????????? ?????????
Linux, ??а??????? ???????????? ??? ??а???? ???н
??????, ?а????? ?а???, ??? ????????????? ???
???????, ?????? ???? ?а??? ???? ????? ??а??? ????н
?? ?а??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??а?????
????????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ????????????
??? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??н
???? Linuxа? ??а?????? ???????????? Arch Linux,
??а?аLinux ?а?????.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
73
??????? ??????????? Arch
??????
??????
???? ??а?????? ??н
???????? ????? ??н
?????? ?????, ???
??? ?? ?? ?? ?????
?????????? ????н
??????????? ???н
???????? ????н
???? ?а?????
xorg-server. ?а????н
??????? ??? ????
Arch ????? ?????,
????? ???????????
??????? ????????н
???? ?а??????????
???????.
??? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????????. ???а??? ?? ????? ?????????н
?? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?аPhotorecа?аLXF190.
?????? ????????, ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??аArch Linux ???а??н
?????? ?а????? ??? ??. ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? IRC. ????
????????? ?????????, ????? ??? irssi ?аweechat. ??? ???????? ??н
?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?а????? ?? ?? ???? ?а?? ?? ??? ??? ???
??? ???а????. ???????, ??? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????,
??а?????? ????? ????? xorg-server ?а????????????? ????? ????н
???? ????? ?????? ??а????? ????????????? ?а????????????????
???????????? ??????????.
Arch, ??? ???????, ????? ??????????, ????? ??а??? ????????н
???? ?а??????????? ??а???????, ??а????????????? ?? ?? ??а??????
????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????. ??? ????????? irssi
?аweechat ??????? ????????? ???????:
# pacman нS irssi weechat
????????, ??а????? ISO Arch ??а??? ?? ?? ?????? ????????? ??н
????? ???????????. ??? ????? ????? ?????????? nmap (zenmapа?
??? ??? ?а??????????? ???????????). Nmapа? ?????????? ???????
?а???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?а??????????
?????? ????????????.
???? ??а? ??????????? ??а?????????, ??а?????? ?? ?? ??????н
???? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а??????????? ???????????
ISO ?а?????? ?????? ??? ?а????? ??а????? ??? ??????????? USBн??н
????????. ??? ????? ???????????
# pacman нS nmap
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? extundelete, ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??н
??? ??????. ??? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??, ??????? ??? ?????? ??н
???? ???????? ??????? ext3 ?аext4. ??????, ????? ????????????
extundelete, ??????? ?????? ???? ??????????????. ??? ?????,
> ????? pacman нQqe ??????? ??? ??????, ?????????????
?а???????.
> Arch ??????
?????а???????н
??????, ????
?? ??????????
??????????
?а???????????
Xfceа??а?????????.
???????? ???????????? ????? ???????
ClamAVа? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ????н
???????? ?????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????;
?а2013а?. Cisco systems ????????? ??? ?аSourcefire
?а?а??? ??? ?????????. ??? ???? ????? ??????????
??а????? ISO, ??а??? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???н
??? ????? ??????. ??? ??а?? ?? ????????, ??? ?????н
?? ????????? ???????, ????????????????? ClamAV
?????? ???????, ??? ?а????????? ?????? ??.
?????? ???????? ?????????? ????? AIDE. ??????,
??? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????????
?????, ?а??а?? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????н
?????? ??????????????? ?а?????. ??? ????? ???????
??????????? ????? ????? logwatch. ??? ????????
??, ??? ?а?????? ??????, ??????????? chkrootkitа?
??? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ??н
????? ????????? ???????, ?, ?а??? ?????, ??а??????
?аTop 100 Networkаsecurity tools [?????? ??????н
????? ??????? ????????????] 2006а?.
??? ???? ????? ???????????? ??а???????????
???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????
????????????? ??????????? ???а????????? lynis,
?????????????? CISOfy, ??????? ?????? ??????????
??аLinux ?аUNIX. ?????????? ????????????? ???н
??? (??а??? ?? ?? ???????), ??а?а?????????? ??????
??????? ??????????, ????????? ????????? ????
??????? ??а??? ?? ??а0 ??а100, ?а??? ???????? ??н
????????, ???????? ??? ??????, ????? ???? ???????
??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????н
??. ?????????? ???????????? ?????а? ????? ?????
?????? ???????
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
74
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????????? Arch ???????
??? ??? ??? ??? ??? extundelete, ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?а?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???
?а????? ?а?????? RECOVERED_FILES:
# pacman нS extundelete
??????, ??? ??? ????? ???? ????????????. ??а??????????? ??н
??? ???? ????? ?????? ????? pacman ?а??????? ?? ??? ??? ?????
??а?????? ?????.
??????? ??????
???? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?а????н
?? ???????????? ???????? ???? Arch. ??? ???????? ?а??????? ????н
??????? ???? ????? packages.x86н64, ?а????а?? ?????????? ??????
???????, ??????? ??а????? ????? ?а????? ???????? ????, ??а????н
???, ??? ???????? ??а?а???? ????. ??? ????? ??????? ???????
# pacman нQqe >> ~/archlive/releng/packages.x86н64
>> ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? pacman нQqe ?а??? ??? packages.
x86н64. ????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ???????
# nano ~/archlive/packages.x86н64
???? ??а??????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?а??????????? ??н
??? ????? ?????, ??? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ???? conf.
??? lightdm ??? ????? ????? ?а/etc/lightdm, ??? ????????? ???????н
???? ???? conf ?а????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ??????
lightdm. ??????? ????????? ???????:
# cp нr /etc/lightdm/* ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/etc/
??? ???????? ?? ???? /etc/systemd/system/displayнmanager.
service, ????????
# cp /etc/systemd/system/displayнmanager.service ~/archlive/
releng/airootfs/etc
???????, ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ?а??????? arch ???а??
?????????????, ??? ?а??????, ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????н
??????????? ?????, ????????
# cp /etc/{shadow,passwd,group} ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/etc/
?? ?? ??а??????????? ????? ???????? ?????, ?????????? ???н
???????? ????? ~/.xinitrc ?а~/.config. ???????а?? ??? ?? ???????н
???? ?а???? .bashrc. ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ?аairootfs,
????????:
# mkdir ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/etc/skel
????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ??????????? ????? ~/.xinitrc
?а~/.config ????????:
# cp ~/.bashrc && cp ~/.config && cp ~/.xinitrc ~/archlive/releng/
airootfs/etc/skel
??? ??????? ???? ?????, ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ???????????
??а????? root. ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??а????????????? ??? ?????н
??????? ??????. ?а???? ??а?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????н
????, ?а??аroot, ?? ?? ?????? ????????? ?а???? etc/systemd/system/
getty@tty1.service.d/autologin.conf. ?а????? ??????, ??? Arch, ?а???н
??? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???н
???????????. ??????? ???????
# nano ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/etc/systemd/system/getty@tty1.
service.d/autologin.conf
?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??
ExecStart=н/sbin/agetty ннautologin root ннnoclear %I 38400 linux
? ???????? root ??а??? ?????? ????????????. ??а??? ???????????
??????? ??????? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????
?????????????, ??????? ?? ?? ???????. ?????? ??? ???????? ???
????????? airootfsа? ??? ???????? ????? ???? customize_airootfs.
sh, ????????? ?а~/archlive/releng/airootfs/root. ????? ????????
????, ??????? ?????????:
# nano ~/archlive/releng/airootfs/root/customize_airootfs.sh
?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?а???? customize_
airootfs.sh, ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?а????????, ??? ???????? ???н
?????? ??????:
systemctl enable pacmanнinit.service chooseнmirror.service
systemctl setнdefault graphical.target
systemctl enable graphical.target
systemctl enable lightdm.service
??? ?а???а? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??! ??а??н
???? ????? ?а???? ??? ~/archlive/releng ?а??????? ??????????? ISO
????????
# ./build.sh нv нN ExampleISO нV 0.1 нL ExampleISO_0.1
нv ???????? ??????? build.sh ???????? ?а????????? ??????,
????? ??а????? ???? ???? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?а???н
?????????. нN ??????????, ????? ??? ????????? ISO, нVа? ?????
??????, ?анLа? ????? ???????????? ISO. ??????? ?????? ????? ??н
????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ??а???????? ??????????? ??н
????. ??а?????????? ???????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????? ISO
?а???? ???? ~/archlive/releng/out. |
> Photorec ????? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????. ???????? ????????а?
???а????????? ??????? ??а???? ?????? ????????? ????? root.
?????????? ? ???????? dd...
????????????? ??????? dd ????? ??? ???????
?????????? ??????, ?а??а???????????? ??, ??а??????
???а???????????? ?????????????. ?????? ???н
???????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?а???????
#аdd if=/dev/target_partition of=/home/user/partition.
image
????? if=/ ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???а??н
???????? ???????, ?а???????а? ????? of. ??????
?????? ????????? ???а? ???????? ??а????????.
????? Iа???? ?????? ????? O, ??????? ?????? if
??????????? ????? ???????? of.
?а???????? ??????? ??????? dd ????? ????????
?????????:
#аdd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb
???????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????н
???? /dev/sda/ ??а???? /dev/sdb/, ??а?????? ?????н
?????? ????????? ???? ?а??????? ??????? lsblk.
?? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? Cron ??а???н
?????? ???????? BASH ??? ??????? ?а?????? ????н
?????? ????????? ????? ?а??????? ??? ??а??????
??????. ?????? ?????????????? ?????????, ???
??а?????? ????? ?????? ????? ??а????????? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Cronа? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????, ???????????
????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????. ???
???????????? ?? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????
at. Cron ???????? ??а??????? crontab ??? crontable,
??????? ???????? ???????, ????? ??????? ??н
??????? ?а?????. ????????, ??????? 1 0 * * * printf
> /var/log/apache/error_log ??????? ?????? ??????
apache ?? ? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??????н
??. ???????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????????, ??????
???? ???????? ??а????????? ??? ???????????? Cron
??????????а?аBash.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
75
???????? ????? ???????? ???? ???
??? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ????????
????? 9
IoT: ???, ???????
???????? ???
?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?????,
????а??а??????. ???? ? ????????? ?????????!
? ???????а? ??а???????????: ?? ?? ?????? ????????? ?а?? ?????
??а???????????? ????? (??). ??, ?а??? ?а??????? ?????? ??? ?????
??????? ??????. ??а???????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????
?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ?????????.
???? ?? ??? ???????? ??????, ?а?????? ???
???
???????
?????? ??????? ??????
?????? ?????????а? ???????н
???? ????? ????
?а????????? ???н
????????? ?????.
??а???????????
????????????н
???н??????????.
Linux ????????н
?? ?а2008а?. ???
?????? ??? ??н
????, ??? ????н
?? ??аWindows.
??а??? ???? ????н
????? ??????? ??н
???? ?а????? ?????
л?????????╗.
???? ??????? ????, ??? ??? ??? ?а????а? ??а????
?а?а???? ????????? ?????!
?? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??а?? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ???н
??? ????????? ??????????. ???? ????а??, ????????????? ???, ???
????? ?????????: ?а?????, ?а???????, ?аwebн?????????. ?а???н
??? ????? ????? ?????????? ??аSSHн????????? ??а??????. ?? ??н
????а??а? ??????, ????? ?????????? ?а?????.
?? ?? ?????а? ???????? ?? ???? ??. ??? ????? ???? ??????н
????? ???????? ??, ??? ?? ????? ?а??? ???????. ??а?????? ??? ???н
?????? ?а????.
?????????? ???? ????????: ??а?????? ????, ???????? ????н
????? (??? ???????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????). ?а??? ?? ????н
???? ???????? ???????????. ???? ????а??, ??? ????? ???? ???н
??а? ???????? ???? ??а???????, ?а??????. ??а??а??? ??? ??????,
?? ?? ??а????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??н
???? ??: ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????,
?а????? ??а???????????? ??? ??а???????. ?? ?? ?????? ?а???????н
???? ????? ???????????? ??а??????? ?? ?а???????, ??а??????? ??н
?????? 220 ????? ?????????. ??? ??? ???????????? ??: ???? ????н
???? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ?а??? ?? ??аwebн????????, ?? ??
??????? ??аAsterisk.
???????????, ??? ??? ???????? ??а????? ??а????????.
?
76
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
????????????, ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?????а? ??? ???? ?????? ???н
??? ???? ?????, ??????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??а?????????н
??? ??????????? ????. ??н???????? ????? ?а????????? ?а??????н
?? ????? ??????? ???? ???, ?а??? ?????????????? ????? ?а????????
??????? ?????????????? ??а750 ?? ??а1000 ???. ?????????? ??н
?????, ????? ???????? ???, ???????? ????? ???????????? ??????н
??????? ?? ?? ???? ??а? ???????????? ??????????, ??н?? ????;
??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????????? ???
?????????. ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ??н
???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????? ??????:
╗ ????????????? ??н?????????? (??н??????????) ?????????,
???? ??????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?а????????.
╗ ??н????????? ?? ??????????? ?а??? ?? ????????.
╗ ??н???? ??а????????? ???????? ???????? ?а???? ?????
???????????.
╗ ???????? ??а?????????????????? ??н????? ?а??????? ???????
л????╗, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??н??????? ?? ??.
╗ ??н????????? ?????? ???????? ??а??????????? ??а????????
????????.
╗ ??н???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??а??????????? ??????? ??? (????,
??????).
╗ ??н????????? ??а????????? ?????? ????? ?а??а?????? ??????
?????? ??? ???????? ?????????.
??? ??? ????????? ?а??????? ???????????? ??н?????? ????????
?????????? ??а?????? ???????????.
?????? ?????? (???????) ??????????
??????? ????????????
????? ??н????? ????? ???а?? ????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?????????н
??? ?? ?????, ?а??? ?? ???, ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?а????? ??? ??? ???н
???????, ????????? ?? ?а????????? ????????? ????????. ?????
???????? ?????????? ??????????????????, ????? ????????? ??н
???????? ????? ??н?? ???, ?????????? ?а??????? ????????????
??? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????
?????????. ?а?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??н
???????????????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ? ??? ??а??????? ????н
??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????????. ?????? ?а??????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??? ???????
??????? RCн5 ?аNEC ???????????? ??????? ?????????????н
?? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ??????? ???? ??а????? ??????????
??? ??н??????????. ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????
????????, ??а?а???????? ?????????? ??? ????. ????? ??????????н
?????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??а?? ?? ????????? ??а??н
???, ??? ??? ??а?а????.
л????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ????? BananaPi ?????н
???? ????? ???????????╗, ?????? ?а????, ????? ?????? ??а??? ?????
??. ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??????, ?????? ??????? ????????? ??н
??. ?а????? ?????? ???????????. ??? ?????? ????н????, ?а??а???н
??? ??? ??????.
> ???. 1. ???????? TSOP.
??? ??? ??а?????, ?????? TSOP!
??? ?? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??н
???????? ???????????????????, ?а?????????? ???? ?а????????????
?? ?? ?????? ??а????????? ????????, ?а?????? ????????? ????н
???????? ???????. ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???н
?????????? ?а?????????? ???? ????????? ???????. ??н????????
????????? ????? ?????????????????? ?а????????? ????????????н
???. ????? ????? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????н
???????????, ????????? ????????, ??????????? ??а??????? ????н
???????, ??? ??а????????? ??а?????? ?а?????? ????????.
??????? ??? ?????? ??н????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????н
?????? ??? ???????, ???? ???????? ????????????, ??? ?? ????
?а?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ???, ?? ???? ?? ??? ??а?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??н
??? ??? ????, ????????? ?а??? ?а????? ??? (???????????? ?????н
????? ??? ???? ??????????а? TSOP, Temic Semiconductors Opto
Electronics Photo Module), ???. 1.
????? ???? ?????????? ???????, ????? ?????????? ????? ?а???н
?? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ??а??? ???? ?????н
??????? ??н?? ?? ?????, ??? ????????? ?а???????????? ???????
???????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?? ??????, ??????
????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????. ?а?????????? ?????
??????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????
???????? ?????? ??а???? ??н????????? ?????? ??????????, ????н
??? ????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ?а?. ?. ?????? ???????????
????????? ??н????? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??, ?а????????? ??н
???????? ??а?????? ??а40 ?а????? ??????, ?а??????????? ??а????н
???? ??? ??????? ?а?????? ?????.
???? ???????? ????? ??а????? ?????????? ????: ?а????? ?а???,
??? TSOP ????? ?а????? ??????? ???????, ??а???????????? ???
?????? ????? ??? ?????н?? ????? ???????. ?. ?. ?а??? ????? ????????
?????? ???????????? ??????.
?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???, ????? ???????? ???н
???????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??аBananaPi. ??? ??, ????н
?????? ????? ?аEthernetн?????? ????? ?аUSBн????????? (???. 2).
?? ?? ??? ???? ???а?? ?а??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???, ?а?? ??н
?? ??? ????? ??????????: ?AXн1838HS or comparable type?. ???н
????????а? ??????, ??а??а38а???, ?а??? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????
NEC: ?TheаNEC IR transmission protocol uses pulse distance encoding
ofаtheаmessage bits. Each pulse burst (markа? RC transmitter ON) is
562.5╡s inаlength, at aаcarrier frequency ofа38kHz (26.3╡s)?. ??? ???н
???????? ??? ????????? (?????? ???????????, ??? ????? ???????
??а??????????), ?а????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а???????????н
??? ????? ???????????????.
???????? ?????? ????
???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ??а??? ????н
?? ??н????????? ?а?? ??. ????????? ??? ???????? ?а?????????,
?????????а?? ??:
$ modprobe sunxiнir && lsmod
?а??а???н?? ????! ?????? ??а?????????? ?а?????? ?????????.
?а???????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? (??? ??????
???), ??а??????? ???????? ?а????????????: ?Now, sunxi_ir was built
into kernel...?а? ??????? ?а???? ?а?????? ???? 3.4 (uname нr ???????н
?? ?а???? ?????? ????). ?????? ?????? 2 ??????? ?
$ dmesg | grep sunxiнir
$ cat /proc/bus/input/devices
? ????????, ??? ??? ?а???????: ?????????? /devices/virtual/input/
input0 ??????????.
??????, ???? ?? ???? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????????, ????н
???? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????.
??????? ??н???????? ??????
????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???н
?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??н??????????. ????????? ?????
?????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????????, ??а???????н
?? ?????????????????? ??????, ?????????? ??? ?????? ???? ???н
?????????. ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ????????????
?????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????? ?а??????
????????? ??????????. ????? ????, ??? ?????? ?????????????
?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????н
??? ?????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????.
???????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????н
?????а? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?? ???????? (??н
??? ??????? ???) ?а??????????? ?????????? ????????? (????????
?????). ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ???????н
??? ?????????????, ?????????? ???????????? ?а????? ?а?. ?. ???н
????? ???????????????? ??????? ????????:
╗ RCн5а? ???????? ???????? Philips
╗ NECа? ???????? ??????????? ????????
> ???. 2. TSOP
??а????? BananaPi.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
77
??????? ????????? ???
> ???. 3. ???????н
??? ?????? (?????н
??? NEC).
EVTEST ?аLIRC
Evtest (events test)а? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????
??а????????? ?????, ?????????? ?а???. ??? ??????? ??? ??????н
???? ??? ??????? ?????.
# aptнget install evtest
????? ????????? ????????? ?????????:
# evtest /dev/input/event0
? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???????:
Input driver version is 1.0.1
Input device ID: bus 0x19 vendor 0x1 product 0x1 version 0x100
Input device name: ?sunxiнir?
Supported events: Event type 0 (EV_SYN)
Event type 1 (EV_KEY)
Event code 1 (KEY_ESC)
Event code 2 (KEY_1)
[...]
??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??????????? ???? ?а???? ????? ????н
?????? ?????? ??а??????. ?????? ?????. ???? ?а??????? ??????н
?? ???н?? ????
Event: time 1500141888.532021, type 1 (EV_KEY), code 20
(KEY_T), value 1
Event: time 1500141888.532030, нннннннннннннн SYN_REPORT
нннннннннннн
Event: time 1500141888.893360, type 1 (EV_KEY), code 20
(KEY_T), value 0
Event: time 1500141888.893373, нннннннннннннн SYN_REPORT
нннннннннннн
?? ??? ????? ??????????: ??? ????? ??? ???????????. ?????? ??н
?????а? ?????? ?? ????, ??????а? ????????.
????? ??????? ?а??????? ??а????? ???????, ??????? ???? ????
??а?????? ?????????, ????? ??? (???. 3).
?????? ???? ???н?? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?а?????????, ??н
????? ??а????? ??????????. ?а???? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????.
LIRC (Linux Infrared Remote Controlа? л???????????? ??? ???
Linux╗)а? ?? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????, ?? ????????? ?????н
???? ???????????? ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ?????н
?? Linux. LIRC, ????? ?????? ???? (??????? ?а??? ?а?? ?????), ??н
????? ??а???? ???????:
╗ ???? ?????????? ????? ?? ??а?????? ??????????, ???????? ??н
?????????? ??????????, ?а?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????н
????? ????? ?????.
╗ ??????, ??????????? ?а????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ??н
???????? ?а?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????
????????.
???а?????? ???????????? ????????????? ???:
# aptнget install lirc
? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ????:
# nano /etc/lirc/hardware.conf
???????? ??? ? ?????? ????:
# /etc/lirc/hardware.conf
#
# ???? ?????, ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? lircd
LIRCD_ARGS=??
# ?? ?????????? lircmd, ?? ?? ?? ?? config ???????? ???????
#START_LIRCMD=false
# ?? ?????????? irexec, ?? ?? ?? ?? ??????? config file ????? ??
?? ????????
#START_IREXEC=false
# ?????????? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??
LOAD_MODULES=true
# ????? ???? ?lircd ннdriver=help? ??? ???? ????? ??????
??? ??????????? ?????????.
DRIVER=?devinput?
# ??? ??? ??? ? udev ???????? /dev/lirc0 ?????? ??????????
DEVICE=?/dev/input/event0?
MODULES=?sunxiнir?
# ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ?????????,
?? ?? ??????? ????
LIRCD_CONF=??
LIRCMD_CONF=??
?????? ?? ?? ???????????????? ???? ?????. ?а?????? ???, ???
????????; ??а???? ??а?а???????? (?а????н?? ??а???????? ??????н
???? ?????? ?????? Shinco, ??????????????? ??? ??а??? ????). ????
??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а??????: ??а??????? ??н
??? ?а????, ??? ?????????, ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???????. ??а?а??????
?????, ????? ????? ???? ?а??? ?????????, ?а??? ??? ?????????.
??? ??а???? http://lirc.sourceforge.net/remotes ?а?????? ?????
??аFTPн??????? ??????? shinco. ?????а? ?, ?а????! ???? ???????н
????????? ???? ??? ????? ??????! ?а?????, ??? ??? ??????? ?а???:
??а??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??а?? ??? ??? ????,
?а??а????? ?а????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ???а????
?????. ??а?? ?? ???? ??а???????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????,
??а??? ????? ????? ??????? ??????.
???? ??? ???????? ??????:
# wget http://lirc.sourceforge.net/remotes/shinco/RCн1730
???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????????????
????? ??а???? ??????????:
# irrecord нH devinput нd /dev/input/event0 RCн1730
? ?????? ?? ????? 2 ???? Enter. ????? ???????????? ?????, ??????
???? ?а?????? ??????????, ?а??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????н
?? (????????? ?????????), ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ??????.
?????? ????? ?????????? ??а????????? ???????????? ??????,
??????? ???????? ??????? irrecord:
# irrecord нl
???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??а?? ??????? ?? ?? ???. ??? ???? ??????
??????; ????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ????? ???. ????н
???? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????н
?? ?а????????. ?а?????? ??????:
KEY_1
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
78
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??? ???????
KEY_2
KEY_3
KEY_4
?????? ??????? ??а?а??????? 1?4 ?????? ?а?????а?? ???? ???
?????????? ??а??. ?а????? ??????? ??а???? ??????.
?????? ????????? ????????? ??а?????? ??????:
# irrecord нH devinput нd /dev/input/event0 RCн1730.conf
?????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ??а????? ??, ?а??н
??????? Enter, ?а????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ??а????н
?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? Enter ??а??? ??? ???? ??, ?а?? ???? ?????
?????????.
? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ???? RCн1730.conf.conf, ?а??н
????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????, ??????? ??а?? ?? ??. ???????? ??? ??н
??? ????? ?а??????? ?????? ??? ?? ? ??? ??а??????. ?а???? ??? ??н
???? ????:
KEY_1 0x01000900000001 0x00000000000000
??? ???? 3н? ?????? ???? ? ????, ????? ???? ??? ???:
KEY_1 0x01000900000001
????????? ???? ??? /etc/lirc/lircd.conf.
???, ?а??? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ????
??????! ????????? ??? ????? ???:
# irw
? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??????, ?? ????? ??а?? ?? ??. ??а??? ?? ?? ??
(?а?????? ??) ???? ?а?? ??????????, ??????? ??а??а?? ?? ?? (?а??н
??? ?????? 4, ??? ????????????):
0001000900000001 00 KEY_1 RCн1730.conf
0001001d00000001 00 KEY_2 RCн1730.conf
0001001f0000000EY_1 00 K3 RCн1730.conf
0001000d00000001 00 KEY_4 RCн1730.conf
IREXEC
?????? ???? ????????? ?а??????????? ????????. ??? ????? ?а??н
??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??, ??а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? lircd,
??? ?? ??? ???? ???? .lircrc. ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???
???????? ?????? irexecа? ????????? (????? LIRC), ??????? ?????н
??? ???????? ??а?? ????? ?????? ??а??????.
????????? ????? ?????:
begin
prog = ??? ???????
button = ??????
config = ???????
end
??? ?? ? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ??????. ??? ?????н
???, ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ? 1 ?а????:
begin
prog = irexec
button = KEY_1
config = touch /tmp/11 &
config = touch /tmp/10
end
2 ?????? config ???????? ??? ?? ????? ??а?? ????? ????? ??????
???? ????????а? ????????? ?а?????????? ????????. ??? ??????,
?а???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????а? ?????н
??? ??????н?????? ??а??щ?????? ????? ????? /tmp. ?а?? ??? ????н
???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???????.
?? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?а??? ?????????? ????? ????
irexec ?а?????? ??????:
# irexec нd
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??а ????? ?? ??? ?? ???
?а???????.
?? ??? ?? ??а?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?config?: ?? ?? ???? ?а??? ???? ??
????? ??? ??????. ??а??? ????????????? ?????? ????? ????? ???н
????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??аBash ?а????????? ??а????н
????? ????????. ????????, ??а?????? ?а?????? ????????? ??? ??н
????? ?????? motion ??? ?????? ??а???? (????? ???????: ??????
> ???. 4. ??????н
??????? ??н?????.
??а????а? ????????? ??????, ?????????а? ??????????). ??? ?????
?? ?? ?а?????? motion ?????? ????????? ?а????????????? ???????н
??. ??????? ??? ??? ?а??????, ????????? ??? motion_start_record.sh,
??????? ??? ???????????, ?????????? ??а???? ?а?????? config ????н
??, ??????? ??а?????? ?? REC, ?а??????.
? ??а???????? ???????? ?????? irexec ?аcrontab:
# crontab нe
???????? ??????
@reboot /root/irexec_start.sh
??????? ?а????? ????? /root ???? irexec_start.sh, ?????? ??? ??н
????????? ?а?????????:
#!/bin/bash
/usr/bin/irexec нd
exit 0
?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ? ??? ?а??? ?? ????, ??? ???? ??
???????????:
# ps aux | grep irexec
??????а? ?????! ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??н
???? ???, ?а???? ??? ??????????????? Raspberry ??? Banana Pi. ???
??а?????, ??а?а??????? ?????? ????????? ???, ??? ???????? ?а????
??????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ?а?? Linux.
??????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ??? ?? (???. 4). ?? ??н
????? ??а?????????? ?????? ?а??н?????????, ??????????? ?а???н
?????? ???? USB ?????? ??????????. ?а???? ??а???????? ???:
lsusb
Bus 003 Device 002: ID 1d57:ad02 Xenta ? ?? BananaPi
Bus 004 Device 002: ID 1d57:ad02 Xenta SE340D PC Remote
Control ? ?? ???? ?? ??
?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????
?а???????? ??. ???????? ??аBananaPi? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??н
????????, ????? ?????????? ??? ?????? evtest.
# cat /proc/bus/input/devices
??????? 2 ????? ??????????: ?????????? ?а????.
????? ??????? ?а??? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?а???:
# ls /dev/input/
?????? 2 ????? ??????? ??????????, event2 ?аevent3. ????????
?? ?????? ??а?????? ?????? ?а????? ???? ???????? ????? ????
??а??????, ?????????????? ???????? evtest:
# evtest /dev/input/event2
??? ??а?????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??н
????? ????, ??? ???????? ????.
? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ??а???????! |
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
79
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?? ???? ????????? ??????, ???? ??? ?а??????????????, ?а???????
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???? ???????????, ???? ?а?????????? ???????????, ???? ???????н
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???, ????? ???????, ????? ????? ????????? ??????? sedн???? ??н
??? ????? ?????????.
??????? ??????
????????????? sed ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????
T1 = R(T0), ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? (T0) ?а???????? (T1)
??а???????????? ???????? (R). ???????? ????? ??????????????
???????? ?????. ??????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????. ?????н
??? ????????? ??????, sed ???????? ??а??? ??????????? ??????
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80
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
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?????? ????? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????? ?Hello, world?.
???, ???????, ??а??? ??? ?? ????. ??????????, ???? ?а????? ???н
???, ?????????а? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????н
?? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??а???? ????. ??? ??????????
????? sed ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????????.
?????????? ??????? sed, ??????????? ?а???? ?? ???????? ???н
??? ???????????. ???????? ??? ???: ?1iHello, world!?. ?а???????? ??
????? ????????? ???????: ????? ??????? ????? 1 ???????? ?????
?Hello, world!?. ?а???????? ????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????? ??????
???????????? ????? ??????? seq N. ??? ?????????? ?????????н
????????? ??????????? ????? ??а1 ??аN, ??????????? ???????? ??н
?????? ?????? (?/n?). ????, ?а????? ??????????:
seq 3 | sed нe ?1iHello, world!?
??? ???? ???? ??а????????? ????????????? sed, ????? ???????
????? ???????? ?аstdin ????? ????????. ?а???? ???? ???????? ?а???н
??? ?а???? ??????, ???????, ????? ???????????? cat:
cat ./in_file.txt | sed нe ?1iHello, world!?
??? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ? ?????????? sed:
sed нe ?1iHello, world!? ./in_file.txt
?? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ??
?аstdout. ???а????????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ?а????:
sed нe ?1iHello, world!? ./in_file.txt > ./out_file.txt
?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????. ??????, ???
???????? ?а??????а? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? out_file.txt
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???? ??? ????? ???????????, ??? ?аsed ??? ??а??????? ???? ?????н
?????? ???? нi:
sed нi нe ?1iHello, world!? ./in_file.txt
??? ?? ??????? ????????, ??? sedн??????? ??а??????????? ??н
? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????. ??а??? ?? ??н
??????? ?а?????, ?а????? ?????????? ??? sed ?а??????? ????? нf:
sed нi нf ./cmd.sed ./in_file.txt
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???????? ??? ??????, ?а??????? ??????????? ????? 2, 3, 4 ??? 5.
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??? ??????, ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????:
echo нe ?Hello, world! Hello, World!? | sed ?s/world/sed/gi?
????? ??а??????? ?????? ?????????? ?world? ??а?sed?.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
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82
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?????. ???, ????????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??а?text?:
seq 3 | sed нe ?2c\text?
? ??????? c ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ??аiа?аa. ??? ?????????н
?? ?а?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? c ??? ???? ???
?????? ?????????, ?а????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????. ??н
????? iа?аaа???????? ?а?? ? ??? ??????? ????????, ??? ?????????
??????? ?????? ???а????????? ?? ? ??? ?????? ?????????.
? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????н
???. ????? ??????????? ????????? c ?а?????? ???????:
seq 3 | sed нe ?2c\?
????? ???? ????????, ??а?аsed ??? ????? ??????? ???????????
??????? d (??а????. deleteа? ??? ????):
seq 3 | sed нe ?2d?
??? ????????? ??? ?а???, ??? ????????? ?а??? ?????????? ???н
??? ????????. ??? ??????? ???????, ??а?а?? ? ??? ??а??? ????
LXF226 ?????? 2017
????? ??????? ?а???????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????????н
??? ?????, ???? ??а?? ? ??? ???????? sed ????????? ???? ???? ??н
?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????????н
???? ???? ?????????, ??а????? ???????? ??????????. ??????
??????? ???а???????? ?????? D ?аP ??а???? ????????? ???????
??а?????????????.
? sed ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?а???????? ??н
???. ??????а? ???????? ?а?????????????? ???????. ??а?????н
??? ????????? ?????? ??????. ??????а? ??????? ???????????н
???? ?????? ?????. ?а??? ???? ?????? ????? ??????.
??? ??? ???? ???????, sed ?а??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???н
???, ???????? ?а?? ? ??? ??а??? ?? ?????? ????????????? ???????.
?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???????. ???? ??????
n ?аN (??а????. newа? ????? ??? nextа? ??? ??????) ?? ??? ??н
?? ????????? ????????? ??????, ??а?????? ??? ????????? ????н
??? ????????.
????? ?? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ???????. ??? ????н
?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????????? ??а?а?????н
?????? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????? ?а???? ???н
??? ?\n?. ????????,
seq 5 | sed нn нe ?3N;P?
???????? ??? ??????, ????? ?????????. ????? sed ??????????? ?а??н
???????? нn, ??????? ??????? Pа? ???????????? ???????? ?????н
???? ??????. ??а??????? ?????? ???? ?????. ?????? ??? ???????н
???? ?а???????? ????? ????????????? ?а???? ?? ???????????????
???????? ??? ?? ?а????????? ???????? P. ???????? ?\n? ?а???, ????н
??????, ???, ??????? ?а?????? ?????? P ??????????? p. ?????? ????н
?? ??????????? ???а??, ??а???а??а????????? ??????????? ?????н
?? 3N, ??????? ????????? ?а????????? ??????, ??? ???????????
?????? ??????, ?\n? ???? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????. ??н
???? ?а???????? ?????? ????? ??а???? ?????. ????? ???????????
??????? P, ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??а???, ??а???? ?????? ????н
?? ???????? ??????. ??? ???? ????????? ???????; ??????а? ???н
???? ?????? ?а??????? ?а????????? ????????. ??? ????? ????????
?а????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? N,
?а????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????.
??????? n ??????? ???????. ??? ????????? ??? ????????: ??н
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???а????, ?а??????? ??а??????? N, ???????? ??? ??????????. ???н
??? ??????????? ?????? ?а??? ??????, ???? sed ??????? ???а????н
????? нn. ???? ??????? ??????а? ?????????, ??а???? ?????????
????????? ??????????, ??а??аn ?????????? sedн????????? ?????н
??????. ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? N ??аn, ????? ?????????
sed ?????????? ?????? ??????, ?а??а?????????:
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Sed ???????
seq 5 | sed нn нe ?3n;P?
??????? 3n, ?а??????? ??а3N, ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??н
???? ????????? ??????????? ???????. ?а????????? ??? ?????н
?? ??? ???????.
> ???. 3. ???????
??? ?????? ?а??н
????????????
???????.
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????? ????????? ??н??а????????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????????
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?????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????, ?а??????? ????? ???н??
?????????, ?а??а????????? ????????? ????????? ?а????????????,
??????????? ????? ??????. ?аsed ??? ?????? ?а??? ???????????н
?? ???? ??????? ??????: ???? ??????? (x) ?а??? ?????? (h, H, g, G).
??????? x (??а????. eXchangeа? ????????) ?????? ??????? ??н
???????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ???????. ??? ??????????
??????, ??????????????? ??а?????????:
seq 3 | sed нn нe ?2x;p?
??????? p ??????????? ??? ???? ?????, ?а??? ?????? ????? ???
??? ?а2x. ?а???? ?????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????? ??????, ?а?????н
????????? ????. ??????? x ?????? ??а???????. ?а?????????? ??????
?????? ?????? p ?????????? ??????.
???? x ????????? ??? ? ??, ?????????????? ?????????? ????н
??? ????? ?????????????. ?а??????,
seq 3 | sed нn нe ?2{x;x};p?
?????? ???? ???????????
seq 3 | sed нn нe ?p?
??????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ?а????.
??????? h ?аH (??а????. holdа? ??????????; ?а????????????
sed ?????????????? ????? ?????????? ?hold space?) ??????????
?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??????????????. ???а???? ???н
??? ????????? ????????????, ??а???? ??????? ?????????? ?????н
?????????? ?????? ????????, ??????а? ????????? ?????? ?а?????,
??????? ??а???????? ?\n?. ??????? g ?аG ????????? ??? ???????,
??а????????? ?а???????? ???????????а? ??а??????????????? ??н
???? ?а????????. ????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????н
?? ?????? ?а???????? ???????:
seq 5 | sed нn нe ?G;h;$p?
???????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? G ?аh; $p ????н
?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???а????????? ????????? ??????.
????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а?????н
????????? ??????. ??а?? ? ??? ???????? ??а??????????? ??а????
???????? G ?а??????????? ?а????????? ??????, ??????????? ??н
???????????? ??а??????? ???????? ??????. ????? ???? h ?????н
???? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????, ??????????? ?????
???????, ?а?????????????? ?????. ????? ???????, ??а?????????
???????? ????? ?????????? G;h ?а???????? ?????? ???????????
????????? ??? ??????? ?????, ??????? ?а????????? ???????? $p.
???? ?????? ????????, ?????? ?а????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??н
?????? ??? ??? ??????. ?????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????
?а?????? ????????. ?а???????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????н
??, ?а?????????????? ????. ??????? ??????? G ????????? ?а?????н
???? ?????? ?????? ?\n?. ??? ?а???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????. ????н
?????? ??а??? ????? ??????. ?????, ????? G ??а??????????? ???
?????? ??????. ????? ???????? ???????? ?а??????? ?? ???????
???? ????? 2,$:
seq 5 | sed нn нe ?2,$G;h;$p?
???????????????? (????????, Perl). ???????? ???? sed, ??н????н
????, ?????????? ???? ??????а?? ??????, ?а?????? ??? ?????? ??
?????? ?????????? ????? ??????:
╗ :label ????????????? ????? label ?аsedн????.
╗ b labelа? ??????????? ??????? ??а????? label.
╗ t labelа? ???????? ??????? ??а????? label. ??а???????????, ??????
???? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? (s) ??????????? ???????.
╗ q [exit_code]а? ????????? ?????????? sed ?а????? exit_code
(???? ??????, ????????? ?????? 0).
???, ????????, ??????????? ????, ?????????? ?????? ????н
?? ???????? ??????:
seq 3 | sed нn нe ?:lb; p; b lb?
? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????:
seq 3 | sed нn нe ?s/2//; t lb; p; :lb?
?? ???????? ??? ??????, ??а?????????? ?2?. ???а????????? ??н
? ??? ?????? ??????? s/2// ???????? ???????? ????? ?2? ??а??????
??????. ???? ?????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ???????аt lb,
???????????? sed ???????????? ??????? ?????? p. ????а?? ??????
????? ???????? ?а??????? ???????????? ????????:
seq 3 | sed нn нe ?/2/b lb; p; :lb?
????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????????
??????? ?а????????.
?????? ????? ????? ????а?? ?????? ???????? ???а?????? ??н
??? ?а?????????, ?а???? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????:
seq 3 | sed нn нe ?/2/d;p?
????? ?????а? ?????? ????????????? ??????? q. ??а??????
???????? ??????, ?а????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ?2?, ???н
?????? ??????????:
seq 3 | sed нn нe ?/2/q;p?
??????????
??? ?????? ??а?????????? ??а????????????? ??????????? ??аsed,
???? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ????н
??? ??а????а? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????, ??????? ?а??н
???? ????? ?????? ?????. ??????? ??, ?????????? ??????? ???
???? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?а??н
??????????. |
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?????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??н
???? ??? ???? sed ?а???????????, ???? ?а??????? ?????????,
???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???. ?? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??а??? ??.
?? ? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???а? ??н
??? ?? ???????? ?а?????????? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????
> ???. 4. ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
83
??????? LXF
??????? LXF:
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? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????
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???? ???а? ????н
????????? UNIX,
???????????н??н
??????? ?а????н
????????? ???
??????, ???????
????? ?????? ???н
???. ?а??? ?????
????????? ?????
Twitter: @mactsouk.
> ???. 1. ????? ????????? random.c. ??? ????? ? ??? ?? ??????н
??? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ?????????
????? ?????? ????? ?????????!
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?????!
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futurenet.com
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??????? ?? ???? ?, ?????? ??, ?? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ???????
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????? ?а???, ??? ?а???? ?а??? ???????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ????????,
????????? ?а?????????????, ?а??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??а???н
????????????? ??????.
? ????????? ??????? Linux Format ??а?????????? ??? ?а???н
??? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ?? ??н
???. ??????? ??а?????????...
?
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???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??????, ?????а?? ??а??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??
?а????????? Unicode. ????? ????????н???? ?????: ???????? ASCII
?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ??н
??????? ?а??? ??????? Unicode ???????.
LXF226 ?????? 2017
????, ????????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?а???, ??? ????? ??
??а??? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ASCII ?аC, ?а??? ?? ?аPython 3, Perl
?аGo. ?? ?? ??а??????????? ??? ??? ???? ????????????????, ???
???????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ??н
???? ????? ?а?????? ASCII.
?????????? ??????а? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????, ?????
??? ???? ?? ?а?? ?????? ????????, ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???н
?????????? ?а?????? ASCII. ??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??н
????? ??а??????, ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??а??????? ???? ?????
?????. ???? ??а?????? ????? ??а?????? 10, ??а??????? ????? ?????
?????? ??а0 ??а9. ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ASCII ??н
???????? ????? 130, ??? ????? ????????? ??????????????? ???н
?????? ????? ??а130. ??а????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????. ??????
???? ?а????? ????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ???н
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???? ????? ??а?????????????.
?, ??? ???????????!
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?а?????????? ??? ?????? ?????, ??????? ????? ???????, ?а?????
??????? ????????? ????? ??а??????.
??? ?????????а? random.c, ?а??? ???????? ????????? ???:
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? LXF
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
if (argc != 3)
{
printf(????????? ????? ??????????. ???????...\n?);
return н1;
}
int seed = atoi(argv[1]);
int count = atoi(argv[2]);
srand(seed);
int i = 0;
for (i=1; i<=count; i++)
printf(?%d ?, rand());
printf(?\n?);
return 0;
}
??? ??????, ????????? ??аC ???????????? ???? ????. ??????
?а??????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??н
?????? ??а????? ???? ????? ????.
????? ?? ??а?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????, ?а??н
??? ????????? ??????? srand(), ??????? ????????????? ?????????
???????? (л???????? [seed]╗) ??? ?????????? ????????? ?????. ??н
??? ????? ??а?????? ????????? ??????? rand() ??????? ???, ?????н
?? ????????? ????? ????? ???????.
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?? ? ??? ??? ????? ???????????. ??? ?????????? ???? ???????
?а???????????, ?а????? ????? ????? ????????:
$ ./random 123 4
128959393 1692901013 436085873 748533630
$ ./random 123 3
128959393 1692901013 436085873
$ ./random 123 5
128959393 1692901013 436085873 748533630 776550279
??? ??????, ???а????????????? ????? ?а???а?? ???????? ???н
??? ????? ??? ???? ??????????????????? ????????? ????? ??????
???? ?а??а??, ??????? ??? ???????????????? ????? ???? ????????н
?? ???????????. ????, ?????а?? ??????? ????????? random.c ??н
?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????а? ??,
???? ??а??а??????????? ???? ?а??а?? ???????? ?????????. ??а??н
???, ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????н
???? ??????? ????????????. ??? ??а?????, ?????????? ?а??????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????. ??а???? ??а????н
????? ?а????????? ???????.
> ???. 2. ????? ????????? outputPass.c, ? ????? ???????,
???????????? ??? ?? ??????????.
????????? ? ????????????
???? ????? ????? ???????? ??????:
??а?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????
???????? ??? ????, ?а??? ?? ??? ??????
???? ???? ????? ?????????? ??????, ????н
??? ??? ??? ???????. ???? ??????? ?а???,
????? ???????? ????????? ??а?????
????? ????????????????, ??????? ?????
?????? ??? ??а???.
????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????????н
?? ???????, ??а??а??????? ????? ????
???????, ??? ??? ??а????? ?????????н
???? ??????? ?? ????. ????а?? ???????
???????? ??а???? ?? ???? ??????????????
?,а????????, ???????? ????????? ??????н
??? ????????, ??а??а?????? ??????????
?а?а?????? ????? ??а??????????????.
> ???. 3. Python 3 ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????! ?????? randomPass.py.
?? ???. 1 ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
random.c.
??? ?????????
??? ????? ????? ?? (??аC) ????? ???????? ?а??? ?? randomPass.c.
??? ????? ???? ???????? ??а???? ??а????? random.c, ?????????н
???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????. ?????? ??а??? ??? ??????н
??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??а?? ?????? ??? ??н
?????? ????????? ??????, ??? ???????? ????? ????????????????
???? ?????.
?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????н
???, ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??н
??????? ???????? ??????? ?а??????????????? ????, ?а??? ?? ??н
??????????? ?????????? UNIX, ?????? ??? /dev/random, ??????????
???????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???а????????????? ?????? ?????н
???? ???. ????? ????, ??а????? ???????? ??а?????, ?а???????
ASCIIа? ?а???? ??а?а?????????. ?а????? randomPass.c ?? ??? ???н
?????? ???:
char c = FROM + rand() % TOTAL + 1;
printf(?%c?, c);
??? ??а?????? ?а?????????? ????, C ???? ????? ??????? ???н
??? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?а?????? ASCII, ????????? ?аC
??? ?? ?? ASCII ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??, ?а????? ???
(??а??а??????? ????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??н
???????? ???? ?????????? ??????).
??? ?? ????????? ??????????, ??? ??а???????? ????????? ???н
????? ?а??????? ?????????? /dev/random:
int getSeed = open(?/dev/random?, O_RDONLY);
unsigned short mySeed;
uint16_t myRead = read(getSeed, &mySeed,
sizeof(mySeed));
??????
??????
??????????н
??? ???????????
??а?????? ??? ???н
??? ????? ????н
??? ??????? ????.
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??? ??????????
л????????? ???н
?????????????╗.
??а?????, ?????н
?????? ??а??????
???а?????, ??а???н
???? ????????
?????????????.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
85
??????? LXF
?? ?????? ??????? /dev/ random, ??? ????? ??? ????. ??а???.а2
??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? randomPass.c,
??????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????а? ????? ?????????????
?????????? ??????.
?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??аC; ????????? ???н
???????? ??а??а?????? ?????? ????????????????. ??? ????? ???н
???? ??а?????? ????????: ??н??????, ??н??а?? ????? ?????????,
?а??н??????, ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?а??????????
?????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ?? ? ???? ????? ????????????????.
????, ?? ??? ??а??????? ????????? ??а?????? Python 3, Perl ?аGo.
??? ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????, ????????? ??а??
????????, ??? ???? ????????? ?а????????? ??аC.
??????
??????
????? ???????
????? ?????????н
???, ?????? ???н
??????? ??????
dictPass.py ?аwebн
?????????? ???
????????? ???
?а?????? ??????,
??????? ????????н
????? ??????????
???????????????
?????? ????????н
???? ???? ???????
?????? ??? ??аSMS.
??????????? ?аPython 3
? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??аPython 3, ??н
???????? ??а???а?? ????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?а?????
randomPass.c. ??? ??????? Python 3а? randomPass.py, ?а?а??? ??н
??? ????????? ???:
for i in range(0, count):
while True:
randomNumber = random.randrange(MIN, MAX)
char = str(chr(randomNumber))
if char.isspace() == False:
break
print(char, end=??)
???? ??? ??а?????????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????, ???????н
?? ??????? randrange() ?а?????? random ????????? ????????????
????????? ????? ?а???????? ?????????. ?а?????????? ?????????
??????????? ???????, ????????? ?а??? ?????? ??????.
???????? ?аPython 3 ???? ????? ??????? ??????? isspace(), ??н
????? ????????? ??????, ????????а?? ?????? ????????, ?а?????н
???? ??? ??а??????. ???????, ?????? random ?аPython 3 ??????? ??н
?????? ?????????????.
???а??????? ????????? randomPass.py ????? ??????? ??????н
??? ?????????:
$ ./randomPass.py 20
eK1M;w#?F@Iudpm&W/G>
$ ./randomPass.py 20
M8w[o/JROb&A_??K)Bc>
?? ???.а3 ??????? ??? ??????? randomPass.py. ?????? ??????,
??? ??????? ????? ?а???а?? ?? ???? ?а?????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ????, ??? ?а?????? ????????????????. ?????? ????????н
??? ????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????????, ??? ???н
????, ??????????? ???????, ??? ???????. ???? ?а??? ???? ?????,
?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?? ? ??? ???н
??????, ?????????????? ??а????? ?????. ?????? ?????? ???????
???а? ???????? ??? ?? ? ??? ????????? ???, ????? ??? ????????н
?? ?? 100 000 ??? ?????? ???????, ?а???????????? ??????? time(1)
??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ? ??? ?????????. ???????н
????????, ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??????.
????????? ?????? ?аPerl
Perlа? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ????н
??? ??а?????? ????????? ?????, ?а?а???? ??????? ??а??????? ???н
?????? randomPass.pl, ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????
??????. ?????? randomPass.pl ????? ???????????? ????????? ???н
???, ??а?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?а????????? ?????? ???? ????н
???? ????????? ??????а? ????? ???????????? ??????
? ????? randomPass.pl ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ???:
print chr($OFFSET + int(rand($MAX)));
??? ?????? ??????????? ???????? chr(), ??????? ?????????
????? ????? ?а?????????? ??????. ????? ?????????????? ??????н
???? ????? ?а?????? ASCII ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ??а?????.
?????? ????????? randomPass.pl ?????? ????????? ?????????:
$ ./randomPass.pl 20
[wPyWpJ6iUZ#%!F{:p45
$ ./randomPass.pl 10
,H,4I>|G)a
??????? ?? ??? ?а?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??а??н
??? ?????????? ?????а? ???????? ????: ??? ???????? ???? ???н
?? ?а??????.
?????????? Go
> ???. 4. ??? ????????? randomPass.go. Go ?????????? ???????????? ????? C
???а???а??????????.
Go ? ??????????? ???? ????????????????, ?????? ?????????
??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???????. ?а???? ??? ?? ?? ??а???????
????????? ???а????????? randomPass.go. ?а??? ???????? ?? ???
????????? ???:
for i = 0; i < LENGTH; i++ {
anInt := int(random(MIN, MAX))
newChar := string(startChar[0] + byte(anInt))
if newChar == ? ? {
i=iнi
continue
}
fmt.Print(newChar)
??? ??????, ?аGo ??????? ASCII ?????????????? ???????? ?????н
??? ???????.
???????? ????? ????? ???а????????? ??????? ?????????? ??н
?? ???????????а? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?? ? ???? ???????н
?????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ???а?????????? ????? ????н
??? ?????????? ??аGo ?а???????.
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
86
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? LXF
? ??????? ????????? ?????
??? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????
??????, ?а??? ????? ?а???????? ??? ?????? ?????.
??????? ??а????? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ???н
??? ?????, ?а????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????
??? ?????? ?????. ?а????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????
????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????.
?????? ??????, ?????????????????? ?????
????????? ????????????? ??? ??????, ???? ?а???
?????? ????? ?????н???? ?????????? ?????????н
????? ??? ???????. ????? ??????????????????
??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??а????????, ???????н
???? л?????????╗ (????????? ?????????). ????????
???????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????
??? ?????? ?????, ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ????
???????. ???? ???????? ??а??????????? ??????
???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????. ??????
??? ???????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????
??? ??????н???? ??????? ???????? ???????.
???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??а??н
????????, ?а??????????? ??? ???? ???????, ?????
????? ???? л?????????? ??? ???????╗, ?????????
??? ??а????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????н
???? ???? ?????. ??????? ???????, ??? ??а?????
1000а??? ?????? ?????, ????? ??????? ??????
?а?????а?????????.
??????, ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????
??????? ?????? ??????, ?а???? ??а??????? ???н
????????? ?? ?? ???????? ???????. ????? ?????н
???? ????? ??а??? ????? ??????, ??? ??а???????
??а???а????????.
???а??????? ????????? randomPass.go ????? ???? ???? ???н
?????? ????????? ??????:
$ go run randomPass.go 10
E=lZ$)&r.u
$ go run randomPass.go 20
Gz4&OKcbL>.=mC=b]EYJ
$ go run randomPass.go 30
*?S0?Ygн5нpZ_kUrajJA/ZнbgEsp]z
?? ???.а4 ??????? ???? ??? ????????? randomPass.go, ???????
????? ???????? ?а??????? ??? ?????????.
> ???. 5. ????? ???н
?????? dictPass.py.
?????? ??????????
???????? ??????н
?????????? ???
????? ?????????
?????????.
???? ???????
????? ?????? ?а????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?а????н
?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????. ?а???? ??? ?? ??
??а????????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ?а?а???????? ????????? ???н
?? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ???????, ???????
?????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?аLinux.
?? ?? ???? ??????? ???????????, ????? ????????????? ?? ??н
?????? ??? ??а????????? ?аLinux ????? ??? ??????? ????? ???
???????. ??? ??? ??? ????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????????
????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???????, ??а??????? ??????н
?????? ?а???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?а???н
??????? ??????? ????.
? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????????н
?? Pythonа3, ????????? ???? ???? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??н
?? ???а????????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????. ??? ???????
Pythonа3а? dictPass.py, ?а??????, ??? ??а?? ????а? ??????????н
?? ?????????? ????, ????????? ?а??? ?? ???????. ????? ??а???н
???? ??? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ??? ?????? ?????, ???????????
?? ???? ?????.
????? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ?????????, ??? ??? ????? ?????????
???????? ????? ???????? ?а??????. ???? ?????? ??????, ???????н
?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ????? ??а???н
???? ?а????? ?????? ??? ??а??? ???, ???? ????? ????????????????
?????? ??а?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????. ????????? ???????
?????? ??????? ??а????????? ??????, ????????? ?????????? ??н
?????? ???, ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???н
????, ?????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????. ????? ????? ??н
???? ????????? ??а?????.
??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?а?? ?? ?? ????? ??
dictPass.py, ????? ??? ?????? ???? ????????.
???????? ?????????????? ??????????? dictPass.py ??? ????н
???? ?а????????? ???? Python 3:
lineNumber = randint(1, length)
randomLine = file.getline(lineNumber)
randomLine = randomLine.rstrip()
print(?:?, randomLine)
password = password + randomLine
?????????? ??? Python 3 ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????, ??н
????? ????? ??а?????????? ?????.
???????????? ??????????? ????? dictPass.py ???????? ??, ???
??а????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????, ?а??? ????? ????? ???? ???н
????. ???а??????? ????????? dictPass.py ???? ????? ?????????
?????????:
$ ./dictPass.py 10 /usr/share/dict/americanнenglish
voLu<43.1aCh)s
??? ??????, ?????? dictPass.py ?????????? ???????? ???????
??????а? ?а??? ??????????? ??а???, ??? ???????????? Python 3,
?а????? ?а????????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ??а???. 5 ????н
???? ????????? ???????? ????????? dictPass.py, ??????? ??????
????????????, ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????.
??????????а?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????а?? ??а????н
???? ?????????? ??????а?? ??а???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???н
????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????а?? ??а????????? ?????
??????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?а??????? ????? ????н
???????? ???????? ????????? ?а????????? ??а???, ?, ????????,
??? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ??.
??????????????а?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????
???????, ???. ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ??а????????
????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???, ????? ??????, ????? ????????
?а?????? ????? ?????. |
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
87
? ? ???? ???????
?: ????????
? ???? ???????
??????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ? ??а?????? ?????? ????????????????,
?а????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????.
???
???????
??????? ???????
???? ???а? ????н
????????? UNIX,
???????????н??н
??????? ?а????н
????????? ???
??????, ???????
????? ?????? ???н
???. ?а??? ?????
????????? ?????
Twitter: @mactsouk.
> ???. 1. ???? savePi.py ? ????????, ? ????? ????? ??????? time(1)
? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????? savePi.py ?? ????????????
????????? ?????????? ? Linux.
???? ?????? ??а????????? ??????????? Python ?а??????н
?? ????? ????? ? ?а???? ?????? ?????, ??а??? ??? ?а???н
???? PNG. ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ?? ?????, ????????? ???
?? ?? ?????, ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ?????, ?а??? ?? ??? ???????
???? ??????? ?а?????? ?????.
????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????????, ??а?????????? ?????? ???н
???? ???? ??аPython 3, Perl ?аGo. ????? ????, ??а??????? ??? ??аJulia
?аR, ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????, ?а??????? ???н
??????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????????????? ??????
?????????? ?а??????? ????????????????, ?????????? ??? ????н
??? ??????????.
? ? ?????????????? ?????. ??? ????????, ??? ??? ????? ????н
??? ??а?????????????. ???????? ??????? ????? ? ?а?? ?????? ?????н
???? ?????????? ?????, ?а??а????? ????? ??а???????? ??? ???н
?? ?????? Python 3, ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????.
?а????????? ?????? ??а??????? ??????????????? ????? ?????
?????? ????? ?.
?
??????
??????
???? Image::
Magickа? ???????н
??? ?????? Perl,
??? ????????? ??н
??? ?????????
?????????. ???н
?? ????, ???????
ReadImage() ??а???н
?? ?????? ?????
???????? ?ал??н
?????╗ ?????
????????. ?????н
?? ??а?????????н
?? ???? ???????
Image::Base::GD.
88
|
?????? ???????? ?
????? ???????, ????? ?а??????? ???????а? ????????? ??? ?? ?
?а????????? ??? ??, ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???а?? ? ???
LXF226 ?????? 2017
????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?. ?????? ??? ????????
????????? ?????? Python 3 ?а?????? savePi.py.
????? ??, ??? ?????? savePi.py ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??н
????а? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ????????? ??а?????, ?а????? ???? ????????? ?????н
????, ?? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ????? ?а?????????а????.
? Python 3 ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????, ?а????? ??н
????? ???????????? ???? ??а??? ??? ?????????? ?. ?а?????? ???н
??? ??а??????? ????? mpmath. ???? ???? ????? ??а?????????? ?а???н
????, ??? ????? ?????????? (??а????? root):
# pip3 install mpmath
?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? mpmath, ??а?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?а? ???
Python 3 ????? savePi.py ???????? ????:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import sys
from mpmath import mp
if len(sys.argv) == 1:
print(??? ??????? ??????????!?)
sys.exit(0)
if sys.argv[1].isdigit():
accuracy = sys.argv[1]
mp.dps = accuracy
print(mp.pi)
?? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?а?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? mp.dps.
????? ??????? ????? ?? ??а?? ??? mp.pi. ????? ????? ???? ??????
savePi.py ?а????????? ?????, ?????????? ????????? ???????
$ ./savePi.py 1000000 > pi1M.txt
?? ???? ??? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????н
?????? ?? ???? ???????????а? ???, ??????, ????? ??а??????.
?????????? ??аPerl, Python 3 ?аGo ??????????? ?????? ?????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
? ? ???? ???????
???????? ???????? ????? ?
?????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????
??а?????????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ???н
????????? ????? ? ?а????????? ????????? ?а???н
??????????? ???????. ???????? ?????????? ??????
??? ????а? ??, ??? ??? ???????? ??????????????
?????? ???. ????, ??????? ??????????? ??? ????н
???? ?????????, ??? ????? ????? ??????????????
?а????????.
?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?а?????????
????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ??????н
?? ? ?????? [Bailey ? Borwein ? Plouffe], ???????
??????? [Bellard], ???????? ????????, ????????
???????????, ????? ???????? ?????????? Eн????н
???, ???????? ?????? ? ???????? [Gauss ? Legendre],
??????? ???????? [Leibniz], ???????? ?? ????
[Liu Hui], ??????? ????? [Viшte], ??????? ???????
????????? ??????: ?????? ?а?????? ??????????????? ?????? ??н
???, ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ?а??? ?????????? ??? ??
?а??????? ????? ?. ?а?????????? ??аR ?аJulia ????????? ??????н
??? ?????? ??? ???????? ??а????????????.
?? ???.а1 (???.а88) ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? savePi.py ???а???н
???? ????? ? ??а???????????? ????????? ?????????, ?а??? ?? ??н
??? ??????? time(), ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????
savePi.py ???а?????????? ????? ? ?а1 000 000 ?а10 000 000 ??????
????? ??????? ??а???????????? ??? ?????? ??????????. ??? ??н
????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? 150а?????...
???????а?? ?????
?????????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??а?????? ???????. ?а??н
???н??, ??????? ?????? ??? 10 ??? ?? ?? 100 ?????? ? ??????????н
?????а? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????.
?? ??? ???? ???, ??? ??? ??? ????? ?а????? ???? ?? 800 ╫ 600
????? ??? ??????????? 480 000 ???? ?а? ????????????? ?????н
????? ?? ?? ?? mpmath ???? ??а???????. ?? ?????, ?а??? ???? ????
??аPythonа3 ?аPerl ????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а10 ??????????,
?а?? ? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ????? ???? ??а??????, ??н
?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????. ?? ?? ??а?????? ????????
????с ?а?????????????? ?????? ?????, ?? ?? ???????? ???? ??????.
???????? ?? ????, ??????? ?? ?? ?????? ?а?? ? ??? ??? ???????,
??????????? ?а???, ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?а?????????
????????? ?а????????? ?? ? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????
??????, ?а????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??а?????. ?а?? ? ??? ?????
???????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?а????????н
??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????, ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????
??????? ??? ??????? ??а?????? ??????.
? ?? ? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??????????: x ?аy. ???????? ????н
?????? x ???????? ??????? ??а?????????????? ??????? ??????????
???????????? ??а?????? ?????? ???? ??а?????? ?????? ?????.
????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? x, ????? ????? ?? ?????
??а?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??а??????
?????? ???? ??а?????? ?????? ?????.
[Wallis] ?а???????? ???? ????? [Zhao Youqin].
??????????? ??а??? ??????? ????? ?????????н
????????? ?????а? ??? ?????? ????? ?????, ???
??????а?????????.
??? ??????, ????????? ??????????? ??а??????
????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ? ??? ??????????
?? ????, ??а??????? ????? ????????? ????? ?а????.
?? ?????, ??а??????????? ?а????.
image.save(filename, ?PNG?)
img = Image.open(filename)
pix = img.load()
print(img.size)
print(pix[5,5])
for x in range(1,10):
for y in range(1,10):
pix[x, y] = x*y*x
img.save(?test.png?)
???????? pix[x, y] ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???
???????, ?а???????? x*y*x ?????????? ???? ???????, ??????? ?а????
??? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??????. ??????, ????? ?а??? ???? ??? ?????
tenten.py, ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ????. ?????? ???????????
?а?????? ???? ? ??а?????????? ????? ??а?????, ?а??????а? ?????н
???? ??????????????? ???? ?? ? ???? ??????? ??а?????? ???????
?????. ???????? ?????? ????? ?а????? pPi.py ???????? ??? ???
?????? ????? ? ??а????? ??а????? ?????:
f = open(textPi, ?r?)
while True:
ch = f.read(1)
if not ch:
break
??????????? ??? ??аPython 3 ?????????? ?????? ?а???????
??????? f.read() ?а????????? ???? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ch.
??а???.а2 ??????? ????? ????? pPi.py ???а???????? ?????? ?????
??????? 900 ???????? ?а??????? 800 ???????? ?а??????????????
????????? ???????:
$ ./pPi.py 900 800 python.png pi1M.txt
900 800 named python.png н reading from pi1M.txt
python.png Image size: (900, 800)
Read: 720000 digits
??????
??????
?? ????? ????н
????????? ?????н
?? ????????? ??н
???. ??а?????
????? ??а??? ??н
???? ?????????
????????? ?????
????????? ??а??н
?? ?????? ???н
??? ???????????н
????? ?а?????????
?????? ????? ??н
????????? ??а????
?????? ??????
????????????????.
?????????? ? Python 3
????????? ??аPythonа3 ?????????? ?а??? ?? pPi.py. ??а????? ??
??а???????, ??? ????????? PNGн?????? ????? ?аPythonа3 ?а???????
?????? PIL. ?а????????? ???? Python 3, ??????? ???????? ?а?????
tenten.py, ????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????? 10 ╫ 10
?а?????????????? ?? ?????? ??????. ????? ??а????? ???????, ???
???????? ????????? ?а????? pPi.py:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
from PIL import Image
n = 10
m = 10
filename = ?test.png?
image = Image.new(?RGB?, (n, m))
> ???. 2. ????? ??????? pPi.py ??? ???????? ????? PNG ??????? 900 ???????? ?а???????
800 ????????.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
89
? ? ???? ???????
? ?? Perl
??????
??????
???????? ?????
?а????????? ???н
?????. ??? ??а??н
???? ??а????? ???н
??, ?????????????
?????? ?????????
????????? ??а???н
??. ??????? ???н
???????? ????? ???
??????? ???????н
?? ?????? ?????н
??? ???? ?????.
??? ??????? ??аPerl ????????? ?а????? pPi.pl, ??а????? ?? ??а????н
???, ??? ??????? ?????? ????? PNG ???????? 10 ╫ 10 ?а???????
???? ??а????? 10 ╫ 10.pl:
#!/usr/bin/perl нw
use strict;
use warnings;
use Image::Base::GD;
my $x = 10;
my $y = 10;
my $outputfilename = ?test.png?;
my $im = Image::Base::GDн>new(нwidth => $x, нheight => $y);
my @color = (?#000000?, ?#118800?, ?#11BB00?, ?#1100FF?,
?#1188FF?, ?#11BBFF?, ?#11FFFF?,?#99FFFF?, ?#CCFFFF?, ?#FFFFFF?);
for (my $i=0; $i<$x; $i++) {
for (my $k=0; $k<$y; $k++) {
my $index = ($i * $k) % 10;
$imн>xy($i, $k, $color[$index]);
}
}
$imн>save($outputfilename);
exit 0;
????? ???????, ??????? xy() ????????? ???????? ????? ???н
??? ?а?????? ?????, ????????? ?а??????? ??????? Image::Base::
GDн>new().
? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????н
????????? ?а??????? ??????? ???? pPi.pl, ?????? ??? ?????????н
???, ???? ??? ??а???????а? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????н
???? ????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????
??? ?? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ??а?????? ??????? ?????????н
??? ??????.
????????? ??? Perl, ??????????? ?а????? pPi.pl, ??????????,
??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????:
my $read;
my $char;
while ($read = read PI, $char, 1) {
}
> ???. 3. ????? ??????? ????? ??????? pPi.pl Perl ??? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????
800 ╫ 900 ????????.
??? ?????????? ??????, ??? ??а?????????? ????????? ?????
??? ?????? (???????? ????? ?а???? ????), ??? ?????????? ???????н
?? ?????? ??а?????? ????? ??а???. ??а???.а3 (?????) ??????? ?????
????? pPi.pl ???а???????? ?????? ????? ??????? 800а????????
?а??????? 900а????????, ????????? ????????:
$ ./pPi.pl 800 900 perl.png pi1M.txt
Image 800 x 900 н output: perl.png н input: pi1M.txt
Read 720001 digits.
$ ls нl perl.png
нrwнrннrнн 1 mtsouk staff 303668 Apr 25 21:41 perl.png
????????? ? ?? Go
???? Go ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????????, ?а?????н
?? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??????, ??????????? ?????н
???? ?а???????????? PNGн?????, ?а??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???н
???????? ??????? ??????. ??а??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???, ??? ?аGo
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????. ???? cByC.go ?????н
??? ????????? ???:
package main
import (
?bufio?
?fmt?
?io/ioutil?
?strings?
)
func main() {
filename := ?pi1M.txt?
buf, _ := ioutil.ReadFile(filename)
in := string(buf)
s := bufio.NewScanner(strings.NewReader(in))
s.Split(bufio.ScanRunes)
for s.Scan() {
fmt.Println(s.Text())
}
}
??? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??а???н
?? Go ???????, ??? ????? ????, ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ?а??н
??? R, ?????????????? ?а????????? ???????. ?????? ??? Go ???
???????? ?????? ????? ?а??????? PNG ???????? ?????, ??? ??? ??н
???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? Go.
????? ??????? ?????? ????? PNG ?аGo, ???? ????????? ??????н
??? ???????. ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? x ???????? ?а??н
????? y ????????:
m := image.NewNRGBA(image.Rectangle{Min: image.Point{0, 0},
Max: image.Point{x, y}})
?????, ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???????, ??????? ?????
??????? (??? x ?аyа? ?????????? ???????, ?аcа? ???????? ?????н
???? ?????):
m.Set(xx, yy, c)
???????, ?а????? pPi.go ??? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ??н
?????????? ??????? getColor(), ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????
?а??? ?? ??. ??а???.а4 (??. ???. 91) ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? pPi.go
???а??? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? 1000а????? ??? ?а???????
1000а???????? ?а?????????????? ????????? ???????:
$ go run pPi.go 1000 1000 go.png pi1M.txt
?????????? ??????: 1000001
?? ???. 5 (????? ???. 91) ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ? ??? ???н
???????. ??? ????????? ??????, ????????? ?????? ????? ??????
?а?? ????? ?? ? ??? ???? ????????????????. ????????? ??аPythonа3
???????? ????? ??????? ??а????, ??а??? ??????? ????????? ??аGo,
?а????? ??? ?????? ?????????а? ??аPerl. ??????, ??а????? ???н
??????? Debian ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????? Go. ????????,
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
90
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
? ? ???? ???????
????? ??????? time()
????????? ?а???? ??????????? ???????????? ???н
???? time(), ????а?? ??????? ??????, ??? ????????н
???????? ??а?????. ????, ??????? time() ?????????
????????? ??????? ??? ??????, ????????????
??????? ?????????? ?а??а??????????.
?????????? ????????? ??а?????????? ??н
???? ???????. ???????с? ?????????? ????н
???????? ?а???? ???? ????????: ????????? (real),
????????????????? (user) ?а?????????? (sys). ?????н
??? ???????? (real) ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????,
??????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????
??а???? ?? ??а?????. ???????????????? ????????
(user)а? ??? ?????, ????????????? ???????????
??а?????????? ???? ?а???????????????? ??????,
?а????????? ???????? (sys)а? ??? ????? ????????н
??, ??????? ????????? ????????? ??а??????????
???? ?а?????? ????. ?????? ???????? user ?аsys,
??а???? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????. ??????
??? ??????????? ?а??????????? ????????????
?а?????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????
???????? real.
???????, ??? ????? ??????? time() ????? ????н
???? ??а??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????
Linux, ?а??????? ??а?????????.
? ??аR
> ???. 4. ????? ????????? pPi.go ??? ???????? ???????????
???????? 1000 ╫ 1000 ????????.
??н??а????? ????????? ??аGo ???????? ?а?????????????????? ???н
?????? ??аPython 3.
Julia ????????? ?
Juliaа? ??? ???? ????????????????, ????? ????????? ??? ????н
??? ?а???????? ????????. ????????? ??а????? Julia ????? ?????н
???? ?а????? pPi.julia, ?а??? ???????????? ?????? ????????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ??а??????? ????????? ???н
???, ????????? ???? ??????? ????? Julia. ?????? ??????, ??? ???
??а?????? ??????, ??? ??? Julia ??а????? ???????? ?а??????? PNG.
??? Julia ??? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??
?а??????? ????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????:
open(input,?r?) do f
global digitCounter
global x
global y
while !eof(f)
if digitCounter > x * y
break
end
c = read(f, Char)
if c == ?.?
skip
else
xx = div(digitCounter, x)
yy = digitCounter % x
digitCounter += 1
end
end
end
??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?а???? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???
read() ?а?????????? ???????????. ????? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ????? pPi.julia, ????????? ???.
R ? ??? ???? ???? ????????????????, ????????????? ??? ??н
????? ?а??? ??????????? ????? ?????. ?а???? ??? ?? ?? ??а????н
???, ??? ??????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???? ??аR
(??а??? ?а????????). ??? ??????? ??аRа? pPi.R, ?а?а??? ????????
?? ??? ????????? ???:
digits <н readLines(?~/docs/article/working/plotPI.LXF226/code/
pi1M.txt?)
A <н strsplit(gsub(?\\s+?, ??, digits),??)[[1]]
?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???н
??, ??????а? ????????? ??????? ??????, ???????????? ?а???????
??????? readLines(). ?????? ?????????? Aа?????:
>A
[1] ?3? ?.? ?1? ?4? ?1? ?5? ?9? ?2? ?6? ?5? ...
> length(A)
[1] 1000001
????, Aа? ??? ??????? ?????? ?а1 000 001 ?????????, ???????
???????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?! ????? ??????? ?????????
?????? ????? pPi.R, ????????? ???.
???? ????? R ?аJulia ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???
?????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ?а????????? PNGн??????
?аGo, Pythonа3 ?аPerl ????? ??????? ?а??????. |
> ???. 5. ?????????? ?а?????????????????? ???????? ??а?????? Go, Perl ?аPythonа3,
???????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?. ???????? ?а??????? ??????? time (1).
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
91
?????????????
Pi
???? ?????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ? ????????? ?? Raspberry Pi
??? ???????
??? ??????????
???????
??аpi??????.
??а??? ?? ?????
?аRaspberry Pi.
??????...
?
?????? ?а??????? ???н
??????, ????? ????????н
???? ?????? ???????????
DS18B20 ?аPython ????? ?????н??н
???? ???????. ?а?????? ?????????
??? ??? ??? Cam Jam Edu Kits, ????н
??? ?а??????????? ????? ??? ????.
????????? ???? ???????? ???н
???????, ?а??????????? ??????????
?????? ?а???????? Python. ??а??а???н
?????? ?????? ?а????? ??? ??????
[Ben Nuttall] ??аRaspberry Pi Foundatн
ion ?а????? ?а?????????? ?а??????
W1ThermSensor, ??????? ??????а???
?????? ??????! ??? ???????????
?????????? ??????? ???? ??????
[Timo Furrer], ???а???????????? ????
?????????? ?????????????? ???????,
?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?а?????н
??? ??????? Linux. ?????????? ?а??н
????????? ?? ????? ??аhttps://github.
com/timofurrer/w1thermsensor. ??н
???, ????? ???????????? ???? ???н
???, ?? ?? ??????? 3а?а(VCC) ???????
?????????? ????? ???????? 4,7а???
?а?????? ?? ??????, ????? ??а???? ??н
????? ??????????. ?а???????????
??????????? ????????? ?а??????н
??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??н
????? ?а????????. ??а?????, ??????н
??? ?а?????? ??????? [Dave Jones],
?????????? ?????????? Picamera
Python, ??????? ???? ??? ???. ?аGPIO
?? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????,
?а??а?????? ???? ???а???????????.
??? ?? ??????? ?а???? ??????? ???н
??? ??? ??а??????? ????? ?????????
?????????? Python, GPIO Zero ?аRpi.
GPIO. ?а??????? ???????? ??а?????.
???? ????? ?а???, ??? ?? ?? ????
??а?????????? ?????????, ???? ?а???н
??? ??? ????. ?а??? ????? ???? ???н
??, ??? ??? ??????????? ?? ?а???????
??а???. ?а??а????????а? ????????
?а????????? ?а?????? ????? ??.
92
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
???????? ??????????
?????? ?????? ? ????
?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??а??????? ?????.
?
???? Modern Inventor ??а????? ???????????
????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??н
???????????? (???, ??а????? ?????, ?????н
??????) ?а?????????? ????? ??а????? ???????. ?а????н
?? ??? ????? Raspberry Pi Zero W, ??????? ?а???????
??????? Weather Underground ???????? ??????? ????н
?? ?а????? ????? ????. ????? ??? ?????? ????? ???н
??????? ?????? ?????. ????? ????? ????????????
????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а?? ???? ?????? ????.
?? ??? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??н
???? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????????/
???????????. ??а???? ??????? ??????? ????????
????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ?а??????н
??, ??????? ????????? ????? (????? ????? ?? ????
??? ????) ?????????? ???????. ?а??????? ??? ?? ??н
?????????? ???????????? ?????? Neopixel ?аSpeaker
Bonnet ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????,
?а???????????? ??а????? ??????????????? ?аAlexa
Voice Service. ?а??? ??? ?а??????? ???? ???????н
??? ?????? ???????? ???? ?а????? Python. ??????н
??? ???????а? ???н??а$ 80, ?а??????????, ??? ???
????????, ??. ??а????? www.instructables.com/id/
StormнGlassнtheнWeatherнForecastingнLampнThatнSimu.
Pi-???????
????????? ? Pi
?????? ??а???????.
?????? Piа? ?????? ??????.
?
?
?????? ??? Piа? ??????? ??а?????,
??а????а? ?????? ????? ????? ?а?????н
???: Raspberry Pi3а?а???????????????
??а?????????? ?????. ??? ???????? ????????
???н??????? [Ronald McCollum] ??аresin.io, ???н
??????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ?аIoTн
??????????? ??а???? Linux. ?а???, ????? ??????
??а??????????, ??????? ?????: https://resin.io/blog/
resinнinнresinнhowнtoнmakeнaнliteralнembeddedнdevice.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
? Raspberry Pi ????? ???? ??????????? ??,
?а????? Linux.MulDrop14. ??? ??????????
?????????? ???? ????????????????? Dr.WEB,
??а?????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?а???????, ???????н
?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????,
zmap ?аssh, ?а???????? ???????? ??а?????? Pi ?????
SSH. ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????, ?? ??
???????? ??аSDн?????. ??????????? ??аhttp://bit.
ly/2sAqMWc.
??????????? Pi ?????
Ubuntu Mate 16.04
??, ????????? Ubuntu ??аRaspberry Pi ?????, ??а?????а?? ??? ???????????
????????????? ???????????? Raspbian? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????.
???????
╗ Ubuntu 16.04.2
?а??????? ???н
??? Mate, ????н
????????? ???
????? ??????
?????. ????н
???? ??? ?? ???н
??????? ?а???н
??????? Ubuntu,
??????? ??а???
?????, ?а??? ??
??? ????? ?а???н
?????? ???????н
????? Raspberry
Pi, ????????н
??? ????????
????????????
Ubuntu ??? ?????
????? ???.
U
buntu ?а ?? ?? ? ?? ?????? ???,
??а?????? ?а2015а?., ?а??????? ??н
???? Raspberry Pi 2, ????????? ???н
??? ?а??? ????? ?? ???????? ????????????
??????????. ????? ?????? ???????? ???н
???????? ???, ??? ??? ????? ???????????
???????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ARM
v7 ?а?????????? ??????.
?????? ?а??? ???? Raspberry Pi 3 ?а??н
??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???, ?а ??? ?? ???
?? ?? Ubuntu 16.04.2, ?а?? ??? ??? ??? ??н
????? ?????? Mateа? ???????????? ???н
???? Gnomeа2, ??н???????? ?????????? ??н
???????? ??? ???, ??? ??????? ??? ?????
?????? ?а????? ?????? ?????.
?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??н
????? Raspbian, ??а???? ?? ?? ???????? ???
??а?????? SDн?????. ??????? Ubuntu Mate
??????????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????
??????????? ???????????? SDн????? ????н
?? 6/10.
?? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ????? ?аPi,
??а??????????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????н
????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????н
????. ??а?????????? ??а????????? ??а????н
??? ????. ???????? ??? ???????, ??а?????
?????? ?????????; ?а????? ???? ??? ????
?? ?? ??, ??? ???? ??, ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??
?а?? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?а??? ?? ?? ?а??н
??? SDн??? ?? ?а??????? ??? ???. ?а???н
??? ??????? ???? ??????а? ???? Bluetooth
?аWiнFi.
Ubuntu Mate ????????? ?аPi3н????????
WiнFi ?аBluetooth, ??а????? ????? ???????н
?? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ??а????н
???? ??????: ?а???? WiнFi ??а?????? SSID.
???????????? ???????, ??а??????, ???????,
???? ??а??????.
???????? ?????????
?????????? ???!
?????????????
????????? raspi-config
????????, ??? Pi ????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????
??? ??????.
????????? ???????????
??? ?????? HAT, Ubuntu
???????? ?????? ??????? Raspbian.
> ???????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ??, ??? ? Ubuntu Mate ?? ?????? ???????, ??а?????
???? ??? ? ??? ????????????? ??????? Pi.
Ubuntu Mate ??????? ??аRaspbian ?а??н
?????, ????????, ?а???, ??? Python ???????
??????? sudo ??? GPIO. ??а??? ??? ??? ???
???? ????? ????, ?а??а?? ?? ????????, ???
????? ?? Python ??? ?? ?????????? ?а??н
????? ????? ???? IDLE Python ???а??, ???
?а?аRaspbian. ?????????? ?????????? GPIO
Zero ?аSense Hat Python ?????? ?????????
?а???????? ?аPython 2 ?а3; ??а????? ????,
????? Sense Hat Emulator ??? ?? ?? ?????н
??? ?а????????? ????????? ?аUbuntu Mate,
?а????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????
???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???.
????? ????????? ?а?????? ????????????н
????? Python, ??а??? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???н
??? ??????????, GUI Zero, ????????? ????н
?????? ??????? Python, pip3, ?а??? ??????
??????????.
????? ??а???????????? ?? Sonic Pi ?аMinecraft. ??? ?????? ?? ??????. ?аSonic Pi
?????? ?? ???????? ?????????а? ??а????н
??? ????????? ?????????; ??а??а?????? ???н
???????? ???? ?????????? ????????????,
?аMinecraft ??????? ???а??, ??? ?а??аRaspbiн
an. ???, ????? ?????? ????????? ?а???аMinecraft, ??а?????? ?? ???а?????.
??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??н
???? ??????? ??????????? ?????? Raspн
berry Pi ?аUbuntu. ?а??????? ??? ?? ?????
??? ???? ??????????, ??,а?? ????????? ??н
??????? ?а??????? ??????????? raspi-config (??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???
??аRaspbian), ??а?????? ??????????? ????н
?? ?а????? ?а??????? ??????? ?? ?а?????
?????????? Python. ??? ??? ??????? ????,
?? ?? ?? ???? raspi-config ??? ??? ?? ??? ???
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????
?????? ?????????? ?а?? ????????? ??аPi.
???? ??а???а? ????????????? ?????????,
???????????? ??? ????????, ????? ??? ???н
??? ??????????? DS18B20. ??а??????????н
?? ?? ??? ?а??????? ?????????? Pythonа3,
?а????? ??? ?????????? ?а??? ?????, ??а????,
??? ?аRaspbian.
Ubuntu Mate ???????н?? ????? ??а????
Raspbian. ??? ???? ???? ??? ????????????
??а?????? ???а???????? ?а????????н????н
????, ??????? ????? ????? ?а???????? ??
Raspberry Pi, ??а?а??а???????? ??????????н
??: ???, ??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???н
?????? ?а????? ??????? ?? ???. Raspbian
??н???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???
????, ??аUbuntu Mate ??? Raspberry Pi ???
???????? ?????????????. |
???????
Ubuntu Mate 16.04.2 LTS
???????????: Ubuntu Mate
????: ubuntu-mate.org/raspberry-pi/
????????: Open Source
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ? ??????
????????????? ????
9/10
9/10
9/10
9/10
╗ ???????-?? ? Raspbian ????????
?????????. ? ???????????? ??
??? ?? ????????, ??? ? ?? ???????
?????????????.
??????? 9/10
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
93
Raspberry Pi ???????????? ??????
Pi Camera: ????
???? ?? ??????
??? ??????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????????
?????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????????.
?
???
???????
??? ???????а? ??н
???????? ??а????
??????н????????
?а???????????, ??н
????? ????????н
???? ?аRaspberry Pi
Foundation ?а???н
?????? ?аPicademy.
??? ?????????
???? ????????н
??? ?а????? http://
bigl.es.
???
?????
╗ 40н??????????
Raspberry Pi
????? ??????
╗ Raspbian Pixel
╗ ???????????
?????? Pi
╗ 1 ??????
╗ 1 ????????
?????
╗ 1 ??? MCP3008
╗ 9н???????н
??? ??????
?????????
╗ 8н???????н
??? ??????
?????????
╗ 2 ????????н
????? 10?
╗ ??? ????? ?? ??.
?? http://bit.ly/
LXF226pitut
94
|
???????? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? Raspberry Pi
?????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????н
??. ?а???? ????? ?? ??а????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????н
????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?а??? ??????? ???????????
???????? ?а??????????????. ????? ????, ?а??????????? ??????
??? ?? ????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??? ????????? ??????????н
???? ?а??а????? ???? ????????????? ?а??????????????? ???????.
????, ?????? ??а?????? ????????????.
??????? ?????
????? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??, ?? ?? ?????????? ??а??н
?????? ????? ??? ????н???????? ??????????????? MCP3008. ??н
?????? ?????? ???????? ??а?????? ??а????? ??а?????? ????: ???
?????????, ??? ????. ?????? ??? ??????? ???? Pin 1 ??????????
?а????? ??????? ???? ??????????, ???? ???????? ??а??? ???а??н
???? ?а????????? ??????.
?????????? MCP3008 ?а?????? Raspberry Pi, ??? ??? ????????
??а??????????? ???? ?????. ????????????? ???????????? ?а???н
?????? 3а?а?а????? [GND], ?а??а????? ???????????? ??а?????? ???
?????? MCP3008. ?????? ???????????? ?аGPIO ?а?аGNDн????????.
????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? Rabberry Pi ?а???? ????н
??; ??а?????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? Ethernet ?аHDMI ?????? B,
???? ??а????? ????? Pi Zeroа? ???????? ????????, ??? ??? ???н
?? ?? ??? ??????????? ???????. ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????
???????? ?а????? ???????, ?? ????????? ???????? ????? Ethernet;
??а???????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ????? ?? ????,
?а????? ????? ??????? ???, ????? ????????? ?????? ??а?????. ?????
?????? ??а???? ???? ?????? ??? GPIO, ??????? ????? ??а?????????,
????? ??????? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????н
????, ???? ?а?. ?.а?а??????????? ?а??????? ???? ?????? Raspberry Pi.
?????? ??????
? ??а??? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? Raspberry Pi, ?а??а?? ??? MCP3008
???? ????????? ??????????. ??? ????? ????????? ?а??????????
LXF226 ?????? 2017
????????? Raspberry Pi, ??????? ?????????? ?а???? ?????????.
??а??????? ?????????? ???????? Camera ?аSPI. ????????? ???н
?????????, ????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????
?????????. ???????? ??? ?а????????? ??а??????? ???? Raspbian.
????? ????????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ?а??????? ??????н
??? ???????, ????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????????
???а?????? image.jpg:
$ raspistill нo image.jpg
?? ?? ??? ??а??? ?? ????, ?? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??, ?? ??? ?? ?? Pi
?а?????????, ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????.
?????? ??????? ???. ??????? ?? ?а???? ????????????????
?а???????? Python 3. ????? ????????? ??????????, ?? ????? ????
> ???????, ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????. ?????а?? ?????????
???? (???? > ?????????) ??? timelapseнcontroller.py. ?????? ?а??н
??? ??а?????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ????????н
????. ??? picamera, ??? ?????????? ???????; GPIO Zero ??? ??????
??? ????н????????? ??????????????? ?а??????; ??а?????????? time
??? ????? ??????? sleep; ?а??? ??? ???? ??????? datetime, ?????
??????? ??????? ???????.
from picamera import PiCamera
from gpiozero import MCP3008, Button
from time import sleep
from datetime import datetime
?????? ?? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?аMCP3008, ????н
???? GPIO, ??? ?????????? ???? ??????, ?а??????? ?????? ??а???н
??????? picamera, ????? ?а??? ???? ????? ????????.
pot1 = MCP3008(channel=0)
pot2 = MCP3008(channel=1)
button = Button(17)
camera = PiCamera()
??? ???????? ??????? ??а?????? ???????, ??????? ?????
?????? ???????? ?а????? ????. ??? ???????, ?????????? capture,
????? ?????????? ?а??? ?? for, ????????????? ??????? ???, ?????н
?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ????. ???? for ??? ???? ???????¤? ?? ??? ??,
> ?а????????????? ???? ????? ???????????. ?????н
?????????? ??а????? ????? ?а????????? ????????н
???, ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????????? ?????? Raspberry Pi
???????? ?????????
??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ????? ??а?????
?????? ?????, ?а?????? ????????????, ?а???????
??а???????????, ???? ??, ??? ??????? ???????
??????????? ????????????? ?а???????? ???????
??а???????????. ?а???????, ???????? ???????
????? BASH, ??а????? ???????????? ????????
????????, ????????? ????????????? ????? ?а???н
??. ??а??????? ?? ??? ?а?????? ???? ?????? ?????,
????? ????? ????????? ???????.
$ ls | cat нn | while read n f; do mv ?$f? ?$n.jpg?; done
? ????? ??? ??а?????? ?????? ??????? ?????н
??? ??, ???? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????
?????????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ?а????
?? ? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????, ?????
????????? ?????????а? ????????, ??? ?????н
??????, ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????н?? ???
???а???????? ??.
???? ????? ??а????? ?? ?а??????? avconv.
??а???????? ?а??аRaspberry Pi.
????? ?????????? avconv, ???????? ????????
?а???????
$ sudo aptнget install libavнtools
??н??а?????????? ?? ??? ?а????????? Core i5,
??????? ??????? ????? ??а??????????????????.
?????????? ????? ?а???? ??????, ?а????? ?????????? ??? ?????н
??? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?????. ????? for ????????а?
?????а??, ??а?????? ???????, ???????? ?????????????а? ?а?????
??????????? ?????.
def capture():
for i in range(timer):
timestamp = datetime.now().isoformat()
camera.capture(?/home/pi/%s.jpg? % timestamp)
sleep(delay)
????? ??????? ??, ??? ????? ??????, ??а??????? ???? ????н
?????????. ?а????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????????????? ?????н
????? 640 ╫ 480 ?а?????????? ?а??????? ????? ???? ?????? (0,0).
??а?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????.
camera.start_preview(fullscreen=False, window = (0, 0, 640, 480))
??????? ? ?? ?????
?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??? try...except ?аfinally ??? ??????? ?? ??н
??? ?????? ?а??? ?????????? ???? ?????????????, ??а???????
??? ??????????: timer ?аdelay. ?а?????????? timer ????? ???????н
?? ????? ?а???? ???, ?а??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??н
??? ????? ??????. ?????????? delay ???????????? ??? ????????
??????? ?? ?а???????? ??? ?? ???????. ??? ?????????? ???????н
?? ???? ???????????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????? ??? ?а???????н
?????? ????????.
try:
timer = int(input(???????? ????? ??????????? ????????))
delay = int(input(?????? ????????, ? ????????, ??? ??
??????????))
?????? ?????? ??? ?? while true ??а????? ???????? ????????н
?????, ?????? ??? ?? 0.0 ?а1.0, ?а???????? ??? ??а100, ????? ????н
???? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ??????н
?????. ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?а???????
????? ?а????????.
while True:
brightness = round(pot1.value * 100)
print(?????????,brightness)
contrast = round(pot2.value * 100)
print(??????????,contrast)
??????????? ?????????? brightness ?аcontrast, ????? ????????
???? ????????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????????????. ?????
????? ??? ?????????? settings, ???? ?????? ??? ????????.
camera.brightness = brightness
camera.contrast = contrast
settings = ????????: ?+str(brightness)+? ????????:
?+str(contrast)
?????? ????????? ??????? ?а???а?? ???? ????,
??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????????????
?????? ?????. ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ?а???н
????? 10 ?????? ?а???????, ??????? ?а?????? ?????
???а??????? 1, ??????? 1000 ?, ?а???????? ????
?аtest.mp4:
avconv нr 10 нstart_number 1 нiа %d.jpg нb:v 1000k
test.mp4
?????? ??а?????? ??????? ????? ?а???????
omxplayer ?а????? ?????? ???????????? ???????
????? ??????:
omxplayer test.mp4
???? ?? ??? ????????? ?а???? ?????????????, ??? ?????????
?????? ?????? ?а???????? Python, ??? ????? ??, ?а??????? ??? ??
?????? ?????. ????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?а0,1 ???????:
print(settings)
camera.annotate_text = settings
sleep(0.1)
?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????? ????? ???????.
???а??а????????? ?а??????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????
capture (????????? ?????). ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ??н
??????, ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????????? timer ?аdelay.
button.when_held = capture
????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ????? ??. ????? ?а??? ????
????? except. C ??а??????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??а?????н
?????, ?? ??? Ctrl + C.а??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????
?а????? ????????? ?а????? finally, ??? ??а?????????, ??? ???????н
??? ????? ?а???????? Python:
except KeyboardInterrupt:
camera.stop_preview()
finally:
print(???????????? ???????)
????????? ??? ?а?? ????? ????????? > ????????? ??????. ??н
??????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ??, ?а??а??????? ????????? ???????
?а????????????? ?а??????? ??????????????, ?????????? ??????
?а?? ??????; ????? ?? ????? ?а??????????? ??????, ????? ??????
??????. ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????
????? ??????????. |
??????
??????
??????????? ??н
???? Raspberry
Pi ????????????
?а??а???????? ??н
?????? ????????.
??? ???????,
????? ?????? ??н
???????? ??аTindle.
????? ??????!
> ??????????? ?????? Raspberry Pi ??????????? ?????????? ??? Pi ? ????? ??????? ????
? ????? ? HDн??????????? 1080 ????????.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
95
Raspberry Pi Chocolate Doom
Doom: ???????
???? ???
???? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?????? Raspberry Pi, ????????? ?? ????
?????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????.
?
???
???????
???? ????? ???н
????? ??а???? ??н
???? ????????????
?????? ??а?????н
?????? ??????
?а?? ????????
??а??????????
???????????. ???н
??? ??а[???.:а?
??а????????]
???????? ?????н
???????? ???????н
??? ????? ??????
??а???????????.
??????????
?? ?????
Pi
??????
??????
? ??? 2016, id
Software ?????н
???? ????????н
??? Doom ???
Microsoft Windows,
PlayStation 4
?аXbox. ????? ??н
???????, ??? ???н
??? ????? ?а???
?????? Pi.
96
|
????? ?? ??а?????????? ????? ?а???? ????? ???????,
Doom, ????????? id Software ?а1993а?., ??????? ?????н
??? ???????????? ?а???? ??. ??а????? ????? ???????н
?? ??а??????? ???? (FPS) ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ??н
?????? ?а??????? ??? ????????, ??????????? ?а???????, ?????????
????????.
?? ?? ??, ??? ??????? ??, ????? ??????? ???? ????? Doom,
?????? ?????, ??????? ?а?????? FPS. ????????? Doom ????????
???????? ???????? ??а???, ??? ????????, ????? ??а???????? ???
????? ????? ?а??????? ?? ??а1990н? ?????, ??????? ??? ???????
??а????? Raspberry Pi ??а????? ?? Chocolate Doom Engine.
???? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? Raspberry Pi 2 ???а3
cа????????? ??????? Raspbian. ?а????? ?????????, ??? ??? ???, ???н
???? ??? ???? ???????? sudo aptнget update, ?а????? sudo aptнget
upgrade. ???? ??а?????? ?????? ?а????????????????????? ?????
Deathmatch ??аDoom, ??? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? Pi ?а??н
??? ???????? ???? ?/??? ?????????.
??? ??????????? Doom
???? FPS ????????????, ??? ??а?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????.
???????? ????? ????н??????? ?? ?а???, ??? ??? ?? ?? ???????????
???? ????? ?а??????, ?а????? ?а????? ??. ????? ??а???? ?????н
??????? ?? ?????????????, ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???н
???, ??а???? ?? ????????? ???? ??????, ??? ?? ??? ?а????????,
??????? ?а?????? ???? [???.:а? ????????? ??а??? ???????? ???н
????], ????? ??????? ???? ?????н?? ???? ??а??????.
???????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?а???? ????????
??а??а???? ???? ??????????? ????? ?а???????????? ?? ????????,
?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???
??а??, ????? ??????????? Doom ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??н
?????????. ?а???????? ???? ????????? ?????, ??ал????????, ?? ??н
?????? ???????╗, ???? ?а2011а?. ???? ?????? ??? ???????.
??????, ??????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????. ?а??н
???? ?а1993 ??а1999а?. ???? ??????? 1,1 ????????? ????? Doom,
??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??????? ??а???????????? ?? ??? ???? ???????.
?а1995а?. ??а????? ???? ????????? ???? ????? 10 ????????? ?????н
?????? ?а????????????? ??????? Doom.
?а??????, ???? ??????а? ???????, ??? ?а??а???? ????. ??а?? ?н
??? ?????? ??а?????? ????? ????? ?а?????????. ??? ????? ??н
????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????. ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????
?????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ?а?????н
??? ??????. ???????? ???н????? ?????? ?а????? ???????, ????н
????? ??? ???????????? ??а???? ??????????. ?а??? ????????? ??н
?????? ?????, ?????, ??? ??? ?а??????? ?????? ??????. ??а??? ??
?????? ???????????? ?????, ?? ??? ??????? Tab, ????? ??????, ???
??а??? ????.
? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ????, ???? ?????? ?????? ???н
????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ??а????? ?????? ?????. ??? ??? ??
???????? ?????? ???????? ?а??????, ?, ?а?????????, ????? ???н
????? ???????? ?а??? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ????.
LXF226 ?????? 2017
> ?а?????? ???? ??а????????? ??а?????? ???????
?а??????????????? ??????????.
???? ???????????? ?а??? ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ??а????????
???????? ???, ?а??? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ??, ?? ??
?????????? ?а?? ??.
??? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????????н
?? ??? ???. ???? ??а????????? ?а?????????, ??а???? ???? ?а??? ????
???? ????????? ?а????? ????????, ???????, ?????????? ????????
?а?? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? BFG (Big Fragging Gun) 9000.
????????? ??а?????
???а?????? Doom ????? ???????, ??? ??а???????? ???????????
????????? ????, ?а??????? ??а?????? WAD (??. ?????? ??? ??? ???????, ???.а97), ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????
??? ???????, ????, ??? ??? ?а?. ?. ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??н
??? ?? ????, ????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а????????.
??????????? ?????? Doom, ????????????? id, ???????? ???
Vanilla Doom, ??н??а??? ?????????????????. ??? ??? ???????? ????н
?????? Doom, ????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???
??????? Doom ?а?????? ????????. ????????? ??а?????, ?????????
?????? Doom ??? ????????????? ?а???????? ??????????? ?а????
???????????? ???, ????? ??? Heretic ?аHexen.
? ??? ??? ??? ?а1997а?. id ???????? ???????? ??? ?????? Doom,
???????????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ?а????? ??н
???. Chocolate Doomа? ???? ??а????? ????? ???.
?? ?? Chocolate Doom ?а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??,
??а??????????? ????????????? ???? ???? ?а???????????? ??????
Doom. ????? ????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????? ??а??????
???? ?? ???????????. ??? ??? ??????, Chocolate Doom ?????????
?а????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? Doom (WAD), ????н
??? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?аVanilla Doom.
?????? ??????, ?а??? Chocolate Doom ????? ?????? ????????н
?? ??а??????? ??а? ??? ?? ?? ?а????????? ???? ???????? ??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Chocolate Doom Raspberry Pi
?????????? ????????
? Chocolate Doom ??? ??? ?а??????? ??, ?а??? ?????
?????????? ????н???????. ??? ????? ????????н
?????? ?а????? ????? ??а????? ????, ?????? ???
?????? ??а??а??????????. ?а??????????? ??? ????
??а??????? ?????????, ??????????????, ??? ???
[cheatа? ????. ?????] ??? ?? ?????????. ???н????
???? ????????????, ??? ??а??????????? QWERTYн
??????????. ???? ????? ???????? ?а?????????????н
???????? Deathmatches, ?а??????????? ??а????????,
??????????????? ?????????? ????. ???????? ????
ннnocheats, ????? ?????? ??а????? ????????? ??????
????????????.
??? ????????? ?????, ??????? ????? ????????н
???? ??а???????????:
╗ idchoppers ???? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????????.
?? ????? 1, ????? ??????? ???.
╗ idclev##а??????????? ???? ???н??? ??? ????????
?а?????? ?????? ??? ????? ??а?????? ??????а? ???,
????????, ??? idclev02 ???????????? ??? ??а?????
?????а2.
╗ iddqd ?а???? ????? ?а??? ?????? ????? 100н???н
??????? ????????. ???? л????? ????╗ ??????? ???
?????????? ???? ??????? ??а????? ???????, ????
????????? ???? ????? ???а?? ?????? ??????? ???
????. ??? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????????????????а?
???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????????????
????, ??? ??а?? ????????.
???? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ????????,
???? ?????? ???, ????????, ????? ??? ???????????н
???? ??????. ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ??????н
???? ?аDoom wiki ??а?????? http://doom.wikia.com/
wiki/Doom_cheat_codes.
Deathmatch. ????? ???? ??а????? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ???
???????, ?а??????? ??аVanilla Doom, ??? ?????? ?????? ????????н
???? ???????? ???? ?а?????. ?а???????, ??? ????? ????? ?????????
(??. ????????? Doom Deathmatches, ???.а98).
??? ??? ???????
??? ?? ?? ???? ?аDoom, ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?а??? ?? WAD
(Where?s All Data). ????? WAD ???????? ?????? ????: ??????????
???????, ???????, ???????? ????? ??? ?а??????? ??????. ????
WAD ??????? ?а???, ????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????н
???????? ??????? ?а??????????? ????. WAD ?????????? ????????
??а??????? ??????? ????? Chocolate Doom ?а????? ?????? ??а???н
??? ??????????. ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? WAD. ?а???? ???н
?? ?? ??а?????????????? ??аiWAD (?????????? ??аinternal, ?. ?. ????н
?????? WAD), ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????.
????? Doom ?????? ?????, ?????????? ???а?? ????????? ???н
?????? ????? ???????, ???????? ????? ?? ?а?. ?., ??а?а?????????
??????????????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??а?????.
????????, ??????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????. ????? ???????н
??? ????????? ???? Doom ?а????????? ???????????? ??????? ??н
???????? ?а????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????, ?а????
?????? WAD??. ???? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??н
?????? ???????? ????????, ????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???н
?????? ??????????? ???????? ????. ????? ??а????? ?????????
???????? ?MegaWAD? ???????? Eternal Doom, ??????? ????????
32 ?????? ??????, ?? ? ??? ??а??????? ???????? ???????? ??????,
??? ?????? ????????? Vanilla Doom.
?????а?? ???????????? ??а??а???, Eternalа? ???? ???????н
??? ????????? Doom. ?????? WAD ????????? л??????? ??????н
?????╗а? ?а??? ??????, ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ????, ??? ?а??н
?????? ????. ?????? ??а??????? ???? Aliens TC ???????? ??????
[Justin Fisher], ?????????? ??а???????? ??????.
???, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?а?????? ???????, ??а????? ???н
????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ???н
????а? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? DreamWorks, ??а??????? ??а??н
??????? ?? ?? ????, ????? ????????? ??????????? ?а????????????.
?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? WAD, ????????, ????? ??н
..
????? [Iikka Keranen], ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?а???????? ???н
???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ???а???????????? ????? ????.
?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ?а???? ????? ?? ??а?????н
????????? ??а??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????
> ??????? ????? ????, ?? ?????? ??? ???????
????? ??????? ???, ?????? ??????????.
WAD Doom (DOOM1.WAD), ????? ?????? ?а?????????? ????? www.
doomworld.com. ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????, Knee
Deep inаtheаDead [??а?????? ?а?????????], ?а?а???? ????? ???? ??н
??????, ????? ????????? ??????? ?а????. ????? ?????? ????? ???н
???? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????.
???а???? ?? ?? ??? ????, ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???н
????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?а????????????? WAD, ???
??? ???? ?а????? ?????? ??? ???????, ????? ????? ?а????????????н
????? ??а????????.
??????
??????
?????????? ????н
?? ????? ??????н
???? ???????? ???
??????? ?? Doom
??аhttps://github.
com/idнSoftware/
DOOM.
Freedoomа? ??а?????????
Freedoom Projectа? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??н
?????????? Doom. ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????
WAD?? ?а????? Doom ??????? ??а?????????? ????????. ?????????
id Software ?????????? ?? ???????? ??? Doom, ??????? ??? ????
???????? ??????????. Freedoom ???????????? ??а??? ??? ???????
??а????? ????????, ????????? ????? ???? ?а???????.
? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?а???????? ?????н
??? ?????, ???а??????н???? ????????????? ????????.
Freedoom ????????????? ?????? ????? WAD, ??????? ??? ????
????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ??а????? Chocolate
Doom ???????, ??? ???????????????????? WADн????? Freedoom
> Eternal Doom ?? TeamTNT ???????? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ????????????
?а??????????? ????????.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
97
Raspberry Pi Chocolate Doom
??????
??????
?????? ?????
WAD?? Doomworld
?? ??????? ??аwww.
doomworld.com/
idgames. ??????н
???? ????? ????н
?????? ?а????н
?????? Doom WAD
????? ??аwww.
doomworld.com/
20years/best1.php.
?а??? ?? ?????? ????. ??? ??а?????, ??а??????? ???? ?????????
?а???????????? ????? ??????? Deathmatch ??аFreedoom, ?????????
??? ?FreeDM?. ?а??????? ??а??????? ??????? Deathmatch, ???????
??а??????? ?аVanilla ?аChocolate Doom, ????? ???????? ????????
????????? ???????а? ???????? ???.
???? ???? Doom ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??а??????? ??н
????????? ???? ???? ??а?????? ???????, ??а????? Freedoom ??? ??
???? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?а???????? ????? ???, ???????
????? ???????????? ?????????. ???????? https://freedoom.github.
io, ????? ????? ??а?а?????? ??????.
??? ?????? л??????╗
??? ???????, ??????? ???? ?аRaspberry Pi, ??, ????????, ??а????н
????? ?????? ?аWAD, ?????????? ???????, ??а?? ?????? ????? ??н
?????? ?а??? ?????? ??????????? ??????. Doom ?????????? ???
?????? ??????, ????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ?а??????????н
????а? ????? ???????, ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????????н
?? ?? ?? ????.
> ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? Eureka, ?????? ????????
?? ???. ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ?????? ??????.
? Raspbian ???? Eureka, ???????????? ????? ??? ??????? Doom
?аLinux. ????????? ?а?????????? > ????????? > ????????? ?а???н
????? ???????? ?а??????? ???, ????????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????
???? ??? ????, ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? www.sourceforge.net/p/eurekaн
editor ??? ???????? ????? ??.
? ??????? Eureka ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? WADн
?????, ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ??? ???????? ????? ???
????? ?? ?а????????????. ???????? ?????? ??а?????? ?а????? ??н
??? ????? ??а??а??????? Doomworld.com.
Doom ?а???????
?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??а??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????н
?????? DOOM1.WAD, ??????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ??? chocolateн
doom. ?? ?? ??? WADн???? ??????????? ?? ???н?? ?а??? ??? ??н
???, ??а???а??????? Chocolate Doom ?????? ??? ???? ???? ? ????,
????????:
chocolateнdoom нWAD /home/pi/Downloads/DOOM1.WAD нwindow
640x480
Chocolate Doom ???????? ?????????? ??а??? ?? ???? ??????
(????????? ?? ? ?? ????? ????????), ?а?? ?? ??а?? ???? ?? ???????
??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? WAD, ?????? ??, ????? ?????????????
???? ??? ?? ?а.wad, ?а??а.WAD. ??а?? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ????н
??? Eurekaа? ?а???? ????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????????? ????
DOOM1.WAD, ???? ??а??а??? ???????????? ?аdoom.wad.
?????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а???????н
??? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????
Chocolate Doom, ??? ?? ??????? ??а????? www.chocolateнdoom.org/
wiki/index.php/User_guide.
????? ?????? ?аDeathmatches ?аDoom, ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?а???н
?? ??????????? ?/??? ?????? ???????? UDPн???? 2342. ??? ??????
??? ????? ??????, ????? ???????? ??а?????? ?????? ????????. ????н
?????? ?а????????????? ??? ???????? ???? www.portforward.com,
??? ???? ??????????????? ??????????.
? ???? ?????, Chocolate Doom ??а????????? ?а??????? ??????
?????? WAD Freedoom. ????????, ??а?????? ????, ??? ?????? ???н
?? WAD ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????
Pi. ??а?а???? ?? ??? Pi ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???, ?????н
?? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??а??????.
??????? ???? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??а???? ??????
??а?????? ?а?????? ???. ?????, ??????! |
????????? Doom Deathmatches
Chocolate Doom ???а??????? ????? ??? ?????????
????????????????????? ?????. ?а??????? ??аVanilla
Doom, ?аChocolate Doom ????? ?????? ????? ??н
?????? ??? ????? LAN (????????? ????). ?????? ???
????????, ???? ?? ??? ??????, ?????????, ??? ???
??????, ??????? ????? ??????? ???????, ?????????
Chocolate Doom ?а?????????? ???а?? ???? WAD.
?????????? ??а????, ???????а?? ??а????? ?????н
??? ??? ????? ????????? ????, ???? ??а???????????
??????? ?????? ????????? ?а???? ??????? ?а?????н
???? ????. ?????? ???????, ??? ????? ?а????? ????
?????? ?а??? ???????????. UDPн???? 2342 ??????
???? ?????? ??а?? ? ??? ?????? ???????? ?а/ ???
?????????? ?????? ?? ? ???? ??????. (??. лDoom
?а???????╗, ??????.)
????? ?????????? ???? Deathmatch ??а????? Pi,
???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????? SSH
?а????????? ???????
chocolateнdoomнserverнprivateserverнdeathmatch
????? ?????????????? ?а????? ????, ????????н
?????? ?????? ????????????
chocolateнdoom нconnect xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
???????? xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx ????????????? IPн
??????? ?????? ?????. C??? ????????? IPн?????
??а?????? ??????, ??????? ????? ?????, ??? www.
whatismyip.com.
??? ???????, ???????????? ?а????????? ??н
??, ??? ??? ?????: ?????? ????????? ???? ????н
??? ????????, ??а???????? ???????? нautojoin,
????????:
chocolateнdoom нWAD DOOM1.WAD нwindow
640 ╫ 480 ?autojoin
???????? ????, ?а??????? ????? ???????? ??????н
?????? ???????.
????? ?????? ????, ?????? ?? ????? ???????
???????.
???? ??а?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????н
???????? ????? ??а?????????, ??????????? ?а??н
???????????? ??????????? ?а???? Wiki Chocolate
Doom. ?????? ?? ?????? ??аwww.chocolateнdoom.org/
wiki/index.php/Multiplayer ?а????????.
> ????? ??? ?????? ??????????????, ???????
??????, ????? ?????? ????.
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
98
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Chocolate Doom Raspberry Pi
?????? Chocolate Doom
1 ?????????? ???????????
2 ???????? ? ??????????
??? ?????????? Chocolate Doom ?????? Pi ??????????? ???????????? ?????????.
???????? ???????? ?? ?????????? > ?????????? > Terminal ??? ???????????? ? Pi
????? SSH ? ?????????? ?? ????????
sudo aptнget install libsdlнmixer1.2нdev libsdlнnet1.2нdev pythonimaging
?? ????? Y, ????? ??? ??????? ???????????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????н
???? ?????????.
????????? ?? ???? www.chocolateнdoom.org/wiki/index.php/Downloads ? ??????? wget
? ??????? ?? Pi, ????? ????????? ????. ?? ?????? ?????????, ??? ???? ???? ???:
wget https://www.chocolateнdoom.org/downloads/2.2.1/chocolatedoomн2.2.1.tar.
gz2.2.1.tar.gz
????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ??? ? ??????? tar ? ????????, tar xzf
chocolateнdoomн2.2.1.tar.gz.
3 ????????????? Chocolate Doom
4 ????????? ???? (??? ?????) WAD
??????????? ??????? cd ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ???:
cd chocolateнdoomн2.2.1
????? ????????? configure, ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????, ? make, ?????
?????? ??????????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ???н
???? ???????. ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ????? ??????????
???? ?????????: sudo make install.
????????? ???????н?????????? ?????? Doom, ????????? wget. ?????????, ??? ?? ??н
???????? ?? ???????? ? ????? Chocolate Doom, ? ????????? ????????? ????????:
wget http://www.doomworld.com/3ddownloads/ports/shareware_doom_WAD.zip
????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ???, ???????? ?????????:
unzip shareware_doom_WAD.zip
?????? ??????????? ????? ????? DOOM1.WAD.
5 ?????? ????????? ????????? Doom
6 ?????? Chocolate Doom
??????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????:
chocolateнdoomнsetup нWAD DOOM1.wad
???? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ????, ????????? ??????н
????, ???? ? ?? ?? ???????, ???? ?? ? ??? ????. ?????????? ????? ????????????
???? ????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????????????? deathmatches,
?? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????. ??. ?????? ????? ???. 98.
????? ????????? Doom, ????????? ????????? ???????:
chocolateнdoom нWAD DOOM1.WAD
Doom ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????, ??? ??? Pi ????? ???? ??????????,
??????? ????? ??????? ??? ? ???? ? ??????? ????? ???????:
chocolateнdoom нWAD DOOM1.WAD нwindow 640x480
???? ? ??? ???? ?????? ???? WAD, ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? DOOM1.WAD.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
99
?????? ? ???? ?????????
? ???????? ?????
LXFHotPicks
????????? ???????
Flowblade ╗ Kmail ╗ Screencloud ╗ ANGRYsearch ╗ tVitunes ╗ Min ╗ Curlew
╗ Konv ╗ Feedreader ╗ SpeedLazer ╗ Extreme Tux Racer
???????, ??? ???????????? Linux
?а???????????? ?а???????? ?????
???а??а????????????, ??? ?????????
?????а?а?????.
?????????????
Flowblade
??????: 1.12.2 ????: http://bit.ly/2rM2Ui3
?
? ?? ?а??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??н
?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???н
??????? ????????? ?????????????.
??????????? ????? ???????? ???? ??а?????н
????? ?а??а??????? ????? ???????? ????н
?? ??? ?????????? ?а?? ???????. ?????н
?? Linux Format ?? ?? ????, ??? ??? ??? ??
??а???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??, ???? ???? ???
?????? ??а??????? ?????, ??????? ???????
?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а???н
?? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????.
? ????????????? ?а?????? ?????????
?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?аLinux,
?????? ??? Kdenlive ?аOpenShot, Flowblade
????? ????? ????????????? ??????????.
??а????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??а?? ????.
??? ?????????н?????????? ???, ?а???????
??? ?? ??????? ?????????????, ?, ????????,
??а?а??а?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?а??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??н
??? ??а???? ???????, ????? ??????? ??а???
???????? (???? ?????? ??а??а???? ?? ?а???
?аLXF175).
????????? ?????????????? Flowblade
???????? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ?????н
???? GUI ????? ?а????? ??????? ???????н
????????????. ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????
> Flowblade ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????
?а????????? ?????????????? ???????????.
??? ?????????????,
? ??????? ??? ????н
????? ?????????????.
????????? ????????? Flowblade
??????, ???? ?????
?????? ?а??????
????????? ???????????
??? ?????????? ??????,
?????????? ????????н
??? ?а??????????????
????? ???.
????? ?а??????????
????????? ??а?????? ???н
???? ?????? ?????? ???
????? ???????????. ??????
???а?????? ?а??????? ????н
??????? ???????? ??????.
??????? ?а???????????
????????? ?????
?????? ?????????????
Flowblade ????? ??? ?????н
????????? ???????, ????н
??? ??а???????? ??а???????
????????.
? ??? ???? ???? ???????????
?а?????? ??????????, ????н
??? ????? ?????????????
???а?????? ???? ?а????? ?????.
?? ?????? ????????? ?????????н
??? ?а??????? ??????? ????? ??
????????????? ?а???????????
????????????????.
100
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????є? ??? ???, ?а???? ?????????????
?а???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?а??????
??????? ????. ???? ??а?????н???? ????? ??н
???? ?? ????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????н
????, ???????????? ?аFlowblade ??а??????
?а??? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??? ??н
??????? ????? ???? ??????????.
?? ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????н
?? ??? ??, ?? ??? ??а???? ??аAdd ??? ???н
??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?а???? ??? ??н
??? ????? ????. ????? ?????? ??????????
??? ?? ??а???????¤? ??? ?? ?а?? ?? ????
??а?а??????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?а???????? ??.
??а???????є? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???????
?????? (??а????????? ?? ?????? ???? ????н
?????? ??аTrack 1, ????? ??????), ??? ??н
??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а??н
?????? ?а?? ???????? ????? ???. ?а???????
????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ??н
?????????? ??а?????? ????, ????????????
???????? ?а????????????, ?????????? ???н
?? ???? ?а?????????? ????? ?????? ?а????н
??? ????.
Flowblade ?????????? ???а?? ????? ???н
??? MLT/FFmpeg, ??? ?а??????????? ??????
?????????? ????? ?????. ?????????? ???н
???? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????
Python, ??а??? ??а????? ??????? ???????н
??? ??а?????????. ???????? ??? ??? ?????н
?????, ?????? ????????? ?????? ./flowblade
??? ???? ?? ??????. ???? ?? ?????? ??а???н
??? ?? ?? ?а??? ?? ??? ?? ??, Flowblade ???н
??? ????????? ??? ??????? ?а????? ????
??????????????.
LXFHotPicks
?????? ??????????? ?????
KMail
??????: 17.04 ????: https://github.com/KDE/kmail
?
?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????н
??????? ????? ?а????????? ???н
?? ?????????, ?а??а?? ?? ???? ??н
????, ????? ?????? ?????????. ??? ??????
?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?а ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??
?а???????? ?????????? ????? ????????,
?а??а??????? ???????? ?????. ?????? ???н
?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??
Thunderbird ?аEvolution ??н???????? ?????
??????? ???????????????? ????.
????? ????, ??????? ??????? ????? ??н
?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ?а??а?????
?????? ???? ???????, ?? ?????? ??? ?а??н
?????? ??????????. ?аLXF214 ??а???????н
?? ?? Trojita, ?????????? ??аQt5 ?????? IMAP,
?а??а??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????
KDE ??а?????????. ?????????????, ??? ??н
???????? ??? KMail.
???????? ?????????? ?????? KDE Appliн
cations, ?а???????? ?а?????? ????? KMail,
??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??. ??? ??
?????????а? ??????? ??а????? ???? ???
?????? QtWebengine ??? ?????????? HTMLн
????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?аGoogle
Safe Browsing ?а?????????, ??а????????а??
??????????? ??????, ??а??????? ??а????н
??????? ?? ????.
?? ???????? KMail ???? ?а????? ??????
??? ??????? ??????? ??????? Gmail, ??????
??? ????????? ????????????? ??? ???????
??аGoogleа? ???, ??а??????? ????, ?????
??? ???? ???? ??????? ??????. ????? ??н
??????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ????
Google IMAP ?а??????????? ??? ???????
?а???????н?????????? ???????, ??? ??н
??? ??. ????? ?? ?а???, ??? Google ?? ??н
???? ???? webн?? ??????? ?а??а???? ????
????????? ??????????. ????????, ??????
??????????? ???????? ??????????, ?????
??? Trojita ??? Geary, ????? ???????? ???
?а???????н?????????, ??? ?а???????????
????????, ??? ?а?а???, ?а?а??????.
> ???????? ?????н
???? KMail ??????н
?? ??? ? ????? ???н
??? ? ???????? ???н
?????????? ?????.
KMail ??????????????
???? ??? ????????
? ??????? ??.
???? ???, KMail ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??
??? ?? ??? ??? ?а?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???
?а?????? ??. ?????? ?????????? ?а??а??н
?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? IMAP
KMail ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????н
??? ??????????????? ???????, ????? ???
???????, ???????? ??????????? ???????н
????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????
????????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??н?????, ??н
????????? ?? ?? ?????? Mozilla ??? ????н
??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????
??????.
????, ?? ?? ??? ????????? ?????????н
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??а???н
???? ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???, ???н
?????? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ???????
???а??? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?а??? ???, ?????н
??????? KMail ???? ??а????? ??????? ?????.
?????????? ???????? ??????????
Screencloud
??????: 1.3.1 ????: http://bit.ly/2swwLaP
?
? ??? ?? ????? (?аLXF223) ??а???н
???? ???? ?? ???н???? ??? Ksnip
?а??????? ??, ??? ??а???? ??????
??????? Snipping Tools ??аWindows, ????н
??? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????.
?????? Ksnip ???а?? ??а??? ????????? ??н
??????, ?а??а?????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????
???????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???н
????? ???????? ??????? (??????????).
???? ??а????????? ?а???????????? ???н
??? ???????, ??????? ?? ?? ????????????,
??????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????н
?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????. ??а ??? ???
???? ?а????????? ?????? ??????, ??? ???н
??? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????. ???н
???, ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??а?????? ??н
?????????? webн??????? (????? ????????
??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????), ??н
?????? ??????? ?а?????, ?????????? ?????н
??, ???????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????
?????? ??????.
Screencloudа ? ?????н???? ??? ???н
??? ?????? webн??????? Screencloud.net.
??а????????, ??? ???????????? ???????н
????, ??а??????? ?????? ??а????????. ????
?????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????а? ????
????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?а?????? ?а?? ???н
??? ?????. ?????????? ????????? ??????
?????? ??????? ??????, ???? ??? ??????н
??? ????? ??. ??а???????? ?????? ???? ??
Screenclouа? ??? ??????????? ????н????н
????? ??????? ??а?????????? ????? ????.
????? ????????? ?????? ???????, ??????н
??? ???????, ??? ?? ??? ??????????????,
?а????а? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???н
??а? ?????????????? ????????? ????????н
??? ??? ??????. ????? ?????? ???? ????н
???????? ?????????, ??а??? ????? ??????,
?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ??аQt5,
?????????? ?????? ????? ????????. ?????
> ????????? ???н
????? ????????
?????? ??????н
????? ?а???????
???????????????
??????????? ?а??н
?????? ?????.
???? ??????????????
????????? ????????н
??? ?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????, ??????, ??????????. Screencloud
????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?а?????н
?????? webн??? ?? ???? ??? ???????????
?а?????. ??? ????????? ????? ?????? ??н
?????? ??аDropbox, Imgur, ??????????????
(S)FTPн?????? ??? ?а????????? ????: ???н
??? ?? ????? ??а?????? More services [???
???????] ?а???? ???????????? ??????????
?а???????? ????????? ????. ?а??аGithub ??н
????? ???????? ??? Screencloud.
Screencloud ??? ??? ??а Python ?а Qt,
??а???????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?а??н
???????, ??? ??? ????????? ?????????????
Python 2 ?а3 ?????? ?аQt4 ??? 5а?а????? ???н
???????. ??а???????????? ?????????? ???н
??? Linux ????? ???????? ??? ????????.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
101
LXFHotPicks
????????? ??????
ANGRYsearch
??????: 1.0.0 ????: http://bit.ly/2riPed7
?
? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ????
????? ??, ?а?????? ??? ???? ????
??а??????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??н
?? ???, ?? ??? ??а?? ???? ???? ??а???? ???
?????? LXF. ?а??? ?? ?? ?????? ?аBeagle,
??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??а????н
?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? Linux
??аNovell, ?а?????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???
?а???????. Beagle ?????? ??????????? ?а??н
??????? ?????? Spotlight ??аMac OS X. ???н
????????, ??а?? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??н
??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???? Baloo
?аTracker ??н???????? ??а????????? ????н
???? ???????? ?????? ????????????? Linux
??н??а????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????
????? ????? ??????? ???????.
ANGRYsearchа? ??? ????????? ?????н
?? ??? ?а?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??, ????? ????н
??? ??аFSearch. ??? ??? ???????? ??????н
??????? ?а???????? ????? ??? Everything
Search Engine ??аVoidtools, ?????????????
??? Windows. ?а??????? ???а?? ????????
???????? FSearch ?аANGRYsearch, ??а??? ??
??а???????? ?????? ???? ????? ????????н
?? PythonQt ????? ?????????? Screencloud,
??????????? ?????? ?аANGRYsearch, ???????
?а???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??а?? ??? ?? ?????.
??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??
?а??????? ?????? ?а??????? Update [????н
????] ????? ?а???. ??а??? ?? ????? ?????
????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????
???? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????? ??н
??? ????? ?а?????? ?????????????.
ANGRYsearch ??????????? ???, ??? ????
?а/, ?а???????? ??? ?а?? ?? ?????? SQLite.
??а?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????н
???? Linux ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ???н
????. ?????? ????? ??????, ??? ??а?????н
????? ????? ?????? ?а??? ?????? ??? ???
?? ?? ?? ??а???, ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???
> ???????????
????? ????? ?????
? ????? ???????
???????.
??????????? ???, ???
???? ? /, ? ????????
? ???? ?????? SQLite.
?????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????????????.
???????, ????? ???????? ???????? ??????
???? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??а???н
??? ??? ???, ?а??а??а?? ????? ???; ?а???
??а?????, ????? ??????????, ????? ??? ????
?????? ????????, ???? ??а??????? ??? ???.
????? ANGRYsearch ??????????? ???н
??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ??н
??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??
?????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??,
??????????? ??????? ANGRYsearch ?а???н
?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ? README. ????? ???
?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????
?????? ????? Cron, ?а????? ???? ???.
??????????? ??????
Vitunes
??????: 2.3 ????: http://vitunes.org
?
? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ??н
???? ?а??????????? ????????,
??????? ??????????? ?????н
?? ?? GUI, ??а??а???? ??? ????? ?? ??????н
????, ????????? ????????? ??????? ???н
????????? ????????? ????? ???????. ????
????? ???????? ??? Linux, ??????? ??????н
???? ?????????? ?????????? Ncursesа? ??,
??????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????н
????? ?а??????? ???а? ?а?????? ??а??????н
???? ?а??а??????? ??????????? ??????.
?? ??? ??? Vitunes ?? ?? ?? ?? ??а?? ??н
??????? ??????? Apple ?а??????????? ???н
?????? ????? ??? Vi, ?а???а????????? ???н
???? ?? ??? ?а?? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ???
?а??????. Vitunes ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??н
??????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ???
?? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ?а?? ???н
???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ???н
???????? ?а????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????.
??? ??????? ??????? ??аTaglib, ?а??? ???н
???????????? ????? ??? ?? ??? Mplayer ???
Gstreamer. ??????? ?????????? ?????:
$ mv Makefile.linux Makefile && make
102
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
??? ??? ??, ??а?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???н
???? ?????? ??? $ ./vitunes, ??а??? ??а?????н
????. ?????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????
???? ?????? ($ ./ vitunes нe init) ?а????????
??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?а?? ??н
??? ($ ./vitunes нeаadd ~/Music). ????? ?????
??а?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????
???????????? ?????.
?? ?? ?? ??? ??а??? ?? ??? ???? ? ?? ???н
?? ?? ? ?????? ?? ????????? Tab ?а??? ???
??а?????????. ?? ????????? ??аVitunes ??н
?? ?? ??, ??? ?а??????? ???? ???????????
???????, ????????, ??????? (???а??????
?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??), ??? ???? ?? ????н
??? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ??? Vi, ?а?????
?а??? ?????? ???????? ???????????????.
??????? ???? ?а??? ??? ~/.vitunes/vitunes.
conf ?а???????? ??????????, ?, ????????,
> ??? ??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??аX11 ?аWayland ?а??????
?????????? ????????? ??????.
??? ??????????
Vitunes ????????? ???
????????? ???????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а???? ??? ?? ????? ?? Vitunes. ?? ??? ?? ??
??а???????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????
????? Vitunes, ????? ????? ??????????????
??????? ?а????????? ????????? ???????.
??? ????? ?????????? Vitunes ???????н
?? ??? ????????? ?а??????? ??? ????, ????н
??? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????????????
???? ?? ????????? ?????????? (?? ?? ???
?а????????? ??????????) ?а????? ? ??????
?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???
?а??????, ???? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????
????????? ??? ????? ?а???????? ?????????
?????????? ?аTaglib.
LXFHotPicks
Webн???????
Min
??????: 1.5.1 ????: https://github.com/minbrowser
??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?а ??? ?? ???
?????????????? ?????????, ?а?????
????? ??? ????????? ??????. ??а??н
???????? ??а??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??????
л??????????????╗ ??? ???? ?а??? ???????
????????.
Minа? ??? ???????? ??????????, ????н
?????? ??аElectron and NodeJS, ?, ???????н
??????, ???????????? ?????????? ??????
Chromium ??? ?????????? ???????. ?? ??
???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??н
?? ??а?? ?? Chromium, ?? ????аMin ??????н
?? ??????? ???????. ???????,аMin ??????н
?????? Chromiumа? ??а??, ??? FocusWriter
???????????? LibreOffice Writer. ?а???? ??н
????? ??? ??????, ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?а??н
?????? ?????????, ?а???????????? ?а?????н
???? ?????????? ????????????? ???????
[Material Design] ??аGoogle. ??????? ?????
???? ???????? ??а????????? ?????, ??а??н
??? ??а??????? ??????, ??а?????? ??????
????? ??? ?????? ???н??. ???? ??а???? ??н
??? ??а?????????,аMin ?????????? ???????
?
?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????н
??а? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????
?а????????????? ???????? Vivaldi.
?а???? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ???????????
?????? ???????? ???????: ?????? ?? ?????
??а??????? ????????? Ctrl + T, ????? ???????
?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??. ?? ?? ?? ???н
??? ?? ?? л??? ?????╗, ?? ????? ?? ???????
???????, ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?а???????????
??????? ??а??????????????? ??????? ????н
????? ???????. ?? ??? ??а????, ?? ??????н
??? ?а?? ??? л??? ???╗, ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??
??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????н
?? ?а??????????? ??а??? ???????? ??????,
????? ??????????????? ????? ??а??????.
Min ???? ?????? ?а?????? ???????????
??? ?????? ?а?????????: ????????, Focus
> ???????? ????н
??????? ????????н
??????? ??? ???
???????? ?????
?????????? ????н
??? ????? ????????.
?????????? ???????
?????? ???????? ?????н
?? ??????? ????????.
Mode [?? ??? ?? ?? ??] (???а ?? ?? View
[???]), ??????? ???????? ????? ???, ???н
?? ??????? ????????, ?а??? ?? Tasks [????н
??]а? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?а????н
???????? ??????? ???????. ????? ??а??????
?? ???? ???, ??? ????????, ??????? ??а??н
?????? ?????, ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??н
????. Min ????????? ????????????? ???????
??? ?? ????????а? ????? ??????!
???????? ?????? ??а?????аMinа? ??????
??? macOS ?аUbuntu, ??а?а??? ??а???? ???н
???? ?а???????? ???????? ??а????? ????н
?????? ??. ????? ?????? NodeJS ?а????н
? ????? ??????? NPM ?а????? Grunt, ?аMin
?????????? ??? ?????? ?а????? Electron.
?????н?????????
Curlew
??????: 0.2.4 ????: http://bit.ly/2qK259K
?
? ????????, ??? ????????????н
??? ????? 4Kа? ??? ????????н
??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??
?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??. ??? ???н
????????? ????? ???а???????????? ????н
??? ??а ? ???, ??? ??? ?? ??, ?? ?? ???:
??а??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??а??? ?? ?а?? ??? ??
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????????? ??? ????????.
? Linux ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??н
???н???????????. ??????????? ??а??? ??н
???? ?? ??а?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ??
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?????????, ?а???? ??а?????? ??а???? ????н
??????, ????????? ????????? FFMpeg ???
??? ?? ????? ??н???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????
?а????? ???????? ??а???? Chromium.
Curlewа? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????н
??????????????? ???????? ????? ??аGTK3.
?а??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????
FFMpeg ?а????????? ?а?????????? ?????н
????? ??а??????? ?? ??? ??? ?а?????????
?????? ??. ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??а??, ???
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??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????а? ???? ?????н
?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?а ?? ?? ??? ???
????????????.
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?? ???? ??????????? ?????????. ??? ????
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??? ????????? ??????? ??а???? Curlew.
???? ??? ???? ?? ?а??? ??? ??? ?? ??н
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?? ??? ?? ??а???, ??? ?? ?? ????? ??а???н
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? ??????!
????????? Curlew
????? ?????? ????????
? ???????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а????? ?????? ?а??? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ??н
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???????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?а?. ?. ???н
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?? ??а??? ????? ??????????, ?????? ????н
???? ??? ????? FFMpeg, ??а????а?? ????н
??????? ??? ?????.
????? 150 ??, Curlew ?????? ??????н
???, ?а??????? ??аPython3, GTK3 ?, ??? ?а???н
?? ?? ?? ??? ????, ??аFFMpeg ?аLibavconv.
?????? ??????? ????????????? Debн?????
??? Ubuntu ?а??? ???????????.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
103
LXFHotPicks
HotGames ??????????????? ??????????
????????? ? ??????? ??????????
SpeedLazer
??????: GIT ????: http://bit.ly/2qOtl1Z
????????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??н
??? ?????? ?????????? ???. ???н
??????, ??? ??????????? ??а???
?????? ?а??а????? ?а?????? ???? ???????н
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?????? ??????????? ???? ????????, ?а???н
?? ????, ??? ???? ?а???, ????? ????? ???н
?????? ???? ??аOpenGL, ??????? ???????н
???? ?а????????.
SpeedLazerа? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??
?а??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???, ??? ??? ???
?????? ?а??????? ?????????. ??а??? ??н
???????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????а?
?а??? ?? ?? ?????? ??а?????? ????. ????н
?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???, ??а??? ?? ??
???????? ???? ??? ??? ?а??????? ????н
????, ???? ?????? ???????? ???????.
?????????? ??????? SpeedLazer ?а???,
??? ?????? ???? ??а????????? ???????н
?? ??? ???????? ?а??????, ????????? ???
?
?????? ??, ???а?? ?????????? ?а???????.
?а??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??а???? Chromium ??? ??????? Firefox. ?????? ?????????,
??????????а?? ??а???? ????????????, ???н
?? ??аhttp://html5gamepad.com.
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??н
??? ??????????? ??, ?а?????? ??? ?????н
??, ???????? ??? ???????? ??а???? ?а????
?а???????????. ???? ??а????????? ???????
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?????? ?а????, ??а??? ?а????????? ????н
???, ????????, ????? ?а??????? ??????,
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???? ?????? ? ????.
???????? ???????????? ?а????? ?????? ??н
?????, ????? ???????????? ??????, ???
????????? ?????.
SpeedLazer ???????? ??аCrafty.js ?а??н
??? ??? ?? ???? ??аhttp://speedlazer.net.
?а?????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?????н
???? ??? ??а????????? ?????? ?а???????
npm, bower ?аGruntа? ????????? ???????н
??? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????н
????? README.md.
?????
Tux Racer
??????: 0.7.4 ????: http://bit.ly/2qOGms6
? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??, ????
?? ????? ??????? ????????, ??н
??? ??а???????????? ??а???? ?а??н
?? ??а????????? 200а??/?. ???????? ???
????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? Extreme Tux
Racer, ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??н
?? ??а????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???.
Extreme Tux Racerа? ?? ?? ??а?????
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???????? ???????????? ????? [Tux], ?? ???н
???? Linux. ?????? ????????? ?????????
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???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??н
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?
104
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
[Beastie] ??аFreeBSD ??? ?????? ???????
[Samuel].
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?????????? ??? ?????? ???????????
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??????? ??а?? ?????, ??? ?аqTox, ???????
??а??????????? ?? ?а LXF211 ?а 217, ??а??н
???????? ????????? GTK3 ?????? Qt5.
????, Konv ????????, ????? ?? ??????
Skype, WhatsApp ?аTelegram ?? ??? ???н
???? ??? ??? ?? ???, ??а??? ??? ??? ???н
??????????? webн???????, ????? ??а?????
????????? ?а????????. ?????????? ?????н
???? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????н
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?? ?? ?? ?а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??, ???
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??? ?????? ??????????. ??? ??????? ????
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??????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ??н
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??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??
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?? ???????????? (????????, ??? ?? ?? ???н
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?????? ??а?????? ??), ??а??а????????, ???
?????? ????? ???????? ? ????.
??????? ????????
Feedreader
??????: 2.0.2 ????: http://bit.ly/2rk0gyK
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??????? ?а?????? ?????? ??? ?? ??
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?????? ???? ???????? ???????.
??????????? ??????н????? ??? ?????н
?? ?? ?????? RSS, ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??н
?????? ??а????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????
????????? ?а??????? ???????, ??а?????????
???? ????. Feedreaderа? ?????????? ???н
??? RSS, ??????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????
??????? ????????. ?????????? ????????
??аGTK3 ?а????? ????? ??? ?а??????????
??????? ???.
?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??н
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?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? RSS,
??а???????? ??а???? ?? ??. ??, Feedreader
?? ??? ???????? ?а?? ??? ????????, ??????
????, ????? ????????????? RSS ????????,
??? ??? ??? ????????????? ???? ????????н
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er. ??а????? ?? Feedly, ???????, ?а???? ???н
????, ????????? ??? ?????, ????????? ??н
???????????????? ?????????? Google.
?? ?? Feedreader ?????а?? ?? ?????? ??
??????????, ??????? ????? ???? ????????н
???????? ?а??????? Gmail. ????? ???? ???н
??????? ?????? ??а??, ??? ??а???????????
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????? ????? ???? ????????, ??а??а???? ??н
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??????????.
Feedreader ????????н
?? ???????? ? ?????н
?????????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а???????? ???????, ?????? ??? Unity ???
Pantheon, Feedreader ?????? ???? ??? ???н
??? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??а???н
?? ??????? ?а???? ??? ?????? ??????????.
?????? ????????? ??а?????? ????????
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??????? ????! |
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
105
?? ?????
???????? ????, ??????????, ????, ????? ? ??????-??????...
?????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ? 8 ?? ????????????? DVD.
??????????? ? Windows ??????????? Linux
Zorin OS 12.1
????????????
?
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??? ??а?????????? ????????
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?????? ??? Linux ???? ??????? ?????
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???, ????? ?а??? ????? ????????? ????н
?????? ????????????, ??а??а?????????
?а??????? ???????????? ????. ??????н
????? ??????? ??????? (?а????? ????)
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??? ?????? ???????.
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?аWindows, ??а??? ???а?? ??????????н
?? Linux. Linuxа? ??а?????? ??????????
??????????? ??? ???, ???? ????? ??н
??? ??аWindows. ??? ????????? ??, ?а???
???????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????. ????
??а??????? ??????????? Linux, ?????н
?? ??????? ?????? ??а????. ???????,
????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??аWinн
dowsа? Linux ??????... ??? ??? ?????? ??н
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???????? ?а??????
??????.
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????????? ??? ??а??????? ??? ??а???? ?????. ??? ??н
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????????? ?а???? Linux, ?а???а???? Zorin OS ????????
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???????? ?а?????? ??а??????????? ?????? ????????
????????????? ??? ???????????: ?а??? ???? ?? ?? ???
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???????? ?а????? ???????? ??а????????? ?????????
??? ???, ???? ????????? Windows. Zorin ???? ?????? ??н
???а?? ??? ???, ??? elementary OS, ???? ????? ??? ??н
???????? ???????? ?? ???, ??? ??????? ?а??? ??? ???н
???????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????; ????? ???
??? ????????? ????? ????????????.
???????? ??? ???? ??а?????? Ubuntu, ??? ??? ?а???
???? ?????? ??а????? ???????????? ????????, ???? ??н
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????? Software ?а??????? ????. ??? ??????????? ??н
???????? ?????? Zorin OS, ??а???? ??? ?? ??????, ????н
?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ????н
???. ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?а????????????,
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???????????? ??? ?????????? ?аWindows, ??? ????н
?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? Wine
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╗ ?????
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???????? ?????
? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????-?? ??????? ?????? LXFDVD ???????????, ???? ??????,
??а?????? disks@linuxformat.ru ??? ????????
+7 (812) 309-0686.
106
|
LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ????????? ????? ???????? ? Zorin OS ?????????
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Windows ?аLinux, ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?а??н
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?аPlayOnLinux. ??? GUI ??? Wine, ??????? ???????????
?? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? Windows ?аLiн
nux, ???????? ?а?? ????? Wine. ????? ??????, ?????
???? Wine ?аPlayOnLinux, ??а??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??н
?????, ????????? Zorin OS ???? ?????? ??????? ?????
??? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ???, ??? ??а??н
???? ?аWindows, ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????
?????? ?????!
DVD ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?а??????? ???? Zoн
rin OS, ?а??? ??а???? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ???
??????; ??а??а?????? ??? ???, ????????????а? ?zorin?
?а?????? ??????? (???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????,
?????? ?? ????? Enter).
?????? ???????????
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LIVE-????: ????? ? ??????
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╗ ????? ????? ????????? ???????
╗ ??? ????????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ? Index.html ?? ?????.
?????? ??????? Arch Linux
? ???!
Manjaro 17.0.1
??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??а?????? ??????? ??????
DVD ?? ?? ???? ??аUbuntu, ?а??? Manjaro ??? ??? ???
??аArch Linux. Archа? ??? ?а?????н?? ??????? ??????н
?? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????????, ?а??? ????? ???н
????, ??? Manjaro ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???н
???а? ?а??? ??а????? ??? ???! Manjaro ???? ?????? ?????
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??? Xfce. Xfceа? ??? ???????, ?????????? ???????????
??????? ????, ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????
????? ???? ???????? ?????. ?а??? ?????? ??? ?????????
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?? ??а???????????? ?????? ??а??? Windows 8! ?????:
manjaro, ??????: manjaro.
????????? ???????????
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Checkinstall ????????? tar-?????? ?а??????? ????? ???? ???????.
GNU Core Utils ???????? ???????, ???????
??????? ?????????????? ?а?? ? ??? ???????????? ???????.
Hardinfo ?????????? ????????????
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Kernel ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????
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Memtest86+ ????????? ??? ??а???????
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RaWrite ?????????? ??????????? ???????
?аMS-DOS ?аWindows.
SBM ??????????? ??а?? ????? ???
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??????
? ????? ????????? elementary OS ????а?? ??????? ????
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?????? ?????, ?????? ??? ???????? ?аLinux. ??а??а??н
???? ??а??????? ??а???????а? ??? ?????? ???? ??н
?? ??? Linux, ????????? ??????????? ????????. ?????
???????, ??? ?аLinux ???????а? ?????; ?????? ??????н
?? ???? ?????????? ??? ??н??? ?а???? ?????? ???? ???н
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?????.
??????????? Bash ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? Bash.
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Bourne Shell ????????? ????????? ???????
????????.
TheаCathedral and theаBazaar [?????
?а?????] ???????????? ????? ????? ?. ???????? [Eric S Raymond], ???????????
???????????? ???????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????????????? Debian
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Linux Kernel inаaаNutshell [???? Linux ?а????
??????] ???????? ?а????, ??????????
??????? ?????????
???? ?????? ????????????? [Greg
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(?? ??????????), ??????? ???????, ????? LXF
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LXFDVD:аDevuan, Linux Mint, ROSA, Scientific Linux,
Ubuntu Budgie, 12 ???? ? Linux (??а??????????),???????
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???????? ??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_222/
PDFн??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_222/
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PDFн??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_221/
???????? ??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_219н220/
PDFн??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_219н220/
12а???? ? Linux (??а??????????), ??????? ???????
?а??????...
??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? www.linuxcenter.ru, ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????!
???????? ?????? ????????
╗ ?????-?????????: (812) 309н0686
╗ ??????: (499) 271н4954
Linux Format ?????????:
vk.com/linuxform
DVD
?????????? ? ?????
DVDн?????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 8 (226). ?????? 2017
HOTPICKS
????????? ?? ??????? ╗
?? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????н
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?????????? ??????????? ??а???? Ubuntu, ?????????
????? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ?????????
??????? ???????????????? ??????????, ???????
Photos, Music, Videos, Calendar, Terminal, Files ?а?. ?.,
?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??а????????????
Ubuntu ?аDebian.
?? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ???н
?????? ????? ???????????? ???????: RPM, Deb ???
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?? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а??????н
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Manjaro 17.0 (32н??????)
??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?? ??а???? Arch
Linux. ???????? ????????а? ?????????? ????????
??????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????
????????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????,
??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ????????н
??? ??????? Bash ??? ?????????? ????????????
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??????? ???????
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??????????? ??а???? Ubuntu ????????????? ????????
????????? ?а????? ????????? ????????????? ????н
??? ?аWindows ??аLinux.
ANGRYsearch 1.0.0 ????????? ??????
http://bit.ly/2riPed7
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http://bit.ly/2qK259K
Extreme Tux Racer 0.7.4 ?????
http://bit.ly/2qOGms6
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http://bit.ly/2rk0gyK
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Min 1.5.1 Webн???????
https://github.com/minbrowser
Screencloud 1.3.1 ?????????? ????????
????????а???????
http://bit.ly/2swwLaP
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http://bit.ly/2qOtl1Z
Vitunes 2.3 ??????????? ??????
http://vitunes.org
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?????? ???????????? Linux.
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disks@linuxformat.ru
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109
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????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???н
??? ?????, ???????????, ??????????, ?? ?????? disks@linuxformat.ru
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???????????? ???????????? ??????. ?? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????.
? ?????????, ???????? Linux Format ?? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ?? ????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???? ??????, ???????
????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ????? DVD, ?????????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??????. ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????н???? ?? ?? ?????????,
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?? 2005?2016 ??.
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FORMAT ?? 2016 ?.
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?? ? ??77-21973 ?? 14 ???????? 2005 ????.
??????? ??????????. ????? ???????? ?????? 1200 ???.,
??????????????? ??????????? ?????? 30 000 ???.
???????? ????????????? ??????
??????? ????????
?????? ???????? info@linuxformat.ru
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196644, ?????-?????????, ?????????? ?-?, ???. ????????,
?????????? ??????????? л???????╗, ?. ?/?, ???. ?
???. (812) 462-8383, e-mail: office@ldprint.ru
????? 16313
? ???????????? ??????
??? ??? ?
???????????????
???????? ???????????? ??????
???????? ???? ??? [Neil Mohr] neil.mohr@futurenet.com
??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? [Jonni Bidwell]
jonni.bidwell@futurenet.com
??????????? ???????? ?????o?? ???? [Cliff Hope]
clifford.hope@futurenet.com
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????-???????
[Efrain Hernandez-Mendoza] efrain.hernandez-mendoza@futurenet.com
?????????? ??????????
????-???? ?????????? [Mats Tage Axelsson], ?????? ??????? [Jonni Bidwell],
???? ?????? [Neil Bothwick], ???? ??????? [Mark Chisholm], ???? ?????
[Nate Drake], ????? ???????? [Ermin Kreponic], ??????? ????? [Jeremy Laird],
??? ???? [Nick Peers], ??? ??????? [Les Pounder], ?????? ?????
[Shashank Sharma], ??? ????? [Zak Storey], ????????? ??????? [Alexander Tolstoy],
??????? ??????? [Mihalis Tsoukalos], ??????? ???? [Philippa Warr],
???? ??????? [Mike Williams], ??????? ??????, ?????? ???????????,
?????? ????????, ??????? ????????, ??????? ????????, ?????? ?????????
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Docker ?а??? ????????? ?а?????????????:
????а?????а????? ????.
??????????? ???? ???????? [Shane Collinge]
??????????? ? ??????? www.magictorch.com
???????? ??????? Zeta
?? ???????? ??????????????, ???????????, ??????? ???????:
partner@linuxcenter.ru
?????????? ??????????, ?а??? ???? ????? ?а??? ?????????????
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Linux Multimedia Studio
?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??а????????????????
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BSD ?????? Linux
?????? ???? ?? ?а???????? ????? ???? ?????? ?а??????;
?????,а???????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????.
?????????? ??????????
UK: Linux Format, 30 Monmouth Street, Bath BA1 2BW
Te?. +44 (0) 1604 251045, email: linuxformat@myfavouritemagazines.co.uk
??????: ?????-?????????, ??. ???????, 5, ????. 7
???. +7 (812) 309-0686, e-mail: info@linuxformat.ru
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?????????????? ??? ????????????? Future Publishing Ltd (Future plc group company). ??? ?????
????????????????. ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ????????????
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????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??? ????????. ?????????
? ????, ???? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??????????, ? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????. ???????? Linux Format ?? ????? ??????????????? ?? ????????.
??????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????. ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????
? ??????? ????????.
??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ? CD ??? DVD, ????????????
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???????? ???????? Linux Format ?? ????? ??????????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????.
Linux ? ?????????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? [Linus Torvalds].
?GNU/Linux? ?????????? ?? ?Linux? ? ????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ?????
???????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ???? ???, ?????????????? ? ???????,
???????????? ?? ???????? GPL v3. ??. www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html
?? ??????????? ? ????????, ?????????? Future plc group company, ??????????? ?? ????
www.futureplc.com.
???????, ???????, ???????
????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????,
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?????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????а? ????? ??а???????? ?а??????????...
112
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www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
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BATH ? LONDON ? MILAN ? NEW YORK ? PARIS ? SAN DIEGO ? SAN FRANCISCO
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???? ?а???????? ???????? ??а????? ????н
?????? ??. ????? ?????? NodeJS ?а????н
? ????? ??????? NPM ?а????? Grunt, ?аMin
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??????: 0.2.4 ????: http://bit.ly/2qK259K
?
? ????????, ??? ????????????н
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??? ??а ? ???, ??? ??? ?? ??, ?? ?? ???:
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???н???????????. ??????????? ??а??? ??н
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?????????, ?а???? ??а?????? ??а???? ????н
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??? ?? ????? ??н???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????
?а????? ???????? ??а???? Chromium.
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?????? ??. ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??а??, ???
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??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????а? ???? ?????н
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???? ??? ???? ?? ?а??? ??? ??? ?? ??н
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? ??????!
????????? Curlew
????? ?????? ????????
? ???????? ??????.
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?а????? ?????? ?а??? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ??н
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?? ??а??? ????? ??????????, ?????? ????н
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????? 150 ??, Curlew ?????? ??????н
???, ?а??????? ??аPython3, GTK3 ?, ??? ?а???н
?? ?? ?? ??? ????, ??аFFMpeg ?аLibavconv.
?????? ??????? ????????????? Debн?????
??? Ubuntu ?а??? ???????????.
?????? 2017 LXF226
|
103
LXFHotPicks
HotGames ??????????????? ??????????
????????? ? ??????? ??????????
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??????: GIT ????: http://bit.ly/2qOtl1Z
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???? ?а????????.
SpeedLazerа? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??
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?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???, ??а??? ?? ??
???????? ???? ??? ??? ?а??????? ????н
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?????????? ??????? SpeedLazer ?а???,
??? ?????? ???? ??а????????? ???????н
?? ??? ???????? ?а??????, ????????? ???
?
?????? ??, ???а?? ?????????? ?а???????.
?а??? ?????? ???? ??????? ??а???? Chromium ??? ??????? Firefox. ?????? ?????????,
??????????а?? ??а???? ????????????, ???н
?? ??аhttp://html5gamepad.com.
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??н
??? ??????????? ??, ?а?????? ??? ?????н
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????????? ?????.
SpeedLazer ???????? ??аCrafty.js ?а??н
??? ??? ?? ???? ??аhttp://speedlazer.net.
?а?????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?????н
???? ??? ??а????????? ?????? ?а???????
npm, bower ?аGruntа? ????????? ???????н
??? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????н
????? README.md.
?????
Tux Racer
??????: 0.7.4 ????: http://bit.ly/2qOGms6
? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??, ????
?? ????? ??????? ????????, ??н
??? ??а???????????? ??а???? ?а??н
?? ??а????????? 200а??/?. ???????? ???
????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? Extreme Tux
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?? ??а????? ?а?????????? ????????? ???.
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???? Linux. ?????? ????????? ?????????
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???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??н
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104
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
[Beastie] ??аFreeBSD ??? ?????? ???????
[Samuel].
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???????? ????????? GTK3 ?????? Qt5.
????, Konv ????????, ????? ?? ??????
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???? ??? ??? ?? ???, ??а??? ??? ??? ???н
??????????? webн???????, ????? ??а?????
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??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??
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?? ???????????? (????????, ??? ?? ?? ???н
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??????????? ??????н????? ??? ?????н
?? ?? ?????? RSS, ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??н
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???? ????. Feedreaderа? ?????????? ???н
??? RSS, ??????? ??????? ?????? ??а?????
??????? ????????. ?????????? ????????
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?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??н
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??а???????? ??а???? ?? ??. ??, Feedreader
?? ??? ???????? ?а?? ??? ????????, ??????
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??? ??? ??? ????????????? ???? ????????н
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????, ????????? ??? ?????, ????????? ??н
???????????????? ?????????? Google.
?? ?? Feedreader ?????а?? ?? ?????? ??
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??????? ?????? ??а??, ??? ??а???????????
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?? ???????? ? ?????н
?????????? ??????.
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?а???????? ???????, ?????? ??? Unity ???
Pantheon, Feedreader ?????? ???? ??? ???н
??? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??а???н
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?????? 2017 LXF226
|
105
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???????? ????, ??????????, ????, ????? ? ??????-??????...
?????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ? 8 ?? ????????????? DVD.
??????????? ? Windows ??????????? Linux
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?????? ??? Linux ???? ??????? ?????
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?аWindows, ??а??? ???а?? ??????????н
?? Linux. Linuxа? ??а?????? ??????????
??????????? ??? ???, ???? ????? ??н
??? ??аWindows. ??? ????????? ??, ?а???
???????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????. ????
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?? ??????? ?????? ??а????. ???????,
????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??аWinн
dowsа? Linux ??????... ??? ??? ?????? ??н
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????????? ?а???? Linux, ?а???а???? Zorin OS ????????
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???????? ?а????? ???????? ??а????????? ?????????
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???????? ???????? ?? ???, ??? ??????? ?а??? ??? ???н
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??? ????????? ????? ????????????.
???????? ??? ???? ??а?????? Ubuntu, ??? ??? ?а???
???? ?????? ??а????? ???????????? ????????, ???? ??н
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?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ????н
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???????????? ??? ?????????? ?аWindows, ??? ????н
?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? Wine
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? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????-?? ??????? ?????? LXFDVD ???????????, ???? ??????,
??а?????? disks@linuxformat.ru ??? ????????
+7 (812) 309-0686.
106
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LXF226 ?????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ????????? ????? ???????? ? Zorin OS ?????????
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Windows ?аLinux, ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?а??н
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?аPlayOnLinux. ??? GUI ??? Wine, ??????? ???????????
?? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? Windows ?аLiн
nux, ???????? ?а?? ????? Wine. ????? ??????, ?????
???? Wine ?аPlayOnLinux, ??а??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??н
?????, ????????? Zorin OS ???? ?????? ??????? ?????
??? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????????? ???, ??? ??а??н
???? ?аWindows, ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????
?????? ?????!
DVD ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?а??????? ???? Zoн
rin OS, ?а??? ??а???? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ???
??????; ??а??а?????? ??? ???, ????????????а? ?zorin?
?а?????? ??????? (???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????,
?????? ?? ????? Enter).
?????? ???????????
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╗ ??? ????????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ? Index.html ?? ?????.
?????? ??????? Arch Linux
? ???!
Manjaro 17.0.1
??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??а?????? ??????? ??????
DVD ?? ?? ???? ??аUbuntu, ?а??? Manjaro ??? ??? ???
??аArch Linux. Archа? ??? ?а?????н?? ??????? ??????н
?? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????????, ?а??? ????? ???н
????, ??? Manjaro ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???н
???а? ?а??? ??а????? ??? ???! Manjaro ???? ?????? ?????
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??? Xfce. Xfceа? ??? ???????, ?????????? ???????????
??????? ????, ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????
????? ???? ???????? ?????. ?а??? ?????? ??? ?????????
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?? ??а???????????? ?????? ??а??? Windows 8! ?????:
manjaro, ??????: manjaro.
????????? ???????????
???????
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GNU Core Utils ???????? ???????, ???????
??????? ?????????????? ?а?? ? ??? ???????????? ???????.
Hardinfo ?????????? ????????????
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Kernel ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????
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Memtest86+ ????????? ??? ??а???????
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???а??????? ?? ?аCD, DVD ?аUSB.
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RaWrite ?????????? ??????????? ???????
?аMS-DOS ?аWindows.
SBM ??????????? ??а?? ????? ???
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??????? ??????????? ?? ???? Ubuntu
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??????
? ????? ????????? elementary OS ????а?? ??????? ????
??а??? ??????? ??? ????: ???? ??????? ?а?????? ??н
?????? ?????, ?????? ??? ???????? ?аLinux. ??а??а??н
???? ??а??????? ??а???????а? ??? ?????? ???? ??н
?? ??? Linux, ????????? ??????????? ????????. ?????
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barmaley
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