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LINUX FORMAT №9 2017

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LINUX FORMAT
DVD ?????!
??????? DEBIAN 9.0
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?а??????!
67
╗ ??????? Ubuntu ?? ZFS
╗ ???????? ? ?????????
╗ BSD ?????? Linux: ??? ?????
???????? ???????: ??????
?????????? ?? Python
??????? ? ???? Linux
???????? 2017
? 9 (227)
??????????
? LINUX!
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╗ ???????? ????? ????????????? ?????
╗ ????????? ???????? ?? VirtualBox
╗ ???????? ??????????? ?????????
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Canonical ? ? ???, ??? ???????? ? ????? IoT
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??????-???????
╗ ?????????? LUKS ????? ??????
??? ???? ?????
╗ ?????? ????????????
???????? ???? ????? ???????
????: ??? Pi
7 ??????? ? ??????? Raspberry Pi
╗ ?????????? ??????? Thonny
╗ ?????? ?? Twitter ? Node-RED
╗ ?????? wiki-?????? ?? Pi Zero W
????????? ??????? ? ?????????
????????? л?????????╗ ? 36343,
л????? ??????╗ ? 11932, л?????? ??????╗ ? 90959
iteleradio.ru
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╗ ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????
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╗ ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?? Linux ????????
??????, ???????? ?????? ?а??????? л????????╗: ????? ??????
?????? ???-?? ?? ?????? ?????.
╗ ?? ????????? ???? ???, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????
л????????╗, ?? ???????? GNU GPLv3.
╗ ?? ????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??? ????, ??? ???????? Linux ?а?????????? ??.
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?? ??╗. ?а????? ??????, ????а?? ??????? ?? ????????н
???? ??а?? ??? ????... ????????? ?? ????????? ??а??н
??? ????. ?????????, ????????а?? Linux ??аEnterprise?
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?????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ????????? ??н
??????? ?а???????? л????????????╗ ??.
?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? л??????????╗, ?а???????? ?а???? ????
??????. 50а??? ????? IBM ????????? ??а????? ???????????? ??????? CPн67, ??н
????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??а????? ???н
??????? System/360н67. ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ?а?????????? z/VM.
??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ???? ? ?????? Linux ??а??? ????? ?????? ??????.
?а???????????? IBM ???? ??? ?а???? ?? 1960н? ??????? ???? ???????? л???????н
???╗а? ??, ?а??, ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????... ??????? ????а????.
15а??? ????? ?????????? ???????? VMware ????????? ??? ???? ??а???????н
???? x86, ???????? ?????? ?????? л?????????╗ ???????????? ESX ?аGSX. ?????
????? ?а?????? ??????????, ????????????? ?а?????????. ????????????? ???н
????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????????: ?????????? ????? ????н
?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ? ?????????????????
???, ?а????????? ?????????? ??н???????????????. ????????????????? ?????
?а?????????? ?? л????????? ??????╗ ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ???.
??????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?а?Pн67, ?а??? ?????? л??????????╗ ????? ??а???
????? ???а????????.
╗
?????? ????????
??????? ????????
╗ info@linuxformat.ru
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????? ????????? ??????.
??? ? ???? ?????????
?????? ??? ??????????: letters@linuxformat.ru
???????? ? ?????????? ??????: subscribe@linuxformat.ru
??????????? ?????????: answers@linuxformat.ru
????? ???????: info@linuxformat.ru
???????? ? ???????: disks@linuxformat.ru
??????? ???????????????: sales@linuxformat.ru
????: www.linuxformat.ru, ?????? л?????????╗: vk.com/linuxform
> ????? ????????: ??????, ?????-?????????, ??. ???????, 5, ????. 7
> ??????? ????????: (812) 309-0686. ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?. 112
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
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л??? ???? ??????????: ????????? ? ??????? ????????; ?? ?????? ????????? ? ?? ??????.╗ ??????? ????????
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Rosa R9 LXQt ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 14
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?а???????? ??????????, ??а??? ??????????
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??? ?????????????? ???????.
????????????
LINUX!
???? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????
????а?а???????? ??? ?????????????,
???а??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????
????????, ???а???????, ????? ?а?????
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> ??????????????а? ????????????????,
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Tanglu 4?0 Gnome ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 15
? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????
??? ??а?????, ??а??????? ???????? ????н
????? ????? ???????????? ??а???? Debian.
??а??а???? ??а????... ?? ????? ?????????
???а?????.
?????????:
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Robolinux 8 Cinnamon ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 16
??????????? ??? ???????? ?а???????????
?????: ?????? ???????? ?аWindows. ?а?????
???????? ?а????????? ???????. ???????
???а????????
AMD Ryzen 5 1400 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 17
??????? ??????????????? ?????????
??аAMD ?????????? ??а??????????? ?аIntel.
????? ????????, ???? ???а???????? ???????
????? ????????? Ryzen 3.
Dawn ofаWar III ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 18
? ?????????????? ????????? Warhammer
????, ??а????, ?????? ?????а? ???? ??????н
???? ??????? ??а????????. ??????????? ????
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?????????? ???????????.
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4
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LXF227 ???????? 2017
?????????? ??????
?????????? ????
???????? ??? ???????
? ??????????
???? ??????? ? ??? ??????????? Canonical c? 38
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?? ????? ?????????? DVD
Debian 9.0
??????
????
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??????????? ?????????? ??????
???а????!
64-??????
╗ ??????? ???? Gnome ╗ ???? 4.9 LTS ╗ ?????
???????? ??????? ╗ MariaDB ╗ PHP 7.0
Voyager Live 9.0
??????????? ???????????
Linux ?а???????????????
???????а??????
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╗ ???? 4.9 ╗ ??????? ???? Xfce
╗а????????? ???аDock ╗а??????? Conky
64-??????
LIVE-????: ????? ? ??????
??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? LINUX
????????? ???? ? ???????
????????? ?? LXF!
Debian 9.0 Gnome
Voyager Live 9.0
??????-????????????
?
???????re!
o
? AppSt
64-??????
64-??????
╗ ?????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????????
????: HotPicks, ??? ? ?????????? ?. 106
????????????? Raspberry Pi
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ? ??????
??????? Pi ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 92
BSD ?????? Linux ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 42
Ubuntu Core ???????? ?аPi 3 Compute Module,
??????а????????? ????? ???????? ??аPi,
?аPicorderа???????? ??а??????????.
??? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????????
?????????????? ??? ???? ?а????????а?????;
??аLinuxн?? ???? ??? ????? ?????,а???????
Thonny ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 93
?????? ??????? ?аLinux ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 46
IDLEа? ??а???? ?а???? ????; ?а???? ?????
?????????? ??аPython ??????? ????????????.
??????? ??а??????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 94
??????????, ??? ????? ??????, ??? ??????????
??а??? Linux ?????? ?а??? ??????? ??????? ?????н
???????? ??а????????? ????????????, ??а???????
??????? ????????? ?, ???????, ????!
????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????
??????????а??а????? NodeнRED.
????? ??аTor ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50
?????? ?????????? ????? ?а???????????? ????н
????? Dark Web, ????????? ?????????? ??????н
????????. ????????? ??????? ??????а? ??, ????
????? ??а?????????...
Wiki-?????? ??аPi Zero W ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 96
???????????? ????????? ?а??? ?а???????!
??????а??а??????? ??а??????.
???????? ???????
????????
??????? LXF! ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 84
?????? ?????????
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??????? ??? ?????? ?а????????? ??а?????????????
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?????? ????????????????.
? ????? ???? ????? ??а?????? ???????????,
?а???? ???????? ????? ?????????? ?а??????!
?????????? ????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 56
??????? Linux
?????? ??а?????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 58
copy ??аPython ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 88
????????????? ?????????, ???????????
????????? ??а?????????? ?а????????? ???.
? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????
??а???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
cp ??аPython ??а?????н??????? ???????????
????????? ?????????????. ????, ?????????
????а????????????!
????????? ?? ? Linux
??? ????? VFS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 62
???????? ?????? ?аLinuxа? ??а??????.
??а??? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????
??????????...
??????????????
????? Rescatux ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 64
???????? ??????????? ???????????? ???н
????! ?а????а? ?????? ????.
?????????? ???????
??????????
??????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6
????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 22
WD ??????????? RAIDн??????????
??а20а??, Solar inRights ????????
?????, ????? NVIDIA Quadro vDWS
?????? ??????, ?а???? ?????????
????????????? ?????????, HPE ?аNASA
????????? ?????????????? ?а??????,
?????? ????? ??а???????????? ??а???,
Dell ???????? Inspiron, ?а???? ?????н
???? ??????????????????.
???а?? ??????? ?????????????
??аc?????? ?а??????, ???а?????н??
????????: ClearOS, Koozali SME Server,
NethServer, Univention Corporate
Server, Zentyal.
????? ????????? ?? ? ? ? ? 20
Verizon, Ericsson ?аQualcomm ???????
???????? ????? 1а????/?, Intel ?????н
???? ???????? ?????? ?а??????
?аMobileye ??????? ???????? ????????,
?а???????? ??аIntel ????????? ????а??
??а?????.
Gsmartcontrol, HTTraQt, Krita, KWave,
Ring, Scribus, SmartDeblur, Ubunsys.
???? Linux Format ? ? ? ? ? 106
?????????? ????????????? DVD
????? ??????.
???????? LXF ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 38
?????????? ?????? ? ? ? 108
M??? ???? ?а???? ??????? ???????
??????????? ?а????????? ???н
??????? Canonical. ???, ???????н
??? Ubuntu ????? ?????????????
??а??????????!
????? ??????????? ??? ???????
??????? ?????????? ???????????
?????? ????? ??аLXF226, ?а?????
Windowsа10!
HotPicks ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 100
????? ?а?????! ????????? ???
???????? ???????????????а?
?а???????????, ?а??????????а?
???а?????????? ??????? ??????.
????????? ????????????! ??????
?а???? ??????? ?????????? ??:
Butterfly Effect, Frogatto, G?MIC-Qt,
????? ????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 112
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????? LUKS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 68
??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????
????? ?а??????????. ?а??? ???????? ?аLinux.
???????
?????? ?????????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 72
? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???н
????, ????????? ????? ?а????????? ??????.
???????? ???????
????????? ??аZFS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 76
??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?а?????н
??????? ??????. ??а??а????????? ?????????
????????????.
???????? ?????
????? ??????? ?????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 80
????????????? ????????, ????????????
?а????????? ????, ???????? ????.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
5
???????
???????
? ???? ??????: ?????? ?? WD ╗ IGA ? ???????????? ╗ ??????? ?????? ╗ ??-??????????????
╗ ????????? ?? ????? ╗ ??? ? ?????? ╗ ??????????? ?? Dell ╗ ?? ??? ????
??????????
RAID-?????? ?? ?????
╗ ??????? ???????
??????
???????????
WD ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а20а??.
?
MyBook Duo ???????????? ?а???? ?????? ??н
?? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?а??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??
4а?? ($ 259), 6а?? ($ 289), 8а?? ($ 329), 12а??
($ 419), 16а?? ($ 599) ?а20а?? ($ 799).
л?а ?? ??, ?а ?а ??? ???, ?? ??? ??? ???
???????????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????н
??? ??? ? ?? ??????. ?? ???? ???? ?? ??н
?????????????????? ?а????????????????
???????, ?? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?а?? ??? ??
?? ?? ?? ???? ?а??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?а??н
??? ?????,а? ??????? ???? ???? ??? [Sven
Rathjen], ????н????????? ??а?????????? Cliн
ent Solution (??? ????? ????? Western Digiн
tal Corporation).а? ??а????????? ???? ???н
???? ?а????? ????????? ???????? ????????:
????? ????, ????????? ?а?? ????????,
???????????? ?а????? ???????? ????????н
?????????? ????н ?а??????????. ???????
?а?????????????, ??????????? ??????????
??????? ??? ???????? ??????, ????? ??н
?????? My Book Duo, ????????? ??????????
????????? ???????? ???? ?а???? ?а??а?????н
???? ???????????? ?а???????????╗.
> My Book Duo, ?????????? ?????????? ??аWD, ???????????? ??? ???????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????
?????? ?а????????
???? ??? ??????
????????????? ??
Solar inRights: ??????
?? ???? ???????
?????????? IGAн????????? ???????????????
????? ??.
olarаSecurity, ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???н
??? ?а???????? ??? ???????? ??????н
????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??н
???????????? ?????????????, ????????,
??? ??????? ?????? IGA (Identity Governance
andаAdministration) Solar inRights ???? ??н
?? ?????????? ????? ??????. ??????????
???????????? ?3793 ????????????, ??? ??н
????? Solar inRights 2.0 ???????? ???????н
???? ????? ?????? ??а4н?? ?????? ???н
????? ?а??????????? ???????. ??????????
S
6
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
?????????? ????????? ????????? Solar inн
Rights ???а???????? ??????????????????
?????? ??а?????? ???????????? 1? ????н
????????, ?а??? ?? ??? ?????? ??????????
?а?????????????? ??? ????? ?????????н
??? ?????? (?????) ???? ??????? ????н
????????. Solar InRights ?????? ?а??????
?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???? ???????
?????????????? ????? ?а??? ??????.
Solar inRights ???????????? ??????????н
???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????, ?а??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???н
?????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?????, ?? ???,
?????????????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????н
??? ????? ?????. ??????? ?? ??????? ???н
???? ?????, ????????? ?а???????? ?????н
????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??,
??????????? ??????? ???????????, ?а???н
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ???
?????????? ????????.
лSolar inRightsа? ??? ?????????? ???н
???? ?а???? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??н
?? ??? ???? ?? IGA. ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???,
??????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???н
?????????????? ???????, ????? ??????н
?????? ????????? ?????????? ??а???????н
??? ??????? ??? ?? ??, ?? ???? ??????????
??? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?а??,
?а???????а? ??????? ?????, ????????? ?а??н
????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????
?а????????????? ?????????????? ???н
?????╗, ??????? ??????? ???????, ??????н
?????? ?????? ????? Solar inRights ?????н
??? SolarаSecurity.
?????????: www.theinquirer.net; www.theregister.co.uk; solarsecurity.ru
??????? Western Digital ???????н
?? ?? MyBook Duoа? ??????????
RAIDн?????? ????, ???????? ???н
??????? ??? ?????? ?а???????? ????????
?????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ??? ???
???????? ?????????????, ??? ?а??? ?? ????
???????. MyBook Duo ??????? ??а???? ??н
????? ?????? WD Red, ????????????????
??? ?????? ?аRAID ?а?????????????? ???н
????? ????????????????? ?????? 360 ??/?.
?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??а???
???? ?? ?аRAIDн??? ???? ??, ??????? ????н
?? ????????? WD Discovery ??? ??????????
??????????? ?аWDаSecurity ??? ?????? ???н
???, ??? ????????? ?????????? 256н??????
AESн??????????, ???????? ?????? USBнC
3.1 gen2 ?а????? ??????? USBнAа??? ???н
??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ???.
???????
??????? NVIDIA
??? ?? ? ??
????? Quadro vDWS ?????????? ??????? ?аGPU ??????????? Pascal
?а???????а???????.
N
vidia ????????? ?? ???????????
????? NVIDIA Quadro Virtual Data
Center Workstation (Quadro vDWS),
?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?аGPU
Tesla ?а?????? ??????? ???????. Quadro
vDWS ????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??н
?????????? ????? ?а??????????? ???????н
???? ?а?????????????? ????????, ??? ???н
?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????????
???а?? ?? ?? ?а??? ?? ?? ?? 3D, ?? ?? ??? ??н
???????? ??????????, ??????????? ?????н
????? ?а????????? ????????.
Quadro vDWS ???????? ?аGPU ??????? ??н
?? Pascal ?а?????????:
╗ ???????? ??????????? ?????????????н
????? ??а????????? ?а?????????? ???????н
????? GPU NVIDIA ??а50 %;
╗ ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? CUDA
?аOpen CL ??? ??????????? ?????????????
?а??????????????????? ????? ?????????;
╗ ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?а??????? ??????н
??? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??
?????????????, ???????????? ??а24 ?? ??н
???? GPU ??? ??????? ???????;
╗ ???????? ?????????????????? ??? ????н
?????? ??? Linux ??а???? ??????????? ??н
??????????? ??????????? H.264а?а??????.
л????????? Quadro vDWS, ??????????н
???? ??а???????? ?аGPU Tesla, ???????????
?????? ???????? ?а??? ???????? ?????н
???? ??????, ????????? ????? ???????н
??????? ??? ???? ??? ?а?? ?? ???? ?????
??????????? ??????╗, ??????? ????н???н
?????? ????????????? Professional Visualн
ization NVIDIA ??? ???? [Bob Pette]. ????н
??? ??? ???????? ??а100 ???????? ??а?????
????, ??????? ???? ??????? ??аCisco, Citrix,
Dell, HP, Lenovo ?аVMWare.
NVIDIA ????????????????? ???? ?????н
????? ??????????? ???? ????? NVIDIA GRID
virtual PC (vPC), ??? ??? ??????:
╗ GPU Tesla P40 ??? ????????? ??а24 ?????н
?????? 1н?? ???????? ??????????? ????н
??? ?????? (?а2 ???? ??????, ??? Tesla M60);
> ????? NVIDIA
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Linux Foundation ?а?????? Dice.com, ??? ??н
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????: www.amd.com
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|
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??? ???? ????? [???.:а? ???-????], ?????н
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??а??????, ??а?а??.
Dawn ofа War III ???????? ???? ??? ??
???????????? ?а???????? ??????? ?????.
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18
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
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?????? WarHammer.
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?? ?а?? ?? League ofаLegends ??? Dota 2.
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|
19
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Qualcomm Technologies ?????????, ??????н
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?????????? 4 TOPS.
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www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Myriad X ???????????? ?????? ?а??????н
??? ????????????. SDK ???????? ??????н
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?????? ????????? FLIC.
?????????: www.theregister.co.uk; www.zdnet.com
Intel ??????????? VPU Movidius ?????????? ?????????.
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?????????, ??????????????? ?а??????н
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I
ntel ???? ??? ?? ?? 8н? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??н
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??????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????
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?? ???????? 4K ?аYouTube.
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??? ??? ?а????????
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Lake╗???
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??? ????? Windows Hello ?аfingerprint touchн
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32н?????? ??????, ??а???????? ???
???????? ???? ??а64н?????? ??????н
????, ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??
??а????????? ??????? ?а?? ?????????.
?
????
????????
╗ ClearOS
╗ Koozali SME
Server
╗ NethServer
╗ Univention
Corporate
Server
╗ Zentyal
22
|
??????????? ?а?????????? ??н
?????? ????? Linux ????? ???н
????? ????????? ?а?????, ???
????? ?????? ?????? ??????н
?? ??? Linux ???????? ??? ?????? ??а????н
???? ??????? ??; ?? ?? ?? ??? ??а???. ???
???? ??, ?а??????????? ???????? ???? ????
????? ???????????, ?????? ??а???????????
?а???????. ??а?????? ??а?????? ?????????
??????????а? ?? ???? ??а??а???????, ?а???н
?? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??н
??, ??? ???????? ?а?????????????.
?? ????????????? ?а????????? ?????н
??а? ?????????? ???????. ???? ??а??????
???????? ??????????? ????????? ???а????н
??? ???????? ?а????????, ???? ??????????
LXF227 ???????? 2017
?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??, ?? ? ??? ???
??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??, ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??
??? ????????? ?? ???. ???а?????? ??????н
??? ??а?????? ?? ???????? ????, ????????н
?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????
??????н?н??????.
???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????
?? ???????? ?а???? ?? ?а???????? ??????
??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???н
????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ??????н
???????? ???, ?????????? ?а????? ???????
????????????? ????????????? ?а????? ??н
????/????????? ????? ?а??а???????????
???а???????????? ?????????? ?????????н
?????. ??а???? ????????? ???????? ????
??? ????? ?????? ????????, ???????????
?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????н
???? ??????????. ??? ?????? Debian ?аCentн
OS ??а????? ?а???? ????????, ???? ??? ???н
????????? ???????? ???? ??? ???????.
?? ???????? ????????????,
?????????????? ?????? ?????
????????? ??????-?-??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????н??????? ?????????
?????? ?????
????? ???????????? ????????
????? Linux ????? ???????? ???н
?? ? ???, ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? webн
????????, ????? ?а???? ???????
??? ??, ??? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????, ?? ??н
?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??а??н
??? ??а?????????. Koozali ????? ?????????
??? ?????? ?????, ?? ?? ??а??????, ?????
??а??????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????????
??????? ???????? ?аwebн???????. ??? ???н
?? ??? ?? ????????? ?а?????? ?? ???? ????
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??? ??????????, ??а????????? ???? ?????н
??? ??????.
?????? ???????а? ????????? ??? ?а??н
???? ?????? ???????. ?? ?? ??а?? ??????
????????? ?????, ??? ???????? ??????н
??? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????, ?????
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?????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а??н
???????. ???? ???????? ??? ?а????а?? ???н
?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?а???н
????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???
?????????аKoozali.
Zentyal ???????? ??? ????????? ????н
?? ?а??????? ????? ?????. ?а???????? ?????н
???? ??????? ??а??????????? ?????? ?????
?а?????? ???????????? ??а??????. ??а??? ??
?
?????? ???????????? VPN ?аWebmail ????н
?????? ??а???????? ?????????? ????, ?????
??? ?????????? IMн??????, DNSн ?аDHCPн
???????, ?а?????????? ?а??????? ?а?????н
????? ????????????? ????????????. ?а??н
????? ??аZentyal, NethServer ????? ??? ??
????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ???н
????. ??а?????? ???????????? ??? webн??н
??????? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ??н
???????. ?а??????? Software Centre ?????
?????????????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? Nethн
Server ?а webн??? ??? Apache, ??? ?? ???
??????, ?? ???????? ??аXMPP ?????? ??н
?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?/???
???????? ??????, ????????? ???????????
OpenVPN ?а?? ?? ??? ??? ownCloud ??? ??
??а????????? ??????? ?????.
Univention, ??? ?аZentyal, ??? ?? ?? ???
?????? ??? ???????? ?а?? ???? ??????? ?/
???а???????????. ??а????? ????????? ????н
??? ?а???????? ??????, ?а??? ?? webн??????
?а???????????? ???????????? ??а??????,
?а???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???н
???? ?а?? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????н
??? ??????. ????? ???????????? App Cenн
ter ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??
??????? ?а????????.
> ????????? NethServer ??????????? ????? ????????, ?????????
???? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????
ClearOS ?????????? ??а????????? ?????н
?????? ?а????? ????????? ???????? ?????
????????? ??? ??????????? ??а?????????
????????. ClearOS ???????? ????????? ???
?????? ?а???????? ???????? ???????, ???н
???? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?а??н
???????? ?а??????? ????????, ????? ???
?????? ????? ?????, ?????? ?? ?? ??????,
???????? ??????, webн??????, FTP ??????,
?????? ????????, ?????? ?????? ????? Samн
ba ??? CUPS ?а?. ?. ???????? ???? ?? ???н
??? ?????????? ???????? ?а????? ?аClearOS
????? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??н
??????? ????? ?а??????? ???????? ?????н
??, ?????????? ?????????? ????????????
?а?????? ??????? ?????.
???????
ClearOS
?????
NethServer
?????
Koozali
?????
Univention
?????
Zentyal
?????
╗ ??? ???????
????????
?? ??????????
???????, ????
?? ??????????
??? ???????.
???????????? ? ????????????
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??а?????? ?????????? ????????н
???? ??????????? ??????????а?
?????????? ?????? ?а??????????
??????? ????????? ??а??????? ?а??а?????н
???. ??а?? ?? ???а? ????? ???? ????? ????н
?????. ?а???? ?? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ??н
??????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????????
?
????????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????н
?? ???????????? ???? ??????.
???????????? ??аCentOS, NethServer,
ClearOS ?аKoozali ??????? ??а???????????
??????? ?а??а????? ????????????? ?????
?????? ???????. ?????? Koozaliа?аCentOS
6.7, ?а?????????а? CentOS 7. ?????? Zentyal
> ??? ? ??????? ? ??? ?????? ???????????, Zentyal ?????? ????????? ??????????
?а????????
???????? ??а????? ?????? ?????? Ubunн
tu LTS. Community Edition [???????? ????н
??????] ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ???н
???????, ??????? ?????? ? ????????????
???? ???????. ????????? ??????? ???? ??н
???? ????????????? ???????????, ?????н
?????????? ????? ?????, ?а???????????
?а????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??н
??? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??н
??? ???. ClearOS ????? ???а?? ???? ??????
????????? ????????????а???????? ?а???н
?? ??????н?? ??? ???. ?? ???? ????? ?????
??а?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??н
????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??н
???? ?а????????? ?????. ????????? ???н
??а??????а? Debian, Univention ????????
?а?? ?????. ?????????? ???????????? ???
?? ? ???? ?????? ??????? ?а??????? ??а??н
??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????. ???
?????????, ???????????? ??????? ???? ???
5 ??? 7 ??? ??? ?????? ?а??????????? ??а??н
???? ??????. Zentyal ????? ??? ???????????
??а2021а?., ClearOS Communityа? ??а?????
2019а?., ?аKoozaliа? ??а?????? 2020а?.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????
ClearOS
?????
NethServer
?????
Univention
?????
Koozali
?????
Zentyal
?????
╗ ???? ???н
?????? ? Zentyal
??????, ?? ???
?? ??????? ???н
?????????????
??????????.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
23
????????? ??????н???????
????????? ??????????
?????а?? ????? ??????????? ?а????????????? ?а??????????
?
???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???н
?? ?а??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???.
??а????? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ??н
??????? ???????? ???, ????? ??а?????????????? ??н
??? ????????????. ??? ?????? ??, ??? ??????????
?а?????????? ??????н???????? ????а? ??? ???????
??????????. ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??а??? ??? ???? ???н
????????? ????? ?а??????? ????????? ?а???????н
?? ?а?????????????? emacs ??? vim, ??? ?? ???????
???????????? ???????? ???, ??????? ???? ?????? ??н
????? ????????? ??????????????. ??? ????????
??????????? ??а???????? ???а???????? ??, ????
?а???? ????, ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???
?????????? ?а????. ??????? ?????? ??????????
????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?а???н
?????. ??? ?????? ?????, ????? ????????? ??? ??н
???????????? ?а???????????, ????? ??а????? ??н
????????? ?а??? ?????? ?а???а???????.
ClearOS ?????
?????????? ??аweb Dashboard ??а????????? ?? ????? ??????, ??а???? ?????
???????? ????????, ????????, ??????? ?????????????? ????????? [Recent
Software Activity] ?а??????????? CPU [CPU Usage]. ?????? ??????????????
?????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ????, ??????? ????? ???????? ?аdashн
board. ?? ????? ??а??????? Support [??? ??????], ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?а??н
??????? ????????? ??? ??а??????????? ?а??????? ?а?????? ?а??? ????????.
Marketplace ???? ?????? ??а???? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ??а??????
??????????, ??????? ????? ?????????, ??? Cloud [??????], Server [??????] ?аNetн
work [????]. ??а?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????н
??? ???????? ?а?? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????.
??а?? ? ???? ?????? webн?????????? ??а?????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????н
???, ?? ??? ??а?????? Documentation. ????????, ???а?? ????? ??аGateway > Proxy
> Web Proxy Server [???? > ?????? > ??????н?????? Web] ??а??????? ??????
?а????? ??аDocumentation [????????????] ????????? ??????????? ??а?????????.
Koozali ?????
????? ????? ????? ?????? л????????╗ ?????? ?????, ?????? ??? ??а?????н?? ???н
???. ?????????????? ???? Koozali Foundation ??????? ??а?????????????, ?????
?????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????. ????? ??? ????????а? ?????
??????, ??? ????? ????. ?????????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????
???? ???????? ?а?????? ?????????а? ?????? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ?????
?????????? ?????????, ?а??а??? ?????. ??? ????????????? ???????? ???????н
???? ???а?????? ???????????: ????????,аAdministration [??????????????н
???],аSecurity [????????????] ?аConfiguration [?????????]. ????? ?????? ?????
??а?????, ?????аCollaboration > Quotas [?????????????? > ?????], ??? ???????
????????? ????? ?????? ??????? (????? ????????? ?а?????? ????????????)
??а?????????? ??? ????????? ??. ?? ????? ??аBackup [????????? ???????????]
??? ???????? ?????? ????? ?аAdministration [?????????????????].
???????????? ? ?????????
??? ??? ???????, ????? ????? ???? ??????...
????????? ?а??????????? Linux ?а??н
???? ?? ?? ?? ?а?? ??а? ???, ?????
????, ?а???, ??? ??? ??????????? ???
????????? ???????; ??а????????????? ????н
???? ???а? ??? ??? ??а??????. ?? ?? ????н
???? ????????? ????? ???? ???????? ??н
????, ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????
???? ?а??????.
??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??
??? ??? ??? ????? ?а?? ???? ?????? ?? ??
???????? ????. ??? ???? ??????????? ????н
?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????н
???????. ?? ? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????а?
?
24
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????
?а??????? ??а????????? ??? ?????? ?????н
??? ?а??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???.
?? ?? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ??а??н
????, ??????, ??? ???????? ?????? ??????н
??? ??????. ???? ??????????? ?а???? wiki
?аHowнTo, ?а??? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????н
??????? ?а???????????????.
??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ?? Uniн
vention ???? ?????? ???? ?? ?а??? ??????
?? ?? ?? ????? ??а?????? ?? ??? ???, ????н
?????? ???????????. Koozali ?????????н
???? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????.
???????
?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????,
???? ?????? ?? ?а???????? ????, ?а???? ???н
????? ??а?????? ????? ??? ???????, wiki ??н
???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????н
???????? ???? ??????? ??а???? ????????.
???? ??? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????,
???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????н
??? ?а???????????.
NethServer, ClearOS ?аZentyal ???? ??н
???? ???? ??????? ???? ?а??а??, ??аZentyal
??а????????? ??а?????? Zentyal Server Book
?а??????н?????? ??? ??????? ??????????н
?????, ?????????? ????? г 435.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
ClearOS
?????
Koozali
?????
NethServer
?????
Univention
?????
Zentyal
?????
╗ ???????????
???????? ???н
??? ???????
?????? ? ??????н
??? ??????????.
??????н??????? ?????????
NethServer ?????
?? ??????? ?????? NethServer ??а????? ????????????. ??а?????????? ??а??????,
??????? ?а??????? ????????? ????? ?а???????????, ?а??? ?? ???? ?????? ??н
??????? DHCP, ?а????????? ??????? IPн????? ??а????? ????? ?????????. ?а??н
??????? ??а????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ?а??а?????? ?????????? ??а?а??н
????? Software Center. ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??а?????????. ?? ?????
??аBase system [??????? ???????], ???? ?????? ?????????? Firewall [????????н
??], Email [????????], File server [???????? ??????]. ????????? ??? ???????н
??? ?????? ?а????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?а????????? NethForge,
?а??????? ???????, ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а??????? ???н
??????????? ?????????а? ?аFirewall. ??? ?а?а?????? ???????? ?????, ???????
?????? ????????????, ???? ??????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????. ??? ??н
??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??а??????? Applications.
Univention Corporate Server ?????
Univention ??а?????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ?????? ??? ?а?????????. ???
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??н
??????????? ?????????, ????? ??? Users and Software [???????????? ?а???н
??????]; ?? ?? ??? ??а?? ? ??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?????. ?? ???????
????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????????, ?а??а??н
?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?а??????н?н??????. ??????? ????? ????? ?????????
???????? ?а????? System ??а?????? ??????????: Network settings [?????????
????], System services [????????? ???????] ?а?. ?. ????? ????????? ?а???????н
?????? ??????? ????? Apache ?аClamAV, ????? ?аSystem > System services [???н
???? > ????????? ???????]. ???????? ?????? ???? ????????. ?? ????? ??а????
????? ?а???????? ??? ??????? ?а??????? Start, Stop ?аRestart. ??? ?? ?????
???????? ?????? ??????? ??а????? ??????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????.
Zentyal ?????
Zentyal ????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ?????, ??? ??а???????? ????н
?? ?????? Firefox. ???? ??а??а?????????? ???????????????? ????????? Zentyal
????????, ??, ????????? ?????, ?????? ???????????? webн?????????, ???????
?????? ?а???? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?а????. ???а????????? ??????? ?????н
???? ??а????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????????. ?а?????????? ??н
??????? ?? ?? ???? ????????, ????? ??? ??????????, webн?????? ?аwebн?????,
????? ??????????? ????? 400а???????. ????? ?? ??????? ??а??????? ????н
????, ????????? ?а??????????? ??? ??????? ??а?????? webн??????????. ??н
???? ??????????, ??? ?а????? ??????? ??????, ??????????? ??а???? ?????????
???? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ???а???????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????н
?? ?? ????? ??а?????? Change [????????], ?а????? ??а?????? Save Changes [??н
??????? ?????????], ????? ????????? ???????? ?а????.
????????? ????????????
?????а?? ??????????? ???????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????????
???????
?
?????
? ??????? ??а????? ?????? ?????н
??? ?? ?? ??. ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??н??н
?????? ????? Slackware ?аDebian
????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????н
?????. ????????????, ??? ?а??, ??? ??????н
?? ??????? ????????????? ??а?????? ?????,
???? ??? ???????????. ?????? ????????н
???, ??а????????? ????? ????????? ?????
????? ????? л??????╗, ??а??????? ??????н
?? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????.
RHEL ????????? ?????? ???????????н
??????? ????????????. ClearOS ?аNethServн
er ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ???
?????? ??а??? ?? ??? ???. ??? ???? ?????,
?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??
??аCentOS, ????????? ??а???? ???? RHEL.
ClearOS ??? ?? ?????????????? ?????? Clearн
BOX ?а????????????????? ???????????н
??. ??а???????? ?а?????? ?????????????
?а??????????? ??а????, ??? ??а????????н
?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????, ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???н
???????? ????????????? ?а????, ?????а??
??а?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?а?? ??? ??? ?? ???н
??? ????? ??? ??а??????? ???????????.
??? ???????? ?а??????? ?????????????
Koozali ??????????? ?????? ??? ??????????
??аHP, ?а?????? ??????. ??? ?аNethServer
?аClearOS, ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????н
?????? ???????????? Zentyal ?????? ????
???? ??????? ???? ?? ?? ???, Ubuntu. Uniн
vention ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??н
??? ?а?????????? ?????? ??? ???????????
?????????. ????????? ??? PDF, ?????? ??н
??????? ??? ????? ????? ?а?????? 2016а?.
?а????????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??н
???? ????? ?????? Univention. ?? ?? ????
???????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??? ???н
?????????, ????????? ?????? ??а?????н
???? ?а???????? ????? ??а???? RHEL/CentOS.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
ClearOS
Univention
?????
NethServer
?????
Zentyal
?????
Koozali
?????
╗ Koozali ????
????????? ????
?????? ?????н
???????, ?????
???????? ???
??? ? RHEL.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
25
????????? ??????н???????
?????????????? ???????
???? ?а??? ???? ?????? ??????, ????????? ??а?а???????.
?? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ?????н
???? ???? ????? ??а??? ?????? ??н
?????? ?????. ??????? ?а??? ?а????н
?? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????
?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ???н
???????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????
??а??????? ???? ??????? ??а?????????.
????? Koozali, ??????? ??? ???????? ??н
??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??а??????????н
??? ?????????????, ??? ???????? ???? ?а??н
??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????????
??????? ?а???? ???, ??а???????????? ??.
??? ????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ????н
?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???н
??????, ???????????? ?????????? ?а???н
???? ???????????. ?????????, ??? ClearOS
?аUnivention, ???? ?????? ??????????????
??????? ?а??????????? ??а?????? ??????н
??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????.
ClearOS ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???н
?????. ???????, ?????????? г 28а?а???, ????
?????? ?а65 ??????????? ?а?????????????
?????? ???, ???????????? ????? ???????
?а?????? ??????. ????? ??????? ????????
??? ?????,а??аг 47а?а???, ?????? ???????
> ClearOS ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????? ????????
??????? ???????,
? ?????? ? ???????? ? ClearOS?
?
???????
ClearOS
?????, ???? ?? ???? ???????????? ?? ?? ??
??а???????????? ??а?а??????? ?????????,
???? ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ???????н
??. ??а?? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????н
???? ?? ????? ?????????? ????????????
??? ???????, ????? ??? ClearVM Standard,
????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????
????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а???н
??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??аг 78 ?аMarн
ketplace, ?а??? ??? ???. Univention ??? ??
???? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ????н
?? ??аг 279 ??аг 1788, ??????? ???? ??????
?а???? ????? ?????? ??а???? ??????? ??н
??? ??? ???????? ?а?? ?? ??????????????
?????????. NethServer ???? ???? ?????? ??н
?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???,
??? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?а??н
?????? ???????, ?а?????? ?????? ?а?????
4н? ???????????? ?????????. ???а?????н
??????? ????????????? ????????, 30 ????
??? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????????,
Zentyal ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ?а??н
??? ????? ????????/??????? ?????, ?????
??????н????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????.
?????
NethServer
?????
Univention
?????
Zentyal
?????
Koozali
?????
╗ Koozali ????н
??? ?? ????????
??????? ????н
?????, ???????
????????? ???н
??????.
???????? ? ??????
?????? ??а???????? ?????? ???? ?а?????? ?????.
? ???? ?? ??? ?а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??
??а????????? ????????, ???????н
?? ???????????? ?????????? ??н
?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????. ???????н
?? ???? ??????н?н??????, ????? ?а???????
??????????? ????????, ??????????? ??н
???????? ?а????????? ????? ???????, ???
???????? ??, DNS ?????? ?а????, ?? ????
???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ???
???????????? ????????? ?????????????.
?
?? ??????? ??????? Univention ???????
?а?????? ??а????????????? ???????, ??а??н
?????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ???
??а??????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ??н
?????, ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ??????, ??н
??????, CUPS, ?????? ?????? ??????? KVM,
Nagios, ???????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????н
?????, ????? ??? Fetchmail ?а??????? ????
KDE, ?????? ??????. Koozali, ??а??????н
??? ???????????? ????????? ?????????
> ? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????????, Univention
???? ????? ???????? ??а??????
??????????
26
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
??аcurses, ??а????? ????????? ?????? ????н
??. ??а????????? ??а??????? ??аCentOS, Kooн
zali ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??а????? Anaconda,
???? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а??н
????? ????. ??? ???? ??????????? Cenн
tOS, NethServer, ???? ???? ?????? ???????
?????????, ??а?????? ???? ??а????? ????н
??? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ??н
?????? ???а???? ??????. ???? ???, ??а????н
????? ????? ???аNethServer ??????? ?????
??? ?????? ??????????. ?а???????, ????н
???? ??? ????? ????????? ??????????????
?? ???????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ???
??а?????? ??????? ???? ?а??????? ??????н
?? ??а?????????.
??? ?аKoozali, Zentyal ?аClearOS ?? ???н
???? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????н
?? ????н???????????? ????????. ????? ??н
??????? ??а?????? ?????? ??а???? ?????
????н?? ??????????? ??? ???? ClearOS. ??н
?? ?????? ??????????? ?аClear Center, ????
??а?????????? ????????????, ?а????????
???? ??????? ????????. ??а??а?????? ???н
??? ???? ??а?????? ????, ??????? ????? ??
??? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????н
?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????
ClearOS
?????
Koozali
?????
Univention
?????
Zentyal
?????
NethServer
?????
╗ NethServer
???? ????????
?????? ? ???н
??????, ???
??????????н
???????????.
??????н??????? ?????????
??????н???????
???????
?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??а?????
????. ?????? ??? ??? ??а??? ??????
??а?????? ????????????? ??? ???н
?????? ?????????. ?????? ??? ????? ???н
?? ???? ??????? ??????????, ?а??? ?????н
??? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????
????????? ???????. ?????? ?а??????? ??н
???????? ??? ??? ??а??? ????? ???? ??н
???? ?????? ??????????, ??а??а??? ??? ???
??а?????. Zentyal ??? ???? ??????? ?а???н
????? ??а? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ??н
?????????? ???????? ?? ????????. ??а???
??????? ???????, ???? Zentyalа? ???????
???? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?а????? ??????
webн???????????, ??????? ?????????? ??н
??? ???? ?????? ?????????????????. ?? ??
??? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?а??????????н
??? ?а????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ?????
?????????? ???? ????? ??а???.
Univention ????????, ??? ?а?? ????????,
??а?а??? ????? ???????????, ????????, ????н
??? ?????? root ?а????????????? ???????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????н
???. ??? webн????????? ????? ????????,
?
I
?а???? ??а??????? ?а???? ??????????, ???
??а???????? ?????????? ???????????. ???н
?????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?а?????н
?? ??????? ??а?????????? ?а?????????????.
??? ????????? Koozali. ??? ????? ????н
? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???
?а??? ?????? ???????? ??а??????????, ???н
???, ??? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???н
???? ?а??????? ???????????/????? ?????.
??а??? webн????????? ?? ??? ???? ???????
??????????????????? ?а?????? ?а?????????н
?? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??н
?????? ??? ??а????? ?????? ??????? ?????н
??? ??. ???? ??????????? ???????, ?????
??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????н
?????, ???? ???????? ?????????, ?????????
?????? ???????? ???? ????????? ????? ??н
?????? ????? ??.
IV
ClearOS ?????
Zentyal ?????
??????: 5.0 ????: www.zentyal.org ????????: ????????? FOSS
╗ ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???
????????? ???????.
V
NethServer ?????
??????: 7.3 ????: www.nethserver.org ????????: GPLv3
╗ ???????? ???????, ??????? ???? ????? ???????
???????? ClearOS.
III
> ?????????????
????????? ClearOS
?????? ???? ??????? ??????????
??? ???? ?????????
??????????????
Zentyal ? ??????????? ???????????
? ??????????? web-???????????, ?????????? ????????? ?????????????????.
??????: 7.0 ????: www.clearos.com ????????: GPL ? ??????
╗ ??? ?????? ?????????, ?? ??? ?? ?????, ????? ????????
?? ??????.
II
? ?а??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???. ?????
?????? ??????? ??? ?? NethSer ver ?аClearн
OS. ??? ?????????? ??аCentOS, ??? ??????
??а???????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???? ??н
????? ??????????. ClearOS ???? ?????? ??н
?? ?????? ??????? ?а????????? ???????,
?аNethServer ??? ??? ????????? ?? ??????
???? ?????????, ?????? ?????????? ???н
????? ???????????? ????????? ??а?????н
??. ?аClearOS ??? ?? ??????? ?????? webн
?????????; ?????? ?? ?? ?а?????? ???????
????? ??а?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????
???? ????? ????? ???, ???? ?? ??? ????н
???? ???? ??а???.
Univention ?????
??????: 4.2 ????: www.univention.com ????????: AGPL
╗ ???????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????????????, ?? ??? ???????
????? ??????????.
Koozali ?????
???????? ?????
??????: 9.2 ????: www.koozali.org ????????: GPL
╗ ????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????н
???? ??????????.
???????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ????????? ????????, ?????????
?????? ?? ????? ???????? ??? ?? lxf.letters@futurenet.com.
??????????? ?????...
?
???? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??н
????? ??а???????????? ??????????. ?? ??
??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????????????
??? ???????????? ????????? (????????, ??? ??н
????? ????? ?????????????????? ??а??????) ????
?? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??, ????а?? ?????
?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????????
???????? ???. ???? iptables ????????????? ?а????н
??????? ???????? ????? Linux, ???? ???????? ????
????? IPFire ????? ????? ?а????????????? ?а???????н
??. ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???, ????????,
??????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????н
????, ?????????? ??????? ?а?. ?., ?????????? Untanн
gle. ?????? ????? ??????????? RHEL ?а?????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? ??????????? ??а??????????, ????????? ?????н
??? Ubuntu ?аFedora ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???н
???? ???????, ?? ?? ??а??????? ?а???????????.
?а???? ?а?????? ???????? ???? ??? webн??????????
??????????????, ?????????? ?аWebmin: ??? ??????н
????? ??а???????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ??н
????, ??? ???, ???????? ????? config. |
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
27
?????????????!
?????????????!
?????? ??????? ???????????
?а?????? ??????????????
??????а?? ??а?????????
??а??????????? ?а?????????
?а??????????а? ??? ?????,
???а??????????? ???
???а?????? ??а??????
?
???????? ???????????? ??? ???? ??а???????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???????
??????? ?????? ???? ??а????????? ????????? ???, ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ??а??? ?????? ??? ?а??????? ??? ??? udev, ????? modprobe
?а?????????? ?????? ???????
??????????
?? ?? ??? ??? ????? ????
?????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ?а??н
??????? ???? ??? ??? ?????н
?????, ??? ?? ??? ????????
?а???????. ?а??а?????????а??
??? ??? ???, ????? ??????, ??? ???, ???????????
???? ???? ??? Linux? ?а?? ?? ???н??а?????? ??а???,
??а ??а ??? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??,
????????? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???????н
?? Linux (?????? ??а?????? ???? ???????, ??а????н
?????? ??а?????).
? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?? ??? ?а????н
???????? ??а?????????? ?????????? ???????????,
?????? ??? ?????? ?а????? ????????????а? ????
?????? ?????????. ??а?? ??, ???? ??а???????? ????н
?????? ?а???????? ?????, ??? ??????? ??? ?????
????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ????????н
??а??а????? ??? ????, ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???н
?????? ??????????? ????????????, ??????? Linux
????? ?????? ?а????? ??????. ??? ??? ????? ???н
????? ????????? ??????????? ?????, ??а??? ??????
??? ????? ???????, ??а?????? ???????? ??????
??????? ?? ?????? ??????. ??а????? ?????????
????? ?????????, ?????? ??н
??? ??????? ?????? ??????
?а????? ????????? ????. ????
????????????? ?? ?????????
??? ?? ?? ?? ???, ??а ??а ?? ???
?????, ??? ?а???????????? ??н
???? ???? ??? ?????????, ??н
???? ??? ??? ?????????. ??????!
?????а?? ??????? ??а??а??? ?? ?? ?? Linux,
??а??? ????? ???н?????? ??а???? ????? ??а??????н
???????. ??????? ??????? ??????а? ?а???????, ???
??????????? ????????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?????
?????????...
??? ?? ?? ?? ????????? Linux,
?? ??? ????? ???-?????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????????.
28
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
??, ???????? ???????? ?а???? ???а?????? ????????
??????. ?а??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??н
???????, ?? ?? ??а?????????? ????????????.
???? ?? ?? ??? ?а??? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? (??),
??? ??а?? ?? ?????????? ??а?????? ????????? ???н
???? ?? ???, ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???, ?? ??
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????????????!
???????? VirtualBox
???? ?????? ?? ????? ?а???? ??????? ??а???, ?а????? ?? ??а??? ????.
?? ???????? ????????????, ?????????? ??а????????????
???????????? ??? ????, ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????
?а??? ??? ???????а? VirtualBox ??аOracle? ??? ??????? ??,
??? ??а?????? (??а??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? USB),
?а?а??? ???? ??????? ?а??? ???????? GUI, ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??а????????? ???????? ??????а??
??а????????? ?? Windows XP, ????? ?????? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ??????????? Linux (?а?????? ????? ???? ???, ??? ??а??????? ????)а? ??? ????? ?а??????????
???????? ?аVirtualBox?
????? ?????????? VirtualBox ?аLinux, ?? ?? ????? ???? ??????
$ sudo apt install virtualbox
??? ??? ??? ????????? ?а????? ???????? ????. ???????????? Winн
dows ?аmacOS [???.:а? ?а??? ?????? ???? ???????!] ????? ???н
???? ?а?????????? ??а?аwww.virtualbox.org; ????????? ??????????
??а?? ?????.
??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??а????????????? ISO Debian 9 ?а??н
???? ?????, ??а??а?????? ??????? ?а???????????? ????? ??????
ISO, ??????? ??? ????? ?а??? ???а?????. ??? ?? ?? ????? ???????н
???? ?аDVD (??а?? ??????? ?а????? ????? Debian/) ?а???? ????????
????? ?????, ????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????.
?
?????????? ??
????????? VirtualBox ?а?? ????? ??а?????? New [?????] ????? ??а??н
???? ????????????. ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????
???????????? ???: ?? ?? ??а?? ?????? ??а???н??а????? DebianнVM,
????????? ?? ?? ??????????? Type ?аVersion ?????, ?а??а?????????
???????? (???? ??а??????????? ????? ??????? Guided, ?а??а????н
?????????? Expert) ??? ?а??????? ????????, ??а??а??????, ?????
?????? (??? Debianа? 1 ??, ??а???? ??а??????????? ?? ????? ??????н
?????? Gnome, ???? ??????? ??????). ??а???????? ??? ?? ????????
?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????.
????????? ???а? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????; ???
????, ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а????? ??. ????????
Create [???????] ?а??????? ????? VDI ??а?????????, ?а??а??????н
??? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? Dynamically Allocated [?????????
???????????]. ??? ????????, ??? ???? ????? ????? ??а???? ???????н
??? ???????????? ?????а? ?????? ????, ????? ???? ??????? ?а???н
?? ?? ???? ??????? ??????.
????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?а???????????????н
???, ??а??? ??? ??а????? ?????????. ??????? ????????? Debian ??а??н
????? ????? ???????? ????? 4 ??, ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????
> ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ????? ??????? ???? ??????????
???????а????????
??а????????, ?а?? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????? (??? ?? ??н
???? ????? ????????? ??а??????????, ???? ??а??????????? ????
?а???????????? ??????), ??? ???, ????? 16 ??.
????????????? ?а??????????? ?????????????, ?? ?? ??????
?????? ??, ?а???? ??? ????? ????? ??????. ???????? ???? ??????
?а?? ????? ??аSettings [?????????] ??а?????? ????????????. ?????
????????? ?аStorage [?????????] ?а????? ???????а? ?а??а???????,
??? ??????????? ?????????? ???? (?????????????? ?а????????н
???? ??????????? IDE) ???????? ???а??, ??? ?а??? ???????????
??????? ????. ???????? ??а????, ????? ?? ????? ??а?????? ?????
?????? ?а???????? ???? Choose Virtual Optical Disk [??????? ???н
???????? ?????????? ????] ??а???? ??????? ????. ???????? ISO
Debian, ??????? ??а????????? ?? ?а???? ???????? ????? ?????
?????. ??а??????? Screen ?а??????? Settings > Display ??????????
Video Memory ??а128а??, ???? ???? ?????????? ????? ???????????
VRAM. ?????? ?? ????? OK ?а????????? ???? ??, ?????? ??а?а??н
??? ??а?????? Start.
???а??????? ????? ???????? ?аLive Environment, ??а????? ??н
??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?а????????????? ??, ??? ??? ????????
?а???? ???????? ????? Graphical Installer. ??а???????????? ??а???н
??? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????: ???? ??а????? ??????, ??? ???н
???? ??а?? ??????? ??н???????, ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?а??н
???? ????? ??. ????? ????????? ??????????, ??????????? ???? ?????
????????????? ????????. ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?а?????н
? ?????? Debian.
??????, ?????? ????? ??????...
????, ???? ?? ????????, ??а??, ???? ???, ????????,
??? ???????? ??? ????????. (?? ?? ??? ??? ??а??????н
????, ?????????? ????????????? ????? ?аYouTube.)
??? ????? ?????????а? ??а??????? ????, ?? ???н
??а? ????????? ?????? ?? VirtualBox GuestаAdditions. ?????? ???????? ????, ????????, Ubuntu,
???????? ??а??а?????????, ?????? Debian ?а???
??а?????????, ??????? ??а?????? ??????????????
??а???????. ??а???????, ??? ??а??????. ????? ??
(?а??) ?? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??н
???? ?а???????
$ sudo aptнget install buildнessential moduleassistant
Dkms
?????? ??а?????? ???? ?а???? ?? ????????
Devices > Insert GuestаAdditions CD Image [??????????
> ??????? ????? CD ?а????????? ????????????].
??? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ?????; ???????? ???
(??? ??????а? ????? 60 ??). ????? ??????????
????? ??а??????????? ????. ?а????? ??????? ??????
autorunа? ??????, ??а?????н??а???????? ?аDebian
??а??????????; ??а??? ??а????????, ??а????????
??? ??????? ?а???????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
$ sudo sh /media/cdrom/VBoxLinuxAdditions.Run
????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????,
????????? ?????????. ????? ????? ??а?????
?а????????? ???????? 3Dн????????? ?а???????
Settingsа>аDisplay.
?????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????????????
??????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????н
?? ???????, ?аGuestаAdditions ??????? ?а??????
???????? ???????: ?а?????????, ????? ??????
?а????? ?????? ???????????, ?????????????
??а????аDevices.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
29
?????????????!
????????? ? QEmu
VirtualBoxа? ??? ??????, ??а?????? ?????? ?????????????а? ??а?????????
?????? ?а??????? QEmu. ?????????? ?а??????? ???????????.
??????????? ????
??? ?????? ??????н
??????? ???????н
?????? ???????
AMDнV ?аVTнx ??н
?????? ????????н
??? ?????? MMU,
????? ?????????
???????? ?????н
??? ?а???????, ??н
???а? ?????? ??н
????????, ?????
????? ????? ??, ???
???????? ??а?????н
????? ?????????н
???, ?а???????а?
???????????
?????? ?????/
?????? ??? ??н
?????????? ???н
?????? ????? AMDн
Vi ?аVTнd.
? ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ??????????? ?аVirtualBox ?????? ?????-??????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???
???, ??? ?????? ?а??????? ??? ????? ????, ?а???? ???????? ???, ??????? (?а2010а??) ?????????? Guest? ?????? ??? ????,
??? ??? ????????? Oracle, ???-???? ?????????, ?а??а?????, ??? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??а????????? ???????
QEmu (Quick Emulator) ???????? ?????? ???????????? (??. ??н
???), ??а??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????????, ?а??а?????
???????????? ??? ??????? KVMа? ?????????? ??а???? ????????н
??? ?? ????; ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? Linux ??? ??? ??? ????н
???. ??а?????????? ?а2007а?., ????? ???????????????? ??????????
?а??? ??????? ?????????? VTнx ?аAMDнV.аKVM ???????????? ??н
???????, ??????? ????????? (?а????? ?????? QEmu) ????? ???н
?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ??. KVM ?????????
?????? ???????? ??а?????????, ??????? ?а??а??????, ?а??? ?????н
???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? VirtIO.
??? ??? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? PCI ?а??? ???н
???????? ?????????????, ?а??????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????
????? ????? ??? ???...
?? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?аQEmu, ?????а??
????????? ISO Debian, ??а??а?????? ??????????????? ?????, ???
???? ???а?????. ???????? QEmu ??????????. ????? ??? GUI ?а???
??????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????: ??? ??????????
?
?????? ????? ????????? ??????. ?а???????, ???? ?а??????????? ??н
????????, ?а????? ??а??? (virt-manager) ??а?????????????а? ??н
??? ????? ???????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????.
?????????? QEmu (?а300 ?? ????????? ????????????) ????а???н
???? ??????? ?????? (????? ???? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ?????н
??? ???? ?а????? LAN) ?а???????
$ sudo aptнget install qemuнkvm bridgeнutils
??? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ??????????? ??????? ??а???н
?? ??? л?????╗ ????? ????? ??????? 16 ??. ??????????, ?????
?а??? ?а???????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ????????? 16 ??, ????? ???
??а?????????.
$ qemuнimg create нf raw lxfнqemu.raw 16GB
?????? raw ??а????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????, qcow2.
??а?? ??? ???? ??? ?а??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???????
??????, ??а???а???? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ??а????????? ??????н
???. ????????? ??? Debian ISO ?а?????????? ??? ??а??? ????????н
??? ????, ?????
$ qemuнsystemнx86_64 нcdrom /path/to/debianнliveн
9.0.1нamd64нgnome.iso нboot order=d нdrive file=lxfнqemu.
raw,formatнraw нenableнkvm нm 4G
????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????. ??а????? 4 ??,
??а??а???????? ???????, ??????? ????? ????????. ????? ??а????н
?????а? 128 ??, ?а????? ?????? ?????? ??а????? ??????????? ??.
????? ???? ???? ??а????????? (?а?????????????? NAT) ?????? ???н
?????? ????????? Debian (??? ??а????????? ping), ??????? ??????
??????? ??а???????? ????? ?????. ??а?????????? ????? ?а???а???н
??, ?а??????? ??а???????? ??????? ????. ??а?????????? ?????????
??а?????? ????????? ?????? ???а????? нcdrom ?анboot.
??? ???????????? ?????? ??????
Virtual Machine Manager (??а??а? virt-manager)а? ??? ??????????
??аRed Hat, ?????? ?????? Manager ??????? ??????? ???????н
????? ?? ???????? ?а??? ?? VirtualBox. ??? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?????
????а??????
$ sudo apt install virtнmanager
?? ?????????? ?а??????? ?а?????? ?? ?а??????? API libvirt
(https://libvirt.org), ??????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????н
?????. ????? ???? ??? ????????????? virt-manager ?? ?? ?????????
?????? libvirtd, ?а???? ??а?????????? ????????? ??? ????????????,
?????? ???????? ??? ?а???????????? ???????:
$ sudo systemctl start libvirtd
$ sudo systemctl enable libvirtd
> ?? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? QEmu, ??????????
???????? ????????????
?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????, ?а??а?????
?????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ??????????
Linux, ????? ???????? ???????? ??. ?????? ????
??а??????, ????? ??? ?? ??????????? ??а????????
?? ??????, ????? ????? ????? ???????????. ?а????н
?????, ?????????, ??? ??????????? ??????????
?????? ???????, Intel VTнx ??? AMDнV, ??????? ???н
???? ??а??????????? 64н?????? CPU ??????????
?? ?а2006а?.а??а?????? ??? ????????, ????????
egrep ?(vmx|svm)? /proc/cpuinfo
30
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
???? ?????????? ??? ???, ??а??????? ??????
??а??????.
??????, ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ??а??????н
??? ?аBIOS/UEFI, ??? ?а??? ????? ?????? ????????.
??? ??? ?????????а? ??????? egrep ???? ??? ?????
???? ??? ???????????, ?? ?? ???? ??? ?????????.
??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??н
????, ?а?????? ??? ?а??? ???, ??? ?а?а?????? ???н
??????? ???? ????? ????????, ?? ?? ???? ??????
?? ??????? ???а???????. ????????? ???????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????, ??а??????? ??а??????? ?????? GUI, ?????
???????? ???????? 512 ??; ?а??? ?????? ????????
????? ????????? ???????а?? ????????, ??????? ??н
??????? ????а?? ?????????.
? ?????????? ????????? ?а4 ?? ??? ????? ????н
???? ?????н???????????? ??, ??????? ??а?????н??
?а????? ????. ?а???? ??а????? ?а?????, ????? ????н
???? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????,
?????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????
?а?????????.
?????????????!
????????? ??????????? ??????
1 ?????? virt-manager
2 ????????????? ????????
????????? Virtual Machine Manager (??? ?????????? ?аlibvirtd ???, ????????, ???н
????? ?????? ??????) ?а?? ????? ??а?????? New ??а?????? ????????????. ????н
???? Local install media > Use ISO Image > Browse > Browse Local, ????? ???????
?а?????????? ??? ISO. ??а??? ??? ? ?? ??????? ?? ISO Debian, ??????? ???????
??????????????а???.
???????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????, ?а???? ?а??? ????????? ????, ????н
????? ?а???????? ????? ????? ??. ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????????
????? ?????. ?????? ????? ??????? ????? qcow2, ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???
?????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ?????????????? (??а????????? ??? /var/lib/
libvirt/images).
3 ????? ?а????
4 ????? ??а?????????? ??????
????? ????? ?????? ???а? ???????? ??? ??????????? (??? ?????????? ???
????????)а? ?а???????? ???? Customise configuration before install [???????????н
??? ????????? ????? ??????????]. ???? ??а?????????? bridge-utils ?а??????, ?????
???? ?????? ???? ???????? ?аLAN, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??аmacvtap ?а????н
???????? ?а????? ??????? ?????? ?а?а???????? Source ???????? Bridge.
?????? ???????? ???????????? ??а????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а???????
????????? VirtIO. ???? ??а???????????? ????? Windows, ??а???? ???????? ????????
??а????? ????????? (??. ?????? ?????????? ????????? PCI, ?? ???), ??а?а??????? Linux
??? ?а???????. ???????? IDE Disk 1 ?а??????? ??? ???? ??аVirtIO. ???????????, ???н
????? ??? ??? ?????????? QXL ?а????? ???????? 3Dн?????????.
5 ????????? ??
6 ????????? ?а????????????
???????? Begin Installation [?????? ?????????] ?????? ?????. ???? ????? ??????,
?????????? ???????? ???, ??? ???? ???? VirtIO ????. ???????? ????????, ??? ????
QEmu ?? ?????? ?????? ????. ??а???????, ??? ????? ??????????, ?? ??? ?????? Ctrl
?а?????? Alt. ???????????? ?а????? live ?а???????? ip a, ??а???????, ??? ?а????? ??
???? IPн????? ?а????? ??????? LAN.
??? ?а??????, ?????????? ???????? ??. ???? ??а???? 3 ??а????? ?? ??????? ????
(Bridge), ??а????????? ????????? Debian ??а???? ?????? ???а?????? ????? ??. ????н
??????????? ?а????? ? ??????? ????? ??. ??а?????? ?????????? ?? ??а???? ?????
?а??????? ?????? ?????? ??????. ???? ??а?????????? ?????? ???? ?а???????? ???
??а??????????? ????? ??????, ???? ???????? ??? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
31
?????????????!
?????????? ? Docker
????????????? ? ?? ???????????? ???? ? ?????????? ? ????????...
??а???? ????? ????????????, ?????? ????? ????????? ??
???????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????? ????????? ???????
??а?????????, ?а???????? ???? ??а??, ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????????????, ??? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????,
?????? ??? ??а???????? ??а??? ????? ???????
????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???? (cgroups ?аnamespaces) ??н
????? ?????, ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?а???н
????? ???а?? ??????? ???? ????? ??. ????? л??????????╗ ??????
??????? ?ал??????? [jail]╗ ?аchroots BSD, ?. ?. ???? ??а???? ??? ????
(????? ?????? ?а???? ????? ???а???????????? ?а???????????? ????н
????????) ??а????; ??а?????? ?а?????????? Linux Containers (LXC)
?а2008а?.а??? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ?а??????????? ????????????.
??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?а2013а?., ????? ???????? Docker. ???н
??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а??н
??? ???????? ????. ?????? ?????????? ??????????????, ????????
??????????? ?????????? ?????? webн?????????? ?а????? ?????н
????? ????, ???????, ??а???????? ??????? ??? ?????????.
?
? ???????, ??? ??? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????.
> ??????? ? ????????????? ??????
Next?loud ? MariaDB
????????, ??? ??
?????? ????????? ???????????
?????? [????: ? ???
???????] ?? ????????? ???????
32
|
??? ???? ?? Docker Hub ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ????? ???????
???? ??????? ?????, ?????????? NextCloud, ????????? NAS ??? ???н
???? MPD ?а????????? ??а????????? ???????. ???????, ??а???? (??н
???????????) ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ??????: ??? ??н
??? ????????????? ?????? ?а???? ?????, ????? ??? ?????? ????????
???????. ??? ?? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????н
???? Docker. ?а???????, ??? ??? ????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????
?????????? ????????? ??????.
??????? ????
??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????? ??? ??????????? ??а??н
?????? ????????? Nextcloud, ???? ??? ??????????? ?????. ???н
??? ???а? ?????????? Docker ?а?????????? docker-compose, ???
???????? ?
LXF227 ???????? 2017
$ sudo apt install docker dockerнcompose
??? ?????? ?????. ????????????? ???????? ?????, ??а??????????
???????????? ??аDebian, ????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????????
??????? ?а???? ??????? ??а??????? ??а???????? ???? (????? ????н
???????? su ?????? sudo, ?а??????????? ??а????, ??? ??? ??? ??н
???? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????). ???????? ?????
Docker ?а????????? ?????, ?а???????
$ sudo docker pull nextcloud
$ sudo systemctl start docker
?? ??????? 700 ??а? ??? ???? ??, ?а???????, ??? ??????????
NextCloud ???????? 100 ?? ???? ?а??? ???? Apache, PHP 7 ?а???
??????????, ??а??? ???? ?????? SQLite. ???? ??а?????????? ??н
??????? ?????????? ????? (??? ???, ????? ???? ???????) ??????н
?????? ???? ????????? NextCloud, ??а??? ????? ???????????? ??н
????????????? ???? ?????? SQL, ????? ??? MariaDB. ??а??????
???????????? ??а?а?????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?а???????????
Readme (??. https://github.com/nextcloud/docker), ??а??а???? ?????
???????????? SQLite.
????????? ?????????:
$ sudo docker run нd нname lxfcloud нp 8080:80 nextcloud
????? нd ????? Docker ???????? ?а???? (????????), ?а????? нp
???????????? ???? 80 ??а?????????? ??а???? 8080 ??а????? ?????.
????? нname ???????? ????????????; ???? ??а??а??а??? ????, ???
????? ????????? ????????? ???????. ???? ??? ??????? ??а??????
??? ??????? ??????, ????????? ??????? ?а????????? ??аhttp://locн
alhost:8080. ?????????! ????????? ??????????????? ?????????
NextCloud ???а?????? ????? ?а??????? ????????? Apache ??? ?????н
??????? ????? ?????; ??? ?????? ????????. ???, ??? ??? ?? ?? ???н
????а? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????????н
?? ?а?? ???? Finish Setup.
???а????????? ?????????? ????????
$ sudo docker stop lxfcloud
??? ????????? ???????????, ???? ??а??????????? ??????? ?а??н
?? ?? ?? ???а? ??. ?? ???. ?? ??? ?? ??а????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???
?а???????
$ sudo docker start lxfcloud
???????? ????????, ??? ??а?????????? ??? ?????? ????????н
??, ?а??а??? ?????? (nextcloud), ????????? ????????? ???????? ??н
???, ????????????? ????????? NextCloud.
??? ?????? ??? ???????, ?? ????????? ????? ????? /var/lib/
docker, ????? ????????? ????? ??а?????, ??????? ????? ????? ?????
????????? л??????╗. ????????????? ?????????? ??а??????????н
?? ?а?????? docker ps, ??а??а?????? ???????, ??? ???, ???? ??????н
??? ????????????? ???????????, ????????
$ sudo docker ps нn 5
????? ??? ???? ???, ??? ?????? ??а?????????, ?а??????? docker
rm <??? ??? id ??????????>. ???????? ?????? (???????????????
??????, ????????? ??аdocker pull) ????? ??? ???? ???????? docker
rmi <??? ??????>. ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????н
?? ??? ????? ??????????????? ????????????????? ??????????
NextCloud, ??????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?а??? ???? ???
?????????? ??????????. ??а????????????? ???????????? dockercompose, ??а???????? ??? ?????. ??? ???? ??????? ???????????
????? MariaDB, ??????? ??а?????? ????????
$ sudo docker pull mariadb
?? ???????? ?????? nextcloud ?аmariadb, ????? ??? ????? ??н
?????? ???? ?а??????, ?а?а??? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????????
??а????? ?????, ????? ??а????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????????????!
????? ?? ????? Docker
Dockerа? ??а???????????? ???? ???н
????????, ?а????? ??????? л??????????
Docker╗, ??а???????????????, ??? ??а(???н
??, ?????????? ??а????? ?а??а???? ???н
???) ????? ????????? ????????? ?а??????
?????а??????????.
????? ????????? ????? rkt ?аrunc
?аCoreOS, ??? ?????а? libvirtнlxc. ?аSystemd
??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????н
?????, systemdнnspawn. ???????? ?????н
???????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????
Steam ?а?????????????? ???????????
????? ??????? ??????? 32н?????? ??????
?????????? ???? ??аhttp://ludiclinux.com/
NspawnнSteamнContainer.
????????? Snap ?аFlatpak ??? ??а??????н
??? ??а???????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ???????????,
??????????? ??????? ????????. ???? ???н
??? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????
???????, ??а???????? ???а??, ??? ??а??? ????
(???н???, LibreOffice), ?????????? ????? ??н
???????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ????
????????????? ?а???? ????????????? ????
???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????.
Container Linux ??аCoreOS, ?????? CoreOS
Linuxа? ??? ???????? ???, ????????? ???
??????, ?а??????? ??? ???????????????
?а????? ??????????. ?????? ????????
[Jessie Frazelle] ??аGoogle ??????? ?????? ??н
???????? ?????? ???????? ????? Container
Linux, ?а??????? ??? ???????? ?а????????н
??? ???аroot: https://blog.jessfraz.com/post/
ultimateнlinuxнonнtheнdesktop.
NextCloud. ??? ??? ???????????? ?а????? YAML, ??????? ??? ?? ??
???????????????? (???? ??????????? ?а???????? ?аDocker GitHub).
??????? ??? ?? ????????аsecretpassword ??а??? ??????????? ???н
?????? ??????:
version: ?2?
volumes:
nextcloud:
db:
services:
db:
image: mariadb
restart: always
volumes:
н db:/var/lib/mysql
environment:
н MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=secretpassword
н MYSQL_PASSWORD=secretpassword
н MYSQL_DATABASE=nextcloud
н MYSQL_USER=nextcloud
app:
image: nextcloud
ports:
н 8080:80
links:
н db
volumes:
н nextcloud:/var/www/html
restart: always
????????? ??? ??? docker-compose?yml (????????????? ?????
????? ??а????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?? ????? ??а?????н
??), ?а???? ?? ??????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ?а????? ?????,
??? ???, ~/docker-nextcloud/. ????? ??????? ?а??? ????? ????? ??аcd
?а?????????
$ sudo dockerнcompose up нd
???? ??? ?????? ??????, ??а??????? ????? ??????? ??аhttp://
localhost:8080 ??? ?????????. ?а???? ??а?????????, ????????? ????
??а??????? ?????? ?а??????? dockerнcompose logs. ?????? docker
ps ?????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? (??? ??????, ????
??а??а?????? ???? ??а?????), ?а??????? docker_nextcloud_1 ?аdockн
er_db_1. ????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??а?????????? Nextcloud
????? ??? ????? db, ??????? ????? ??а????????? MySQL/MariaDB
?а?????????? Storage & database [???????? ?а???? ??????] ??а????н
???? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?а???? ????? ???? ??????. ??? ?? ??
????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????
> CoreOS Container Linux ? ???, ????????, ??????? ????????
????????????? Linux? ????? ????????? ? ?????
??????? ?????? ??????????????, ?а??? ?? ?????? nextcloud ?а?????
????? ???? ?????? ?а????? ????????????, ?а??? ????????? ??н
????, ?? ?????? ????, ?а???? ??????. ??а????????? ?????? ?а?????н
??? ????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??? ??а??????????, ???? ????? ??н
????? ??а?????? Finish Setup ??? ??????.
???? ??? ?? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???????????,
?????????? ????? ???? ????????? dockerнcompose stop ??а????? ??н
???, ?????????? ??? ???? YAML. ?а?????????????, ??? ??а?а????н
???????, ?а??????? dockerнcompose start. ????? ????????? ???н
???? ???? ??????????, ??????????? dockerнcompose down. ??????
??? ?????? ???? ??а??? ???а?? YAML, ??а????????? ??????????
?????? ???а??????????? (??????? ????? ????????? ?а???????
dockerнcompose up ннupgrade). ???? ???????? ????????, ?а??а??н
??? ????????, ??? ??????, ?????? (???????? ????????) ????? ??,
????????, docker inspect docker_db_1:
...
?Mounts?: [
{
?Type?: ?volume?,
?Name?: ?docker_db?,
?Source?: ?/var/lib/docker/volumes/docker_db/_data?,
?Destination?: ?/var/lib/mysql?,
?Driver?: ?local?,
?Mode?: ?rw?,
?RW?: true,
?Propagation?: ??
}
...
??? HTTPSа? ??? ???????
?? ??? ??????, ????????? Docker ???????? ????????????? ?????н
???, ?а??а????????? ????????? NextCloud, ??????? (?а???????????
??а?????? ???????????? ?а???????? ??????????) ?????? ??? ?????н
???? ????????? ?????????????. ?а????? LAN ??а?????? ???????, ??н
???? ??а???а????? ??????????????? ?а??? ????????? ???? ??а??а???н
??? ???? ???????? ????? ????????.
?? ??а????????? ??аwebн??????? HTTPS, ?а?а??? ??? ????? ???
?????. ????а?? ??? ????, ??а?????? ????????? ????????????? ??н
???? NextCloud/Apache, ??а?? ?????? ?? ?а????? ??? ???? ???н
??????, ??а??? ???а? ???????? ?????? Nginx. ?????? ?????????
??????? ??аhttps://github.com/JrCs/dockerнletsencryptнnginxнproxyн
companion, ?а??, ?а???? ???????, ??????? ?????? nginxнproxy. ???
????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ????????, ??? ??? ??????н
???? ???, ??? ?а??? ??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
33
?????????????!
????????? ???????
???????? ?????? ?????? ??? Linux ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????
Windows ???? ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? PCIа? OVMF.
??? Linux ?????? ?????? ???? ??а???????????? ????????
?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ????: ???????? ???????, ??? ?????? Linux ????????? ???????? ????????,
Valve ?а??аSteamOS, ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?а?????
??аFeral ?аVirtual Programming? ?а???а?? ???? ????, ??????? ???????
??а?????? ?аLinux, ?а????, ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ???
????????? ?? ????? ?а????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????н
?????? ?а?? ??а????????, ?а??? ?????. Windows ??? ????? ?????
?
????????? ??а??????????? ??????, ??а?? ?? ??а??????? ???????н
????? ??? ??а????? ?????? ????????. 3Dн????????? ?аVirtualBox ??н
?? ??? ???? ??? DirectX 10, 11 ??? 12. ???? ??? ?? Wineа? ????????
?????????, ??????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????
??аLinux; ?????? ??а?? ? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???, ??н
????? ?????? ??????? ????.
?????? ?а????????? ???? ????? ????????????? ???????аVFIO
(Virtual Function I/O) ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? PCI ????????????н
???? ??, ?? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?а?а???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?а??? ?? ???
??а???? Linux. ?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???н
?? ?а??????????? ??????, ????????? ????????????????? ?а???
????? ??? ?а??????????? ?????????. ???? ??а???? ??????????? ??н
???? ???????? Windows, ?а????????????, ??????? ??а?????????
??, ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??а? ???а??????н
??? ????????а? ??а??????? ?????? ??а??? ?? ????, ??????? ??а??н
?????? (??????) ??аLinux.
????? ??? ??????? ??, ??? ????? ??? GPU. ???? ??? ?? ??? ???н
??? ??????????, ????????? ??а?????? ?????. ???? ????????? ?а???н
???? ???? ?????????, ????? ??? ??а????????, ??????? ??а????? ???н
??????? ??а????? ???????? ?????. ????? ????????, ??? ?а??? ???
???????? ???? ?а??????????? ?????? Gigabyte 990FXнUD5 (nonн
UEFI) ??а?????????? Athlon 8350, Nvidia GTX 960 (????? ??а??????
????????? 2012а?.) ?а???????? ?????, ?аRadeon 290 OCX ?а????????
?????. ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????, ??а1000н?а????
??????? [???.:а? ?????? ???????] ????????? ?????????? ???????
???? ???????????.
IO(MM)U
> ????????? ???????: ??а???????????? Nvidia GTX 960а?а???????? ????? ?а??????? ?????
????? ?а??????? Radeon 290 OCX ?а???????? ??????
????? ????????? IOMMU (??. ??????) ?аBIOS ??? ??????????? ????н
???? ?а????????? ????????? ????? ????: ???? intel_iommu=on, ??н
?? amd_iommu=on. ??а?????? ??????? ???, ??????? ??????? grub?cfg
????????, ???а?? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??а??н
???????? ?а?????? GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT ?а/etc/default/
grub ?а??????? grubнmkconfig. ?????? ???????????????, ???????????
?а????????? ????? ??????:
#!/bin/bash
shopt нs nullglob
for d in /sys/kernel/iommu_groups/*/devices/*; do
n=${d#*/iommu_groups/*}; n=${n%%/*}
?????????? ??????????
????? ???? ???? ????????, ????????? ??????????
????? ????????????, ??а?а?а??????????? ???????н
?????? ???????? ??а?????????.
??? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ?? ??
??????????. ???? ?а??? ??? ????????? GPU, ?? ??
???????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ??? ?????
?аBIOS/UEFI, ?????????, ??а?????? ?????, ??? ???н
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??а?а??? ??????????.
?????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? UEFI (?а??н
????????? ????? ??а??????), ????????? ??а????? ??н
???? ?аOVMF. ????????, ??????????? BIOS GPU ??н
?????? ??а????????????? (????????? ?????? ??, ???
??а??? ???? ??а???????? ?????? ?а????? ??а??????),
34
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
?а??а?????? ???????? ??а?аQEmu ????? ????? ?romн
file ?????? ????????????? ?????а??????????.
? ????????, ???????? ???, ??? ????????? ?????
2012а?.а???? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????н
???? IOMMU (???а??а? Directed I/O), ???????, ???н
?????, ???????? ???????? ?аBIOS, ?а??? CPU ????
?????? ??? ??? ????????? (Intel ???????? ??? VTнd,
?аAMDа? AMDнVi; ??????, ??? ??? ??? ?а??????????
?а????? ????? VTнx ?аAMDнV, ??????? ??? ?????).
????? ????, ????????, ??а?? ?????? ???????????
??а????????????? KVM (?????? ?????? ?а?????)
??? ??а?????????????? ??????????/????/???н
???, ????????? (??? ??????????? VNC ??? SPICE)
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????н????? ??а????? ????? ??????? ?а???н
???????? ????? ?????. ??а?????? ??????? ????????
????? ?????????? USB, ??а???? ?а????? ???н??а???н
??? ??а???, ??? ??а????? ??????? ????, ?а??????,
??а??а??????? ?????????????? ????.
???? ??? ??а???????? ?? ?????? ?а????????, ??а???
??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?а??????????? ???????
(?а??? ???? ???????????) ??? ?????? ???????. ????
??а??????????? ????? Nvidia, ??а?????? ?????н
?????? ?а?????? ?error 43?, ??????? ????? ??????,
??????????? ???? QEmu. ???? ?а??? ??????? Ryzen,
??а?????????? BIOS ????? ????????? ?????? ????н
??????? IOMMU.
?????????????!
????????? Windows
?? ??? ?? ?????? ?аLinux Format, ?? ??? ???? ???????
??а?? ?????, ??? ??????? ?а?????? ?????, ????? ???
??? ???? ??????? ISO Windows, ??????? ????? ???н
???? ?аMicrosoft ?а????????? ???????????? 30 ????.
? ??????? Overview ???????? BIOS ??аUEFI. ???н
?????, ??? ???? ??????? ????????????? libvirtd,
????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????????. ?а??????? CPU
?? ?? ???????? ?????? ??аhostнpassthrough; ???
????? ??а????????? ?а???? ?????? ????, ????? ??н
?? ??????? ?????? ????. ?????? ???????????? ?????
IDE ??а????????? ????????????? ????????????
?????????? VirtIO SCSI ?а??????????? ???? SCSI,
??аWindows ????? ?????????????? ????????, ???н
? ?? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????. ????н
???? ????? ????? ??аhttps://fedorapeople.org/groups/
virt/virtioнwin/directнdownloads/latestнvirtio, ?аISO
??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? CDнROM.
?? ??????? ????????? ??а????, ??? ??????????
?а?????????? ?????????? ????????. ??а??????????
????????? ??.
??????????? ?????????? (????? Spice, ?????н
??????? QXL ?а????????????? ????????????
??????????) ????? ??? ?????? ?????????, ??? ???
??? ???? ??. ???, ???????, ????????, ??? ?????????н
??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а??а?
????? ?????????? GPU. ??????? ???а?? ?????
?а???? ???????????. ?? ?????аAdd Hardware ?а????н
???? ?????? PCI Host Devices (??? ?а?????? IOMMU).
??? ????? ???????? ?????????? USB ?а??????????
????, ??а?? ?? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ???????н
??? ?????? (??. ??????); ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????
??????? ???????????? ??????????/????? ??.
????? ?? ???????, ??? ????? ??а????????? ??,
?????????? ?????????? ???????? GPU (????????,
???????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????????);
???? ???а? ???? ??а????????????. ???? ??? ???????,
?????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? ????????
Windows; ?? ??? ?????????? ????????? CPU ?а???н
???а???????? ??????????????????.
?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??????,
?а????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??????а??а???н
???? ?а????. ????? ?????? ??????а? ????????
Arch Wiki ??аhttps://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/
PCI_passthrough_via_OVMF; ??? ?????????? ?????
printf ?IOMMU Group %s ? ?$n?
lspci нnns ?${d##*/}?
done;
?????? ????? ?????? IOMMU ??? ?????? ????????????. ???н
??????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а?? ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ???н
???? ??а?????? IOMMU. ?а????? ?????? ??а???????:
...
IOMMU Group 16 01:00.0 VGA ... Hawaii XT / Grenada XT
[Radeon R9 290X/390X] [1002:67b0]
IOMMU Group 16 01:00.1 Audio device ... Hawaii HDMI
Audio [Radeon R9 290/290X / 390/390X] [1002:aac8]
...
????, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? HDMI Audio,
?а??? ?? GPU. ????? ??а??а???????? ?????, ??а????????? ??? ????н
???? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??н
??????????? ??????? ???????????? PulseAudio. ??????????, ???
????????????? ???? USBн???????????, ????? ??а????? ???????
???? ??а????????, ??а?????????? ?????? ??????????. ????????, ???
???????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?а?????? ???? PCIe, ????
??? ????????????? ?а??????? ??????????: ????????? ????? ??н
??????? ?аCPU, ?а?????????а? ?а????, ?а?????????? ?а???? ?? ??
??н???????.
??? ???????? GPU ?? ?? ?????????, ??? ?а???? ??а?????????
???????? ????. ??? ????????, ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??н
???? ?а??? ??, ??? ??? ?????? ??????. ??????????? ?????? ???????
???а? ?а??????? ???????? vfioнpci ?а??? ????????????? ? ID ???н
??????? ??? ????????????, ??????? ?? ?? ???????????. ???? ??а??н
????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?а?????, ????? ??а???н
??????, ????????? ??аID ????? ?????????. ??а??????? ??????????
?а???, ??? ??? ??????, ??а??????? ?а????? ??????. ?а????? ??????
??а???????? GPU ?а?????????? Audio ????, ??????? ??????? ????
/etc/modprobe?d/vfio?conf, ??????????
options vfioнpci ids=1002:67b0,1002:aac8
????? ?????????? ???????? vfioнpci ????? ????????, ?? ?? ???н
??????, ??? ?????? vfio ?? ?????? ?????? initramfs. ??????? ??н
?? ??? ????? ?? /etc/initramfs-tools/modules (?аArch Linuxа? /etc/
mkinitcpio?conf) ?а?????????, ??? ????? ?? ? ??? ??????????????
?????????? ?????? ??????: vfio, vfio_iommu_type1, vfio_pci ?аvfio_
virqfd. ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????????? initramfs ?а???????
??????????? ??? ???? ?а?а??????? ??? ??????? ???н
???? ????????? ?а?а??????? ???????? ?????. ????
??? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??аYouTube,
???? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???
??????а??? ?????.
> ??? ????? ????????? ????????, ?? ???????? Windows, ?? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ?????
??????????? ???????? ?? Windows?
sudo updateнinitramfs нu. ?????? ??????????????? ?а????????? ??н
??? dmesg | grep нiаvfio. ??а?а??????????? ???????
[ 1.488517] VFIO ? User Level metaнdriver version: 0.3
[ 1.489469] vfioнpci 0000:01:00.0: vgaarb: changed VGA decodes:
olddecodes=io+mem,decodes=io+mem:owns=none
[ 1.504260] vfio_pci: add [1002:67b0[ffff:ffff]] class
0x000000/00000000
[ 1.520925] vfio_pci: add [1002:aac8[ffff:ffff]] class
0x000000/00000000
[ 5.429259] vfioнpci 0000:01:00.0: vgaarb: changed VGA decodes:
olddecodes=io+mem,decodes=io+mem:owns=none
? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ??? vfioнpci ?????????? ??а???н
??? ??????? ??? ??а?????. ?? ?? ??? ????? ??а?????а??, ??, ???н
?????, ??????? ??????? ???????. ?????? ????? ????????? ?????
lspci нnnk нd 1002:67b0, ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ID. ???
VFIO ????????? ???????????
PCI ???????? ? ????????
?? ???? Linux.
???? ???, ????? ?????? ??????? ????????????а? ???????, ??? ??н
???????? ????????????? ??????? (????????, nouveau, nvidia, radн
eon), ???а?? ??а???????? ?а??????????.
Open Virtual Machine Firmware (OVMF)а? ??? ????????? ????
???????? Tianocore UEFI ??аIntel ??? QEmu. ?????????? ??? ?а????н
??? sudo aptнget install ovmf. ??а????????????, ??? ?а??? ??? ??н
????????? libvirt, virt-manager ?аqemu. ??а?? ?? ???????? libvirt, ???
????? ????????? OVMF, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? nvram = ?а/etc/
libvirt/qemu?conf ??
nvram = [
?/usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_CODE.fd:/usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_VARS.
fd?
]
? Ubuntu ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?а???????????? (??.
http://blog.system76.com/post/139138591598/howtoнqemuнwнubuntuн
xenialнhostнuefiguest), Arch ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???,
??а?а??? ??????? ?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
35
?????????????!
?? ??????????? ? ????????????
????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????
??? ??????? ? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????!
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??а?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?а??? ?? ??? ??? (P2V)
???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?? ?????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??????а?
??????, ??????, ??а??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? Ubuntu Serverа?
??а????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?а????????? ?????????,
??? ??? ???????????
? ?????? ???????, ???? ??а???? ?????? ???????? ????? ???н
??? ???????, ??а???????????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ????????
??????? ?а??? ????? ?????????? ????????. ?????? ??????? ???н
?? ?а??????????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ???н
??. ??н??????, ????? ???? ????????????, ??????????? ?а?????н
???????, ???? ??а??????? ??????????, ??????? ????? (??? UUID
?
> ????????? partx -u /dev/loop0, ???? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ? ??? ????????? ???
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????????
??а????????) ??? ?????????????, ??????? ?????????, ?????? ???
??? ?????????? ??а?????????? ??а??????? ??. ?а?????????? ??н
???? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????? LVM ?/??? RAID, ??????
?????????????? ??а??, ??а??а???????? ????? ????????, ???????н
?? ????? ????? ?а?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???
??????а? ???? ????????. ?а????????, ???? ?а??? ????????? ?????н
??? ?а????? ????? ?????? root (????? ?????????????? ??? ????,
????? /dev ?а/proc), ??а????????? ?????? ???? ???????, ??? ??н
???? ?а??? ?????? ???? ??????.
???????? ??????
???? ???????????, ??????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? P2V
(????????, VMware vCenter Converter), ??а??? ??? ????? ???????
?а??а??????? ????? ????????? ??????. ??а?????? ?а???????? л??н
????╗ ?????? ????? ?а?????????? ??? ???????, ?а????? ????????н
???? ???? ????? ?а??, ??? ????? ???? ???????????? VirtualBox ???
QEmu, ??а?????? ??????????.
?? ???????? ??а???????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????
??? ????? ?????, ?????? ?а??? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?а???н
?????? ????????? ????????????. ????? ??? ??, ????? ??? ?????н
??????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????. ??? ???, ??а???????,
??? ?????? ???????? ??? ?а16 ??. ????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???:
$ fallocate нl 16GiB ~/p2v.img
?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? (??? ????? ????? ????
Ubuntu, ??? ??? ??? ??а????? ??а?? ???) ?а??????? modprobe loop
?а????????? ????? ?а???????
$ sudo losetup /dev/loop0 p2v.img
?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??а???????а? ??? ???н
????? ??а??????????? ????? ????????. ????????? fdisk (??? ???н
??? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??а???????):
$ sudo fdisk /dev/loop0
????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ????
????, ????? n ?аp, ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??а????????? ???
?????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????. ?????? ?? ????????? ?а???н
?? ??, ??? ?? w. ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ????
??????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????
? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????
???????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???.
????а????????, ??? ????? ???? ???? ???????н
?????? ????????, ?????????? ????????? ??н
??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? л????
??????а? ????а?? ????╗.
??????? ??? ???????: ???????? ?????? ???????
????? ??????? ????? ???????????, ???????, ???н
?????, ???????? ?????? ??а?????н?????? ?????? ??н
?? ?????? ??а???а?? ??????????? ?????? ?????????
??? ??????? ??а????? ?а???а?? ?? ??????????,
????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????
?а?????? ???? ???????, ???, ????????, ??а??а?????
???????? ?? ?????? ?а?????????, ???? ??? ???????
????? ??? ????? ????? ??????.
??????? ??а?????? ?????? ??? ???????, ?а???н
?????? ???????? ???????????? ??а???? ??а???
36
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
??а?????? ???? ??а?????? ??????????????????, ?а???
????? ??????????? ???? ??а?????. ?а???? ?????, ???
???? ????? ??????? ??а????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??н
?????? ??? ??????, ????????? ??, ??? ?????? ?????н
???? ???? ??? ????? ???????????, ?а????.
????????? ????????
??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????
?а???????? ??? ??, ??? ??н??а???? ????????????
????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ????????. ???????н
??? ?????? ??????? ???а?? ??? ????? ?????????
??????; ??????а?? ??а???? ??????? ??? ??а???н
??? ???????, ??????????? ??а?а??????? ?????????н
???? ???????? ???????? ?а??????????. ????? ????,
???????? ??? ??? ??? ???, ??а?????? ??????? ????а??
?? ??а???? ???????? ?а????????? ???????????????
?????? ?????????, ?????? ?а??? ????? ??, ???????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а???а???? ?????? (??. ???????? LXF226). ??????
???????, ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????н
???? ??а???? ?????? ???????, ?а??????????? ?????
????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??а???????, ??????н
??? ?а???????.
???????? ?а2014а?.а??а??????? ?? ?????а?? ????н
??? ??а?????? ???????????. ????????????? ?????
?а???, ??? ?????????? ????? ??, ?????? ???????н
????, ?а??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????????
??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???. ???? ??а???????????
???????????? ?????????? ??? ??, ??а?? ??????н
??, ?а???? ??а????????? ?? ??а?????? ????????н
???? ???????, ??а????? ?????? ???????????? ???
?????а?????????.
???????? ??? ????а? ?????????? ?????? ???н
??: ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????,
???????????? ???? ?а???????????? ????????????,
?????????????!
?????? ? ?????? Casync
??????? ??? ?????? [Lennart PЎttering] ???????
??????????? ????? ??????, Casync, ?????????????,
????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????
???????? ??????? ??а????. ?а????? ???????????
?а???????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????, ???????н
?? ?????? ????? ???????? ??????????.
Casync (contentнaddressable synchronizationа?
?????????н?????????? ?????????????) ???????
???? ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????
(?????? ????????? ?????? ???а??????? ?????
???????? ????а??), ???????? ???а?????? ?а?????
???????????? ????????. ?????????????? ????? ??
??? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ???????????, ??? rsync,
git ?аtar, ?а??? ????? ???????? ??????, ??? ?а????н
??? ??????????, ??????.
????????, Docker ?????????? ??????????????
???????? ??????? overlay2, ???????? ???????
??? ?? ????????. ?а??????? ???????? ??? ????????
?????? ????????. OSTree, gitн???????? ??????,
???????????? ??? ???????????????/??????????
?????????, ???? ??а????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?а????н
???, ????????, mkfs.ext4 /dev/loop0p1. ?а???????????? ??? ?????н
????? ?????????:
$ sudo mkdir /mnt/virtual
$ sudo mount /dev/loop0p1 /mnt/virtual
????????????? rsync, ????? ??? ??????????? ?а?????. ??????н
??? ???? ???????? ?а?????????, ???? ??а?????????? ???????????
??а?а??а? ????????, ????? ????? /dev/, /proc/ ?а/sys/; ?, ????????,
????н?????? ??? ??а?? ??????? ?????????? ??а????? ????????????
?????? ??????, ????????, ??????? ????? ?????. ???????? ????н
??????????? ??????? ????? -exclude:
$ sudo rsync нaAXn ннinfo=progress2 /* /mnt/virtual нexclude={/
dev/*,/proc/*,/sys/*,/tmp/*,/run/*,/mnt/*,/media*,/home/jonni/.loн
cal/share/Steam/*,/home/jonni/.cache/*}
???????????? ????????
????????, ??? ???????? ????? ????? /mnt/, ??а???????? ??????н
??? ????????, ????? rsync ???????? ???????????????? ????????
????? ????? /mnt/virtual/. n ?анaAXn ?? ??? rsync ?????? ?? ??? ??н
??? ??????, ??? ?????? ???????. ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ???н
??? ??? ????????, ????????? ??????? ???аn. ????? ??????????
????? ?????????????? ?а????? ?????????????? ???? ?????? ?а??н
??? QEmu ?а???????
$ sudo umount /mnt/virtual
$ qemuнimg convert нc нf raw нO qcow p2v.img p2v.qcow
??????? VBoxManage ????? ????????? ?????? ???? VirtualBox.
???????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????? virt-manager, ???
????? ??а?????? ????????????, ?а???????????? ????????????????
????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?а????????
???????? ???????? CPU. ?а?????а??, ????????????н
??? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ????????? ?????,
?а???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????.
????? ????? ?а??????????
???????????? ????????????, ???? ???????? ??????н
??????, ????? ???????? ?а????, ???? ????? ?????н
????? ????? ????????????? ??, ????? ???? ????
?????? ??а???? ??????????? ????????. ????? ?????
??????? ?а?? ?? ??н??а?????, ??????????? ?????
?а????? ???????, ? ??а????, ??? ??а??? ?? ?? ??????н
???, ?????????? ???? ?????? ?а???, ???? ?а??? ??????
???? ?????, ?а?????????????? ????????? ????? ????,
???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?? ???????????.
????????? ????????? ?а?????? ???????а? ?????н
???????; ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????
???????? ??????, ??? ????????, ?аEndless OS (??.
??? ????? ?аLXF213/214) ?аflatpak, ??? ?????????,
??????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????.
????????? ?????????? IoT ???????н??а???? ??
???????? ?????????? ?а????????????, ?а???? ???? ??
????????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?а?? ?а??????н
??????, ????????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????????. ??????? ??????
?аCasync ?а????? ???????? ??аhttp://0pointer.net/blog/
casyncнaнtoolнfordistributingнfileнsystemнimages.html.
???? ??????. ??а?????? ??? ???????????? ??а??????, ??? ??????н
??? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?? ??? live ISO ??? ??????н
??. ??а????? live ??????? ?????????:
$ sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
$ sudo grubнinstall /dev/sda ?bootнdirectory=/mnt/boot
????? ?? ?? ????? ????? chroot ?а???? ????? ???????? ?????н
??, ????? ????????? ????????? ?????????:
????????, ????-?????? ???
?? ????????? ?????????? ??
???????????? ????????????.
$ sudo mount ннbind /dev /mnt/dev
$ sudo mount ннbind /proc /mnt/proc
$ sudo mount ннbind /sys /mnt/sys
$ sudo chroot /mnt /bin/bash
?????? chroot ?? ?? ??????? ????? config ??? Grub ?а????????
initramfs ??? ????? (??????) ????????? ????????????.
$ sudo grubнmkconfig нo /mnt/boot/grub/grub.cfg
$ sudo update initramfs нu
$ blkid
????????? ??????? ????????? UUID ????? ??????????? ????н
??? ?????????. ??? ???? ??????? ???????? /etc/fstab, ??????? ???
??а??????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? root.
?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??, ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????
????????. |
????????? Unix (?? ????? ????????? ?????????
????????????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ????
????????? ?? ???? ?а????? ???????????? ???н
???) ?????? ????????????? ??????????. ???? ????
??? ??? ??а???????? ???????????? ??????????,
??а???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ????? ???????
?а????, ??? ???, ?????? ??????????? ???????????,
??????????? ??? ?? ????? ?а??????????? ??а??
??????, ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???
??????а????????.
??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????н
????? ?а???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????.
????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ??? ?? ????????
??????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ??????????
???????? ?????? ?????? ???????, ???а????????
??? ????????, ?а????????? ????? ??? ?? ????
?а???????а?????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ?????? ???????, ????????? Docker ??????
????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????
?а???? ?????
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
37
?????????? ?? Canonical
?????
?? ????
?????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????????? Canonical,
??????а?????? ?а???? ???????, ?а????????????? ???????????
?а????? ???????????? ??????????.
???? ???? [Mike Bell]а?
?????????????? ????-????????? ????????????? Canonical ??а?????? ?а????????????
?аIoT-????????????? ?????
?а2017а??а(?аLXF223) ??а???? ????? ?а??? ???-??? ??а?????????? Canonical
??аMobile World Congress 2017, ?а?а??? ??а???????
?????, ????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а??а???, ?а??а??????????
38
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???н
????? ?аSnapн???????а? ?????????? ?а???????н
??? ?а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?????
??аCanonical, ?а??? ?? Ubuntu Coreа? ??????????
???????? ???? Linux ??? ????????? IoT. ?а???????
MWC2017а?аCanonical ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???а?
????????, ???н??? ??а????? ????????? ??а???а???
???? ?? ?а?? ??? ??? Unity, ??а????? ???? ?а?? ???
??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?а ??? ??
Edge Computing, ????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??а??а?????н??а?????????? ??????????? ???????,
?а???? ??????? ???а??, ??? ???? ??а????/?????????.
???? ??????? [Thibaut Rouffineau], ????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ??а???? ?????????? ?а??а????
?а???????? ???????? ??????????, ?а??? ?? ????????????? ????????? Software Defined Every thing
(SDx)?
Linux Format: ???????? ???????? ?а???????????? ?????????? Unity/Mir ?????? ????????????
?????????? ?? Canonical
?????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???????????? Ubuntu? ??а????? IoT/?????? ??? ?????
??а????????? ??а?????а?? ?????? ???????? ???????
?????????? ????, ?а???? ??? ????? ??а??????
????????????????? Canonical?
???? ???????: ??????? ??аUnity ???? ?????н
????, ??, ?????? ?а???, ??? ?????????? ????? ??н
??? Canonical ??а????? ??? ?? ?????? ?аIoTн??? ??н
????? ?а??? ?????? ?а???? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ????
?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????н
?? ?? ??? ??. Ubuntu ??н???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??
?????????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? Pubн
lic Cloud, ??? ?а??? OpenStack, ?а??? ???????? ???н
??? ?????????? ??? ??а???? ?????.
?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????н
??? ??? ??????? Canonical ?а???????? ?? Ubuntu.
??а????? ???????? ???а???????????? ????? ????н
???? ?? ??, ??? ??? ?? ??а?? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????н
??, ??? ??а????????? ????????? ???? ?????????.
??а?а?? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????
?????? ????? Ubuntu ?а??????????? ??????????
LTS ?а2018а?.а?, ??? ??? ??? ???, ??? ???????? ??
??????????? ??? ????? ?а????? ?? ????? ??????????
?а???????????? ?????????.
? ????? IoT ?а??? ?????? ?????, ??а??а???????н
???? ???? ??????? ????? ????????????? ??????н
?????. ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? Ubuntu Core,
??????????? ??, ????????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ??? ??????. ??а????????? ?? ??????
????????? IoT Ubuntu ??а?????? ????????, ???????
?????????????, ???????? ???????, ???????????
??? ?? ?а?? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??. ?а???н
???? ????, ??а????????? ?????????? Ubuntu Core
?аsnapн?????? ?а????? ?????????? ?????? ???а???н
?????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????.
? ?????????, ??а????? ?????????????? ??а???н
????????? ????? IoT, ????????? ??а?????, ??? ??н
????????? ????????? ?аOT ??аIT, ???????? ??? ????н
??? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????. ??а???
?????? ?? ???а????? ????? ???, ??????? ???????н
?? ?аDell, ??а????????? Ubuntu Core ??а??а??????н
????? ?а???????????? ???????, ??? ??????????
????????? ?????? ?а??? ???? ??а??????? ???????н
??? ??????.
> ???? ????: лUbuntu Core
??????????????? ?а??????
????????????╗?
?????????????. ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
??? ????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ?????н
??? ????, ??????????, ??????????????? ???????,
???? ??? ?а?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???н
???????????? ??. ?????? ??????, ??? ???????????
?????????? ?а??? ????? ??????????? ???????????н
??? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????н
??????? ?а????? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?а?? ???н
????? ????? ???? ???????????? IoT. ??? ?????????
??? ?????, ????????, ??а?????? ?????????? ?а????н
????????, ??а???? ???? ???????? ??? ?????, ???н
?????? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ??а??? ???н
??? IoT, ???? ????????? ???а?????? ????????????
??аIoTн??????????.
?????????? ? ? ?????? ? ???
???????? ???????????? ???????,
????? ???? ?????????, ??? ???
????????????? ????? ????.
???. ?????????, ??а????? ???????? ????????????,
??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??аIoT, ??а?????
??????? ??????? ??????? ??а?????, ????? ??а??н
????? ???? ?? ?а???? ?????????????...
? ???? ?????, ??? ????????, ??? ??? ?????????
??????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????
????? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????,
LXF: Canonical ??????? ?????????????? ?а????? ?? Linux Foundation EdgeX Foundry? ??????????
??????? ?а???????????? ?а????? IoT ?а?а???, ???
???? ?????? ??????? ?а??? ???????????
??: IoTа? ???, ??а????????, ????? ??? ??? ????,
??? ??? ? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? M2Mн
??? ???? ??а??????????? ????????, ???? ???н
????, ??? ??а?аCanonical ???????????? ?????????
EdgeX Foundry, ???? ?а??? ??????? ????? ???? ???н
????. ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?а???н
??????? ????????, ???? ???????? ?????? ?????
????? ??? ?? plugнandнplay, ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??
???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??а?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???
IoT, ??а????? ????? ??а?????????? ??а?????????????
????? ???????. ??? ???????????? ????????????н
???? ??а???? ?????????? ?????????? IoT, ??????н
????? ???????????? ?а???????????? ???????????
??? ????????? ???????????? ?, ????? ???????, ??н
??????? ???????????.
LXF: ??????? ????????? ?а????????????, ???????? ???????????? IoT? ???? ??а????? ?????, ???
??????????? ??аMirai ?а????????? DDoS-?????,
???????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ???????
?????? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????, ?, ??? ?????
??????? ???????, ??а?????? ???? ??а??а??? ??а??????? ??? ??? Ubuntu Core ?аsnap-?????? ??????
???а?????????
???? ????: ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? Ubuntu Core,
??а?? ?? ?? ?а???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????????. ?? ?? ??
?а?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???, ?? ?? ??а???а? ??,
??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????
??а?????. ???? IoT ?????? ?? ????????? ?а???????
???? ????????, ?а??а???? ????? ?????, ??а???????н
???, ??а??????? ???????? ?????? ????????????
> Ubuntu Core ???????? ??а??????????? ???? ????
?а???????? (?а???????? ?????????)?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
39
?????????? ?? Canonical
????? ??, ???????? ?????????? ??а??????????, ????
?????? ??????? ?????????? ??а10а???.
???????? ??? ?а??????, ??а???? ?? ???? ???н
????, ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ??????? ???н
???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????. ??????? ??, ????н
?? ?????, ???????? ??а?????? ????? ????????????,
?а?а???? ?а???? ??а?????? ???????????? ??а??????
??? ???? ?? ???. ??,а??а?? ??? ?? ??, ????? ?? ?? ??
???? ??????? ????? ???????, ????? ?а??? ??? ???н
???? ???????? ?а?????? ?????, ?а????? ????? ???н
??, ??а???? ??а??????????, ????? ???? ????????
??а???????????? ?????.
? snapн??????? ???????????? ?????? ???????н
??? ?? ?? ???а?? ??????? AppArmor; ??? ???????н
?? ??а????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?аLinux
?а?????????? ???????????? ????????. ??? ????н
????, ??? ??а??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????
??а????, ?а???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????а?
????а??а??? ?? ??? ???? ??. ?а??? ?????? ??? ???
?????????? ?????? ????????. ????? ??????? ???
??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??, ?? ?? ??? ???н
????????? ????? ???????? ???? ?а??. ??а????? ??н
?? ???? ?а?????? ??а???? snapн?????.
Canonical ??? ????????? ???? LTSн?????? ????
???, ??а????????? ????? ???????????? ?????н
??? ??а?????? ????????????? 10а???, ?а????? ????н
?? ??????????. ??а?? ??, ??а????? ?????????????
?? ??? ??? ??? snap ?? ?? ??а???? ??? ??а????? ??
?а???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????н
???. ??? ???????, ??а????????? ??а30 ??????????
???? ?а???????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???н
???????? ???????????.
LXF: ??а???? ?????? ???????? ???, ??а???????
????, ???????????? ?????????? ??а????? ???????,
????? ??? ?а??? ?а????????????? ??????????,
????? ???????? ??? ????????? IoT, ??? ???? ?????
???????, ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????
??: ?? ???, ??? ????? ????? ????? ???????. ?? ??
??а??????? ?а?????? ?????? ??? ????????, ???
> ?? ??? ?а??а??????,
???а??? (???аLXF223)?
40
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
????????????? ???. ???????, ??? ??? ????? ???????
??? ????? ??????, ??а??????????????, ??? ?а???
?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?а???????
????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??.
??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????, ?????
?????????? ??????, ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??н
????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?а??????? ??а?????.
?а????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?а???, ???
??? ????? ??а?????????? ?а??? ????? ??? ????????
??а?????, ??? ?а????н??а????, ??? ??а??????. ??? ???
??а????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ???????н
?????? ??????? ????н ??? ???????????? ??? ????н
??. ??а?? ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ????? ???????н
??? ??аUbuntu Core ??а???????, ???????, ??? ?а????
???????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ???,
?а??? ???? ??????, ??? ??а?????? ?????? ??.
LXF: ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????, ???
ShellShock ?аHeartbleed, ????????? ?????????????, ??? ????? ?? Open Source ??а??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ???, ?а?????, ???????, ?а???
??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? Ubuntu Core? ??а?????? ???? ?а???? ??????????, ???????? ???? ??????, ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?а???????? ???????? ?????
??????????? ??????? ???, ?а???? ?????, ?????????? ?а?????????? ?а????? ????? ??????
???????а??????
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??, ?а???? ????????????, ?????? ???????? ?????
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??? ???? ????, ??????? ??????????????? ?а?????н
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??????? ?????? ?а??? ?? ?????, ??? ??? ???? ????
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? ?????, ??? ??? ????? ??, ??????? ?????? ??н
??? ??а100 % ??????????. ????? ??????????, ???
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????? ???а?????? ????? CVE ???????? ??н
?? ???????? ?а???????????? ??? ?????
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??? ?а?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? Dirty Cow
??а???? ????? ??а?????? ??, ????????н
??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???.
????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????,
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???? ???????.
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?? ????????? ??а?????. ?аUbuntu
Core ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???: ??н
??????????? AppArmor ???? ??н
???? ??а????????? ???????????.
??а??? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ???????н
???, ??а?? ?? ??а?????? ????? ???н
??????? ??а?????????? ?аUbuntu Core,
??а???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?а??н
?????? ????? ?????????? ?а??а???????
???????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????,
??? ???? ??? ??а?????????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ????а?? ??? ??? WiнFiн?? ????, ??????н
????????? ?а?????????? ?а???н????. ??? ???????н
?????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ??????н
???? ?????а?? ????????????? ????? ?????????????
??????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ??а???????.
??? ???????? ?????????а? ????? ????, ??а??????
?????????????, ??а?????????а? ????????? ?????,
????????? ?а?????н????????.
LXF: Snap-?????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ???
?????? ???????? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? Ubuntu? ??????а?? ???, ???
??? ??????? ?Deb ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????
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???????? Ubuntu ?а??а??????, ??а?????, ??? ????н
??????, ??? ?а????????, ??? ?а?а???????? ?????,
??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??а?а???? ??? ?? ??.
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??? ????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????. ?? ???
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???? ???? ???????? ??а?????? ???????? ??????.
??????? ?? ????????? ?а??? ????? ??, ??а?????
????????? ??????????, ??????? ??а???? ??????н
??????? ??? ?????? ?а???? ???????? ???? ??а??н
???? ??? ??????.
LXF: ?????? ??? ????????? ??????????? PPA,
??а??????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???-??а?????????????, ??????? ???????? ??? ?а????? ?????? ??????????, ??? ?? ??????????? ???????а?
?а?а?????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?а???????,
??? snap-?????? (?аflatpack) ???????? ???????
??? ??????? ????????? ??а?????? ?????? ?????
????? snap??, ???? ??? ??????? ??? ?????
?????????????
M?: ??, ??а????? ??а?????????????? ???н???? ????н
???, ??? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??????? ??а?????
??. ??а??? ?? ????????? ??а????? ???????? ????н
??н???????????, ??? ??? ????? ?аsnap ???????? ??н
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????? ?? ??. ??? ??? ?? ??, ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??н
???? ?а???????? 10 %. ??? ??????? ??а??????????:
?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????н?? ?? ??н
?????. ??а???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????
????? ??? ??, ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?аLinux, ???
???????, ???? ???? ???а??? 10 %. ????????, ?? ??
?а????н??а???? JRE, ?а??? ????? ???? ?????? ????
?????, ?а??а??? JRE, ??а??а???????? ?????? ????н
??н????????, ?а??а???? ???????? ???. ??? ????????
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????. ?а???????? ????????, ????? ?а??? ????? ???н
??????? ????? ???????????? ??а?????? ????????
????????. ????????????? ??????н?????????? ??н
??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?а???? ?????н
?????, ????? ???????????.
LXF: ????????, ??? ????? ???????????? Snap
?аFlatpak ???? ????????? ???????????? ??а?????????????? ??а??? ????????????? ??????????
??? Flatpak ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ??? Snapа? ????? ????????????? ????? ??????а?? ??? ?а??????? (????????)
?????????????
?????????? ?? Canonical
??: Snapн?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????
??? ??????????????????? ???????, ??????????
??а???????????? ????????? ??а??????, ????? ???
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?а??????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????
??? ?? ????. Snap ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???
???????? ?????, ?? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??н
???????? ????? Electron ??? ?????????? ???????н
??? Linux. ??? ?? ??а?????????? ?????? Kubernetes,
???? ??а????? ?????????? ???? ?а??????. ??????н
???? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????н?????? ???,
??????????? ??аUbuntu Core ?аsnap.
? ???????? ?????, ??????? ?а?????? ???????
????? ??а???????????? ??. ?а????? ???? ????????,
??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? Ubuntu, ??а??????
??? ?????? ?????????????? ??а?а???????? ?????
Linux ????????? ??аsnapн??????.
LXF: Amazon ????????? Greengrassа? ??????????, ?????????? ??а???????????? ???????????,
??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????
??а????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????????? IoT? Greengrass ????? ????????
?а?????? ???? ?????? Linux? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ????????? Canonical, ??????? ???????
??? ????????? ?а???? snap?
??: ??, ??? ?????? ???? ??? Greengrass ??? ?? ???
?а???? snapн??????, ??? ????? ????????? ??а??????
???????? ????? Linux. ?????? ?????? ?а??? ????н
??????????? ?аUbuntu Core ????? ??? ?????? ???н
?????????? ????
> ???? ??????? ????????
???? ????????????
UbuntuаCore ? IoT?
??????? ???, ??? ??? ????? ???????, ?а??????????
????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????.
?? ?? ?а?????? ????, ??? ???????????? ???? ??н
????? ?? ?а?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??а??н
?????????? ??? ????? ??, ??а???? ?? ?? ????, ???
??а???? ????? ???????????????? IoT ?????? ?а??н
??????? ????? ??????????? ?а???????. ?а??????н
??? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ?????????. ?а?????, ??? ????н
?????????? ????????.
???а????, ?а???????????? ???????н
??? ???? ???? ????? ???????????. ????
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?? ??? ??????? ????????, ??? ?? ???????
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???????). ??? ??? ?? ????? ????????????
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???? ?????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????? ??????н
???? ??а?????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??а??н
?????? ????? ?????. ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????
??а??????? ???????????. ??а??? ??? ???? ??????
??????????? ?????? ?а????? ???????? ????????н
????? ??????.
? Ubuntu Core ????
??????? ? ??????
????????????...
????????. ????????, Ubuntu Core ??????????????
??? ????????????? ?аGreengrass ?а???????? ??????н
??????????? ?? ?а???? ???????????? ?????????.
????? ????, ?аUbuntu Core ?????? ???? ??????
?а????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ??н
??? л??а????? ??╗. ???, ??? ?????????? ?????????н
??? ?????????? ??аUbuntu Core, ????? ???? ??????н
??, ????, ??? ??? ????? ????????????? ????????
?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ??а??н
?? ??а?????????. ?????? ?????? ????, ??? ??????н
?????? ?????н??????а????? ?????????, ????? ???н
????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???
Linux. Ubuntu Core ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???н
??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ???
?а??а???????????? ?????????.
LXF: Greengrass ????????? ?????? ?????????,
?????? ????????????? ?а??????, ???????????
????????? ?а??? ????? ???????? ???? ???????
???????? ???????? ??а??????
??: ??? ??? ????? ??? ?а?? ??????? ?????? ???н
??? ?? Amazon Greengrass ???????? ??, ??? ??? ??н
???? ??а???????????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????.
??а????????????? AWS Greengrass (?а?????????н
??? ?????????? ?а?????) ??? ?????????? ???????н
??? ?а??????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????????
LXF: ??а????, ????? ??? ????? (?????????
?????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ?а?????????? ?????????) ??? ????? ???????? ?????????
?а??????, ??? Greengrass ???????? ??а?????????
??а?а???????????, ??? ??а???? ?????????, ??????, ?а????????, ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????/?????????
????????? ??? ?????
??: ??, Greengrass ????? ???? ????н
???, ????? ??? ?? ??????н
?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???
??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??н
???. ???а???, ??? ??? ??н
?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??н
???? ??, ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???
?? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???н
?????, ??? ???, ???? ???????? ???????н
??? ??а???????? ?????. ??? ??? ?? ?????????
?????? ???????? ?а?? ??????? ???????? ??????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???,
?????а??, ???? ???????????? ????????, ????? ??н
??? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ?а??????,
?????? ??, ??а??????? ??а??? ??? ?????? ??????
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???? ?а??????? ???а?? ????????? ????? ???????
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?? ??? ?а??????, ???????? ???????????? ?а??????
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????? ?????? ????? ?????????а???????.
LXF: ?а????? ????????? ??а???????? ???? ????????? ????? л??а?????????? ??? [Software
Defined Everything]╗? ??? Greengrass ???????????
?а???а?????
T?: Greengrass ???????? ????? ??а??? ??????? ??н
??? ????????? Canonical ?Software Defined Eveн
ry thing?. ?а?? ????? ???, ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???
???????????? ?????????, ?а?? ???, ???????. ??н
??????????, ??? ?????? ??а????, ??? ??а??????? ??н
???, ?? ???? ?? ??а??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????
??????????. ????????? Ubuntu Core, ???????????
?? ??аCanonical ??? IoT, ??? ?? ???????? ????н
???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а???????
??: ????? snapн??????. ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ??н
??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????. ???
????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????н
??? IoT. ??, ??а??? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???????
??????? (?????? ????? ??????????? ?а?????????н
?? ???????????? ???????????), ?????? ?? ??????
??а????????? ????.а|
> ??????????
Nextcloud ?????????
Ubuntu ?? Pi?
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
41
Linux ?????? BSD
LINUX vs BSD:
??? ?? ?????
???????? ???? ????????????, ????? ????? ??????????
???? ???????? ????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????? ??????
?а????????????? (?? ??????? ????, ??? ?? ????????)?
????а?? ??? ??????????? ???????, ???
????? ?а???? ???? Linux ?аBSD? ???, ????? ???????, ??? ??? ?а???????? ?????;
?а????? ??????????????? ?????????
??а??а????? ?????????????? ?? ?а??а???? ???????????? ??а??????????, ???????? ???а?????????????
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????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????
???? ?? ???? BSD ?а??а???????? ?? ??????? ???н
????? ?????????? ???????,
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?? ???????? ?а????????????,
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?? ????????? ????????????н
???. ????? ???????, ??а???
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????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а?????н
??? ????? ?а?????? ?????? BSD ??? ??????????
?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???а? ?а?? ?? ???
?? ??, ??? ?? ?? ????. ??? ?? ?? ??, ??? ?? ?? ?? ????
??а??????? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????? ??н
??? ?а?????????????.
??????????? BSD ???????? ?а1970н?. BSD ??н
?????? Berkeley Software Distribution. ??? ?????????
?????????????? ??? ????????? ?аUNIX, ?????????
?а?? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??. ?а???н
?????????????? UNIX, ?????????????? ???????н
??аBell Labs, BSD ?????????????? ?????????? ?а???н
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?а??? ??? ???? ??? ??
?а???? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??? UNIX,
??????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ????,
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??????????? ??аBSD.
???? ????????? ?????? Linux
? BSD, ?? ???????? ????? ?????
??????? ?????? ????? ????????.
42
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Linux ?????? BSD
???????? ?????????? ????
???? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? BSD
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?????? ??а??а????????.
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????? ????а? ?а?????? ???????, ??????? ??? ???
GNUа? ???????????? ?аUNIXн???????? ???????н
????? ???????. ????????? Linux ??? ??????? ?а??н
?? ?а??а???????? ???????? Unix, ??а??????????? ??н
???????? ??а?????? ??????, ??????? ????? ??????
????? ?аUNIX.
BSD, ????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????
?а???????, ?а???? ????? ??а????? ??????????
??? ???, FreeBSD, ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????
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?? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? UNIX, ??? ????? ?? ?а????н
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?? ?а?????? BSD.
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??? ?????? ??а???, ??а??????? ?а?????? ??????? ??н
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??, ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????н
?? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????н??????????,
????????, Debian, Fedora, Ubuntu, Arch ??? ?? ??
Slack ware. ?????? ???, ?????? ????? ???????? ??н
???, ?????????? ?а????.
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??а?????? ??н???????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??н
????????? ??? ???????? ???. ??? ????? ??????н
??? ??????? BSD, ?? ???? ?????? ???????а? ???
FreeBSD, OpenBSD ?аNetBSD. ??????????? ?? BSD
> ??????????? ??????? ???? Lumina ?????? TrueOS ??? ?????? ??а???? BSD?
????? ???????? ??? ?а??? ????? ??? ??????????
??????? ?? ??а???????? BSD; ????? ??? ???????н
??? ?????????? Mac OS X ??а?????? ????????????н
?? ????????????.
????? ??? ???? ???? ????? Linux ???? ?????? ??
BSD ????? ????????????? ??? ???? ????? ???????н
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???? ??а??????????? ???????, ????????? ??? ??н
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?????? ??? ???? ?? ??а??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???
????????????, ??? ????????????? ??? ???? ???н
?? Windows ?аMac OS X.а???? ?????? ?????????н
?? ?? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ???
??а?? ?а???????? ?????, ??? ????? ????? ???? ???н
?????????? ????????? BSD ?
?? ??? ??????, ??? ???? ??????????
????????? Linux ?? ?????? ?????.
?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??а?? ?? ??? ?? ?? Linux
?а???????????????? ???????. ????? ????, ??????н
?? ???? ???????н?????????? ?а????? ????? ?????н
????? ???????? ???????, ????????, ??? ?а????? ??н
??а? ?а?? ?? ?????????????.
? ??? ?????????????? ????? ????????? BSD ??н
?? ?? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???. ?? ?????,
????? ???????? ???????, ????? ?????? ???????
BSD ?????????? ???? ???????, ??а??? ??н????????
???????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ????????. ???н
???????, ?????? ?????????? BSD ????????? ?а???н
?? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????? ???н
?? ?????????????.
?? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?а???????н
??? ????????????? ??, ??? ?а?????????? ?? ?а??н
?????? ?????.
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?????? Linux ????????? BSD ?а????? ???????????
???????? ??а??????? ?????????????? ?????????н
???. ????????? ?????????????, ????????, Nvidia,
????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ??????
BSD, ??? FreeBSD, ??а??????? ????? ???? ??? ???
??? ?????? ??? BSD ???? ??а?????????? ????????н
?????, ??????? ???а???? ?? ????????? ?а????????н
?? ????? ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ????н
?????? ?????????.
???????? ?? ????????
??? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? Linux ?аBSDа?
??????????????. ???? Linux, ?????????? GNU
?а?????? ????????? ??а???? Linux ??????? ???а??н
??????? GNU General Public License, ???а??? GPL.
??а????? ??????? ??????????, ?а????????????н
????? ?????????, ?????? ??? GPL ????????????
??????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?а?????????
????????? ????, ?????? ?????????? ???? ????????н
??? ???а?? ???????? ?????????? ????????.
? ???????? GPL ???????, ????? ????????????
Linux ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???????????.
BSDа?? ?????????? ???????? BSD License, ???????,
?????? ????????, ????????? ??а?????? ????????н
??? ?????????, ???? ??? ???????? ???????????.
???????? BSD ????????????? ????????????? ????н
?? ???????, ??? GPL, ????????? ??а???????, ?????
??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????????
?????????? ???? ?????????. ??????? ????? ?????
????????????, ?????????????? ?а?? ?? ????????н
?????? ???, ??а???? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????
????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??а????????н
???? ????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? ????????? ??а???????? GPL ?аBSD ???а???н
??? ?????, ????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???????
??? ?????? ???? ?????????????, ?а?????? ??????
???????? ??а???????? ?????????????. ?????????,
??? ?????? OpenBSD ???????? ???????????? ???н
??? ??а??? ????? ??а?????? OpenBSD ???? ???аGPL.
??а???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? Openн
BSD ??н???????? ???????? ????????? ???????????
???аGPL, ??а?????? ???????? ??а????????? ?а????н
??? ??????? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????
??????????? ???????? GPL.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
43
Linux ?????? BSD
????? ??????????? ??? ?а??????? ????, ????????
???????? ??а????????? ???????????? ?????????
?а???????? ?????а? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Comparison_of_openнsource_wireless_driversа??а??
??????????: ??? ???, ??? ???????? ?????????????,
????? ??? Qualcomm, Broadcom, Intel, Marvell, Realн
tek, Nokia ?аTexas Instruments, ???н???? ????? ????н
???? ??? ?????? ??? Linux, BSD ?? ?????? ?? ????н
?????? ?а???? ??????????????.
??????? ???? ????? ??????? ?????, ??? ???????н
??? ??? ?????? ??? BSD ?? ??????? ??а???а?? ???н
???, ??а??????? ??? Linux ??? ???? ??а?????? ???н
????? [???.:а? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?404 not found?].
??????? ??? ?? Linux ?аBSD ??????? ??????, ??а????
??а????????? ?????????? ????????????, ??а?????,
??? ??? ?????????? ?????, ?аLinux ??????????? ??н
??, ??? ?аBSD.
??????????? ????????
> ????????? BSD, ????????, FreeBSD ?аNetBSD, ???????-?????????? ?аLinux, ?а??а???????????? ?????
????????????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ???????? Linux?
?а????? ?????? ????????????, ????? ??а????????
???????? ??? ?? FreeBSD ?а???????????? ??????н
?? ????? Linux ???????? ????? ?а??????????? ???н
?????. ???? ?аLinux ????? ??а???????????? ?????н
????? ???????? ??а?????????, ??????? ?????????
Linux ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????????н
??? ???????? ??????.
BSD, ?? ??? ???, ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???????н
????? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????, ?а??????,
??????????????? ??а?????????. ??????? ?а???, ???
BSD ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????н
????? ?а?? ??????? ???????? ??а????????? ?????
???????, ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? [ports
collection].
???????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ??????н
??? ?????? ?а??????н??????, ??????? BSD ??????н
?? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?? ???. ????? ????? ??,
???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????а? ????????н
???????? ??????? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????.
???????????? ?????? FreeBSD ???? ????????????
NetBSD, OpenBSD ?аDragonFly BSD ??? ??а????????н
??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??а?????? ??????.
???? ???????????? ?????? FreeBSD ???????? ?????
> ??а????????? BSD ?????????? ???????? csh, ?а??а?????????? /bin ???????? ?????? ???????????
????? ??? ??????????? ?а??????? ????????
???????? ??а???? ?а???????? ????? 27 000 ??????.
?????? ?а?????, ?а???? BSD ???????? ?????? ???н
????? ????????? ??а??? ???? ??????. ??? ?? ????
BSD ???????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??а????????,
??? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????.
???? ??????? ?????????? BSD ????? ????? ?а???н
???? ???????????? ??????, ???????? ??????????
??? ????? ??а???????? ??????????. ??, ??? ?????н
??????? ????????? ?аLinux, ??????????? ??????
???????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????н
?????, ???? ????????? ???????. ??а?? ?? ??а?? ??н
??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????, ??а????????н
????? BSD ???????? ??????? ???????????, ???? ???
??? ?а???????????? ??????? ??????.
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??? Linux ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а??н
?????? ????? ??????н???????????. ???????????
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??????? ????????? ?а????????????? ??????. ?а??н
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???? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ?а???? ??, ?? ??? ?????,
???????????? ?а????????????? ????? ????? ?? ??н
????? Linux.
????????? BSD
?? ?????? ?????? ????????????? BSD, ????? BSD
???? ????? ???????? FreeBSD. ?????? ????? ????
???????????? ??????? ????? ?а1993а?., ?а??а????н
???????? ??????? ?а????????? ?????????? ?????н
??????. ????? ??а????? ???????? ???????? TrueOS
(?????? PCнBSD), ??????? ?????? ???? ???, ????н
????? ?????????? ???????????? FreeBSD ???????
????????????? ?????????? ??????.
????? ??а????? ?????????? ?? ????????? Openн
BSD. ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????
?а?????? ??????????, ??????? ??а????? ???? ??????
44
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
????????????, ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????
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?????????? ??? ?????? OpenBSD ?а??????? ????
????????????? ??а???????????? ?????? ???????н
???? ?а?? ?? ??????????? ????????????.
?а??? ???????? ??? NetBSD (???????????? ?а??н
?? ?? 1990н?) ?а???????????? ??а????? ???????? л??н
?????, NetBSD ????? ????????╗ ??????? ?????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?а???????? ??а????? ??? 50 ?????????? ??????????
??а15 ??????? ????? ???????????. ??? ???? ??????
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??????? ??????????? Linux, ??????????? ????????
??? ?а???????, ????? ?????? NetBSD ??????? ??н
?????? ???????. ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??а????????
?????????????, ??????? ??а????? ????? ???????
???? ??????? ??? ??????????, ?а?????? ??а??????н
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?????????? ????????, pkgsrc, ??????????? ?????
?????? ?????? ???????????? [upstream] ??.
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?????????? ????
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?? ??? ???. ?а??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? Linuxа?
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???? ??? ????????????? ??? ????? ??????????
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??????? ???????, ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ??н
??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????????.
? ????????, ????? BSD ??, ??? FreeBSD, ??? ???н
?????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????.
???? ?????? ???? ?а????? ???????? ????????, ??н
????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??? ???????????
?а????????????. ?а??????? ??аLinux, ?аBSD ??????н
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?а?? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????н
??? ???????.
? Linuxа?? ???????? ?????? ????????????????
????? ??????????? ???????????, ????? ?????????
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????, ???? ??а???? ??? ??а????????? ????????????
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????????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ?аLinux ??н
?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?а?????????
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??, ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ??н
?? ???????? ??а????????? ????? ?????????. ??????
??а?????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????????
> ???? ??а?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? BSD ??а?????????, ZFSа? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ?а??? ???? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????
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????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ????? ?аLinux
??? ?????? ?????????.
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??, ?????? ????????? ???????, ?????????? ????н
?? ??? Linux ?а??????? BSD, ????????????? ?а????
???? ???????? ??????? ??н???????.
??????????
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??????? ???????. ?? ??????, OpenBSD ????????
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??? ???????????? ??????????? ????? Linux. ??н
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?? ??? ???????. BSD ??н???? ???? ????????
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?? ?? ????????????, ????????, ???????????? ????н
???? ??? m0n0wall ?а??? ??????????? ??? ???????
???????????, pfsense.
?? ??? ???? ?????? ?а???????? ????? Darwin
??аApple; ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????н
?????? ?? ????????, OS X ?аiOS. Darwin ??????????
???, ???? ?????? ??аBSD, ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??а??н
???? ???????? ?????? ?а??????? ????????? OS X.
?????????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?????? ??
??а???? BSD, ??а?????????????????? ???????????н
??? ???????????? ?а??, ?????, ??? ?????? iSCSI SAN
??аDell. Silicon Graphics International ??? ?? ????????н
?? FreeBSD ?а????? ???????? ?????? ArcFiniti MAID
(?????????? ??аMassive Array ofаIdle Drives), ?а??а??
????? ?????? Sony ?а????? ???????????? PlayStaн
tion 3 ?аPlayStation 4, ?а??? ?? ?а??????? ??????????
PlayStation Vita.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ?????????? ????? BSD ???????? FreeBSD,
?а??а??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ?а???????? ?????,
??? ?а????????????? ?????? ??. ??аFreeBSD ???????
JUNOS ??аJuniper Network; FreeBSD ??? ?? ???????н
???? ?а????????? Netflix Open Connect. ??аFreeBSD
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????н
??????? WhatsApp; ? ?? ??? (??????? ??а???????
????), ???????????? ??????? WhatsApp ?а??????
???????????? FreeBSD, ????????? ????????? ???н
?????, ??????????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??
?а???????? ?????.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
45
???????? ? Linux
????????
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TUX4U
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> Dell ?????????? ?????????, ??а????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?аUbuntu?
46
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
?а??а?????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ?а????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??а?????????? (??????)
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??? ???????????? Linux ???????????? ??а???????н
?????, ????????? ???, ?????, ?а????????? Linux,
??а???????? ??а?????????? ???????? ?????? GNU/
Linux, ?а???н??а????? ???????????? ?????? ??????
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???? ???? ????? ?а?????? ???? GNU. ??? ??? ????
????????????? ???????????????? GPL ?а???????н
??? ?????? ?????????? ??а????????? ??????????н
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???? ?????????? ????????? ??а???????????????
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?? ???? ????????), ?а?????? ?? ???????? ??????н
???? ????????? ??????????? ??а????? ?????????,
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?????? GPU ??аAMD ??? Nvidia. ???? ???????????
?????? ?????????, ????? ??? Bumblebee ??? Nvidia
GPU, ?????? ??? ?????? ??а???????????? ??????
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??????????? Linuxа? ???????а?? ?????????, ???
?а??? ???????.
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?а?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? Linux-???????? ??? ??а??????а? ?????; ????? ???
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??? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? Apple,
?????? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ???, ??а??? ???????? ??аWindows, ??????? ?????????????? ?????????,
?а??????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????
????????? ???-?? ??а??????, ??а???????, ????? ????? ???????? ??а??? ??????, ?????? ??? ????????
???? ?????? ?????? ???? Microsoft; ??? ???????
????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ????? ??а??????? ?????
?????? ??? ??? ??а??????????? ?а???????? ???????.
?а???? Linux, ??а??????? ????, ?а????? ??????????
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????????? ???????.
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?? Dell XPS 13 [??. ??????, ???.а24 LXF198] ?а????
??????? Dell Precision, ????????? ??аM2800, M3800
?аM6800. ??а???? ??а??? ??а???????? ??????? ??н
?? ?? ???: ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ???????
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??аг 2000 ?а????, ?а???а? ???????? ?????? ???
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???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? Dell Inн
spiron 3000 Ubuntu ?????????? ??????, ?? ?????
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???. ?аIntel Celeron N3050 ?а4 ?? ??????, ??а?????н
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?? ??? ???, ???? ?а?? ???? ??н
??????, ?????????.
?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??а?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? Dell.
HPа??????? (???????? ?а???????? 2014а?.) ?????н
?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?а?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??н
??? ???? ?? ???, ??????? ?????????? ??а????????,
??а??????????????? HP 255 G1 [??. ??????, ???.а20
LXF188] ?а?????? ??????????? Ubuntu 12.04 LTS
?а?? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????. ?а??????
?????????? ????????? HP 255 G3 ??????????????
HP 355 G3 ?аHP 455 G3, ?а????? ??аг199 ??аг300.
???? ??а?? ??а??? ?? ?а???????????? ???????н
?????? ?? ????? ????????? ?аAMD A4н5000 APU,
HP 455 G3 ?аA10н7300 ?а8 ?? ??????, ??а?????? ??н
??? ????????????? ?а??????? Intel Core i5 4200U
???а??а???????? ?????????, ??? ?а??а????????????
> ??а??а?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? Linux
Lenovo, ??аUbuntu ?аLenovo ???????? ???а????????????? ???????
??а??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? Linux ???? ??н
?????? ?а???????? ?????. ???? ????????? ?????а?
??????? Linuxн???? ??? ??а???????????? ??????н
?? ??? ???. ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??а???????? ???????
????? ???????? ?????: ????????, ???????? ?????
System76.com, puri.sm ?аzareason.com ?????? ??н
?? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?аLinux. ?а??????н
???? ????????? ????? ? ???????
Linux-??????? ?? ????????????
???????? ??????.
3Dн???. ??? ???????, ??а??? ????? ?????? ?а???????
????????? ???? ???? Alien Isolation (?а??????????н
?? ???????????), ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????н
??? ????????? ??а???? ??????.
??????????? ?а?????????
> HP ??????? ???? ??а?????? ?????????? Ubuntu
?а?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? HP 455 G3?
??????????, ??а???а? ????? ?? ????? Linux ???
????????? ???????????. Lenovo ?????? ??? ??н
??????? ????, ??а??а?????? ??а??? ???????,
????????? ??? ??а????????? ???? ?? ??? ?а???н
??? ?? ??? ??? ??? Linux; ???? ??, ??а?? ????? ???
??? ????? ??????? http://minifree.org, ???? ?????н
??? ??????????, ???? ?а?? ?????????? Libreboot
Lenovo X200. ??а?????????????? FSFа? ?а??????н
??????? ????? ????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????н
????? [Richard Stallman]а? ??? ????????? ?????н
??? ?а??? ??? ???, ?? ???? ?????? Libreboot UEFI
?а???????? ??? Trisquel.
?? ?? ??а???? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??,
??а???а? ???? ??а???????? ????? ??а?????, ????н
??? ????? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ?а?????????н
?????? ???? ????????. ?????? ??а??? ??а?????????
Chromebook ? ??? ?? Linux, ????
??????????, ??? ?????????? Google Chromebook
[??. ?????????, ???.а24 LXF202], ??а??а??? ??
??????? ????????, ??? ??а?????? ??а?????????
????? ??????. ??а???? ??а?????? ????????,
??а??? ??а??а??? ?????; ??а?а???????? ???????
?а???, ??? ??? ?????? ????????, ????? ?????????
???? ?а??а??? ????? Linux. ???????? ??? ?? ??, ???
??а?????? ???????????? Crouton, ????? ????н
???? ????????? GNU/Linux ????? chroot ?а?????
Ubuntu; ??а?????а?? ??? ?????????? ?а??????????
??а??????????
????, ??аChromebook ???????? Linux, ?аGoogle
???? ???????? ?а???????? ?????, ??????? ???н
????????? ?????? Chromium OS. ??? ????????, ???
???а??????? ??а?????? л???????╗ ???????????
??????? ?а?????????????? ??????? ?????? [??.
????????, ???.а64 LXF199]. ???????? ??????
?????? ???? ?а????????? ???? ?а2016а?.а?????? 7 %
????? ?????????. ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?а????,
??????, ??????, ?а????? ?????????????? ??????,
????? ?а??????. ??а???? ?????????? ?????????????,
?а???????? ?????.
??????? Crouton [??. ????????, ???.а74 LXF204],
??? ??????????? ?????????? Google, ???????
chrootн????????? Ubuntu. ??? ?????? ????????,
??а??а????????????? ??а?????? ????? ??а???????
??а??аIntel. ???????? ?????????? Crouton ?? ??
????????? Ubuntu ???????? ?а????? ?????? ?аChrome
OS. ??????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??а???? ?????
???????????? GNU/Linux, ??а??а????, ?а???????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??а????????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????? ??н
???????? ??а???????? ?????? ?а???????.
> ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????
?????а?????????? ???????? ?а?????????????
?а???? Linux?
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
47
???????? ? Linux
???????????????????, ?????? ??а?????????????,
??а????????????? (?а???? ????? ??а??? ?????????)
?????????? Intel Core 2 Duo P8400.
? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??а???????? ????????????: ???
??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??н
?? ??. ?а??? ??а????????? ?????? ????? ?а???????
??????????? Lenovo Libreboot X200, ??? ??а??????н
??? ????????????. (??????????: ??а??????????
????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?а????? ???н
???.) ???? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?а???? ??????
????????, ?а??а??а??????????? ?? ?аLXF199. ??? ???
?????????????? ??а??? ????.
?????????? ??? ????
????????, ?????? ??а?????????, ??? ????? ??????н
???? Linux ??????а? ?а?????? ?????. ?????? ??а??н
?????? ????????? ?????, ????? ???????????, ???
?????? ??????? ???????, ??а??????? ????? ????? ??н
?????? ???????? ??? GNU/Linux.
??? ???? ??, Ubuntu ????? ?????? ???????????
????????????? ??а?????? ??? ?????????, ??а??? ??
?а??? ???????? ?а?????????? ??а? ??аwww.ubuntu.
com/certification/desktop. ??а?????????? ????? ???
??????????????, ??????? Lenovo, Dell, HP ?аAsus
??а??????? ??? ?????? Ubuntu 12.04 LTS ?а14.04
LTS. ?????? ????? ???? ??????, ??а??? ???? ???
??????, ?а??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????н
??????, BIOS ?а?????????????? ??????????. ???
???????? ?????, ????????? ??? Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
??????? ???? ????? 160 ???? ?? ???, ?а????? 500
??? 12.04аLTS.
??? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???, ?? ??? ??а???? ??,
??? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?????????н
?? Linux. ???? ??а??????????? ?а???????н
????? ????????, ???????? ??? ?а??????
Ubuntu, ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??н
? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ?? ??а??????
????????????????? ??????????? Ubuntu ??аwww.
ubuntu.com/certification/catalog; ???? ?????? ??а??н
???????????, ??а???а?? ???? ??.
?? ??? ??а?????? ????????? http://linuxнdrivers.
org, ??????а????????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????н
?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????н
???????: ????????, ?аDebian ??????? ???? ??????
(https://wiki.debian.org/Hardware), ??? ?а?аopenSUSE
(https://en.opensuse.org/Hardware) ?аLinuxаMint
(http://community.linuxmint.com/hardware).
????? ????? ?????а? ??????? ??????? Inн
tel. ??? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??а??н
?? ?? ??? ?аAMD, ??а?аIntel ?? ??? ??? ?? ??н
??? ??? ?????? Linux ?а??????? ?????????
??а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???. ??? ???
???????? ??????? ?а????????? ?а????н
?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????, ?а ??? ??,
??а??а??? ?????, ?аEthernetн??????????
?а??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? Nvidia
?аAMD GPU. ?? ??а??а?? ?? ?? ??? ??
> Libreboot X200: ???????? ???????????? Lenovo
X200 ?а?????????? ??а??? ????????? ????????? ???
?а???????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????н
??????, ??? ??? ?????? Linux ????, ?а??а????????н
??? ????????? ????????? GPU.
?????????, ??а?????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ????н
????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? UEFI
BIOS, ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ????????????
??? ????. ?????? ???????, ????????? ?????? ???н
????????????? ??? ?????????, ??а??а???????????
??а???????? ???????, ??а??????????, ??? ??а???н
???? ??????????? ?а??????? ??????????. ?? ?? ????
?????? ?????????аSecure Boot, ??а??? ????? ????н
?? ?????? ?????????? Ubuntu, openSUSE ?аFedora,
????????? ?а??? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ??н
?????????? ???????? Microsoft. ??н?, ??... ???????
????????????, ??? ??? ????? ??а??????????? ????н
??????? ?аUEFIа? ???? ?????? ??? ?а????; ???? ???,
??а????? ?????????? ??аWindows.
???????? ????????????
> ??????????? ??????? Linux ??аDellа? ?????????? ??аUbuntu Dell XPS 13 Developer edition?
???? ?????????? ??? ??????????????, ????? ????
??????? ??а???????? ?а????????????? ????????
?а????????????. ?????? ???? ???????????? ???н
??? ?а??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?а???? ?? ??? ?? ????,
????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??н??а???н
????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????? ?а????????
?????. ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????н
?? ???????????, ??? ??а??? ???????? ???????????
Android ? ?? ??!
??? ???? ????? Linuxа? ????? ??а?? ?? Android.
????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????н
???? ???????? Android ?а????????? ??????????
Android, ????? ??? Dell Venue 10 7000 [??. ??????,
???.а17 LXF202].
????????????? ????? ????? ????? ???????
Android ?а??????? ???? ??а?????? ?????????
Bluetooth ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а????
Bluetooth, ????????? Android ????? ????????? ????
Linux ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????????
?а???????????а??????????.
???????????, ??? ?а?а??????????, ?а???, ??? ???н
??? ??а??????? Android ??????????? ???????? ?????
GNU/Linux, ?а?а???? ???? ?????. ??а?????????? ??
??? ????????? Nexusа5 ?а????????? ???????????
Bluetooth. ??? ????????, ??а??????? ????????, ???
48
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
?а??????? ?? ???????, ?????? ??????????: ????????,
???а???????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??аAlt + Tab
??а???????, ??? ?а???????? ??? ???? ??? ?????????н
?? ?а????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ???? ??. ??????
????а?? ??а??а???? ????? Gmail ?аChrome ?????????н
?? ????????????.
????? ??а?а????а?? ??а??????, ??? ??????????
Android ?????? ???????? ??а??????? ???????, ?а???
?????? ???????? ??? ??? Chrome OSа? ??????????н
??? ????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???
????? ??????? ?а???????????. ?????? ??а???????
????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?????? ???н
???????: ???????? ?а???????? Android ???????
??? ????? ??? ?????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?????н
???, ??а????????? ????? ???? ??????????а? ?а???
??????а???????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ???????? ??а???? ???????? ???????, ????????? ???????? Android ??а?????? ??-??а??????
?????????? ????????????????
???????? ? Linux
??????? ??????? Linux
????? ?а????? ??? ????? ??? ???????, ?????????н
???? ????????? ?????, ????????? ??? ???? ?????
??????????. ?а???? ??а????? ???????????????????
??????? ???????, ??а?а??? ??? ??????? ???? ??????.
????????? ???????? ???? ???????а? ????????,
???? ?а??????????а? ??а???? ??????? ?????????
?а??? ??????? Linux, ?а?а??? ????? ????????.
???, ??????, ????????, ??? ????? ??????? ???????
??а??а???????.
?? ????????? ??????? Dell Precision ?а????????н
?? ?аHP Zbook 15u G2 [??. ??????, ???.а20 LXF196],
?а????????? ?????????? ?а????? Lenovo ThinkPad
P70. ??? ????????н??????????, ?а??а?????? ???
???????? ?????? ??????????? ??. ??а???? ???
??????????? ????????, ?а?????? ??а???????? ??н
??? ??? ???????? ???, ??? ???????? ?????????????.
??? ?????, ??? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????
????????? ?????? ???????????
??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?а??? ?? ??? ?? ??н
?? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ??????н
????? ?а???????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ???
???а?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???. ??? ?? ?? ???
??а???, ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????н
???. ???? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????н
????? ???? ????????? ?????????????, ??? ????
???????? ??а??????? ?????????? ????? ?????????
?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??н
???????? ?????? ??а????, ??? ????? ??? ????????
??а???. ??? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? System76.com
(???????????? ??а???): ???? ??а?????????? ?а???
??? ?????? ???????? ???а??????????? ??? ??????,
??а??аServal WS ?аOrynx Pro, ????????, ????? ???н
??? ?????.
??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? Full
HD ??? ?? ?? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ??н
????????? ??????а? ??????? ?а???? ?????? Core
i7 ?аXeonа? 8+ ?? ??? ?а??????????? ???????,
????????, AMD FireGL ??? Nvidia Quadro, ???? ???
??? ????? ??? ????? ???????, ???? ???? OpenCL/
CUDA GPGPU.
???? ?????, ?????? ???? ????? ?а?а?????????????н
??? ???????.
?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?а??? ???? ?? ???
???? ?? ?? Linux? ??? Trisquel ?? ??????? ????????
Libreboot X200, ??? ?аLinux ?? ?? ??? ?? ?а???? ??н
???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????н
???. ????? ????????? ???????? ?????? Novena, ??н
????? ???????а? ??а?????? ??????а? ??????????
??аCrowd Supply, ?????? ????? $ 700 000 ???а?? ??н
?????? ???? $ 250 000.
?? ???????? ??аFreescale i.MX6 ARMа? ????н
??????????? ??? ???? (systemнonнaнchipа? SoC).
??? ??????? ?? ???, ??????
?????????? ????????
????????????.
> Novena: ????? ????????? ??????????
?а?????????? ????????? ????????????,
??а??????? ???????, ????????? ?а???????? ??-????????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ?? ????? ??????? ?????????? ? Linux ??????
????????????, ????????, ??????? ???????
Lenovo P50 ? P70?
?а??????? ??а?????? ?????? SoC, ??? ??????? ??н
???????, ????????? ??? ????????. ???????? ????н
?? ?????????, ?а??? ??????????? ?а????. ???????н
????? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???а????????
?а?????????????. ??????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??
Novena ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????н
??? ?????. ?аFreescale SoC ??????? GPU, ??, ??? ???
??? ?? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????. ?? ?? ??н
???? ??????? Novena: ?????? ??а???? ?????? ???н
??? ?а???? ??а?? ?? ???????????? ??????????. ???
?? ??? ?? ?а???? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????н
????? GPU; 2Dн????????? ?а???????? ??????, ??а??н
?????? ????а? ??? ?????? 3D OpenGL.
?????? ??н??а???? ???????????? ??а????а??
???????? Novena: ??а????? ??????? ??а??????? ??н
??????? ????????????. ???? ??а???? ?????? ????н
??????????? ????????? ??а??????? 1,2а???, ?????н
????? ???? ??? ?? ?? Cortex A9 ARM ?? ??????????
??? ??а32а???, ??????? ??а???????? ??а????а?? ??н
?????? ?????????; ??а??а????? ????????. ??? ???н
??? ??, ??? ??а????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????н
????????? SoC, ????????? ???? ????? ??а????????
????????????. ???? Intel, ????????, ??????? ??а??н
????? ???? x86, ??????????? ??а????? ARM ?????н
?????, ????? ??? ????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ??н
???? ???????.
????, ?????? ??а?????? ???? ????????? ???н
?? ???? ????, ??? ??? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ??н
????? ????????? ???????? ?аLinux: ??а??????? ??н
????? ?а????????????????? ???? ??????? Ubuntu
??а????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а?????????
????????????. ????????????? ?аLinux ?????? ???н
?????????, ?а?? ?? ??а????????? ????????? ???н
???, ????? ???????? ??????? ?а???????????????
UEFI, ??а?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??а??????????
????? ?????? ????????. |
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
49
C?????? ??????? Tor
Tor
: ??????
??????? ????????
?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? л??????
???????? ? ?????? ???????╗, ? ?????????? ?????????? ???,
???а?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????
?
?????, ????? ????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ????? ???? ????? ?а????? ???????, ?а?????????????? ??????????? ???? ??а????? ??????? ????????? ???????
?а???? [????:а? ???! ??????????????а? ????? 1!]? ????????-?????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????
????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????
?а??????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????????
?????????? VPN ??????? ??а??н
?? ????, ??? ??? ?????? ????? ????н
????, ??? ??а??????? ????? ???????н
?? ????? ??? ?????????????? ??????
??? ????????? ???а??????? ??????, ??? ??????н
?? ???? ????????? ????????. ??а??? ?????? ??н
?? ?? ??а???? ?а?????? (??????????) ??????? ????н
??а? ????? ????? ????????? ?????? Tor ?а???????
Raspberry Pi [??. ????????, ???.а72 LXF196], ?????
?????????? NetworkManager ????? ?????????????
??? ??? ?? ?? VPN ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? OpenVPN
??а??? ?????? ???????. ?а???? ??а?????? ????????
????????? ??????а? ????????, webн??????? ?????
????? ?????? ?????????.
???? Tor ???????????? ?????? ?????? ???????
???????????, ?????? ?????? ?а????????? ?????н
?а??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???) ??? ??? ?? ???? ??,
??а???? ???? ?а????? ??????. ?????? Tor ?????? ???
?????, ?а?????????? ??а???? ?????; ????? ???????,
??а???? ??????? ?????? ???? ??а????? ??а????????,
??а???????? ?????, ?а??????? ??? ??а?????? л?????н
??╗ ????. ????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ?????
????????? ?є????? ????????????, ???
?????? ????????; ??а?????? ?а????????
????????, ??????? ?аTor ?а???а???? ???н
????, ??? ??? ???а? ???? ?а??? ??? ???.
????? ?? ? ???? ?????????????? ???н
?????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ??н
??????? ????????? ????? ??????????
??????. ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ??а???н
????, ????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ?а??н
??? ??? ??? л?? ???????? ?????? ???????╗, ?а????
Tor (??? ??? ?????н??а???? ????????? ??аTheаOnion
Routingа? ?????????? ?????? ???????) ????????
?????? ????????? ??а????????.
?????? ? ??????????????
????? ??????? ??????
?? ??????? ? ????.
50
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?а????? [relay]. ?? ?н
??? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????
??? ??????? ???? ?? ?а????? ?????? ?????? ????н
???????????; ????????? ????? ???, ???????? ???н
?? (??? ???, ????????? ?а??????????????) ?а?????н
??? ????? (??? ???, ??? webн?????? Tor ???н??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
C?????? ??????? Tor
?
????????? Tor ????? ??????? ???????н
??; ????? ??? ???а? ?а???????? ??????
??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??
?а??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????. ????? ??н
?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????
?а???? ?? Tor, ??????? ??????????? ??а??? ???????н
??? ???????? ????. ???????? ???? ????? ??????н
?????? ????? ??????? ???????? (?? ??? ?????????
??????? ????????) ?а????? (??? ??????? ???????),
????????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ????? ?????
????????? ??? ????? ??а???? ????????????.
????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?????????н
??? ????, ????????? ?а????????? ???????????????
???? ???????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а???????н
?? ???, ??? ?????????? ??? ????. ???????????? ?????
??а?????? ?????????, ????????? ?а???? Tor ?????н
?????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????н
???, ??а?????? ??а???, ??? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???,
???????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????н
??? ?а???????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?. ?. ???н
???? ??????? ???? [middle relay]. ?????????? ??? ??
??????????? ???????????? ????????? ????, ????н
??? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??а???? ???
?????? ?????, ??????? ?? ???????????????? ??н
????????, ??а??????? ??а???????, ??? ?? ?????
??????????? ?а??????, ??????? ??????????? Javaн
Script ??? ???? ?? ???. ???? ??????????? ???????
??????????? ??? ??????а? ?а?????н??, ????? ????
???????????? ???а????? ??????? ?а????????????н
??? ?????? ???????? ?????????; ??а?а??????????
???????????? ??а???? ??а?????.
???? ???? ????????
????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?а???? Tor, ??н
?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????.
??? ??? ?а????? ???????? (??????? ?а??? ?????н
?? ????????? ?????? Web, ??? ???????, ??? ????,
?????а?? ?????? ???????) ????? ???????? ??????
????? ???? Tor. ??а?? ??, ??? ??а???, ????????? ???н
?? ????? Tor2web ????? ???????? ?????? ?а??????
Tor ??а???????? ?????????; ??а??а?????????????
????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ???? ??н
?????? Tor.
???? ??? ?????? Tor ????? ????????? ?? ????
??????; ?а??????? ??а?????? ??? ??? ??????????,
????? ??? ??????? ?а??????? NAT, ??????? ???????
???????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???н
???, ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??а????? ?????н
??? ????. ??? ?????, ????? ??????? ????? ???, ????н
???? ????????? ?????? ??а????????? ??????????,
????? ????? ??а?????????, ???? ????????? ?????
???????. ?????? ???? ??а?????????? ???????????
??????? ????? ???????, ??а???? ??? ?????? ???
???????? ??????????? ??а??????? ?а????????????н
DataDirectory /var/lib/tor
HiddenServiceDir /var/lib/tor/
hidden_service/
HiddenServicePort 80 127.0.0.1:80
??? ?? ?? ??? Tor, ??? ?? ?? ???? ???
?????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ???н
???? ??? ??? ?а?? ??? ???? ???
???????, ???? ??????? ??????
?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????.
??? ??? ??? ?а????? ??????
??????????????, ??? ??а??н
??, ??? ??а?? ???? ???? ??.
?а?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???
????????? (??? ?????????????,
???? ??а??? ???????) ?????? Tor
?а???????
$ sudo systemctl start tor
?? ?? ??? ?????? ??а?????, ???? ?? ??? ?????н
?? ????? ????? /var/lib/tor/hidden_service, ???????н
??? ??? ?????: ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????н
?? ?а??????? ????. ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????
?????, ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????:
$ sudo cat /var/lib/tor/hidden_service/Hostname
?? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??а????? ????,
????????? ???? ?а??????? journalctl нu tor ?а????н
?? ??, ??? ??? ?? ????. (?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????
????? ??а???????????? Ubuntu? ?а???? ??а??? ???н
????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????
Tor, ???????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????.
> ?????? ????????? Apache ?????? ????? ??????? ???а??????????? ??????? ?а????? ??????;
??,а?а?????????, ??а????? ??????? ??? ??????????
??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ????????????
???? ????????????? ??????? ??а???????? ?а???н
?? ????????? ????.
??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??, ??? ?? ?? ?? ??н
???? Tor ?аDebian ??? Ubuntu; ?а??? ??? ????????н
????? ??а?????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??а?????н
???? ??????? ?а?????? ??? ??? ???. ??????????
??? ???? ???? ????????? Torа? /etc/tor/torrc: ???
????? ?????? ??????, ??а?????????? ?а????, ???
??а?????????? ??????. ??а??????? ????????? ??н
??? ?а??????? ????????? ?????????? ?а????????
????????? ????????:
$ cd /etc/ tor
$ sudo mv torrc{,.orig}
$ sudo nano torrc
??? ?? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ??????н
???? ????? ??????:
?? ?? ????? ??а??????...) ?а???? ?????? ??????????
????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????
??? ?? ?? Tor. ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????н
???, ??????????????? ??а.onion. ??? ????? ????н
?????? ??а??????????????? ???? ?????? ???а???н
??? ??????? ???????. ????????? ??? ????? ?????
????????, ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????
????? ?а???????? ????? ??? ?????. ??? ????? ????
??????????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????? (??н
??????, Scallion ?аEschalot). ??? ?????? ?????, ??н
????? ?????? ??? onion, ??????? ??а???? ??????
??? ?? ??? ??а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??, ??? ??? ?? ??? ??н
??????? ??? ????? ??а??? ??. ?а??????????? ??н
????????? ?а????????? ???????? ????? ???????н
?? ??а?????? ????????. ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????
Facebook ???? ??? ??? ?????? Tor ?а?????? ??? ??
????????? Tor
Tor ????? ????? ?а???????????? ???? ?????н
??? ???????? ?????. ????? ?а??????????? Debian
??а????? ????????? ???????, ??а??????? ????н
???????? ???н??????????? ?а???? ?????? ??????,
??????? ???а????, ????? ????? ??????????????,
??а??????а????????.
???????? ?????????, ????????, ??????????
???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?? Tor,
?????? ??????????? ?аhttps://www.torproject.org/
docs/debian.html.en. ?????? ???????? ??а????? ??
Tor ?????????????? ??????????? ??а????????????
?????? ??а???????????? Ubuntu, ?а???? ??а??????н
????? ?????? 16.04 ??????? ??аCanonical, ????????
???? etc/apt/sources/list?d/tor?list ??а?????????
??????????:
deb http://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org xenial main
debнsrc http://deb.torproject.org/torproject.org xenial
main
???? ??а????????? ?а16.10, ???????? xenial
??аyakkety. ????? ???????? ???? GPG ????? ?? Tor
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
(??? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ??а???????
Ubuntu ?аDebian ??а?????)а?
$ gpg ннkeyserver keys.gnupg.net ?recv
A3C4F0F979CAA22CDBA8F512EE8 \ CBC9E886DDD89
? ???????? ??? ??а?????? Apt:
$ gpg ннexport A3C4F0F979CAA22CDB \
A8F512EE8CBC9E886DDD89 | sudo aptнkeyаadd нн
????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? $ sudo aptнget
update ?а?????????? Tor ?а??????а??????:
$ sudo aptнget install tor deb.torproject.orgkeyring
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
51
C?????? ??????? Tor
facebookcorewwwi.onion ?а2014а?.а?????? ??? ??н
???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??????. ??а???? ??
????????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ???????????? ?????
?а????? ?????, ?а????? ???? ???????? [Tim Taubert]
??аhttp://bit.ly/TorGenKeysAndHostnames. ????? ??н
??? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????н
???????? debian-tor, ???а??????? ???????? ??????
(??????? ?????????????? ?а???????? Tab ??а?????
???????? ??? ?????? sudo ????). ??? ?а?а???????
SSH, ?????? ?????????? ??а??? ?????а? ??????
????. ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ??? webн??????.
????????? Apache
??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???? webн???? ?? ??
??а????????????? Apache, ??а??????? ???? ???????
?????а?? ??? Nginx. ??????н??а????????? ?????н
?????, ??? ??а?????, ?????????? ?а??а???? ????н
??? ????? ??? ?????? ?а???????? Tor, ??а????????
???? ?????? ?????? ?????, ?а??? ???????? Apache.
??а?????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ??? ??? ??????
???????? [??. ???????? LXF197, ??? ??а???????
????? ???????? ??????????? ??а?????????. ???????н
?? ??аDebian/Ubuntu ??????]:
$ sudo apt install apache2
??? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??
Debian, ????? ??? ?а??? ???? ??????? ?а?????????
?аApache ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????. ???а????
???? ???????????? ????? ?????? Tor ?а????? ????н
???? ?????????, ??????, ??????, ????????? ?????
?а???????????????? ?????????????, ??????????
???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????, ???н
???, ??? ??? ???? ??а?????? ?????????.
$ cd /etc/apache2/sites_available/
$ sudo cp 000нdefault.conf lxftor.conf
$ sudo nano lxftor.conf
???????? *:80 ? ?????? ?????? lxftor?conf, ?????
??? ????????? ???:
<VirtualHost 127.0.0.1:80>
??? ????? Apache ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????н
?? ?а????????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ??а???
?? ??? ?? ?? IPн?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??
??а????????? (?????? ????). ??????? ????? Tor ??н
?????????????? ???????? Tor ?а????????? ?????н
??? ?????, ????? ??? ??а?? ???????? ????. ??? ??
???????????????? ?????? ServerName ?а??? ????
?а??? ???? .onionн?????; ????а???????? ??????, ??н
?????????? ?аDocumentRoot, ??
DocumentRoot /var/www/tor
????? ????? ????????? ??? HTML. ??????? ??
???? ????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????
????? Tor ?а????????? ??? ?????н?????? ?????????:
$ sudo mkdir /var/www/tor
$ echo Hello Tor world! > sudo tee /var/www/tor/
index.html
> EFF ??????? ?????????????? ???????? (http://bit?ly/EFFTorAndHTTPS), ????????????, ??а????? ?????
???????? Tor?
>аSecureDrop ?????????? ???? ?onion, ??? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????? ????????
(????????? GPG)?
?????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ???? Tor:
$ sudo a2ensite lxftor
? ????????, ?? ????? ????? л??а???╗ ??а??????н
???а? ???? ???????, ????????? ??? ????????, ???
?а?? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??н
??? ???????? ??а??????? ????? ?????????? ????,
??а??а??? ??????? ??????. ?????? ?????????а??,
????? Apache ?????? ??а?????? ??????? ???????,
?а??? ????? ????? ??? ????????. ??а????? ???????
??? ?а??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????н
???????? etc/apache2/ports?conf, ? ?????? ??????
Listen 80 ??аListen 127.0.0.1:80.
???????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ???а????
?? ????? ???????????, ?а??а???? ?????????, ??? ???
??????????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ????????н
???? ??????. ?????а?? ??? ?????, ?? ?? ??? ???а??,
??? ????? ?????? ?????? ????, ??????? ??а???? ???н
??? ??? ?????. ???? ??а??а??????? ????????????н
?? ???????, ???????? ??а????? ???????? ports?conf.
?????? ????????? ???? ?????? Apache (??????????
????? ?????? ??????? reload, ??а?????? ????? ??н
????? ????? ???? ????????? ?аconfig), ?а??а????н
?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?аTor:
$ sudo systemctl restart apache2
????? ?? ??? ??????, ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???
??а?????? ???????????????:
$ wget нqOн localhost # ??? ????????? O,
?а??а????!
Hello Tor world!
???? ????????? hello world [??????, ???] ??а???н
??? ???? ??, ??????, ???н??а??????????? ?а?? ???
Tor Browser Bundle
?? ?? ????????? webн???????? ???????? ??????,
??? ??а????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????н
?????, ??? ?????? Tor Project ????????? ???????
?а????????????? ???????????? Tor Browser Bundle,
?а??а?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?а??н
????? ??????. Tor Browser ?????? ??аESR (Extended
Support Releaseа? ?????? ?а??????????? ??? ????н
???) Firefox, ??????? ?а??? ??? ????? ?????????
???????, ??а???? ??а???? ???? ?????????? ????????н
??? ???????? ?а??а??????? Mozilla, ?а??а???????
Tor Project. ??а??? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????
???????????? ??????????? ?аTor ?а????? ???? ????
???????? ?аNAT, ?????? ??? ?????????????.
52
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
?????? ?????? ??????? Tor Browserа? ?????
?аwww.torproject.org (??а??а????? ????????? ??????
bit.ly, ?а????????????? ??? ??????? ?а?????? ???н
??? ????? ??????????????). ??????? ????? ??? ??
????????? ???????.
????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?а???????????????
???? ?sig ?а????? Tor Project. ????? ????????????
???? Tor Project ?а???????
$ gpg ннkeyserver pool.sksнkeyservers.net ннrecvнkeys
0 ╫ 4E2C6E8793298290
?????? ?????????, ??? ???? ???? ?????????????
?????? ????? Tor Project:
$ gpg ннfingerprint 0 ╫ 4E2C6E8793298290
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?, ???????, ????????? ??????? (????????? ???
??????? ??а????? ?????, ??? ?? ??????? ?????):
$ gpg ннverify torнbrowserнlinux64н6.0.8_enнUS.tar.
xz{.asc,}
????? ?? ???????, ??? ???????? ????????? л???н
??????? ??????? [good signature]╗. ???? ???, ??,
????????, ?а?????????? ???н??а????????, ?а?а????
???????? ????? ??а???????????. ?а????????? ???н
??? ?????????? ??а?а???????
$ tar xvJf torнbrowserнlinux64н6.0.8_enнUS.tar.xz
? ?????????, ?а???????
$ cd torнbrowser_enнUS
$ ./startнtorнbrowser.desktop
C?????? ??????? Tor
> ??? ???????, ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?????????
????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ?а?????? ?????
?????????? Apache; ?????????? ????????? apachectl
configtest, ????? ??????? ????????. ???? ????? ??н
??????? ????? ????, ??а????????? ????? ?????
?????????, ??? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ???????
????? Tor. ??а??а????????? ??? ????????? ??а???н
??? ?аonionн???????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ??н
??????? ?? /var/lib/tor/hidden_service/hostname
?а??????? ??а?????????. ???? ????????? ????????н
????? ?????? Tor2web, ??????????? ?????? ?????н
????????? ?????? ??? ???? ??а?????а? ??? ?????,
??а?????? ??? ??????????? ?а?????????? ????????
????? (????????? ?а???? status?conf, ????? ??????н
????, ???). ???????? ?а???, ??? ??????????? Tor,
???????????, ???? ??а?????? ???????? ?????, ??н
????? mod_status ????????, ??? ???????? ?а???? ??н
????????? ?а???????а? ??? ?????????. ??а?????
????а? ???, ??а??? ????? ?????????: ?????? ?????н
???? ?????? ?а????? ????????????? ?????? Apache.
????????? Let?s Encrypt ??? ??????
?????? ??????????? ???????,
????????????? ????? HTTPS.
?????? .toа(??? .ink, ??? .cab, ??? .nu, ????? ?????)
?аonionнURL. ???? ??? ??????? ???????? (??а?а?а????н
??????? ??а???????, ??????? ??а?а????? ???????н
??? ?????????), ??а?а???, ????????, ???? ????????
?а????? ?????? ????????. ??н??????, ??? ???????н
?? ??? ?????????? ????? ????, ??? ?????? ??а?????
????????????? ?а?????????. ??????????? ?????
??а????? ???? ?? ?? ??а??????? ?????? ????????
??? ??????????, ??а?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??н
????????. ?а????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????н
??? .onion ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ???
?а?????? ????? ?а??????? ??????????, ??? ???? Tor
Browser Bundle (??. ?????? ????? ???.а52), ???, ???н
?????, ?а?????????? Android, ??а??????? ??????н
?? Orbot (???? ????????? ????? ??? Tor). ???? ???
???????? ?а??????? localhost, ??а??а???????? ?????,
??а?а????????? Tor ???н??а??а???. ?????? ????? ??н
???????? ??????? Tor.
$ sudo a2dismod status
$ sudo systemctl reload apache
? ?????? ??а????? ???????? ???????????? ???
??? ?????????? ????????? ?а??? ??а????? ?? 2016а?.
????????? Let?s Encrypt ??? ?????? ?а??????
?????? ????? ?????? ???????, ????????????? ??н
??? HTTPS. ??а?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????н
????????????? ????? HTTPS (????? ??а??????????
??????????, ??????????? ????????????, ???????
??а???? ?? ????????) ??а????? ??????? ???? ??.
???? ??а????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????
?????, ??а??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????
????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????.
??? ?? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???????
.onion, ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??. ???? ?? ??? ???,
????? ?????? л???????? ???????╗ ??а???????????н
??, ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??а???????. ??н
??? ?????? ?????????а? ??????? ??? ???? ??????
?аFacebook. ???? ???? ?????????? ??а??? ????? ???н
??? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ??а???????????,
?а????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?аFacebook, ??а???н
????? ????????????? ??а??????? ??????????????н
??? ??????? ??? ???????. ?а????? ??? ?? ?? HTTPS
??????????? ???????? ????????, ?а??????? ??????
??а??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ?а.onions. ??? ???
????? HTTPS, ??????? ???, ????? ??а??? ??? Tor,
?а???? ??а?????? ??????? ?а?????????????? ?????н
???? ??????????? ??????????, ??а??????? ????? ??н
???а??, ??? ?а??? ??????? ??????. ?????? ???????н
??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????
???? ???????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??н
????? ??а??????????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????н
?? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????. ???
??? ????????? ?а??? ???? ?а.onionн??????, ??а???
??????? ?а?????? ???????? ????????? ????? Tor ??н
??????? HTTPS. ??а????????? ???????? ????????
????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????????.
Tor Browser Bundle ???????? ?????? ??аEFF, HTTPS
Everywhere, ?а???????? ???????? ??? ????????????.
?????? Tor ????????? ??????? ?а?????????????
?а??????? ???????? ?? ?а??????? ????????? ???
?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????
??? ????. ????? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ??????
?а????? torrc, ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?а??н
?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??? ?? ????
Tor. ??а??? ?????? ????, ?????? ??? ???? ??????
???? ???????? ???????????а? ????? ?????, ?а??н
?? ???? ?????, ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??н
??? ?а???????. ???? ???н??а????? ??а??? ?а??? ????
????, ??????????? ???????, ??? ??? ??а????, ??а???н
????, ?а?????? ??????? ?????, ??? ??а????? ???? ???
???? ?а???а?? ?????????. ????? ????, ?????? ????
Tor ???????, ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ????н
???? ????, ?а??? ????? ?????, ??????? ?????????а??
??? ???????? ??????? ???????.
???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???? ??н
?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???, ?? ????? ???н
??? ??аTor browser. ??? ????????, ??? ?? ?? ?? ??
????????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?а??????? ??н
????? ?????? ?? ??? Tor, ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??н
???? ?а??? ???, ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???
????????????.а|
?????? ???? ??????
??? ???, ?а?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??, ??н
??????? Apache ??а????????? ?аDebian ?аUbuntu
?????????????. ??????? ???????? ??? ?а???, ???
?????? mod_status ??а????????? ???????, ?а???
????? ???????? ?а?????? ????? ?????? ???????н
???: ?? ? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? /serverstatus ?а?? ????
.onion (??????????а? ?а????????????). ?????????
??а?????? ????? ?????? Apache ????????, ??а?а??н
??????? ???????? ???????, ?а? ???, ????????, ??н
??? ???????а? ???н??? ??????????? ???????? ??н
?????? GET. ?а??? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????
??а?????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??а??а??? ?????? IPн
?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??, ??а??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???
?????? ?????????? (?а??????????? ??а????? ????
?????? ?????), ??? ??? URL. ??? ?????? ????????
> Arm (Anonymizing Relay Monitor)а? ?????????? ??а???? ncurses ??? ???????????? ?????????? Tor?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
53
????????
???? ???????? ??????? ??? ?а????? ??????????? Linux!
??????? ??????
?????????????
???? ????????????
?????.
Kickstarter ? Git
???????: ??? ????, ??????
??а?????? ????? ?????????
????????: ???? ?????
???????а? ??,а??а???????.
?????? ??????? ????????, ?????? 2.
???????? ???? ??? ?????н
???????? ??аKickstarterа?
??? ??? ??????? ???????.
??, ??? ? ?? ?????????? Krita Foundaн
tion ??? ???? ??????? ??а? 30 ?а40а???.
?а2015 ?а2016а?. ??????????????. ??н
??????? ???? ???? ??????. ?а????
????????? ??????? ?а??????????
$ 300+ ???. ??а???????? ??????? ???н
?????? ?????н?????н????? ??? ???
???????????? Light Table, ?а?????
??????????? ?????????: ????????
?????? ?????????, ??, ?а?????? ???н
????а? ??????????? ?????? ????н
????, ??? ?????? ????????? ?????н
??? ??? ????, ?а??? ???а? Emacs!
?????? ???????? [Jonas Berн
noulli] ???? ????? ????????? ????
??а??????? ????????. ??а????? ??а???
?? ?????а? 55а???. ???????????
???????. ??а????а? ????? ????н
???? ?????????? ????????. ?а??а??,
??? ??????а????????? ???????
?а??? ?????? ?а???????? magit, ??н
???????? ??? ?????? ?аGit ??аEmacs.
?а???а????а? ??? ?killer app? ???
Emacs, ??????? ?аorgнmode (????
??а??а??????, ??? ??? ?????, ??????
??????????? ?????? ????????). ??н
?????? ?????? ???????????; ??а????
??, ??? ??????? ??? ???????, ?а???н
??? ???? ??????? ???????????.
PS ???? ????а? ???? ?а????; ??а??н
??? ??????????? BlueBorne ?????
??????? ????? Bluetooth ?а?????????,
??а?????????? ??????????. ?, ?а??н
?? ?????, ??аAndroidн???????? ??н
?????, ??????????? ??а???.
E.m.Baldin@inp.nsk.su
?
? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????
?????? ? ????????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
??????? ?? ?????????? . . . . . . . . . . 58
???? ??? ????? ??? ??????, ??а???????? ??а???? ??а??????,
????? ????? ???????. ???? ????? ????? ??????? ????
??а??????????.
??????? ??????????? ????????? ??а??????????
?а????????? ??? ?а??????? ?????? ????????? ??????
??????а?????????.
?????????? ????????
??????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
?????? ??????? ??????????? ??а??????????? ??????,
??????????? ?????? ??????????...
??????? ?????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
?????????? ??? ???? ?????, ????? ????? ???????????н
???? ?????????? ???? ????? ?а???? ??????? ?????????н
???? ?????????.
????????? ????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
??????????? ?????? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
???? ????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ???, ???
?аUbuntu Linux ????????? ?????????? ????? ???
???????????????.
????????? ?а????? ?????? ????????? ??????н
??? ?а???????? ?????? ?????????а? ???? ????
????????????а???????.
??????? ZFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
?????? ???? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ?????н
???????? ???????? ??????? c ????????? RAID. ??? ????
?????c?? ?????????.
??? ???????? ??а????? ?а????????? ???? ?а????н
??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??а??а????????,
??а??а????а??????????.
?а????????, ?а????!
?????? ??????? ????? ???????
????? ?????? ?????????
? ????? ? ????? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
????? ?? Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
?????????????? ????? ? ?????? ??а?????? ????????
????????. ????????? ??????????? ???? ???? ??? ???н
????????? ?а?? ?????? ?????????; ????????? ?а??.
??????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????
??????: ????????? ?????????? ??а???????????
?????? ?а???? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
55
Terminal ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ???????
????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????
Terminal: ?????
??????????
??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????
??????? Terminal, ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???????.
? ??? ??? ?а????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????н
????, ??а???????? ??а???? ?а????? ?????? ??а???? ????н
???? ??????. ??а???? ?а????? ???? ????? ??а?????? ????н
???? ???, ??? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?а??а???????? ????? ???
?а????????????, ??????? ??а?????? ???????? ?а???? ?????????.
?
????????а? ??? ??????
???
???????
??? ???? ?а????
?????? ???????
????????? ?аASCII
?а???????????
?а??????? ?????н
????. ??????? ???
????????????.
??????????? ??? ????? ??????? sl ?????? ls? ???? ????а??, ?????н
?? ?????? ?????? ?????? л??????? ??а???????╗, ??аUbuntu ???н
??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????? ?????????? sl. Sl
???????? Steam Locomotiveа? ??а??? ????????????, ????? ????
?а????????? ??? ????????? ?аls (??? ???????? LS), ?а???????????,
??? ??а?????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????:
$ sudo aptнget install sl
????? ?????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ????? ??а?
?matrix (??????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??а?????? л???н
???? [TheаMatrix]╗); aafire (sudo aptнget install libaaнbin) ?аbb (????н
?????? ASCII ?а?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????).
???????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????
?а?????????? ASCII? ???????? sudo aptнget install aview, ?а????? ???
?????? ?? ???? ?а??????? ?????? ASCII, ???????
$ asciiview Path/filename.png
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?invalid magicнnot?, ?? ?? ?? ??н
??? ????? ?? ?????????????? ???? (??? ??????? ?? ????????????
imagemagick):
$ convert filename.png filename.pgm
FIGlet ??? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????. ???????
??? ??????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????? showfigfonts, ?а?????
??????????? ???? ??а???:
$ figlet нf smslant I love Linux!
??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ??а??? ?? нt, ??? ????? ???
FIGlet ???????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? (????? ???????
?????????? ?????? ???????, ?????????????? нw 70), ?анp ??? нn, ??н
????? ??????????, ???? ??а?????????? ?аFIGlet ????? ??????. ????н
???, ???????? нp ??? ???????? FIGlet ?а????? ??????, ????? ??а???н
????? ??????? ?????.
???? ??а?????? ??????? ??????? ????????, ?????????? TOIlet
(sudo aptнget install toilet). ???? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???а??, ???
?а?аFIGlet, ??а?????? ?????? ??????? (??а??? ????????? ??а??
??????, ??? ?аFIGlet), ??а??? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??а???? ???н
????? ???????? ?а?????? нF:а?? ?????? (нF gay) ??? ???????? (нF
metal).
$ toilet нf smblock нF metal I love Linux!
??? ??????????? ????? ????? ?а???? ???????? ??????????а?
??? ???, ?а????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ????, ????? ????????? ????
??????? ????????? ???????
??? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????а? ????????? ??? ?а??н
?? ?????????? ???????, ?а??? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????????????,
???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????????. ?????? ?аFIGlet (sudo aptн
get install figlet). ??????? ????????? ?????:
$ figlet Linux Format Rules!
> ????????? ? ???? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ????
???????, ????????, ????? ???????? ????? ????????
?????????? ?????? ???????
????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????,
????? ??а?????? ????????? ???? ?????????
??а?????????
eSpeak (https://espeak.sourceforget.net)а? ???
????????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ?а??н
?????? ???????????? (sudo aptнget install espeak).
??????? ??? ????????? ?????:
$ espeak ?TheаTerminal rules?
56
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
??????? ????? ??????????? ???? нa, ?????
???????? ??????? ????????? ??а0 ??а200 (??а????н
????? 100). ??а?????? ????????? ?????? ??????
?а??????? ????? нp (0?99, ???????? ??а?????????
50) ?а???????? ??????????????? ?а??????? нs (??н
???????? ?а?????? ?а???? ??: 175 ??а?????????,
?а?????? ???????? 80 ?а???а???????? ???????,
??а????? 260а? ????? ???).
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ??????????????? ?????? ??а?????????,
??а??? ????? ???????. ??? ???? ?? ??????? espeak
ннvoicesа? ???????, ??? ????????; ????? ??????н
????? ???? нv ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????
???? ????? ?а???????. ?????????? ??, ????? ????н
?????? ????? ?????
$ espeak нp 99 нs 200 нv enнscottish ?Theаengines
canna take it capt?n!?
л???????╗ Terminal ???????
???????? ?????? ? ASCII. ? ?????? ?? ? ????
????? ??? ??? ???? ??а?????? ASCIIа? ????????????
??? ??? ????????? ?????, ?а??? ??? ?? ????????? ???н
?????? ?????????? ?????????? mplayer (sudo aptнget
install mplayer) ?аlibaa-bin (??. ???????? ?????) ???
??????????? ??????????? ?аlibcaca (?????????????
??????????? ?аmplayer) ??? ???????.
???? ???? ????? ????? ?а????? /Videos, ???????????
????????? ???????, ??????? /Videos/file.mp4 ??а????
?а??? ?????? ?????:
$ mplayer нvo aa /Videos/file.mp4
?? ????? ??????????????? ??а?????? ????????
???????? ?а??????? ?????? 1 ?а2, ?а?а??????? 3 ?а4
????? ????????? ????????. ?? ????? 5, ????? ????н
???? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????, ?а6а? ?????
??????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????
??? ?? ???????, ?а?????????????? ?????? ?а??а????н
????? ?????? ? ?????????? [Floyd ? Steinberg]. ???????,
??? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? 7.
????? ????????????? ???????????????, ?? ?????
??????, ?а????? ??????????а? Enter.
???? ??а?????? ???????? ????? ?а??????? ASCII
?а?????, ???????? aa ??аcaca:
$ mplayer нvo caca Videos/file.mp4
?????????? Caca ?????? ??????????? ?а???????н
???? ?????????, ?а??а?????? ??????????? ??????
????, ?????? ??а?? ??????? ???? ???? ?а???? ???????,
????????? ??а????? ??????????????? ??????? B, Aа?аD
??????????????.
????????????? ??????????. ????????, ????????? ??????? ???н
??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?а???? ????????? ??????? (??? ?? ???? ??н
????? Ctrl + C):
$ watch нn1 ?date ?+%D%n%T?|figlet нk?
???? ????????? ???????
????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???а? cowsay, ???????
?????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? (cowsay ? ?????
Linux Format), ???????? ?а??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ASCIIн
????????а? ????? ???????? ??а?? ?а????? ???????? ???????????
????, ?????????? ?????? ????? xcowsay.
???? ??а??а???????? ?????, ??а??? ???? ????, ??? ???? нf ?????н
???? ???????? ??а????????? ????????? ???? ?????????а? ??а???н
??? ???????? ??а????? ??????????? ?а????:
$ cowsay нf hellokitty Linux н ??? ??? ?????!
???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???, ?а???????? ????????; ??? ???
??????? ?аman cowsay. ????? ????????? нb ??? ????????? ???????
[Borg], нdа? ??? ???????? ?анp ??? ????????. ??а?? ?? ?????? ????н
????????? ?а????? ?? ??????????, ????????? cowthink.
??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?? ??:
fortune (sudo aptнget install fortune) ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????
??? ?????? ???? л??? ??а??????? ???????; ?, ????????, ?????? ??н
??? ??а???????╗. ????????? rig (sudo aptнget install rig), ??а?????? ??н
?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? (??????н
????? ????? нf ?анm ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????).
??????, ????? ????? ????????? ??а??????, ??? ????? ??а??????н
?? ?а?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? pv (sudo aptнget install
pv) ?а??????????? ????????? ?????????:
$ echo ?Incoming message from Linux Format: don?t forgetto
renew your subscription? | pv нqL 10
??????????, ??а?????? ????????? ???н??????, ?а????? ????????
?????, ??? ????? ???????? нqL ??, ??? ???, 20 (???, ?? ?????????,
????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????).
> ??????? libcaca ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????
?????????? ASCII?
????? ?а??????????, ??? ??? ??????. ????? ??? ?? ????? ?????????
?????, ?? ????? Ctrl + C ??? ??????.
?? ???????? ?????, ??а?а??????????, ASCIIн?????? Star Wars,
????????? ??????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а???? ??????? ??,
????????? telnet, ??? ???:
$ telnet towel.blinkenlights.nl
???????, ?а??????? ??????? calendar ?аTerminal ????? ???н
?????????? ??а?????? ??????? ?? ???????, ????????:
$ calendar нf /usr/share/calendar/calendar.computer нA 365
? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???
??????????? ??????? ??????????????. ???????? computer ??аlotr
(Lord ofаtheаRings [????????? ?????]), pagan [?????????], history
[????????????] ?аmusic [???????????] ??? ????????? ????????н
?????? ?? ????????, ??? ??????? ls /usr/share/calendar/, ????? ???н
???? ?????? ?????? ?????????.
????? ??????? ????
???? ??а??????, ????? ??а????????? ??????? ??а?????? ?????????
???? ????, ?????????? ????????? xeyes, ??? ????? ?????? x11-apps
(???а?????????????, sudo aptнget install x11нapps). ????? ???? ??н
?????? ??? ?????; ???????? ????, ????? ???????, ??? ??? ???????
??а??????????. ?? ??????? Ctrl + C, ????? ?????.
??????? sudo aptнget install oneko, ????? oneko, ?а??а???????, ???
??а?????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????. (?????????????
?????? ????????? ?????? ????? oneko нdog.) ????? ????? ??????н
?????? ????????? ??????? ??а??????. ?? ????? Ctrl + C, ????? ???н
??????? ???? ??????. |
??????
??????
????????? ??????,
??? ?????? ?????н
??? ??????, ????н
?? ??? ??аsudo: ???н
???? sudo visudo
?а???????? ????н
?? ??????, ????н
?????? ??? Default
insults [?????
??а?????????]. ??н
??????? ?? ?а???н
????, ????? ???н
???? sudo нk,
?а????? sudo ls.
??????? ?????н
??? ??????а?
?а???? ???? ?а??н
??? ??? ??????
????????????.
????????? ??а?????????
?? ?????? ????, ??? ?аLinux ????? л????? ???╗н???????????????,
?а?????? ??а??? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ??????? aptн
get moo ?а?? ????? Enterа? ??а??????? ?????? (??????), ???????
??????? ???, л???? ??╗а?? ??а???????.
?????? ?????????? ?????? aptitude mooа? ????????? ????????
?????, ??? ????????? л????? ???╗ ???, ??????? ?????????? aptitude
нv ?а???????? ???????? ??а?????. ???????? aptitude нvv, aptitude нvvv
?а?. ?., ???? ??????? ??????. ??а??????, ??? ?а??? ??????????? ???н
???? aptitude нvvvvvv moo, ?а???????.
??????? rev, ??? ?? ?????????? ?аUbuntu, ?????? ??????? ?????
?? ??? ???????. ??????????? rev, ????? ??а?????????, ????? ???????
> ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ????????, ??????
???????? & ? ????? ????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
57
???????? ????????? ???????, ???????????
??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? Linuxн??
????? 1
Procps-ng: GNU/
Linux ? ????????
??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????? ?? ????????? ???, ?????????? ??.
?
???
???????
??????? ??????????? ???????,
??? ????? ?????н
????? ?? ?? ???н
???? ??а????????
?а????????, ?а??н
? ??? ??? ??????н
???? ???? ???????н
?? ?????????.
?????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ???????а? ??????????
?????????? ???????????? ?? ???, ??????????? ????????н
??? ?????????? ???????. ???????а? ??? ?????????????
????? ??????, ???????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????н
?????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????????? ???????, ????????, ?????.
??????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ???????, ?? ? ???? ??а????н
??? ??????????????? ??? ???? ??????: ???????????? ?????. ???н
????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ???н
?? ??? ??а??????? ???? ?а?????? ???? ?????.
????? procps-ng ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ?????н
???? ??а?????????? ?а????????? ???. ???? ????? ???????? ??? ??н
????????? ??а??????? ?????? procps. ?????? ????????????? Debian,
Fedora ?аopenSUSE ??????? ??, ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ???н
???????? ?а??????? ???????, ????? ???????, ?????????????? ???
?????? ???????? ?????, ?а??????? ???????????????. ??????? ???
?????? ??????? ????? ??аprocps, ?а????? ?? ??аprocps-ng [next genн
erationа? ????? ?????????].
? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????: ps, top, pidof, pwdx, w,
uptime, pmap, pgrep, pkill, free, slabtop, sysctl, tload, vmstat, watch,
skill, snice.
????????? ps
> ???? 1? ?????????? ? ?????????,
?????????? ?????
ps aux?
58
|
?????? ?а????????? ps. ??а?? ????а? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???н
??? ??, ?? ???? ??? ??а??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??. ???а??а?? ?? ??
????? ??????? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ??????.
??? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????.
╗ UNIXн?????????: ?????????????, ???????????? ?а??????;
╗ BSDн?????????: ?????????????, ?????? ??а???????;
╗ GNUн?????????: ??????????????, ???????????? ?а????
???????.
LXF227 ???????? 2017
????? ps ???а?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ??????????
??????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????:
PID
TTY
TIME
CMD
2440
pts/0
00:00:00 bash
2467
pts/0
00:00:00 ps
?? ???? ????? ????????? ps ???????? ?а?????????? aux, ??н
????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??а???? BSDн??????? ???: aа(?? ???? ??н
?? ??????? л?????? ?╗: ???? ?????? ?????? ??, ???? ?????? ???н
?? ??????????????), u (?????? ??????????? л??????? ????????╗,
?а?????????? ?????????? ????????, ??а???? ????? ??????????? ??н
???? ??????????), x (?????? ??????????? л?????? ????????╗: ??н
???????? ?а????????, ??а?????????? ????? ????????? ???????н
??): ps aux (???. 1).
?? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ??а??? ??? ??? ????????:
USER (??? ????????????), PID (????????????? ????????), %CPU
(????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????), %MEM (????????? ????н
?????? ??????, ??????????????? ????????, ?а?????? ??????????
?????????? ?????? ?а?????????), VSZ (????? ??????????? ??????,
?. ?. ?????????? ?????? ???? swapа? ????????), RSS (????? ????н
?????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????), TTY (????????), STAT (???н
??? ????????), START (????? ???? ??), TIME (????? ?????? ??????н
????), COMMAND (???????, ??????????? ???????).
??? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??а???.а1, ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? COMMAND
?а????????? ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ???????. ????? ??????н
?? ?? ??????? ?а???????? ???????????? ???? ?а????????????? ???
?????? ??????? ?? ??? ????. ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????.
???????? m ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ? ???? ???н
?????. ??? ??? ??????????, ?? ? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????н
??? ????? ????????????? ???????. ????????? ???????, ???????
??????, ?????? ????? ????????: ps auxm (???. 2).
?а??? ???? ??? ps ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??а???? UNIXн
??????????а? нef (ps нef): нeа? ?????????? ??? ????????, нfа?
???? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ??. ?? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ???
?а????????? ?????? ?????? ????????. ??а??????? ??? ?а???????
?а?????????? PPID. ??? PID л?????????????╗ ????????: ????? ????
??????? ???????? ??????, ??а????????? ??????? ?????????? ????н
???????? ??а????????? ?а??????????. ????????? ???????, ?а????
???????, ?????????? ????????. ??а????????? ????? ?????? ?????н
??? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????.
?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????
??? ???????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ???а???????? ??????? ??????н
???? ?????? ??? ?????????, ?а??? ??????????.
????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????? ??????н
??? ???????, ???? ??????? ????????? ps ?а?????????? fax: ps fax.
????? f ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? (forest).
?? ???. 3 ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ps fax, ??????? ??н
?????? ???????? ??а????????? ?аBash. ?а??? ????? ??: ??а????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ? Linux ???????
?????? ?? ??? ?а??????? ????????? ???????? Bash. ???? ??????н
?? Bash ???? ??????? ?????????? mate-terminal.
?а??????? ps ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??а???
????, ?а?????? ?а????????? ?????????. UNIXн???????? нC ???????н
?? ??????? ??????? ??а?????.
??????? ?????? ??????? (????? ??а?????? ?а??? ??а???? ???)
?а?????? ??????? ps нC bash. ? ?????????? ??а??????, ??? ??????н
??? ?а?????? bash ????? ???. ??? ???????: ???? ?а?? ? ??? ???????
???????? ????????? ????????? Bash.
PID
TTY
TIME
CMD
4837
pts/1
00:00:00 bash
4999
pts/0
00:00:00 bash
?????? ????? ??? ??а?????? ??????? ?????н?????? ????? л??н
?? ???╗ ???????. ????? ??? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??н
????? ??? ??а??? ????? ?? /dev/zero ?а??? ????? ?? /dev/null. ???н
??????? /dev/zeroа? ??? л??????????? ????╗, ??а???? ???? ?????
?а???????????, ??????? ??а????? ???? ??а?а????? ???????? ???н
????? ??? ??а??????, ?а???а?????? ??а???? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ??н
?? ???? ??? ?? ??. ??? ????? ?? /dev/nullа? ??? ???? л??? ?? ???н
??? ????╗, ??а???а?????? ??а???? ??а????? ?????? ????? ?????.
???а?????? ?а???? ?????????? ????? ???? ?????????. ??? ?а??н
????? ????? ??? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????
???? ??а?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?а??? ???. ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????
?????????? dd:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null
??? ?????? ?а????? coreutils ?а???? ?? ??????? ??? ????????н
??? ?????????? ?а????????? ??а???????????????. ?????????
if, ofа???????? ?input file? ?а?output file?. ????? ????? ???? ?????н
?? ??????????? Bash ??а????? ????: ?????? ??? ???????? ????
?????????? ?????? ?????????. ??, ??? ??а??? ?????, ??? ???
??а??? ?????: ??????????? ????? ??а/dev/zero ?а/dev/nullа? ???н
???? ???????????.
???????? ?а?????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ??а?????
??????????? Bash ?а???????? dd. ??? ????? ???????, ?????? ??? ??н
?????? нC ????? ????????? ??а?????? ???? ????????, ??а?а??????
????????. ????????? ps ????????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????????,
??????? ??а????? ???????. ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?а???????
UNIXн??????? ?? нo, ???? BSDн??????? ?? o, ???? GNUн???????н
?? ннformat. ????????? ????????????? ??? ?? ? ???? ???? ?????
????? ?а?????????? ???????: man ps. ??????? ????????? ??????н
??? ???????: PID, TT (????????), STAT (??????), CMD (???????, ??н
??????? ???????):
ps нC bash,dd нo pid,tt,stat,cmd
ps нC bash,dd o pid,tt,stat,cmd
ps нC bash,dd ннformat=pid,tt,stat,cmd.
?? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????:
PID
TT
STAT
CMD
4837
pts/1
Ss
bash
4999
pts/0
Ss
bash
5021
pts/0
R+
dd id=/dev/zero of=/dev/null
??? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ??а?????? ??а?????, ??а?а??а??? ???
?????????, ????????, ??аPID. ??? ????? ???????????? ?????????
p, нp ?аннpid. ??? ???????????. ????????? ??????? ?????? ????н
????? ?????а?? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????:
ps p 4837,4999,5021 o pid,tt,stat,cmd.
?? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??а????????? STAT. ??? ??н
??????? (??????) ????????.
??????? ?????? ?????????.
╗ D ????????????? ???;
╗ R ??????????;
╗ S ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???????;
╗аT ?????????? ????? ???;
╗аt ?????????? ?????????? ?????????;
╗ W ????????;
╗ X л???????╗;
╗ Z ?????: ?????????????, ??а??? ??а?????????? ?????????????
???????? ??? ??????????.
?? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????????, ??а???????????
????????? ???????:
╗ < ??????? ?????????;
╗ N ?????? ?????????;
╗ L ????? ??????????????? ????????;
╗ s ????? ??????;
╗ l ?????????????;
╗ + ???????? ??а???????? ?????.
????, ????????? ???????? dd, ??????????? ???? ??а?????? ???н
????, ?????????? ??? R+ (??????????? ??а???????? ?????). ??н
????? ??????? ???. ???????? ?а???????, ??????? ??ал?????????╗
??????????? ?????????, ?а?? ???? ????????? ?????? Ctrl + Z. ???
????????? л??????? ??????╗ Bash ???????? ??????? ?? ????????
???????, ??а??ал???????╗. ???????? ????????, ??? ????? ?? ?????
Ctrl + Z ?а??????? ???????? ????? Stopped ?а????????? ???????,
????????? ???????, ?а?????а? ??????????? Bash. ????? ???????
?а????????????? ?????????, ??????? ???????? ??? ??????.
????? ?? ????? Ctrl + Z ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?а???н
????? ?????? ????? ????????:
ps нC dd o pid,tt,stat,cmd
????????? ???? ???, ??? ??????? л???╗, ? ?????? ? ????а? ????н
?????? (T).
PID
TT
STAT
CMD
5021
pts/0
T
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null
?????? ???????? ??? ?????. ??? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ?а???н
?????? dd ?а?????????? fg. ??????? ????? ????????, ?а?????? ???н
????? ????? ?????? R+.
fg ? ??? ?????????? ??????? Bash, ?????????? ?????? ????н
?????????? ???????? ??а???????? ?????. ??а??? ????? ?????????
?а??а?????? ????? (?а????). ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? bg.
????? ????????????? ??????? ?а??????? Ctrl + Z ?а?????????
bg. ?? ???? ??? ??????? ??а???????: ??????????? Bash ?????????.
????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????:
> ???? 2? ?????????
??????? ps auxm:
????? ?????? ???????? ?а???????
> ???? 3? ???????? ??????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
59
??????? ???????? ? Linux
> ???? 4? ?????????
top?
??????
??????
??????? ???????
Ctrl + Z ?????????
??????? ?а??????н
??? л?????????н
??╗. ??а????? ??н
??????? ??? ?????
????? ?????????
??а???????? ?????
???????? fg ????
??а?????? ?????
(?а????) ????????
bg. ??????? ?????н
?? Ctrl + C ???????
???????. ??????
??????? ?????????
??????????.
> ???? 5? ???????
??а????????? top?
60
|
ps нC dd нo pid,tt,stat,cmd
?????? ???????? ????? R, ??а??? ???а?????. ??????, ??? ???н
???? dd ????????, ??а?????? ??а?????? ?????.
????, ???????? ????? ????????? ??а???????? ?а??а?????? ???н
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???????? 2017 LXF227
|
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????? ????????.
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
66
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Rescatux ???????
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???? ??? ??? ?? ?а??? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??, ???????
??? ??? ????????? USBн?????? ?? ??. ????? ?????? ????, ????н
???? ???? ?а??????????? ???????. ???? ???? ???????? ???????н
?? ????????, Photorec ????????? ??? ??????? ?а???????? ???????
???, ??? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????. ????? ?????????? ???н
??? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????, ?а??????? ???????? ???? ???н
??. ???? ?????? ??? ????????. ???????? ????? [ext2/ext3], ?? ??
??? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? Linux. ????????
[Other] ????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ?аFAT/NTFS/HFS+ ??? ??н
??? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????. ????? ??? ???????? ??????, ??н
????а?? ??а?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????
???????????? ??? ??а???? ???????. ?а????????? ???а? ???????
Photorec ????????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???? ????????????н
??? ??????.
????? ??????? ???? ???????????, Photorec ?????? ??? ?а??н
????, ??а??? ????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ???????, ?а??н
????????? ??а?????? ???????, ???а??????? ??а????????. ??? ???н
?????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ?а??? ?????? ?? ?? ?????. ?? ??????
?а????? ?? ????????, ??а??????? ????????? ???????? ?а???????
recup_dir?1, recup_dir?2 ?а?. ?. ????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????н
???? ?а???. ?????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ???н
?????. ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??а????????? ????н
??, ????? ????? ???????????? ?????: ????????, ????????????
mv ~/recovered/recup_dir.*/*.jpg ~/allнrecoveredнimages, ????? ??н
????????? ??? ????? JPG ??а???? ??????????????? ????? ?а???н
?? all-recovered-images.
????? ??? ?? ????????????? ????? ??а???????. ??? ????? ??н
?????, ???????? ???а?????????????? ?????? ?????. ?а??????????
?а?????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????, Photorec ??? ?? ????????н
??? ??? ?????????, ??????? ????? ????? ?????а?? ??????????.
??????? find ~/allнrecoveredнimages/ нname ?*.jpg? нsize н10k | xargs
нiаmv {} ~/thumbnails ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????
10 ?? ??а????? all-recovered-images.
??? ??????, Rescatuxа? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???,
????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????. ???? ??н
?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?а??? ??н
???? ????????? ?????? ?а?? ??? ??? ???????? ?????, Rescatux
?????? ??а?????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????
??????????? ??????? Rescapp, ??????????? ????? ????. |
??????
??????
?????? ????,
????? ??????? ???н
?? ??а??????????
???? ??????, ???н
????????????
PhotoRec, ??а??н
???? ?????? ??н
????????? ??????
?а????????????н
???? ?????? ????н
???????? ????
??????.
?????????? ?????? ?? ?? OS Uninstaller
1 ????????? ??????????
2 ????????? ??????????? ??????????
????????? ??????? Rescapp ?а?????? ???? ????? ???? ??а??????? Expert Tools. ??н
????? ?????? OS Uninstaller, ????? ????????? ???? ??????????. ??а???????? ???н
????? ????? ?????? ?а?????? ???н????? ???????а? ????????, ???????????а?? ??
RAID ??а?????. ??????????а???????? ??????, ????? ?????? ??? ??а????? ??а????????
????? ???? ??? /boot.
?????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????? ??? ??????? ??, ??н
????? ??а?????? ??? ????. ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ????? ???????
???????? ?а???????????? ??? ????. ?????????? ?????????? ????аAdvanced options
?а???????? ????? Backup partition tables, bootsectors and logs, ????? ??????? ?????
??? ??а????????.
3 ??????? ??
4 ???????? ?????????
????????? ????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??а??????, ???? ???н
????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????, ?а??а????? ???????? ??????????. ?????
??а?????????? ??????????? ??а????? ??????? ????????? ?а??? ????? ??. ??????н
???? ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ??.
?????? ?????, ?а??? ??а???? ?????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????????н
??? ???????, ?????? ???, ??????? ??а?????? ??? ??? ????. ????? ??? ????? ?? ???н
?? ??? ?? ?а????????? ????????? ??а???? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ??????????
?????????????? ???????? Easy GNU/Linux Boot Fix.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
67
Linux ???????? ???? ?????? ? ??????? ?????н
????? ???????????? dmнcrypt ? cryptsetup
LUKS: ??????
? ???????
???? ????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ? ????
????????? Linux, ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????.
???
???????
???? ?????а?
????? ????н???н
?????? ?а???????
??????????, ???н
??? ????????????
??а????????????н
????? ?а?????н???н
????????. ??а??н
???????? LUKS,
????? ????????
???? ????? ??н
?????? ????????
??? ??.
> Disk Utility ?аUbuntu ????? ????????????? ???? ??? ??? LUKS:
?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?а??????? Format?
?? ????????? ????????, ??а???а???? ??????????? ?????н
?????????????? ???????????? Ubuntu, ????????, ??????,
??? ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ??н
???? ??а???????. ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?а??н
??????? ??????, ???? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? CD
??? ?????????? ????? ????????? Ubuntu.
??? ??????????. ????? ??а????? ????? DVD Ubuntu ?а??? ???н
????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????
?????????? ??????? ?а??????? LVM (Logical Volume Manager),
??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?аLUKS (Linux Unified Key Setup), ???
???????? ?????????? Linux Hard Drive [???????? ????? Linux].
??? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????н
?????? ????? ?а???????? ???????, ??а?????? ??а?????? ????????
????????. ??а?????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????, ??а?????н
?????? ??????? /boot, ?????????, ?а??? ????? ??????????????
?????? ????? ??????. ????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????н
????? ?????? ?? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?а????н
??? LUKS, ????? ??а???????? ?????? ???а?? ? ??? ??? ????????н
???. ??а?? ????????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????
??? ??? ????????????? ??????.
?
??????
??????
??? ??????? ?????н
?? ????? Cryptsetup
???????? ????
(FAQ) ??аhttps://gitн
lab.com/cryptsetн
up/cryptsetup/wikis/
FrequentlyAskedн
Questions.
68
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
?? ?????? ?????? ????? ??????????, ??? LUKS ?????? ?????н
??? ???а???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???
???????????? ??а?а???. ??? ???? ???????????? ??? ????? ????н
?????????? ?? ?? ?? ???. ??а?? ??? ?? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????
??????? ??? ?аLinux, ?а??а???? ?? ???????? ??а?а???? ????? ???
??а???? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??а? ????????, ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???
???? ??? ???????? ?а?є?? ????????? ???????.
??? ???? ???????????? ??аCryptsetupа? ?????????? ??????н
??? ??????, ??????? ?а??????????? ???????? ????? Linux ????????н
???????. ??? ????????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? dmнcrypt,
???????? ?????? ?а????? ????????? ?????. ??а?????????? ???н
??? ????? ???????????? Cryptsetup ??? ???????? ??????? ?????,
?????????? ?????? ??????? (??. ?????? ??????); ??а?? ?? ?????н
???? ??? ????? ?????????? ???а?? ? ??? ????????? ??????? ?а???н
???????, ?, ??? ?????, ???????? ?????? ??а???н??а?????.
? ???????, Cryptsetup ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???
??? ?? ??? ?а????????? ??????????? ????? LUKS. ?????? ??н
?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??н
??? ??????, ???? LUKS ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ????
?а???, ?а??? ?? ?????????? 256н?????? л????????╗, ???а?? л???н
????? [salt, ????]╗, ??????? ??????????? ?а?????? ??? ???????????
??????? ????????????. ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????н
??? ??????н????, ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????.
??? ????????, ??? ??а?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?а???н
???н????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????.
????? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ??а???? LUKS ??а??????н
?????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???, ???
???????, ??? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ??????. ????? ???н
?? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????, ????? ???????????
??? ????????????? LUKSн??????????, ????????, ??????? ????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?????????? ?????? ???????
> luksDump ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ????? ???????????? 256-?????? ?????????? AES, ?????????????? ?????
????????
??а??????? ????????????? ??? LUKS, ??????? ???????? ?а????н
???? ?????????? ??????????, ????????, /dev/sda5. ??????? ??????
??????? ??????? luksDump ?а??????? ??:
sudo cryptsetup luksDump /dev/sda5
??????? ???? ?????????
?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? luksDump, ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??н
????? ???? LUKS, ??????, ??? ??а??????а? ??? ????? ???????н
??? ??а?????? ???, ?? ???? ????????, ????? ??а?? ?? ?? ????? ??
Ubuntu ??????????? ??? ??? ???? ?а??????? ?? ????????? ???
??????? ?????. ?а?????? ?а??????????? ??????? Ubuntu ??????н
???? 256н?????? AES ?а??????? XTS Block Cipher.
??? ?? ?????????? л????????╗ ??????н?????, ??????? ?????н
?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???? LUKS. ???а??? ??а??н
??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ??????, ?? ?? ?а???????н
??? ???????. ??а???? ??????? Cryptsetup ?? ??????? ??? ??????
????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???? LUKS ?а???????????????
??, ????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???, ??????? ???? ???????н
?????? ?????? ??????.
????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? LUKS, ??н
?????? ???????? ?а????????? ??????? cryptsetup luksHeaderBackн
up <??????????> ннheaderнbackupнfile <???_?????>а? ????????,
sudo cryptsetup luksHeaderBackup /dev/sdb1 ннheaderнbackupнfile
/home/nate/Desktop/backup1. ??? ?????????????? ????????? ???н
??? ????? ?? ?? ??а?? ????? ????? ??, ??????? luksHeaderBackup
??аluksHeaderRestore.
?? ??? ??а??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??
?????????, ????? ?? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? luksDump ???н
?? ?а?????? ???? ????? ???? ??а??????? Key Slots. ??а?????????
????? ?????? ?????? ??????, ??????????????? ??а0 ??а7. ??????
???? ????? (0) ?????????? ???????, ????????? ???а????????н
??? ?????????? ????. ???? ??а??????????? ?????? ?????? ?а??н
???? ?є?? LUKS ????н?????? ???, ?????? ???????? ?????? ???
???? ?????, ????????? ??????? Crypsetup luksAddKey, ????????,
sudo cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/sda5. ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??н
?????????? ??????. ????? ?????? Cryptsetup ???????? ??? ???н
??? ??? ? ??.
????? ??? ???? ?????? ??а???? LUKS, ?????????????? ??????
luksRemoveKey, ?? ??????, sudo cryptsetup luksRemoveKey /dev/
sda5. Cryptsetup ???????? ??? ?????? ??????, ??????? ??а??????
??? ????. ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?а???? ???? ?? ??, ?? ???? ??? ?? ??
??а??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? LUKS, ??а??а???????
???????? ?а???? ?????? ?????.
Kali Linux ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?а????? ?????н
??? [nuke patch] ??? Cryptsetup, ??????? ???а???????? ?????????н
???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?а????????? LUKS ???????
(??? ?????? ??а???? ??. ??аwww.kali.org/tutorials/nukeнkaliнlinuxн
luks). ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??а???н
?? ??? ?? ?????; ??а??????????? ?????????? ????н?????? ??? ??н
???????, ?? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ????, ????? ??а?а????
??а??????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????????!
??????
??????
????????? ??а???н
??????? LUKS ???н
?? ??? ????, ???н
?? ?????????
??????????? ??н
???????? ???н
???. ?????????н
?? ??? ????? head
нc 1052672 /dev/
zero > /dev/<yourн
luksdevice>;sync.
????????? ??? LUKS
???? ?аCryptsetup ???? ???????? ????? ??а????????? ??? ??????,
??, ??? ??? ??, ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?є????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??
???а?????? ???????. ??н??????, ?? ?? ??а??а?????? ?????????
???? ??? ??? ????, ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? LUKS, ???н
??????????? ?????? ??а??????. ??а???.а70 ??а??????? ???????н
???, ??? ??? ???????.
???? ???а???????? ?????? ?????????? ??а??????????? ?????
luksFormat ???? ??а????, ??аCryptsetup ????? ????????? ????? ???н
??????? ??а?????????. ??????, ?? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????????,
??а?????? ??????? ??а????. ????????:
??????? LUKS ??? ????????????
?????????? LUKS ??а????????????? ???????
??????? ?????? ???? ??????, ?а?????? ????
?????? ????? ???????, ??а??????? ?????????
??? ????, ??? ??? ???? ??? ????????. ?а???????,
??а?????? ???????????? Cryptsetup ?а???????
?????? [plain mode], ?а??????? ??? ??а???? ???
??????? ????????? ????. ??? ????, ??? ????????
??а????, ??а???? ????? ?????? ??????????? ???н
??????? ???????.
????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????н
???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????????? USBн??????,
???????? ???????? ?а???????? ???? ?а???????
dd: ????????, sudo dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/
sdb1 bs=1M. ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????н
??? Cryptsetup ?а??????? ??????а? cryptsetup
<options> open ннtype plain <device> <name>. ???н
???? ????????? ????? ??а???????????? ?а???????
????????? Cryptsetup, ????? ??????????, ?????
????? ??? ??? ?????, ????????:
sudo cryptsetup ннtype plain ?cipher=serpentнxtsн
plain64 ннhash=sha512 ?keyнsize=256 ннoffset=123
open /dev/sdb1 plain3.
??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????
????????? ?? ? ??? ???, ????? ??а?????? ???? ????
?????? ?а??????????. ???? ??а??а?????? ??????н
???? ??, ????????? ???????? ????????.
Cryptsetup ???????? ??? ??????? ??????. ???н
??????, ??? ?а???? ?????????? ??????? ???????
????????, ????????? ???????? ????? ??а??????н
?????? (??. ????). ???????? ???????? ???????
?а???????
sudo mkfs нt ext4 /dev/mapper/plain3
????? ???????? ????? ????????????, ????????
sudo mkdir /mnt/plain3, ?а??????????? ??????????
?а??????? sudo mount нt ext4 /dev/mapper/plain3
/mnt/plain3. ?????? ??а?????? ?????????? ????
????????? ????? ??а/mnt/plain3. ????????, ?????н
???? sudo umount /dev/mapper/plain3, ?а????? sudo
cryptsetup close plain3.
?? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?а?????н
????????? ???????, ???????? ????? cryptsetup
?аmount.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ???? ???? ??????? ????? ????????????, ????????
?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???? ?а??????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????????? ??????,
??? ???????? ????????
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
69
??????? ?????????? ??????
??????
??????
???????? 512н??
???? ?????
??а??? ?????? ???н
??? ?а??????? dd
bs=1K count=512
if=/dev/urandom
of=keyfile
sudo cryptsetup нy ннcipher serpentнcbcнplain ннkeyнsize 256
ннhash sha512 luksFormat test1
? ???? ??????? ??? ???н???? ??? ?????????? test1 ????? ??н
????? ??? ?а?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? Serpent, ?? ??н
??? ??? ???? ?????? ?а???????????? AES (Advanced Encryption
Standard). ??? SHA512 ???????????? ?????? SHA256.
Cryptsetup ??? ?? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????
?????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?????? ???а????????????? ??????н
?? ??????, ?????? ???, ????????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?а???н
??? ????, ??? ?а???????. ??? ??????????? LUKS ????? ????????
???? ?????, ?????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????? luksAddн
Key, ????????:
sudo cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/sdb1 /home/nate/Pictures/kitten.
jpg
??????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???н
?? ?а???? ?????. ????? ??????? ????????? LUKS, ????????? ????
?????, ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?а??????? ?????
ннkeyнfile, ????????:
sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdb1 vol1 ннkeyнfile /home/nate/
Pictures/kitten.jpg
???а??????? ?аLUKS
? ??????????? ???? ??????? ?а???????? ????????????? ???????н
?? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??аWikimedia. ?а?????????? ???
> ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????, ????? ???????
???? LUKS? ??????????? ?????? ????, ??????? ??а??????? ?????
????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????????, ?????? ??? ??н
???, ?а???? ???? ????? ?????, ?????? ??????? ??? ????????? LUKS.
???????? ???????????? ???? ?????, ????????? ??? ?????? ???н
???, ??? ??????????? ????, ?????? ?а???????? ???? ?????? ?а???,
????????, ????????? ???? ??????????.
?? ?? ???а??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??????н
??? ?????? ??а?????????? ?? sudo, ????? ?????????, ??? ??а????н
?? ??а??????? ???????? ??? ?? ?а????????????? ??? ???????,
????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????????? root. ????????? ?а???н
???? ?? sudo chmod нR 777 /mnt/<?? ??_?????_??? ?????? ???>,
????? ????????? ???.
? ??????? ??а????????? ???????? ????? Veracrypt, Cryptsetup
??а????? ????????? ???? ?а??????? ????? ??? ??????, ?????
??? AESTwofishнSerpent. ????????????? ?????? ??а???? ???????н
??? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????, ??а????? ????н
?????????? ???а??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? LUKS ????
?????? ???????. ?????? ????????? ???? ????????, ????????? ???н
??? ????? ?????????? ??? ?? ? ???? ??????????.
???????, ??? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???? ??? ???н
???? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а????? ??????. ?? ??
?а??? ??????? ??????, ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??н
???? DiceWare (http://world.std.com/~reinhold/diceware.html). ???
?????? ??? ??а?? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??,
?????? ??? ??а?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????
?????????????.
???? ??? ??а???? ???????? LUKS ??? ????? ???????, ??а??а??н
????? ???????????????, ??? ??а???????? ??????, ?????? ???????
????????? LUKS ?а?????????? ??????????. ????????????? ?????
????? ??, ??? ??? ??а???? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???н
???, ??????????? ??? ??а????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????н
?????. ??? ????? ???а???????? ???? LUKS ??? ???? ????? ????????
????????? ?????? ннheader. ????????:
sudo cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda ннheader /dev/sdb
ннalignнpayload=0
???а???????????? ????? LUKS ??? ???? ?????????????? ????н
?????? ?????а?? ???????:
sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda ннheader /dev/sdb Luks
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??? ???,
????????? ????а?? ??а?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ??н
??? ????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?а????? ???????! |
??????? ?????????? ??????, ????????????? ? LUKS
1 ???????? ????????? LUKS
2а??????????? ???? ??????????
3 ?????????? ?????
???????? ???????? ?а???????? ???? ??а?????????
?????? ?а??????? sudo dd if=/dev/urandom of=test1
bs=1M count=512. ??? ??????? ??????? 512н?? ???н
??????. ???????? bs ?аcount ?а???????????? ?а????н
?? ?? ? ????. ???а??????? ??а?????? ????? ????????
??? ?аtest1 ??а????? ????? ???????????. ????? ??н
?????? ?????????? ????????? LUKS ?а??????? sudo
cryptsetup нy luksFormat test1. ??????? YES ?а???????
???? ??????а??? ? ??.
???????? ???? ????? ????????? ??аsudo cryptsetup
luksOpen test1 vol1. ??? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ????? ?а/dev/mapper/vol1. ???н
?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?а??н
????? sudo mkfs.ext4 нj /dev/mapper/vol1. ????? ???н
????? ????? ????????????, ????????, sudo mkdir/mnt/
secretfiles, ?а??????????? ??????????: sudo mount /
dev/mapper/vol1 /mnt/secretfiles. ???????? ????? ???
?????? ?а????????? ?а????? ????? ????????????.
?????????? ???? ????????? ????? ?а????????? LUKS.
??а???? ????? ??а?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????
????? ????????? ???? LUKS (??. ????). ????? ???????
?????????, ????????? sudo umount /mnt/secretfiles, ??н
??? sudo cryptsetup luksClose vol1. ???а?????????????
????????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ????. ?????
??????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ????????? sudo
cryptsetup luksOpen test1 vol1, ????? sudo mount
/dev/mapper/vol1 /mnt/secretfiles.
70
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Bitcoin ????? ??????????? ??????
? ????????? Bitcoin Blockchain
Blockchains:
?????? ??????
???? ????? ?????????????, ??? ????????? Bitcoin Blockchain ??? ???????є?
??????? ??????, ??????? ????????? ?а???? ???????? ??????????? ??????.
???
???????
???? ?????
????? ????????
?? ???? ?а??????н
?????? ?а???? ???н
?? ???? ??? ????н
?? ??а??????, ?????
?????? ????, ??н
??? ???? ??????
??????? л?????
??а?????╗, ?? ??н
???, ??? ??ал????н
??? ?????╗.
> ???????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????
???????? ??????? ????? л???????????╗ ??????????
??? 2016а?.а?????? ???? ??а????? ????? ???? [Craig Wright]
??????, ??? ??а???????? ?????? ???????? [Satoshi Nakamoto],
???????????? ?????????? ???????? [Bitcoin]. ??? ?????????
?а???????? ????????????? ???, ??? ??а??? ??????? ???? ????????
?а????? ??а????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????.
??????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? [Blockн
chain]а? ??? ??????, ??????? ????????? ??а??????? ????????
????? ????. ?? ? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????,
???????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ?а??? ?? ?????н
??? ????? Bitcoin, ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????
????????. ?а??????????? ??? ???? ???? ?????????? ?????????н
???????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ???????, ?????? ??
???а?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?????.
?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? [Gavin Anн
dersen] ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??н
?? ??? ?Gavin?s favorite number is eleven [?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??н
??а? ?????? ?????]? ?а??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? 50
????????? ?????????.
???? ????????? ??а??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????, ??????а??
???? ??????, ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ???н
??? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???????є? ?? ??? ??
?
??????
??????
????? ???????
??? ????? ???н
??? ?????, ??н
????????? ?echo?,
????????, echo
?Iаam Keyser Soze? |
sha256sum.
72
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
????????? ??? ?????. ????, ????????, ??а?????? ??? ??????????
????????? ??????? ?????, ??а?????? ??????? ???????? Linux ?а??н
??????? ??????? sha256sum mybook.epub. ????а?? ??? ????? ????
???? ??????????? ?????????? ???, ??????????????? ??? ?????
????? ?а?????? ??? ??а?????, ????????, https://bitaddress.org, ??а??
??????? ????? Bitcoin, ???? ??а????? ?????? ????????? ???? ???н
???? ??а????? ?????????. ???, ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????н
??????? ????, ??? ??а???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????а? ???
????????? ???? ???? ?а????????????, ??? ??а?????????? ??????
?а????? ??????. ????????? ??? ????? ???, ?????????? ??????????
?????? ????, ??? ??а????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ??н
???????? ???????а??, ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????.
???????????? ?????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????
??а?? ? ???? ????? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ?а?????????, ???
???, ????????, ??а??????????? ?????? ????? OpenTimestampsа?
??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????є? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ????
????? ???? ??????, ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? [Merkle tree].
?????? ?а????????
???? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ??а??? ?????? ??????? ???, ?????н
?????? ??????? ??????. ????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????н
?? ?????? ??, ???, ???????? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????????
??????, ??? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? [color
coins]. ??а????? ????а?? ????????????, ????? ???????? ???? ???н
???? ??а???????, ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ?а?????????.
???????????, ????????, ??? ?а??? ??????????? ???? ?????????
????? ??? ??? ?а????? ??????. ????????? ??????????????, ?????
????????? ?а???????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???? ???н
??? ????? ???? ?????? ??а?? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ????. ??????? ???
????????? ???????????: ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???, ???
?????????, ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??а?????? ??????? ????н
?? ????, ??? ??а???????????. ?????????? ??? ?? ????????????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ????????? ???????
??????? ???????? ?? OpenTimestamps
???? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????? ????????н
?????? ??????? ???????¤? ??????? ?????, ???????
??????? ?а????? ???????????? OpenTimeStamps
(https://opentimestamps.org). ??? ???? ?? ????????
???? ?а?????????? ????, ??????? ??а?????? ????н
????, ?а???? ?а?????? Data toаTimestamp [??????
??? ???????є? ???????], ????? ?? ????? Stamp.
???? ??????? ???? ?а??????????? ?ots. ?????????
???? ???? ??а????? ??????? ?????. ??а?????? ???н
????????? ??? ?а????? ?????, ??????? ???? ?????
?а????????? ??? ?а?????? TimeStamped Data.
???? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????н
????? ?????? opentimestampsнclient, ????????? ???
????? ?? ?????. ??? ???? ?? ???????? Terminal ?а??н
??????? git clone https://github.com/opentimestamps/
opentimestampsнclient, ????? ????????? ?а?????н
????? ?а??????? cd opentimestampsнclient.
?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
??????? sudo aptнget install python3нpip, ????? sudo
pip3 install нr requirements.txt. ????????? ots stamp
myfile.txt, ??? myfile.txtа? ??? ????????? ????
???? ??? ????????????? ?а???????? OpenTimeн
Stamps, ?а???????? ???.
????? ???????????? ???????, ??а?????? ???н
?? ?? ????????? ??а????? ?????????? ?????? ????
Bitcoin. ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????
?а?????? ???????????, ????????? ??а?????????
??а????? ???? ???? ???????? ????????? ??а??? ???н
??????. ?????? ??а?????? ???????????? ?????
???????? [pruning]. ??. https://bitcoin.org/en/fullnode
??? ????? ????????? ??????????.
????? ??? ???? Bitcoin ??????????, ?????????
ots verify myfile.txt.ots ??а????? ??????? OpenTimeн
Stamps, ????? ???????????? ??.
??????????????, ?а??а?????? ????? ?????, ??? ???? ????? ????
????????????, ?а?? ?? ?????????????? ?????.
???? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ????а? ?????, ?????????
?а?????? ???????? ?? ????, ????????, ???????????а? ?????????
????? ????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?? ???. ??а???? ?? ??????????
???? ???????? ??????? Bitcoin, ????? ?????????? ?а?????, ??а????н
????? ?а???, ????? ?????????? ?аCoinPrism. ???? ??????? ???? ??н
??????? ????????? ?а???????? ?? ?????? ?а??????? ????????? ???н
??????, ??а????? ??а?????? ????.
???? ?? ??? ??????, ?????????, ????? ??? ?? ???? ??а??????а??
??????? ?а??? ??а????????. ????????, ???? ???? ???????? ?????
г 1000, ????????, ??а?? ?????? ??????? 100 ????? ??аг 10 ??а?? ?н
???. ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? 100 ????????? ?????? ??????
?????. ??а?????? ???????????? CoinPrism, ????? ??????, ?????а??
?? ??? ???????? ??а????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????. ?а???н
??? ?а??????? ??? ???????????, ??а??? ???????? ??????????? ??н
???? ??, ????????, ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????н
??? ?????.
??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? 0,001 BTC (??а?????? ??????
??? ???? ?????? г 2) ??а???????? ??????????? ???????? ??а????н
??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????. ?? ??????а??? ?????н
????? ???????? ??а????? ????? BitStamp (www.bitstamp.net), ???
???????????? ??????? ????????? [Bitcoin faucet] ??? ???? ?????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ????
???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??а??????????? ?????????н
?? ?а???, ??? ??а?????????? ???????? ?а???????????, ????????????
??а?? ??? ?а???????? ???? ?а????? ??а??а???????? ?? ???.
??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? Bitcoin, ?? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???
????????? ?? ????, ?а?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??а???????????
?????? ???? ?????. ??????, л?????н???? ?????╗ ??????? ??а???н
??? ????? ???????? ??????. ?? ? ??? ??а????? ?????? ????? ??н
????????? ????????? ?а????????? ????? ?????? ?????.
?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????а? ??, ??? ?????
?а????, ??????????? ?а???????? ?? ? ???? ??????????? ?????, ?????
????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????н
??? ????????, ????? ??а?????????? ??а?а??????? ????????.
? ?????? ????, ??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????????, ????н
??? ??а??? ?????????, ??а?????? ???????????? ??????????????
?????? ??????????? ?????????, ?а??а?????? ???????? ????? ???
?????. ????? ??а???????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ????
??? ????????? ???????. ???????? ??? ???: ????? ???????? ??????н
?????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?а????????? ???????????????
> ?????? ?????????? ???? ? ?Data to TimeStamp?,
????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ??? ???????
opentimestamps?
?????????? ?????? ?? ????, ??????? ????? ????????? ??? ??????н
???? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ?????? ??а????? 1:1.
????????, ???????????, ??? ??а?????????? ?а?????? ?????????
?а?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???а?????????
????????. ????? ?? ??а????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?а????????
???????, ????????, 100а???., ?а????? ?а??????? CoinPrism ?????н
??? 100 ?????????. ????? ??а???????? ??а??????? ?????????? ??н
?????? ?? ? ??? ??????? ??а???????? ?????, ??? ??? ???????? ??н
????????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????.
?а?????? ???? ??а?????? ??????????? ?а???????? ????? ?а??н
???? ??а??????? ??????. ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????????
???? ???????, ????? ????????? ?а??????? ??????????????. ?????н
?????, ?а???? ???????, ????? ???????? ??????? ????? 10н??????
????? ?а???????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ??? ???а?? ???????
?????? ??а????????. ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????н
?? ?а???, ????????, ?а???????? ??????? ??а?????. ????????????
???????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???? ?а???а?? ??????? ????? ???н
???????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??н
???? ????.
????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???, ?а?????????
????????? ??а???????? ??????? ??????. ??????????? ????? ??????
..
[Worgl] ?а1930н? ??. ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ?????
?????? ???????????, ?а????? ????????? ????? ?а?? ?? ???????
?????????. ????? ??а?????? ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???н
?????? ?а???а?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??, ??? ??а?????? ???????????
??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ??а???? ??а??? ??н
??? ??а?????.
??????
??????
???? ??а??????н
????? CoinPrism
??? ??????? ?????,
??а??? ?? ??????
?????????? ???н
??????? ??????н
????? ?????????.
?????? ?? ?????
Send Coins, ?????
Send Dividends
?????.
> ????????, ???????? ???????, ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??а????а??
????????, ??? ?а????? c?????????, ?а??????????? ?а80 ??????? ????????????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
73
??????? ???????? ?????????
?????????
??????
??????
?????????? ????н
??????? ????????
??????? ??????,
?????? ??????
??а?????? ?а?? ??
??????? ??а????.
????????? ?а?? ??н
?? www.coinprism.
info ??? ????????
???????????.
????? ???? ???? ?а???????? ?? ????, ????? ?????????? ?? ?????
???? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ?а???????, ??а?????? ?????
??? ?? ??? CoinPrism, ?а??? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????
Android, ??????? ????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?а??????н
???, ??? ?а????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????. ??????? CoinPrism
?????????, ?????? ?аQRн?????, ????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??н
?????, ??а??????? ??а????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?а??????
??????н????????. ????? ?? ????, ?????????? ?????? ????????,
?????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????.
?????????? ?? ????? ?а???????? ??а??????????. ????? ????н
???????? ???????? Android ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ???н
??? ?????????? ??????????? ?аCoinPrism ?????????, ???? ??а??н
??? ???? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?????????
?????????? (??. ????). ??а???? ??а??????? ????????? ????? ???н
????? ?? ???, ??а?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????.
????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ????????? ??н
??? ????? ?????????, ??а?????? ?????? ??а?????????? Android. ???
?а?аBitcoin, ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????? ??а???????, ??а??а??н
???? ???????? ??? ??а???.
?????????????
????????? ???? ???????? ??а????????? ????? ?????????, ??????
?????????? ???а?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????. ??? ????
????? ??, ?? ?? ??а?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????
?а?? ?? ?????? ??? ??, ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ????
> ????????? ??????? Android CoinPrism, ????????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????????
?????????? ????????? ?????? ??? Bitcoin ?а????? ??????? ????????? ??????????
??????, ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ????. ????? ??????? ????????
????, ???? ???? ?????? ??а????? ?? ????? ?????а? ??????? ???н
?????? ??????? ??а??а????????? ??????????. ??а?????? ????????
??????? ?????? ??????????, ???? ????? ???????????? ????????н
?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?? ????. ????????, ???? ???н
??? л????? ?????╗ ??а??????? 2017а?. ????? ?????????????? ????н
?? ?а??????? ????? ?????? ????? ????.
???? ??? ??а??????????, ??а?????? ?????? ??а?????????? ????н
????? ?????????? ???а??????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????; ??а?????
?а???????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ????н
??????. CoinPrism ????? ??????? Crowd Sale, ??????????? ???н
?????? ?? ???? ??а????????????? ????? BTC, ?а??? ?? ???????, ???
????? ?????????? ??????? ??а??????????а? ?????????? ??? ???н
?????. ?? ????? Send Coins, ?а????? Crowd Sale ?а???? ????? ??а??н
??? ??????? ?????? CoinPrism ??? ????? ????????? ??????????.
???? ??? ?????? ??????????а? ?,а?????????????, ?????????????
??а?? ????а? ????? ??????????, ???????? ??а??????? ??? ??а????н
?????? ????????. ?? ??, ????????, ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ???н
???????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??а??а?????, ?????????? ?????????
??а??????? ????????????? ??а?????????????. CoinPrism ????????
??????? ???? ????? ?а??????? ?????? ????? (https://coinprism.info),
???????????????? ?????????? ??а?? ????? ?а?????????.
??????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ??а???????????
????????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?а?? ???? ?????????? ?????
????? CoinPrism. ??а???? ????????, ??? ??а?????? ?????? ???????н
?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ??а??? ?????? ???
??????? ???? ??????????. ???а?????? ????? ??а??? ?? ?????? ???н
??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??а???? ?????????.
?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???????????, ?????? ???????????? ????н
??? Python ?а?? ??? ??? ?? ???а? Colorcore (https://github.com/
OpenAssets/colorcore). Colorcore ????????? ?аCoinPrism ?а???????н
??? OpenAssets ?а????????? ????????? ???????????? ??а??????н
??? ??????, ??а????????? ??????? ?????. ??а(??а?????? ??????????
??? ????????? ?а???????????? ??????????), ????? Colorcore ??н
????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??а?????
?????????? ?????? Bitcoin Core, ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????н
??? ???????, ??? ??а?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? 125а??.
???????, ??? ???? ?а??? ?????????? ?? ????, ???????? ??а????н
?? ??а???????????, ??а?????? ??а?????????????? ?а??????? ?а????
??????? ??? ???????? ???? ???. ??а??? ?? CoinPrism ?????? ??н
????? Send Coins, ?а????? Uncolor Coins ?????.
???а?? ??? ??а??а?? ?? ??а? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ????н
????, ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????, ?а??а??????? ??н
????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????? ?а?????????, ???? ???
?? ?????, ??? ??? ?????? ????????????? ????? ????????????. |
????????? ??????????
???? ??а????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? ???н
???? ??????????????, ????????? ??? EPOBC, ??н
????????? ?а???, ????? ???????? ???? nSequence
???а???????? ?????????? Bitcoin (?????? ??? ??а??н
??????????). ????????? ??? ??а???????? ???????
??????????, ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????
??а??????, ??? ???????. ?????? nSequenceа? ???н
?? ???? 32н?????? ????? ?????, ??? ??а?????????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??а??н
???????? ???? ?? ????. ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?????н
???? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????
??а?? ? ??? ??????????.
???????? OpenAssets (https://github.com/OpenAsн
sets/openнassetsнprotocol), ???????????? CoinPrism,
????????? ????????????????? EPOBC ???????????
????????? ???? ???????? OP_RETURN ?аBitcoin
74
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
Script. ???? ?????? ???????? ?аBlockchain ?а?????
???? ??????? ?а??? ?????? ?а????, ????????, ?а???н
?????? CoinPrism.
??? ??????? Colu Colored Coins (http://colu.co)
??? ?? ?????????? OP_RETURN ??? ???????? ????н
?????? ??а?? ????? Bitcoin, ???????? ??а?а????????
?????????? ???????н???????. ??? ?????, ???
?????????? ??а????? ????????, ????????? ???н
????н????? ??а?????? ??а????, ???? ??????? ?????
??а????. ?????? ????????????? ?????????????
???????н?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
??а?????????? ???????? ??????.
Colored Coins Protocol (https://github.com/Coloredн
Coins) ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???
???????? ?? ?????. ??а?????? ??????? ??????н
???????? л????? ??????? ??╗, ??????? ????????,
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???? ????????, ???? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???
?а??????а?? ??, ??? ???????, ??????? ??а???? ????н
??. ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ?а??? ?? ??, ???
?? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????????? ?????
??? ????????????? ????????, ????????, ??? ????,
??? ????? ?а?????? ??? ??????????.
> ????????? ??????? ???????, ????? ??????, ?????
?????? ????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?????????????
???????? ????????? ???????
??????? ????? ?????? ?????
1 ????????????????? ??аCoinPrism
2 ???????? ????? ????????????
???????? ??? ??????? ?а????????? ??аhttps://coinprism.com. ?? ????? Create aаWalн
let ?а??????? ???????? ??? ????????????, ????? ???? ??????? ????? ?а?????? (???
??????? ??а10 ????????). CoinPrism ???????? ??? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ??????н
?????? ?а??????? Bitcoin, ??? ??а??????? ???????? ???????. ???????? ??? ??????
??а????? ???????, ?а????? ????????? ??аhttps://coinprism.com ?а?? ????? Sign in.
?? ???????? Wallet Overview ?? ?????аAddresses and Colors ?????? ??????, ?а?????
??а??????? ?????? ???а????????? New color. ??????? ??? ???? ???. ???? ??а??????
???????????? ??? ?а????? webн?????????, ??а????????аAddress Type ?а???? Regular,
??а??а??????? ??????? ????? ????????? ????????/????????????, ???? ?? ??????.
????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?а?? ????? Create.
3 ????? ??????
4 ???????? ?а?????
? ????????? ???? ??а??????? ?????????? ?а????? ?? ????. ??????? ?а?????? ????
???????? ?а????? ????????? ????, ????????, NPZ. ???а??????? ?????? ??? ?? ??н
??????? Full Name. ???а?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ????. ????????
Asset URL. ??а?????? ???????????? ???, ????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????н
????? ?а????? ?? ????.
?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?а???????? ?????? ????? ??а????н
???. ?а????????? ???????? ?9 places?: ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ???а??????? ??н
?????. ???аAsset Type ???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????, ????????, ?????? ??????
??? ?????????. ????????? ?????а? ??? ???, ?????????? ??? ?????а? ?????. ??а??н
???????? ?? ????? Save.
5 ????? ??????????????
6 ?????? ???????????
?? ????? Send Bitcoins ??????, ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?? ??? ??а???? To. ?а????
?????????? ????????? ????? ?аBTC, ??????? ??а??????????? ??????????????. ???
??а??????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????, ??а??? ????????? ?????????? ?????н
????? ???????? ??????? 0,001 BTC, ????? ??????? ????????. ?? ????? Send, ??н
???? ??????? ???? ?????? ?а?? ????? Submit.
????? ?? ????? Send Coins ??а???? ???????, ?а?????а? ??аIssue color coins ???н
??. ???аAmount ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???????: ????????, ?????
?????? ?????. ????? ?????????? ???????? ??а?????????? ??а????? ?????? ?????,
??а??? ????? ????????, ??? ??а???????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???????. ?,а??н
?????, ?? ????? Issue Coins. ??? ????? ?? ??? ???????? ?а????? ???????аCoinPrism.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
75
???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ZFS ? ?????н
??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????
ZFS: ??? ? ???
??????
??????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ZFS ?? ?????????? Linux
?а??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????.
???
???????
??????? ???????а? ??????н
??????? UNIX,
???????????, ??н
??????????? ???
?????? ?а????н
?????, ????????
???????? ??????
?????? ?а?????н
?? ????н??а??????.
?а?????? ??????
??а????? ?????
???а????????? Go
Systems Programming. ?????? ???н
?????? ?а??? ?????
www.mtsoukalos.eu
?а@mactsouk.
??????
??????
?????а?? ???н
??????????? ???н
????? ???????
ext4а?аZFS? ?????н
??? ?????а? ???:
????? ?? ?? ?? ???н
???? ????? ??????
ZFS, ?а????? ?????н
?????? ?????????н
??? ?????? ?а????.
??? ??? ?????? ??н
??? ??а?????!
76
|
> ??? ????? ??а?????? lsblk, fdisk ?аparted, ??????? ????????? ????????, ????? ????? ?а??????? ???????? ??а?????
Linux-???????????
FSа? ??? 128н?????? ???????? ???????, ????????? ????н
?????? ?а??? ????????? ??????а? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???н
????? ????????! ZFS ???? ??????????? Sun Microsystems
??? ???????? ???????, ??????????????? ?????? ??а?????? ???н
??? ?а??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????, ?а?????????? ???? ???н
?????????? ????? ???. ?????? ??? ?????????? ?а2005а?., ????? ???
ZFS ??? ??????.
?? ??? ???? ???, ??? ???????? ??? ??? ZFS ?а?? ???? ??????
??????? Linux, ???????????? ext4 ?а???????? ???????? ????????
??????? root (/), ??? ??? ???? ??????? ZFS ?а??? ????????? ?а??н
?????????? ???????????? ?????? ZFS.
Z
???аZFS
?????? ??????, ??????? ????? ?а??? ??????????а? ????? ??? ???
???? ???????? ???????? ??а??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ??н
?????? ??????: ??? ??????? ?а???????? ???????? ext2, ext3 ?аext4?
??, ???????????? ?а???? ???, ?а???????? ??????? ???? ??а?????
LXF227 ???????? 2017
?????? ??а???????! ????????? ???????? ??????? ??а??????????,
?а?? ? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????н
????? ???????? ??????, ??? ?а???????? ???????? ????? ????????
?а???????????? ??????.
л??а??? ???╗ ZFS ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???. ???
?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ????????,
?????? ????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??а???????, ?а????н
?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????. ???????????? ??????
ZFSа? ??? ????? ???????? ??????? ZFS, ????????? ?????? ??а???н
???, ??а???? ??а?????? ????????. ???????????? ?????? ZFS ??н
????? ??? ????, ????? ????????? ????? ??а??????? ?а????????????
??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????. ???? ??а?????н???? ?????н
?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ??а?????????? ?аLinux, ??а??????
???? ?а????? ????, ??? ????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ????
?? ?? ??????? ??а???????. ?????? ZFS ????? ???????? ?а????????
???????, ?а??а????????? ??а???????. ????????????? ????? ????н
???? ?????а? ???????????????? ???? ???? ?а????????????? RAID.
????????а?? ZFS ????????? ???????, ???! ZFS ????? ????? ???н
????? ??? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?? ???????????? ??????,
???а??????? ?? ????? ?а??? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????н
?? ?????? ??????.
???? ?? ??? ??а????????? ??? ????: ???????, ??? ???? ???
???? RAID: ??????????? ?а???? ??? ???. ??? ?? ????????? ?? ??н
????? ?????? ?а???????????? RAID, ?????? ??? ?????????? RAID
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ??????? ???????
?????? ?????????? ? ???????????
? ????????, ??? ?????? ?а??? ??? ?а??? ???????
?????????, ??? ???? ?????????????????? ZFS, ???,
???????, ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????, ???????н
???? ??????????!
??????, ??а?????? ???????, ???? ??????? ???н
?? 1а?? ??? ??а?? ? ??? ???????? ??????????
?а??? ?????????, ?а???????? ??????? ?а???????
Linux ???а?????? ??? ??? ??????? 4 ?? ECC. ???н
????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????
???????а?????.
???????, ????? ??????? ?????? RAID 5 ZFS, ??н
?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????
?????. ??а???? ??а?????? ?????? ??????????????
ZFS, ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????
?а??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???
????????????. ???? ??????, ??????? ??а???????????
????????? ??а?? ??????? ???????????? ??? ????. ?????????????,
?? ?????? ??а????? ?а??? ????????????.
??????, ??? ??? ?? ?? ???????а? ???????? ?????????? ???????
?????? ??а????? ?????????? Linux. ??? ??????? ?? ????, ???????н
??? ?????????? ????? ??а????????? ??????:
$ sudo lsblk нo NAME,FSTYPE,SIZE,MOUNTPOINT,LABEL
$ sudo fdisk нl
$ sudo parted ?l
???. ??а???.а76 ?????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????,
?а??? ?? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????. ??? ??? ???н
???? ????? ????????? ???? ??????, ?а??? ????????, ??? ???????н
???? ??? ????????? Linux ????? ?????? ?????: ???? ??а???а?а???н
??? ?????? ?????, ?а????????? ??? ???? ??? ??а?????????????,
?а?????????????, ????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ZFS.
?? ? ??? ??а???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??н
????? 3а??. ??? ???????? ?????а? /dev/sda, ?а??а?????? ??а??? ???н
????: /dev/sda1, /dev/sda2 ?а/dev/sda5. ????? ????????? ???? ???н
?????? ??????? ??????а? /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc ?а/dev/sdd.
????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??а?????????? Linux ??????
????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ????????? ????? ???н
?????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? Linux, ??????????? ?????н
?????????? ??? ??????? ??а??????? ??а??? ???? ??? ??????!
????????? ZFS
?????? ????? ?? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??а??а??? ??????н
??? Linux. ?а??????? Ubuntu Linux ??? ???????? ????????? ?????? ZFS
?а??? ????????????:
$ sudo apt install zfs
??????? sudo zfs list ????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???н
??? ZFS. ???????? ??? ????????????, ??? ?а??????? ?????????? ZFS
??? ???????? ?????????. ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????н
?? ????? ????? ????????? ZFS ??????? ????????? ?????:
$ sudo zfs list
no datasets available [??? ?????? ?????? ???]
ZFS ?а?????????? ???????????? RAID, ?????????
??? ??а????? ????????.
?а????????а?? ????? ??? ??????? ??а????, ??н
????а?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?а??????
?а?????а?? ??а?????? ??а?????. ?????????????,
??а?????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???
??а??????????, ???????????? ??? ????????????а?
??а????? ??а??а??????? ???????.
????????????? ZFS
????, ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ZFS ????????????? ???? ???????
?а????? ?а?????????? ??а??? ??????. ???????????? ???????? ???
?????: ??? ????????? ??а????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ????????н
???? root ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ZFS:
$ ls нdl /LXF/
drwxrнxrнx 2 root root 3 Jun 12 22:12 /LXF/
$ touch /LXF/aFile
touch: cannot touch ?/LXF/aFile?: Permission denied
?????????? ????????? ??????? chown ???????? ??????????н
?? ?mtsouk? ???????????? ?????? LXF ZFS ??? ???????? ??? ??????:
$ sudo chown mtsouk:mtsouk /LXF
$ touch /LXF/aFile
$ ls нld /LXF
drwxrнxrнx 2 mtsouk mtsouk 4 Jun 13 11:11 /LXF
$ ls нl /LXF
total 1
нrwнrwнrнн 1 mtsouk mtsouk 0 Jun 13 11:11 aFile
нrwнrннrнн 1 root root 0 Jun 12 22:12 doesItWork
????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?а??????????????
???????? ZFS, ??а?????? ???? root:
$ mount | grep нi zfs
LXF on /LXF type zfs (rw,relatime,xattr,noacl)
LXF/docs on /docs type zfs (rw,relatime,xattr,noacl)
LXF/tutorials on /tutorials type zfs (rw,relatime,xattr,
noacl)
??????
??????
OpenZFSа? ???
?????? ?а????????
?????, ???????
?????????? ???н
????? ?а?????, ??н
?????????? ZFS
?а???????? ???н
???? ??? ?????.
??а?????? ??????
?????? ??аOpenн
ZFS, ??????? http://
openнzfs.org.
?????????????? ZFS
??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????... ????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????н
??? ???????? ?? ????, ??????????? ?аZFS, ?????????, ?а????? ???н
???, ???? ??а??а?????? ??????? ?????? ZFS, ????? ????? ?????????н
???? ZFS ??а??? Linuxн?????????? ????, ???? ?????? ???? ???, ???
??????? ?????? RAID 0. ????????? ?а?????? RAID 0 ?????? ??? ???
????????? ??????? ?????, ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??н
??? ????? 9а??. ??????? ZFS ??? ???????? ??????? RAIDа0 ?????н
??? ????????? ???????:
$ sudo zpool create нf LXF /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd
????????, ??? ??????, ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??н
??? ?????? RAIDа0, ??????? ?а????????????, ????????? ??а?????н
?????? ?????????????! ???. ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????????
???????, ?а??? ?? ????? ??а?????? zfs list ?аzpool status.
> ?????????? ??????? zpool create ??? ???????? ??????? RAID 0 ZFS, ?????????? ??а????
??????? ??????, ?а????? ?????????? ?а????? ?????? zpool status ?аzfs list?
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
77
??????? ???????? ???????
???????????? ??????
?? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ZFS LXF ?а??????
snapshot1 ?а??????? ??????? zfs snapshot ????????? ???????:
$ sudo zfs snapshot LXF@snapshot1
????????? ???????????? ?????? ZFS ?? ???????, ???????????
$ sudo zfs list нt snapshot
?????????????? ?????????? ???а???? ????????? ?????????н
??? ??????? ZFS ??а???????? ??а??????? zpool list ?а????????????н
???? ??????? ????????? ??????.
???????? zfs destroy ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??н
?????????? ??????. ???. ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???
??????, ????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????. ?? ??а?????
???? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???н
???. ?а????????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ??а???????? ??? ????
/LXF/aFile ?а?????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ?????? ????????
??????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????. ??????? ?????????:
$ ls нl /LXF/aFile
нrwнrwнrнн 1 mtsouk mtsouk 0 Jun 13 11:11 /LXF/aFile
$ rm /LXF/aFile
$ touch aNewerFile
$ ls нl /LXF/
total 1
нrwнrwнrнн 1 mtsouk mtsouk 0 Jun 13 12:17 aNewerFile
нrwнrннrнн 1 root root 0 Jun 12 22:12 doesItWork
$ sudo zfs rollback LXF@snapshot2
$ ls нl /LXF/
total 1
нrwнrwнrнн 1 mtsouk mtsouk 0 Jun 13 11:11 aFile
нrwнrннrнн 1 root root 0 Jun 12 22:12 doesItWork
???????? ?а???, ??? ???? /LXF/aNewerFile, ????????? ???????
????? ???????? ?????? LXF@snapshot2, ????? ?? ???? ??аLXF@
snapshot2 ????? ?????????.
??????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???н
??? (LXF@snapshot1), ??а??????? ????????? ????????? ??а????н
??, ????????????? ??? ?а????????????? ????? ?????? ??????:
$ sudo zfs rollback LXF@snapshot1
cannot rollback to ?LXF@snapshot1?: more recent snapshots or
bookmarks exist
[????? ??????????: ???? ?????? ? ???????? ?????]
use ?нr? to force deletion of the following snapshots and bookmarks:
[??????????? ?нr? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????
??????? ? ????????]
LXF@snapshot2
???????? ???????? ??????? ZFS
?????? ???????????, ??? ??а??????????? ???????? ??????? ZFS,
??а??а?????н?? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????, ?а??а??????? ??а??? ????.
???? ?????? ?????? ???, ??? ??? ???????. ?а?????н????, ?? ?? ????
????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????н
??, ????? ??а???? ???????????? ?? ????? ??а?????? ???????? ???
???? ?????? ??????!
????, ?? ?? ??а??????? ?а????? ??????? ZFS, ??????? ??????
??? ????, ????????? ????????? ???????а? ?а???????????? ??н
???????????? ??? ????????? ??????? sudo:
$ sudo zpool destroy LXF
? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ???????, ????? ???н
???? ???? ?????? ZFS, ??? ???????? ???? ?????... ???а???????, ???
??а???????? ??а??? ???? ??а??? ?????? ZFS!
??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????????
??????? ?????, ??????? ??а?????? ??????????? ??а?????? ?????н
?????. ????????? ?????? ?????? ???, ??? ???????????? ??? ???
??????? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? RAID 5 ZFS.
???????? ??????? RAID 5
> ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????????????, ??????????? ?а??????????
??????? ZFS, ??????? ???????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????
?????????????
???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????
??а??????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? RAIDнZа? ???
???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? RAIDа5, ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??а?? ???? ???
???????? ???? ?????? RAID
RAID ???????? Redundant Array ofаIndependent Disks
[?????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????????????]а?
??? ??????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????
??а?????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ????????
???? ?????? ??а??? ???, ???? ???? ??? ?????????
??????? ?????? ???? ??? ????.
???? ????????? ???????????? RAID, ???????
RAIDа0, RAIDа1, RAIDа5, RAIDа6 ?аRAIDа10, ?????????
??? ?? ??? RAID 1 + 0.
RAID 0 ??а???? ?????? ???????, ????????? ??а???н
??? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???
????, ??? ???????? ?????????????????? ?а????н
??????? ????????, ????????? ??????????? ??а???
??????????? ??а?????????? ?????? ???????????.
??а???? ???? ??а?????? ?????????, ??, ?????? ?????,
??а????????? ??? ???? ??????. ????? ???, ??? RAIDа0
??а????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????????
?????? ??????.
? RAIDа1 ?? ? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ??? ???н
??????? ???? ????? ???? ?????. ?а??????, ???? ???н
?????? ???? ???? ??а????, ?????? ??а??а?????????;
???????? ???????????? RAIDа1а? ??? ????????.
RAIDа5 ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?а??????н
???? ?????????? ???а????????? ?????????????
?????? ??а???? ????????? ??????? ??????. ?а??н
????????, ???? ???????? ???? ????, ??а??а???????
??????. ??????, ???? ???????????? ?????????
??? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ????????а?????? ????
?????а??????.
RAIDа6 ????? ??аRAIDа5, ??а????????? ??? ????
???? ????????, ??? ????????, ??? ??а????????? ????н
?? ????? ??а?????. ??а???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?а???н
????????? RAID 6 ????????? ????????????, ??а???
????? ????????? ???? ??????.
RAIDа10а??? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????.
???? ????? ??????? ????????????, ??? RAIDа5,
??а?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??а?????. ?а????? ???н
???? ???????????? RAIDа10, ????? ??? ???????
?????? ??????? ?????,
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
78
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? ??????? ???????
??????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ?аRAID. ????? ??????, ??а????н
?? ??????? RAIDнZ ???а??, ??? ?аRAIDа5, ??а???а??????.
?????? RAIDнZ ????????? ???????????? ????????:
$ sudo zpool create нf LXF raidz /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd
?? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????,
??? ?а?????? ?аRAIDа0, ?а??а????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??н??
??????? ???????? ?????:
$ df нh | grep LXF
LXF 5.8G 0 5.8G 0% /LXF
???. ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????, ??????н
??? ?????? RAIDнZ, ?а??? ?? ????? ??????? zpool destroy, ??? ???н
??? ???????????? ?????? ZFS.
???????????? ?а??????????
????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ZFSа? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????
???? ??????, ??а?????? ????? ???????? ?????н???? ????? ?????н
??????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????. ?а?????, ZFS ??н
???????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???, ???? ? ??, ??? ??? ????,
????? ????????. ????? ????, ???????? ??????? ZFS ?????????
????????? ??? ?????????????. ????? ???????? ??а??????????н
??? ZFSа? ???????? ?а???? ???? ????????????, ?а??? ?????????
????? ?????????????? Linux, ?а???? ?????? ??? ?а?????!
?????? ?а????????????? ZFS ???? ?а??????????, ??????? ?????
??????, ????? ??а?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????
????? ??????? ???????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ????????н
????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ??????н
???, ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????
dd RAID 0
dd RAID Z
dd ext4
cp RAID 0
cp RAID Z
> ??? ?????? ???????? ???? real ??????? time ???а????????? ?????????? ?????? dd ?аcp
?аext4 ?аZFS?
???????????? ??????. ????? ????, ??? ??? ZFS ???????? ????????
????????, ???? ??а?????? ???? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????
??????, ??? ??? ??? ??а????? ?????? ????? ??? Linuxн????????н
??? ?а????? ??? ????? ???????? ???????. ?,а???????, ??? ?????н
?????? ?????? ZFS ?? ??? ????????? ????? ???.
??????????????????
> ????? ??????? ?????? RAID-Z ZFS ????? ????? ???????? zpool!
??????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????, ??? ? ????????????
RAIDа0, ?? ??? ?? ??????? ???????
cp ext4
??? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????: ????????? ???????н
?? ?? ????? ???????? ??а?????/?????? ??? ???, ????? ????????
?????????????????? ZFS ?аext4, ????????? ??????? time ??? ??н
??????? ??????? ??????????. ??????? time ??????? ??????????
????????? ???? ??????????? ????????:
$ dd if=/dev/urandom of=2GB bs=64M count=32 iflag=fullblock
$ cp 2GB aCopy
?????? ??????? 2н?? ????, ????????? dd, ?а?????? ??????? ??н
??? 2н?? ?????, ?????????? ???????? dd. ??? ??? ??????? ?????
????????? ?а???????????? RAID 0 ZFS, ???????????? RAIDнZ ZFS
?а?а???????? ??????? ext4.
?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ??а?????? ???????
time. ??? ????? ??а???????, ZFS ????????? ???????????: ??? ??а??н
?????? ??а???????? ext4 ?а???? ?????? ????? ???????????. ??????
???????? cp ?а??????? ext4 ???? ??????? ???????, ??? ??? ?????н
??? ??????????? ?а???????? ??????? ZFS.
????, ?????а?? ???????????? ZFS? ??а?? ????? ??, ??? ???? ??н
?? ???????????? ??а?????????????, ??а??????? ??????????? ??н
??? л??╗! |
??????
??????
???а?????? ?а???н
???????, ?????н
????????? ???н
????????? ?????
???????? ??????,
?????? ????? ???н
?? ?? ??????? ??н
??????? ?????
???????, ????????
???а?????? ?а???н
??????????????
?????????. ??????
?? ????? ?????????
?????????? ???
???????? ?????
?????? ??????? ??н
?? ????? ???????
?????!
?????? ??????? ZFS
??? ???? ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ZFS
?а??а??????? ?????????????????, ??аZFS ?????
???? ??????.
???? ?? ?????, ??? ??????????? ???????????
?????? ZFS ?????????? ??????????? ?????. ?????
????????? ???? ??а???? ?????????? ???????????
????: fletcher2, fletcher4 ?аsha256. ???? ????????н
??? ????? ????? ?????????, ?????? ????? ??а??н
???????????, ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????
???а?????? ????? ??????.
???????? ZFS ??? ????????? ?????? ??????
(??а????????? ?????????). ???? ?????? ?????
??????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????
ZFS, ?????? ??? ???, ????? ??????????????????
?????? ?а??????, ????????, ??????????, ??????
??? ??н?? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?а????????
?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???а??
????? ??????. ??а???? ?а??? ????? ????? ??а?????,
??а?????? ?????? ???, ????????, ??а???? ???????.
ZFS ??? ?? ??? ????????? Copy on Writeа? ?????н
?????, ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????
??а????? ?????. ????? ??????, ?????? ???а????н
????? ??а????????????????, ??? ?а???????????
???????? ??????. ?????? ????? ????? ??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????????? ??а????? ?????? ?????, ?а????? ????н
?????? ????????? ??а??????.
ZFS ??? ?? ??? ????????? Snapshot Replication,
??????? ?????????? ??а?????? ??????. ??? ????н
????, ??? ???????????????? ????? ?????? ???????
?а??????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ?????
????? ??????. ????, ????????, ??? ??а???? ?????
????????, ??а????? ????, ??? ????????? ??? ?????н
?????? ???? ?????? ?а????.
? ???????, ZFS ??? ????????? ???? ??????,
?????????? ?????????? ????????? SSD, SAS
?аSATA, ??а?????? ?????????????? ?????.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
79
???????? ????? ???????? ???? ???
??? ?????????, ?????????? ??? ????????
????? 10
IoT: ???, ???????
???????? ???
?????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????
????? ? ????????? ? ????????????.
??? ??а??????? ?а???? ????? ??а?????? ???). ??? ??а???????, ??? ???
??????? ??????????, ?а????? ?? ??н??????? ????????? ???????
?????? ??? ???? ????????? ???н???? ???? ????????. ???? ????
??а??? ??а???? ???? (???? ????? ????? ????????????, ??а????????
?а?????), ?а???? ?а??? ??а???????а? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????н
??. ??а?а??? ????, ????? ?????????? ???н????, ?? ?? ????????????
??аSSH ?а??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????.
??? ???а?? ?????
???? ???? ???????: ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????н
??? ?????????? ????? ???????????? LCDн???????. ??????????,
?????????? ??? ??а??а????? ??а????, ?а?????? ????? ?????? ???????
л??а??????? ?а??????? ????╗. ??а??а?????????? ?? ????????? ???н
???а? ???а?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?а4 ???????? ??а?а??н
?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ???????
?????????? ??а??????????, ????????????? ?а??.
???
???????
?????? ?????????а? ???????н
???? ????? ????
?а????????? ???н
????????? ?????.
??а???????????
????????????н
???н??????????.
Linux ????????н
?? ?а2008а?. ???
?????? ??? ??н
????, ??? ????н
?? ??аWindows.
??а??? ???? ????н
????? ??????? ??н
???? ?а????? ?????
л?????????╗.
80
|
? ????? ??????? ??????
??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?а????? ?????????? ?а?а???н
???? ??? ???????????.
?? ????? ?, ??а????? ????????? ?????. ????? ???????
?а????. ??а?????, ??????????? ?а????, ??а??????????
?????????? ??? ?? ?? 6н? ???? ???? ???????? ?а4н?? ??н
?? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ???, ????н
???? ???????? ??а???. 1.
??? ?? ??а??????? ?? ?а?? ?? ????????? ?а?????? ?? ??????н
?????, ???????????? ?а???, ?аwebн?????????. ??а????? ???? ??н
?? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???????? (??????????? ?а???????? ??а????);
??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????.
???? ???, ?????? (??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????). ????н
????????? ?а??? ??а???. ???????н?? ???????????? ?а????? ????н
??? ?????????, ???????????? ?а??. ?????? ??а?????????, ?а??н
????? ??а???????? ???а???????? ??????н???????? (??? ??????),
?а?а???????? ??? ????????????.
?????????? ??? ??? ????????: ??а???? ?? ???? ????? ????н
?????? ?????? ?а?????? ??а??????? ?????????? ??. ??? ???????н
??? ????????? ??а???? ???????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ????н
?????: ??? ?? ?? ???????? ?????? ?а???????, ????????? ??а???????
?????. ?а??????? ???, ????? ?а??????? ?а??????, ?????? ??а??н
??????? ??аwebн??????, ??? ????? ????. ?а????????? ???. ??????
????????? ??а??????????, ??а???????? ??? ?????. ??а???????а??
?????, ??? ??????? ??? ?????? (??а??? ????, ????? ????? ???????
?а????????? ???? ??????? ???? ???????, ?а????? ????????? ?а???,
?
LXF227 ???????? 2017
> ???? 1? ????-????? ???
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??? ???????
????, ??? ?а??? ?а?????? ?????????? ?????????? 15а??? ?????
?а??????????? ??а??? ??? ??????????? LCDн?????????? (???????н
?????? ?а???????? ?????????а? ??а??????????? ??а??? ?????н
?????? ????? ?????????? ???????: 2 ???? ??а16 ????????? ?а??н
??? ??????????).
?????????? ?а??? ?????????. ?????? ??? ?????????? HD44780
(KS0066)а? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????
?????????????????? ???????? ?а???????????? 4н ??? 8н??????
???????????. ?????????? ?????? Hitachi ?а1980н? ??. ?????? ???н
??????? ?а??????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??а????? ????????
????? ?а????? 14?16 ??????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????????н
???? ??? ??? ???????????? (2 ??????? ???????а? ??? ?? ?? ???
?????????; ??????? ?а14н? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?а??????
?а?????????? ?? ??????? ????????). ????? ?????? ???? ????????,
??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???, ??а150 ??. ???
???????????? ?????????????????? ??????????а? ?????? ???????
100а??, ??? ???а???? ???????? ????? 50 ?? (?????????? 5 ?????).
??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???, ??????? ??????????.
?????????? ????????? 14н?? ??????? ??а???а????? ??????? ??н
??. ??а???? ??а?а????, ?а?а???, ??? ??? 14а??????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ?а??????????????? ?а???????????? ????а? ????н
??? ????? ?????.
??????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??????а? ?????? ???????н
??? LCDн??????? ??аHD44780 ?а???? I2C, ??????? ??????? ?????
4а???????. ??, ?а??? ?а??? ???????, ??????? ???а??? ????? ????.
I2C (InterнIntegrated Circuitа? ???????? л????? ?????????? ???н
??╗), ?а??? ?? ?????? ??? л?н???н??╗а? ???????????????? ????,
??????????? Philips ??? ?а80н? ????? ???????? ???? (??? ?????
???? ????????? ?ал??????? 1980н?╗, ??????). ?? ?????? ???? ???
??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????а? ?а???? ??н
???? ????? ???????, ???????? (??????? ?? ? ??? ?????????????, ??н
????????? ??, ??????????????? ???? ?????????? I2C). ??????,
?? ?????? ?аPhilips ?????????????, ?а??а2007а?. ??? ????? ???? ??
????? ????????? ??????????? ????????.
????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ??? ??н
???????? ?????? I2C ??? ??????? ?а??????? ????? (????? ????н
???????, ????????, ???????, ????????? ?????? ?а????????? ????н
????? ?а?. ?.), ?а????????? ????????? ?????? ??а????? ????: ???/
???, ?????? ?????????????, ???? ????????? ???????, ???????н
???? ?????н???????, ?????????, ?????????????, ???????, ????н
???? ??????????? ?а??????, ???н???????????, ??????????? ???н
??? ?а?????? ???, ??? ???? ??????.
л????? ??????╗ ?а???? ????н???? ???: ???????? ?????? ?а??н
????????? ??а??? ?? ?? ????? ?а????, ??????????? ??? 100а????/?
?а127а????????? (??а??а??????, ?????? ?????? ?????а? ?а????????).
???????? 1992а?. ??????????????? ??? ???????? ??? 100а????/?а(lowн
speed), ??? ?а400а????/?а(fastнspeed) ?а??? 10н?????? ?????????,
?. ?. ????????а? 1203 ?? ?? ??. ? ???? ??? ??? ??а1998 ????????
?????? ???? ?? ??а3,4а????/?а(Hsнmode).
??? ????? ??а????? ?а??????? ?????????, ??а?а?????? ?а???? Hsн
mode ??????????? ??????.
?????? (??а127) ?????? ?????? л?????╗ ?а??????????, ??а???н
?????? ????????? ??? ?????? л???????╗ ??а?????а? ?????????н
?? (??а??????? ??? ?????) ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?а??????????
????????? ?????????? ????????? ??а???? ????.
?????????, ???? I2C ???????????? ????? ??? ??????? (??а???н
??? ????? ?а???????), ??????? ??? ?а????? ??????????? 1?10? (???
?????? ???????????? ???????).
?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?а??? ??а??н
??????, ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??а???? ???? ?????????? I2Cн???н
???????? ?????? ??а???? ???? PCF8574. ??????? ??? ??????????
?????????? ????????, ??а?? ?? ?а??? ???????? ??? ??а???? ???????!
> ???? 2? LCD-??????? 20 ╫ 4?
?????? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????, ?????
????????????? ?а16 ????????? ??а????? ?аHD44780 ?аLCDн????????
(??? ?? ?? ????? ??????? LCD ??а???????? ???????).
???????? ???? ????? ?а????????: ?????????? ????? ?????????,
??? ?????? ???????? (8 ╫ 2, 16 ╫ 2, 20 ╫ 2, 20 ╫ 4, 40 ╫ 2, 40 ╫ 4), ???
?а?????? ?????? ?а?????????. ?а???? ??? ?????: 16 ╫ 2 ??? 20 ╫ 4.
?????? ?????? ???????: ?????????? ??а??? ????? ???????? ???н
????? (???а??????? ????????), ?а?????? ?а??? ??????????? ????н
??. ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?аPCF8574. ????? ??? ??????? ??,
20 ╫ 4 (???. 2) ???? ???????, ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????н
???? ???????? ??.
??, ?а??а???????? л??????? ??????╗, ???. 3.
? ?????? ??????? ????? (??? ?????? ???????? ???????): ??а???н
????? ?????? BananaPi ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????
?????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? I2Cа? ??? GPIO3 ?аGPIO5 (SDA
?аSCL). ?а????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? (???. 4).
????? ??????? ??а????? ??? ?? ??? ?а????????? ??а?? ??, ???
?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?а????? LCD?
??? ??????? RaspberryPi (??? ?аCubieboard) ??? ?? ????? ?? ??н
??????, ??? ???а?? ???? ?? ??????? ??а???а?? ?????.
?????? ?????? ??????, ???? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????.
??????? ?????
?? ?????? ??????, ??? ?? ?? ???????????. ?а????? ???????????
?а??????? ???????????? ?а???н????: ?????????????? ???????????
> ???? 3? LCD-??????? 16 ╫ 2?
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
81
??????? ????????? ???
Armbian, ?а??? ?? ??? ??? ??????? Raspberry ?аCubieboard: ??? ????
???????? ???? ????????, ????????? ?а????? ??????????. ??а??н
??????????, ??? ????.
?? ???, ???????? ??????, ??? ???? ?а??? ?а???????? 2, ???н
??????? ??????? ??а???????, ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???н
?? ????????? ?а?????????:
# i2cdetect нy 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f
00:
нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн
10: нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн
20: нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн
30: нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн 3f
40: нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн
50: нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн
60: нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн
70: нн нн нн нн нн нн нн нн
????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ?а????? ?? ??? 3F ??а??????
????, ?????? ???? ???????.
> ???? 4? ?????
?????????? LCD
?аBananaPi?
??? ??? ?? ??, ?? ??? ???? ???? ???, ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????
?а?а?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?а??.
> ???? ??????: ???? ???????????
??? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? i2c-tools, ?а???
???????а? 4 ?????????н???????: i2cdetect, i2cdump, i2cget, i2cset.
?????????????:
# aptнget install i2cнtools
?????? ?а?????? (??????????):
╗ i2cdetect ???????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????а?
??????? ?????? slaveн?????????.
╗ i2cdump ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????.
╗ i2cget ???? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?а?????????н
??? ??????????. ???????????? ?а???????
i2cget <????> <???> <???????>
╗ i2cset ?????????? ???????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????????????
??????????, ??????? ?а???????
i2cset <????> <???> <???????> <????????>
????????: #аi2cset 0 0 ╫ 2d 0 ╫ 10 0 ╫ 22, ??а???? ????? ????????
0 ╫ 22а?а??????? 0 ╫ 10 ?????????? ??а?????? 0 ╫ 2d ??а???? 0.
???? ?? ??? ???????????? ???? ????????, ?? ?? ???????? ????
i2c ?а??????????. ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ??а?а?????н
???????, ???????????? ?а????? /bin/script?bin. ?а?????? BananaPi
??? ????????????? ?????? ??а????. ??????, ??а?????:
$ ls нl /boot/script.bin
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 Jun 22 2016 /boot/script.bin н> bin/
bananapi.bin
??????????? ???? bananapi?bin ?а???????? ?????? ?а???????
?????? ??????? bin2fex (??????? ?а???????? ?а?????? ???а???? spi
?а??????????? ?? ?????????). ????? ?????????????? ?????????
???????????? ???? bananapi?fex ?а???? ?????? [twi] (??? ??????
?? ?????? л?????????????╗ ???? i2c ?а????????? ????????????
?а????????????????). ??? ?? ??????? ?а??????? [twi2_para], ?а???
????????? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???????? ?а?????????? ????:
[twi2_para]
twi2_used = 1
twi2_scl = port:PB20<2><default><default><default>
twi2_sda = port:PB21<2><default><default><default>
?? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ?а??????????
?????? ???????????, ?а??а??а?????. ??а??? ???????? ?а???????????
????????????, ?а??? ????????.
???????? ??????? ??? ???, ??? ?????????? ?? ??аLeMaker: ????
???????? ?а?????? ??????????. ??? ???, ??? ?????? ???? ??????
> ???? ??????: ?????? ????????
??? ??? ?а????????? ?? ??????, ??? ????? ??? ??. ????? ????, ???
?????????? ??а????????? ??а???????????? lcd4linux ?аlcdproc (???
???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? LCD ?а?????н
???????????). ???? ?а????????. ?а??????? ??????? ?????????
????? ???? ??? ???????? ?а???? ??????, ??а?????? ???? ???? ????н
????, ???? ??????????. ?????? ????? ??????, ????? ????? ????н
????? (??? ??? ?а?а?????, ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ?а?????н
???? ??????????). ??а???????? ?????????? ??а??????????. ???
????? ????, ??? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????????, ?????н
???????? ?а??????????? ?а??????????? ??аAliExpress. ?а???????,
??а??????????? ??????? ?а???? ???? ??а????????? ??а???????.
????? ?а????????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????н
???а? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????, ???????
??????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ????: https://github.com/vvromanov/
cb_i2c_lcd.
??? ??а????? ???????? ??а???? ??????? ??????? ???????, ???н
?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?а??????????????. ????
i2c-dev?hа? ??? ???????????? ????, ??? ??????? ??а?? ??. ????
i2c_lcd?cа? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????. ??? ??? ??а??????? ?а??н
????? ??? ????? ????.
??? ???? ?? ?????? ?а???? ?????? ?а????? ???? ?а?? ??? ???н
??????? (???????, ??? ????? ??????? ??а?????? ??? ????? ?????????
??? ??????????; ???????н?? ????????, ??а??????? ???а??????????
?????????? ???????????).
?? ??????? ???? i2c_lcd?c ?а????????? ?? ??? ???? ?а??????
??????, ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?????????:
int fd=init_i2c_bus(2, 0x3f);
2а? ??? ????? ????, 0 ╫ 3Fа? ????? ???????.
? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ??а???????? ?а???. ?????? ??а??н
????? ??? ?????? 20 ╫ 4 (?? ?? ?а??? ????? ???????, ??а????????
?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??а??? ?. ?? ?? ?? ???). ?а??? 16 ╫ 2 ?? ?? ??? ????
?????????.
????? ?? ???? ??? void write_line(int line, const char* s), ???
?????? ???????? ?а??????? ?а??????????? ??а?????. ??? ???? case 2
?аcase 3. ?? ???, ????? ?а???? ???????, ??? ??????????? ??????????
len (3 ????), ???????? ????? 20 ??а16а? ??? ?????????? ?????????.
???? ??а?а??? 8, ??а???????? ??а8. ???? ???????? ??????? ????????,
????????? ?????? ??а?????: ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????
?а???????. ??а???а? ??а????????, ??????
????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?а????? ????? ????????? ????:
}
if (argc>=4) {
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
82
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????????? ??? ???????
write_line(2,argv[3]);
}
if (argc>=5) {
write_line(3,argv[4]);
? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????: ??? ?? ????? ??? ???????????
(?а?а??????? ?а???????, ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????н
???????????). ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????
???????, ??а?а?????? ???? (???????? ?????). ??????а?? ??а?????н
????, ??а??? ?????? ?а???????? ???а??? ??а?????.
???????, ????? ??а??? ????. ?а???? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??н
??? ??????:
#define LCD_BL 1<<3
? ?? ?????? ??????????:
uint32_t lcd_backlight=LCD_BL;
??? 3а?а?????? ???????? LCD ???????? ??а????????? ?а???????н
??? ?????????. ??а??? ????, ??? ????? ??а???????????? (??? ?а??а??н
????????, ???). ???????? ???, ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?а???? ????????
???? ??????? ????? ?а??????? int main, ?а?????? ??. ?????н
?? ??????? ?????????, ??а????????? ??????:
int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
int fd=init_i2c_bus(2, 0x3f);
if (argc==1) {
write_pulse(LCD_D5 | LCD_D4);
usleep(5000);
pulse();
usleep(200);
pulse();
usleep(200);
write_pulse(LCD_D5);
usleep(5000);
write_cmd(0x28);
write_cmd(0x06);
write_cmd(0x0C);
} else {
if (argc>=2) {
if ((strcmp(argv[1],?b_light_off?)) & (strcmp(argv[1],?b_light_
on?))!=0) {
write_line(0,argv[1]);
} else {
if (strcmp(argv[1],?b_light_off?)==0) {
lcd_backlight=0;
i2c_write_byte(lcd_backlight);
}
if (strcmp(argv[1],?b_light_on?)==0) {
lcd_backlight=1<<3;
i2c_write_byte(lcd_backlight);
}
}
}
if (argc>=3) {
write_line(1,argv[2]);
}
}
close(fd);
?????? ??а?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ??????н
??? ???????? ????????? b_light_on ??? b_light_off ?а???????? ???н
???? ?????????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ???? л??????? ?а???╗
?????, ??? ??а??а?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? (b_light_
on ??? b_light_off) ?а?????? ??????. ??а????а?? ??? ??? ?? ????????.
?????? ???????????; ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????н
?????? ??? CmakeLists?txt. ??? ???????????? cmake, ?а??а???? ??н
????, ??? ?????? ?а??????, ?а???? ?а?????????.
?? ??? ??? ?? ??а??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? i2c_lcd.
?????????? ??? ?а????? ??????? ?????а? ?а?????? ?????????,
???????? ?????? ?????????? ??, ??? ?? ?? ???????? ?а?????? ????н
??, ??????а? ??а??????, ????????:
./i2c_lcd ?line1? ?line2?
?? ?? ?? ?? ??, ??? ?? ??? ??? ????, ?? ??? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???
???????? ?????????:
./i2c_lcd b_light_off
./i2c_lcd b_light_on
??? ??????? ?а???? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? (???? ??) ???
Asterisk??, ?а??а??????? ???????? ??? ?а???, ??? ??? ???????????
?????:
[fromнgsm]; From GSM
exten => s,1,Answer
exten => s,n,Playback(hello)
exten => s,n,Set(CHANNEL(language)=ru)
exten => s,n,SayUnixTime(,,\?time\?kMQdb)
exten => s,n,Set(RESULT=${SHELL(/home/user/i2c_lcd
b_light_on)})
exten => s,n,Set(RESULT=${SHELL(/home/user/i2c_lcd ?Called:?
?${CALLERID(num)}?)})
exten => s,n,Wait(1)
exten => s,n,Authenticate(1887)
exten => s,n,GotoIf($[?${CALLERID(num)}? =
?+79036666666?]?999,1:)
exten => s,n,GotoIf($[?${CALLERID(num)}? =
?+79607777777?]?999,1:)
exten => s,n,Set(RESULT=${SHELL(/home/user/i2c_lcd ?Asterisk?
?hangup?)})
exten => s,n,Wait(1)
exten => s,n,Set(RESULT=${SHELL(/home/user/i2c_lcd ?Wait? ??)})
exten => s,n,Set(RESULT=${SHELL(/home/user/i2c_lcd
b_light_off)})
exten => s,n,Hangup()
??????????? ??????, ??????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ?а????н
??? ?????/????. ?? ??? ???????? ?а???????? ??? ???????: ????н
???? ?????????, ??????? ??а????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?????н
????. ???? 1 ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ??? ?? ????????????. ?????
??а?????? ????? ?????????, ?????а?? ??а???? ?????????? (?????н
?????? 2 ??????). ??? 2н????????? ??????? ????????????. ???? ???
?а???????, ??а?????????? ?????????? ??а???????? 999. ???? ???а?
????? ??а????? Asterisk hangup, ????? Wait, ????? ????? ?а??? ???
??????. ?а??? ??? ?а???? ????????!
? ??а??????? ???? ????????, ??а???????? ???????. ??? ???н
??? ???а?????????? ???????? ??а??? ??????. ??????? ???? ??н
????? (???. 5), ????? ??а????? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????н
??? 1 ???? ?? ????????.
?????????? ??????, ??а??????? ???. ?????? ??а?????? ?????н
???? ??????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??а? ??? ???? ??????
???????? (?а????????), ???????
?? ????? ???????! |
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ???? 5? ?????????
?????????
??аLCD-????????
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
83
??????? LXF
??????? LXF:
?????? ????? ?
??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ? ? ??????????? ?????????
?а??????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????.
???
???????
??????? ???????
???? ???а? ????н
????????? UNIX,
???????????н??н
??????? ?а????н
????????? ???
??????, ???????
????? ?????? ???н
??? ?а?????????
???н?? ?????.
???????
???????!
??????????????
?а???? ?????! ??н
??????? ???? ???
??а?????? ????н
??????? ?????
LXF: linuxformat@
futurenet.com,
?а?????: ??????? LXF227. ???н
??????, ??? ???
??? ?????????н
???? ???а??????
(??? ?? ??а????????
?????? ??? ?? ??н
????????????? ???
?а???????? ??????н
???? ????????н
?????), ?а??а????н
???? ???? ??????
?????? ??????.
> ??? ??? LaTeX, ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????
???а??????? ???????? ? ????? formula?tex? LaTeX ? ?????? ??????
?????????????? ??????!
?
? ???? ????? ??а?????????? ????? ? ???а?????????????
?????????? ??? ??????. ???? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ???н
???, ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ??а???????,
??? ????? ? ????? ????????? ?а?? ?????? ?????????. ?а??? ?? ????,
???????? ?????????? ????????????: ??? ???? ??????? ?????, ????н
??? ???????? ?а???????, ?а??????.
????????? ?????? ??а??????? ?? ??? ?а???????????????? ??н
????????? ?а???, ??? ??????? ??а???????????? ?????????? ???н
??? ?а????. ???, ????????, ??а????? ????? ??а??????? ?а?????????
???????? ?а?????? ???????????????? Go, Perl, Python 3 ?аC, ?а?????
????????? ???????? ??а???????? ??????????? ?аLaTeX. ??? ????
??????? ???????! [???.:а? ?? ??!]
?????????? ????????? ??????? ?а??????????, ???????????
?????????? ????? ? ?а????????? ?????????. ???????????? ????н
???? ???????? ????? ????? ? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ??? ??а???н
?? ????????????? ???????, ?а??????, ??????? ??????? ?????????
????????? ?а??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??а?????????? ??????
?????? ????????????? ?а??а???????????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????
????, ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????.
????? ??а???????
?????? ??????, ???а??????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ??н
?????? ??? ????. ???а?????? ??а????????? ????????? ?????????,
????? ???????????? ??? ?а?????? ???????????, ?а???а?????? ???
> ??? ??????? ????? ? ? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????
84
|
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www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? LXF
? ??????? ????? ?
????, ?? ???? ?????? ?????а? ?????? ????? ?
?а???????????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ????н
????, ??? ?а????????? ???? ?????? ??????????
??а?????? ???? ??????????? ??а?????????? ??????
?????а???????.
???? ????, ??????? ??????????? ????? ???н
??????а? ??? ????? ????? ????????????????,
??????? ??? ????????? ????? ?а????????? ???????
?а??????? ??????????? ????. ??? ??????? ???,
??? ???, ????????, ???????? ?????????? ????? ?
?а1000 ??? ?? ?? 1 000 000 ???? ????? ???????, ???
??а??? ?? ??????. ????????, C ??а??? ?????????
????? ??????? ????? ?а????????? ??????? (????
??а??а?????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ?а????н
??? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????, ??? ??????? ???
??????? ???? ?? ????).
?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ? ?а??????н
??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ????н
???? ? ?????? [Bailey ? Borwein ? Plouffe], ???????
??????? [Bellard], ???????? ???????????, ????????
?????? ?? ?? ??????????? ?????????. ??? ????? ? ?????? ??? ??? ??н
??????, ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ??а???н
???, ??а???????? ?????н???? ?????????????? ???????? ?а?????н
??? ???????????.
?????? ??? ??? ???????, ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ?????н
??? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ???н
???. ??а??а?? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???н
???а? ?????????? ??????? ????? ????? ????!
??? ??? ?????, ???????? ??????????а? ???? ?????? ?????????н
?? ?а?????????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????!
??? ??????? ???????
????? ??а?????????? ????????????????? ??? ??????? ???????
??? ?? ?, ????? ????? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ?а??? ????????
????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????. ????? ??а???????? ??, ???
????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?а?????, ????????? ???
????? ????????????????.
?? ???. ????? ???.а84 ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ???н
?? ?. ??????? ???????а? ??????? ???????, ?????? ??????????н
?? ?????????? ???????????. ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????
????????, ??а????? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????.
??????, ??? ??? ?? ????????а? ??????? ??????? ????????
???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????; ?а??????а? ??? ??????? ???н
???????? ????????? ????????, ???????? ???????? ?. ?????? ??а??н
??????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ?а???? ??? ?? ?. ???????
????????? ?????? ?, ???????????? ?а????? ????????, ????????,
??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????.
???????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????? ????
??? ???? ?????? ???????? k ?а?????? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ???н
????? k. ??? ????????, ??? ???а??????????? ?а????? ? ????? ????
???????? ??а??????????, ??а???????????. ??а?? ???????? ?а?????н
?? ???????. ??? ????????, ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???н
????? ?, ???????? ?а??????? ????? ???????? ??а????? ????????н
??? ?????.
? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??, ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??,
????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???? ?а???????? ??????????.
????? ????? ?????? ???, ?????? ??а???????? ??? ????, ??? ??? k=5
??? ?????? 3k ????? 1 307 674 368 000а? ???????????, ??? ???????
??? ??? ?? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???????? k! ????? ?????
?????, ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????. ??? ???н
?? ???а???????, ??? ??а?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????
?а????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????.
?? ???. ?????? ???.а84 ???? ??? ???? ???? LaTeX, ?? ???? ???н
??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???. ??? ??? ?? ?а?? ??? LaTeXа?
formulas?tex.
?? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??????
??а?????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????,
?????? ? ???????? [Gauss ? Legendre], ???????
???????? [Leibniz], ???????? ?? ???? [Liu Hui], ??н
?????? ????????, ??????? ????? [Viшte], ???????н
????? ??????? [Wallis], ????? ???????? ??????????
Eн??????? ?а???????? ???? ????? [Zhao Youqin].
??????????? ??а??? ????????? ????? ?????????н
????????? ?????а? ??? ?????? ????? ?????, ???
?????? ?????????.
??? ??????, ????????? ??????? ????? ? ??????н
???? ??????!
?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ? ??а???? ???????, ??а?????
????? ????????????????, ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????.
? ??аPython 3(?14)
? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????
??аPython, ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ? ??а??????? ???????.
???, ??? ?? ?? ??????? ?????????а? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???н
??? ????? ???????.
????????? ?????????? calcPi?py, ?а????? ?????? ??? ??аPyн
thonа3а? ??? ??????????? ??????? Pi(), ??????? ?????? ??? ????н
??? ??????:
def Pi():
pi = Decimal(0)
k=0
while k < numberOfDigits:
pi += (Decimal(н1)**k/(1024**k))*( Decimal(256)/(10*k+1) +
Decimal(1)/(10*k+9) н Decimal(64)/(10*k+3) н Decimal(32)/(4*k+1) н
Decimal(4)/(10*k+5) н Decimal(4)/(10*k+7) ? Decimal(1)/(4*k+3))
k += 1
??????
??????
?????????? ???н
??? ???????? ??н
????????????
???????а? ???н
????????????
TeX ??? LaTeX.
??а????? ??? ??
??????????? ???н
???? ?а????н
??? ?????????
??? ??? ??????
????????????.
> ?????????? ?? Python 3 ????????? ???????????, ??????? ???????????? ??? ??????????
????? ? ? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ? ????? ?????????
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
85
??????? LXF
pi = pi * 1/(2**6)
return pi
????? ??????? ????? ?а???, ??? ??????? Pi() ?????????? ? ???
?????, ??????? ????? ????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?а????????н
???? ?а?????? ????????.
??? ?? ?? ??? ????????? ?????, ????????? ??а????????? ????н
?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ?а????????? ???????, ??н
?????????? ?а?????????:
getcontext().prec = numberOfDigits
?????? ????? calcPi?py ??????????? ????????? ?????а? ?????
???????? ?а????????? ??а????????? ??????? ????? ?:
$ ./calcPi.py 120
3,141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105
82097494459230781640628620899862803482534211706798214
808651328230673
$ ./calcPi.py
?? ??????? ???? ??????!
?????????????? ?????????? ?а?????? decimal, ??????? ??н
?????????? ?а???????????, ????? ????? ??а???????? ?????????н
??? https://docs.python.org/3/library/decimal.html.
? ??а????????? ???????????
? ???? Python 3а?а???? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ? ???????????
???????? ???????????. ????? ?????? ????? calcPi?py ????? ????н
?????? Chudnovsky?py.
???а?? ??? ?? ??? ?? Chudnovsky?py ??а?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???
?????????:
$ ./Chudnovsky.py 10
3.141592653
$ ./Chudnovsky.py 120
3,141592653589793238462643383279502884197169399375105
82097494459230781640628620899862803482534211706798214
808651328230664
$ ./Chudnovsky.py
?? ??????? ???? ??????!
????? ????, ???а??????? Chudnovsky?py ?а?????? нprint ??????н
??? ????????? ?а????? ??? ?????????? ????, ?а??а??????? ?????
?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?а?????, ??????????? ??а?????????
?????? ??????????:
$ ./Chudnovsky.py 5 нprint
1.3591E+7
1.3591E+7
1.3591E+7
1.3591E+7
1.3591E+7
3.1417
???. ??а???.а85 ?????????? ??? ??аPython 3 ????? Chudnovsky?
py. ???? ??? ?????????? ?????а? ???а???????, ??? ??а?????? ???н
???? ???????????.
C ?????? ?????!
> ??? ??? ??????? calcPi?py (?? Perl), ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??? ? ?????????,
????????? ?? Perl ????? ???????????? ????????
?????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ?а?????? ???? ? ??а?????аC.
??а??а??? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????. ?????? ?????н
?? ??а??????? ?????, ????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а? ??а??????н
??????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ???????. ??????? ?????, ??а??н
??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??а???????????, ?а????? ?? ?????
??а???????????, ??а??? ???, ???? ??а????????? ????????? ??????н
???? ?????? ????? ?.
????, ?а???? ??????? ??а????????????? ?????? 3126535/995207,
??а???а??????? ??а?????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ???н
??, ?? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ? ?а??????? ?????????.
??? ????????? ????????
???? ??а??????????? ???????????? ????? ?
?а????????? ??? ???? ?а????? ????????? ????н
????? ?????? ????? ? ?а??????? ???????????
?????? ????? ???????, ??а????????? ????????
????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????. ??????
??? ?????????? ?а????????? ???????? ????????
???????? ?а??? ?????? ??????. ???????? ?????н
??, ??а??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??а???????н
???? ?????? ??? ?????????, ??????????? ?а???,
??? ??? ??а???? ???????? ????????, ?а????????
?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ????? ????, ???
??а???????? ?????, ??????? ?????????? ? ?а????
??????, ???? ? ??? ????????? ?а???? ???????? ???
??????????а????????.
???????, ???? ??? ??? ???????а? ???????? ??н
????????, ??а????????? ????? ? ?а???? ?а?????? ???
??а????? ???а?????????????а? ??????? ????????
???????, ??????? ????????? ????? ??а??????????.
?а???? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ???? ???????????н
?????, ???? ??а???????? ?????????? ???????????
??? ????????.
????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?а???, ????? ??н
?????? ?????, ?а??????? ??а???????? ????? ?????
???????????!
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
86
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????? LXF
??? ??, ??????????, ?????????, ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????
?а???????????, ??? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????
????? ?.
??? ????????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?а??? ?? calcPi?c, ?а??? ???????н
?? ?а???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ???????н
???? ?а?????????? ?????? ????? ?, ??????? ?????????? ?????????.
?а????? calcPi?c ???????? ?? ??? ????????? ???:
while(digits > 0) {
printf(?%d?, num/den);
num = (num % den) * 10;
digitsнн;
}
????????? ????????????? ??????? ????????????, ???? while()
??????? ??а???????????, ??а???? ???????? ???????? ????????????н
??? ???????? ????? ? ?а????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??н
?????. ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ????????, ????? ??н
???? ??????? ????????!
????? ?????????? ?а??????? ????? calcPi?c ??а???? ???? ???н
?????? ?????????:
$ ./calcPi
calcPi numerator denominator digits
$ ./calcPi 312653 995207 10
????? ????????????!
$ ./calcPi 3126535 995207 10
3.1415926535
??? ??а?????? ??а??????? ???? ????? ??????????, ?????????
?????? ??????? ????? ??а???? ??а???????????, ??а???????? ??.
?а??????, ???? ??а??а??????? ????????? ?а?????????, ???????? ?
????? ????????.
???? ????? ???????? ?????, ??а????? ?????, ??? ?а?????? ???н
???????, ??????????? ??а????? ??????? ??????????. ??? ??а??н
???, ????? ??а??????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??, ??? ??н
???? ??а??? ?? ???? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ??????
??а?????аC!
? ??аPerl
Perlа? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ???? ????????????????, ?????н
?????? ?????????? ????? ? ??а?????????? ?????????. ?????????
??аPerl ????? ????????? ? ??а??????? ???????. Perl ????????????
????? ?а????????? ??????? ?а??????? ???????? ????????. ??? ???н
?? ???????????? ????? Math::BigFloat.
??а???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???????? (??а500 ????)
?а???? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?а?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???
???????:
Math::BigFloatн>precision(н500);
my $pi = Math::BigFloatн>new(0);
?????? ????? calcPi?pl ???? ????????? ?????????:
$ ./calcPi.pl 100
3,1415926535897932384626433832795028841971693993751058
209749445923078164062862089986280348253421170680
?? ???. ???.а86 ???? ??? ??? Perl ??? ??? ?? calcPi?pl. ??? ??н
????, ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??а??? ??????? ?а???????
calcPi?py.
? ??аGo
Go ? ??? ??????????? ???? ????????????????, ???????????????
??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????. ????????? ??аGo ???? ?????
????????? ? ??а??????? ???????.
??? ??? ????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??????
Goа? math/big, ??? ????? ?????? ????????. ?????????????? ??н
????? ??? ?а?? ?? ?? math/big ??? ?? ??? ?? ??а???? ???? https://
golang.org/pkg/math/big.
??????? ???? ????????? calcPi?go. ??? ?????? ????????? Go
?а????????? calcPi?go ??????:
temp := new(big.Float).SetPrec(precision).SetFloat64(0)
> ??????????? ????????????? ???? real ??а?????? ??????? time? ?????? ?????????
?????????????? ??? ?????????? 10 000 ?????? ????? ??
k7temp := new(big.Int).Exp(big.NewInt(н1), big.NewInt(int64(k)),
nil)
?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?а???н
?????? ??????? (big.Float), ?а?????? ???????? ????????? ???????
?????? ????? ?а????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? big.Int. ???а??н
???????? big.Float ?аbig.Int ??а??а??????? ????????? ? ?а????????
???????? ????????.
???а??????? ????? calcPi?go ??а??????? ????????? ?????????:
$ go run calcPi.go
?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???? ????!
exit status 1
$ go run calcPi.go 100
3.1415926535897932569603993617387624040191831562485732
43493179283571046450248913467118511785
???????? ??? Go ?а????? calcPi?go, ??а????????, ??? Go ??а????н
??? ????? ?а????????? ??????? ?????. ????? ????, ??? ??аGo ????н
???? ????? ?????????? ??а???? ????? ?????? ?????, ?а??? ??????,
??? ?а??? ????? ????? ????????? ??????. ??? ??а?????, ?????????
calcPi?go ???? ?????? ??????.
??????
??????
????? ??? ?????
?????????????н
??? ??? ?????????
??????? ??? ???н
???????? ?????н
???? ?????? ???
????????, ??? ???
???????? ???? ???н
??? ?????? ?????а?
????? ????????н
???? ??????? ???н
???. ??????? ???н
????? ??? ?????
??? ???? ?? ????,
????????? ??? ??н
??? ????? ?????н
??? ??????????
?????????.
?????? ??????????????????
?????? ????? [???.:а? ????? ???????] ??? ?? ? ??? ?????????
??????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ???н
??????????????? ?а??????? ??????? time. ???? ??? ??????? ??а??н
???????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????????н
????? ?а???, ????? ????? ???????? ???????, ?а????? ??? ??????,
?а????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ???????.
?? ??? ?? ?? (?? ??) ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? real ??а?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??
time. ??? ??? ?? ??а??????, ??? ????????? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????
??? ???????, ??а??????????? ????????? ??аCа? ??? ?а???????,
???? ????????? ??аC ????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??а????. ???н
???? ?? Go ???? ??? ??? ??? ??аcalcPi?c ??а??? ?? ??? ?а?? ?? ??н
?? ??????? ?????????. ???? ?? ?? ????? ???, ??? ???? calcPi?go
??? ?????? ??????? ?а?????? ???????? ??????? build calcPi.go.
??? ?а????? ????, ????????? Chudnovsky?py ?аcalcPi?pl ??? ???н
??? calcPi?c ?аcalcPi?go. ??, ?а????????? calcPi?py ????? ???? ?????
??? ?????? ??а????.
??????а?? ??а????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??
??а??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??а???????????? ????? ???????????н
?????? ???????? ???, ?, ????????, ??а??????? ???? ??? ?а??????н
??? ?????? Linux Format! |
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
87
Python
???????????:
???? ??????
??????? cp
????????????? ?????????????, ??????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????
cp ?? Python 3, ???? ????????? ?????????? ?????.
$ cp /bin/cp /tmp/
$ ls нl cp
нrwxrнxrнx 1 mtsouk mtsouk 150824 Oct 19 22:09 cp
$ cp нn /bin/cp /tmp
$ cp нi /bin/cp /tmp
cp: overwrite ?/tmp/cp?? y
?????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???? cp ?а??????? ??н
?? ???. ??? ??а?????? ??????, ????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????
????????????, ?а???????? ????а? ???????????? root. ?????????
??????? cp ???????????? ????????????? ????? нi. ???????????н
??? ?????????? ??а???? ?а?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?а??????
??????? man cp (1).
???
???????
??????? ???????а? ??????н
??????? UNIX,
???????????, ??н
??????????? ???
?????? ?а??????н
???, ??????? ??н
??? ?????? ???н
??? ?а?????????
???н??а?????.
??????
??????
????????? ???н
?????????????а?
?????? ???????
?????????????н
???. ????? UNIX
?????? ????????,
????????? ???н
?????? ????? ??н
?? ?????? ??????
??аC.а?????? ???
????? ??????
?а??а?????? ???н
??? ?????????н
???????, ???????
Python, Perl, Rust
?аGo.
88
|
????????? ?????? ?а?????????
?
? ???? ????? ?а???? ??, ??? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????н
??? ?????? cp ??аPython 3. ???? ??? ??????? ??аPython ??н
??? ?????????? pycp?py. ??а???? ???????????? ????????
???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ?аLinuxа?
??а ?? ??? ?? ???. ??? ?? ?? ????, ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? cp,
??а?????? ?????, ??? ??? ?? ??????? ?а???? ???? /bin. ???? ???? ???
????????, ?? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? Linux ?а????????????н
???????? ??????.
????????????? cp
? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????н
??? ??????? cp:
$ ls нl /bin/cp
нrwxrнxrнx 1 root root 150824 Mar 14 2015 /bin/cp
$ cp /bin/cp .
$ ls нl cp
нrwxrнxrнx 1 mtsouk mtsouk 150824 Oct 19 22:09 cp
$ rm cp
LXF227 ???????? 2017
??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??а??? ???.
?????? ??? ?????????? ?а????????? fileORdir?py:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import os
import sys
if len(sys.argv) >= 2:
what = str(sys.argv[1])
else:
print(??? ??????? ???? ??????!?)
sys.exit(0)
if os.path.isdir(what):
print(what, ? н ??? ???? ???!?)
elif os.path.isfile(what):
print(what, ? н ??? ????!?)
????? os.path.isdir() ??????????, ????????а?? ?????????? ???
???????? ???? ?????, ?а????? os.path.isfile() ????????, ????????а??
??? ???????? ??????? ??????. ????? ??????? ????????, ??? ????
????????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ?????н
?? ?????? ?????? ???, ????????? Linux ??? ????????? ???? ??????
????? ??????, ??????? ??????, ?????? ?а???? ??.
???а?? ??? ?? ??? ?? fileORdir?py ?а???а?? ?? ????? ??? ??????
?????????:
$ ./fileORdir.py .
. н ??? ???? ???!
$ ./fileORdir.py /usr
/usr н ??? ???? ???!
$ ./fileORdir.py /bin/cp
/bin/cp н ??? ????!
??? ???????? ?????, ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ???? cp ??н
?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???, ??а??? ????????, ??? ??а?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????
?а???? ???? ??? ???????? ????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Python
????????? ??????. ?а???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????,
??а?????? Python ???????? ??а?????.
?????? ?а???????
? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?????? Python 3, ??????н
??? ?а???????. ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??н
???????????? ??????? ?аpycp?py. ?а????????? ???? Python 3, ??н
????? ???????? ?а??? ?? fileOperations?py, ???? ???? ?????????
??а??????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import sys
import os
import stat
from stat import *
if len(sys.argv) >= 2:
filename = str(sys.argv[1])
else:
print(??? ??????? ???? ??????!?)
sys.exit(0)
fileMetadata = [(filename, os.lstat(filename))]
for name, meta in fileMetadata:
if S_ISDIR(meta.st_mode):
print(???? ???? ????)
else:
print(???? ??????? ?????)
print(name, ? ?????????, meta.st_size, ? ?????)
print(?File permissions:?, stat.filemode(os.stat(filename).st_mode))
??????? ??? ?? ???????? os.lstat() ?аos.stat() ??аPython 3 ?????н
?????? ?а???, ??? os.lstat() ??а?????????? ????????????? ??????,
????????? ???? ????? ????????? ??а????????? ?аos.stat(). ???а??н
????? ????? fileOperations?py ??а??????? ????????? ?????????:
$ ./fileOperations.py fileOperations.py
??? ??????? ????
fileOperations.py ???????? 502 ????
File permissions: нrwxrнxrнx
$ ./fileOperations.py .
??? ???? ???!
. ???????? 4096 ????
File permissions: drwxrнxrнx
??? ??а?????? ?а??????? File permissions [?????????? ?????],
??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а??????, ?а??? ??н
?? ?????а? ?а????? d [directory].
??? ????????!
Python ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?а????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ??.
??? ????? ???????????? ????? os.system(). ????? ???????, ??а??н
???? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ???????
cp. ???? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????, ???????????
?а????? cheating?py:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import os
import sys
if len(sys.argv) >= 3:
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
else:
print(??? ??????? ???? ??????!?)
sys.exit(0)
os.system(?cp ?+ source + ? ? + destination)
??? ??а?????, ????? ??? ??? ??а??? ?????? ??????????, ?а???
??????? ????????.
??????????? ?????? ?аPython 3
??????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???, ????? ???????а? C,
Perl ?аC++, ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????.
Pythonа3а? ??а??????????.
? ????????, ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??н
????, ??????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????. ???? ??? ???н
?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??????, ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??н
?????. ?? ?? ??????? ??а????????, ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????
???????, ????? ????????? ????????? ?????, ????? ??? ??????.
? ???? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????????
????? ??аPython 3. ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?а????? copy1?py:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
from shutil import copyfile
import sys
if len(sys.argv) >= 3:
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
else:
print(??? ??????? ???? ??????!?)
sys.exit(0)
try:
copyfile(source, destination)
except IOError as e:
errno, strerror = e.args
print(?I/O error({0}): {1}?.format(errno,strerror))
???? ??? copyfile() ?? ?? ?? shutil ?? ?? ?? ??а??? ??? ?? ?? ??.
????????? ?а???? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ????н
???????, ??а????? ??а????? ?????????????? ???. ?????? ??? ????н
??, ??а?????? ?????. ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?а????? copy2?py:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import sys
if len(sys.argv) >= 3:
??????
??????
???????? ??? ???
????? ????? ?????
????? ??аLXFDVD
??? ?а???????
Archives ???
LXF227 ??а?????
linuxformat.comа?
??а???????? ????.
??????? ????????? ?????? strace
??????? strace ????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???а?????н
????? ????????? ??? ???????. ?????? ??????, strace ??????????? ?????????
?????? ?а????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?а??????? ??а??а?????. ???а???????
strace ??? ????? pycp?py ??а???? ??? ????? ?????????:
$ strace ./pycp.py pycp.py anotherFile
...
stat(?/usr/lib/python3.4/os.py?, {st_mode=S_IFREG|0644, st_size=33763, ...}) = 0
...
open(?./pycp.py?, O_RDONLY) = 3
...
open(?anotherFile?, O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TRUNC|O_CLOEXEC, 0666) = 4
...
write(4, ?#!/usr/bin/env python3\n\nimport o?..., 2140) = 2140
close(4) = 0
close(3) = 0
...
???? ????????? ??????????, ??? ?????? pycp?py ??????????? ?а???? ???????
?а????????? ??????? C, ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?а?????
Linux. ??? ??а?????, ??? ????????? ???а?? ????????? ??аC ????????? ????а??
??????? ?????? ????? ???? ?а????? ???????.
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
89
Python
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
else:
print(??? ??????? ???? ??????!?)
sys.exit(0)
size = 16384
try:
with open(source,?rb?) as f1:
with open(destination,?wb?) as f2:
while True:
buf = f1.read(size)
if buf:
n = f2.write(buf)
else:
break
except IOError as e:
errno, strerror = e.args
print(?I/O error({0}): {1}?.format(errno,strerror))
???? ??????? ?????????? ????? write() ??? ??????????? ???н
??? ?а????? ???? ?а?????????????? ???????? ?????????? buf.
?????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????, ????????, ????????
?а8а????, ???????? ???а?????? ?????????????????? ???????. ????н
??? ??????????? ?а????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
?а??????????? ??а?????? ??? ?????? ??????????.
????????, ??? ?а?????? copy1?py ?аcopy2?py ??? ????????? ?а??н
??????? ????????????? ?????? ??а????? ???????? ???????????
???????????? ???? try. ???? ??? ?????? ??????, ?????? ???? ????н
??? ???????? ???а????????? ??????????? ?а????? ???? ?????н
??????; ??????? ?а????? ??? ??????? cp ??аPython 3 ??а????? ??н
?????????? ?????? ???.
???????? ?????????
??????
??????
????????? ??н
???а? ??? ???н
??? ??????? C.а??н
????? ??????????
?????? ??а????н
??? ??????? ??н
????? ?а???, ???
?а????????? ????н
??? ??? ????????
??????? ???????
??????, ?а?а???, ???
????????? ??????
????????? ????
UNIX ?а?????????
?????. ?а?????н
??? ????? ???????
Python 3, ??????н
??? ?а?????????
??????????, ???н
?????????? ?а???н
?????? ?????? C.
????? ??????, ??? ??????? ????????? ???а??? ??????? ?????????
mycp?pyа? ??? ???? ????????, ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??????????.
????? ??????, ???????????а?? ??а??? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????н
?????? ??????? ????????????
?? ????????? ??????? cp ??? ???? ??????? ????, ???? ??а???н
??? ???? нn. ????? ????, ???? ?????? ???? нi, cp ???????, ??????а??
??а??? ???? ??????? ????. ?? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? нn
?анi, ??анn ????? ????? ?????????, ?анiа????? ??????????????. ???н
??? ?? ????а? ??????????, ????????а?? ??????? ???? ???? ?????,
????????? ????? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ?а???? ???? ???.
????? ??а???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?а????н
?????, ????????? ?а???????????? ??????, ?а??????? ???? Pyн
thonа3 ??а????? processOptions?py, ????????:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import os
import sys
iSwitch = 0;
nSwitch = 0;
if len(sys.argv) == 3:
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
elif len(sys.argv) == 4:
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
option1 = str(sys.argv[3])
if option1 == ?нi?:
iSwitch = 1;
if option1 == ?нn?:
nSwitch = 1;
elif len(sys.argv) >= 5:
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
option1 = str(sys.argv[3])
option2 = str(sys.argv[4])
if (option1 == ?нi? or option2 == ?нi?):
iSwitch = 1;
if (option1 == ?нn? or option2 == ?нn?):
nSwitch = 1;
else:
print(??????????: ?, sys.argv[0], ??? ?????? ???? [нin]?)
sys.exit(0)
# ?? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????
if os.path.isfile(source) == False:
print(source, ?н ?? ????. ?? ?????...?)
sys.exit(0)
# ?? ?? ???? ???? ???
if os.path.isdir(destination):
destination = destination + ?/?+ source
print(???????????? ? ?, destination)
# ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????????
if os.path.isfile(destination):
print(destination, ? ??? ?? ????????!?)
# ?? ?? ???? нn ????? OFF, ????????? ???? нi
if nSwitch == 0:
if iSwitch == 1:
answer = input(?[y|n]: ?)
if answer == ?y? or answer == ?Y?:
print(???????????? ?, source, ? ? ?, destination)
else:
print(????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?, destination)
sys.exit(0)
# ?? ?? ???? нn ????? ON, ?? ???????? ?????????
elif nSwitch == 1:
sys.exit(0)
else:
print(?????????????, source, ? ? ?, destination)
??? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ???н
???, ?а??????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???????а? ??а????
????????? ?а????????? ?а??????????, ??????? ??????? ??????.
????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????. ???а??н
????? ????? processOptions?py ??а??????? ????????? ?????????:
$ ./processOptions.py
?????????: ./processOptions.py ?? ?????? ???? [нin]
$ ./processOptions.py afile
?????????: ./processOptions.py ?? ?????? ???? [нin]
$ ./processOptions.py afile anotherFile
afile 0 ??? ?? ????. ?? ?????...
$ ./processOptions.py processOptions.py newFile
??????????? processOptions.py ? newFile
$ mkdir test
$ ./processOptions.py processOptions.py test
??????????? ? test/processOptions.py
??????????? processOptions.py ? test/processOptions.py
$ touch test/processOptions.py
$ ./processOptions.py processOptions.py test
??????????? ? test/processOptions.py
test/processOptions.py ??? ?? ????????!
$ ./processOptions.py processOptions.py test нn
??????????? ? test/processOptions.py
test/processOptions.py ??? ?? ????????!
$ ./processOptions.py processOptions.py test нi
??????????? ? test/processOptions.py
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
90
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Python
test/processOptions.py ??? ?? ????????!
[y|n]: y
??????????? processOptions.py ? test/processOptions.py
$ ./processOptions.py processOptions.py test нi
??????????? ? test/processOptions.py
test/processOptions.py ??? ?? ????????!
[y|n]: n
???? ?? ???? ?????????? test/processOptions.py
???? processOptions?py ??а????????? ???????? ???????????
??????, ???? ???? ?????? ?а????, ??? ????? ??????? ??, ???????
?????? ??? ????? processOptions?py ??а?????? ??? pycp?py.
????????????? ???????
? ???? ?????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????
?а????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????????? ?? ????????. ?????????????
?????? ??? ??????? ??????? cp ??аPython ????????? ?а????? pycp?
py ?а????????? ????:
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import os
import sys
def fileCopy(source, destination):
size = 16384
try:
with open(source,?rb?) as f1:
with open(destination,?wb?) as f2:
while True:
buf = f1.read(size)
if buf:
n = f2.write(buf)
else:
break
except IOError as e:
errno, strerror = e.args
print(?I/O error({0}): {1}?.format(errno,strerror))
def main():
iSwitch = 0;
nSwitch = 0;
if len(sys.argv) == 3:
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
elif len(sys.argv) == 4:
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
option1 = str(sys.argv[3])
if option1 == ?нi?:
iSwitch = 1;
if option1 == ?нn?:
nSwitch = 1;
elif len(sys.argv) >= 5:
source = str(sys.argv[1])
destination = str(sys.argv[2])
option1 = str(sys.argv[3])
option2 = str(sys.argv[4])
if (option1 == ?нi? or option2 == ?нi?):
iSwitch = 1;
if (option1 == ?нn? or option2 == ?нn?):
nSwitch = 1;
else:
print(??????????: ?, sys.argv[0], ? ?? ?????? ???? [нin]?)
sys.exit(0)
# ?? ?? ?? ?????? н ?? ????
if os.path.isfile(source) == False:
print(source, ?н ?? ????. ?? ?????...?)
sys.exit(0)
# ?? ?? ???? н ???? ???
if os.path.isdir(destination):
destination = destination + ?/? + source
# ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????????
if os.path.isfile(destination):
# ?? ?? ???? нn ????? OFF, ????????? ???? нi
if nSwitch == 0:
if iSwitch == 1:
answer = input(?[y|n]: ?)
if answer == ?y? or answer == ?Y?:
fileCopy(source, destination)
else:
sys.exit(0)
# ?? ?? ???? нn ????? ON, ?? ???????? ?????????
elif nSwitch == 1:
sys.exit(0)
else:
fileCopy(source, destination)
if __name__ == ?__main__?:
main()
else:
print(???? ????????? ?????????, ? ?? ??????!?)
???????? ??а??? ?? pycp?py ?аprocessOptions?py, ??а???????
??а????????, ??а??? ?? ?а??а???????? ????????а? ?а????? pycp?py
???????????? ??? ??????? ?а?????????? __name__.
???а?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????
??а????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???? ??????????, ??? ??? ?а??????н
???? ???????????? ??а????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ????????
?????????. ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????:
$ ./pycp.py pycp.py test/
$ ./pycp.py pycp.py /tmp/anotherFile
$ ./pycp.py pycp.py /tmp/anotherFile нi
...
$ ./pycp.py
?????????: ./pycp.py ?? ?????? ???? [нin]
???????! ?????? ?? ? ??????????? ??? Linux! |
?????????? ?????? ? UNIX
? ?? ? ???? ????? ? Linux ???? ??????????. ?????н
???? ?? ????????? ?????:
$ ls нl myCP.pl data.txt
нrwнrннrнн 1 mtsouk mtsouk 158 Oct 18 10:35 data.txt
нrwxrнxrнx 1 mtsouk mtsouk 158 Apr 23 2015 myCP.pl
? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????
ls ???????? ?????????? ??? ?? ? ???? ?????. ???
??????, ?????????? ???????? 10 ????????, ????н
??? ??? ?? ????? ????????????? ??? ????. ????
????????? ?????? ???, ??????? ???????????? Linux
?а?? ???? ??? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????
?????????? ?а??? ?????? ??а??? ???? ?а?? ? ???.
?????? ??????а? ??? ?????????? ????????????,
??????а? ?????????? ???????? ?????? Linux, ?а??н
????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ?а??????а? ???н
??????? ????????? ?????????????. ???? ??а?????н
?? ?а???????? ???????????, ??а????? ???????, ???
?? ? ??? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??а000
??а111, ??????? ?а?????????? ??????????????
??????? ????? ???????? ??а0 ??а7. ????? ???????,
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
rwнrннrнн ??? ?? ????? ???????? ??? 644, ?????????
rwн ????? ????? 110 (??? 6), ?аrнн ????? 4. ??? ?????н
??, rwxrнxrнx ????? ??????????? ??? 755.
?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????
?????? UNIX. ?а???, ????????, ????????? ?????,
??????? ??а????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ??н
?????? ????????????, ????????? ??? ?????? ?????
??????? ????????????. ???? ?а??? ???? ????? ???н
???? ?а?????, ??а?????? ???????? ??????? ?????
??????? ?а????? ????? ???????? chmod.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
91
?????????????
Pi
???? ?????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ? ????????? ?? Raspberry Pi
?????? ????
? ??????????,
???????? ????????? ???????
???????
??????...
?
?? ??? ?а??????? ?а????????н
???, ????????? ?????? ???н
?? ?а????? ???????? ???????
???????. ??а?а????? ??????? ?а??н
??? ?а??????? ?????????, ??? ????н
??? ??? ?а???????. ?а????????, ???
?????? ????? ??а??????? ??? ?????н
????????? ????????????, ? ????н
?? ??: л?а???? ??????????? ?????
?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????н
??????????, ?????? ?а????????????╗
??? ?а?????? ???????? ????????н
???? ?а??????????????. ??? ????н
??? ?аRaspberry Pi ???? ???? ?а??????
Pi Zero W.а??а???а?? ?????? ?а??н
????? ?????? ?? ?? ?а???? ???? Pi Hut
c modmypi ?аPimoroni ?а????? ????
??а????? ??? ??? ????? Raspberry Pi
?а??????? ??! ?а???? ?????? ?а??н
?? ???? ??? ?????? ?а???????????
Raspberry Pi. ??????? ?а???????????
Pi ?а????????? ??а????, ??????? ???н
??? Raspberry Jam?? ??а???? ??????.
????? ?а????? ???? ?а??????, ????н
?? ???????? ?а???? ???, ?а???а?? ??н
???н?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???
??? ????????. ???? ?????? ???н
?? ??? ?а??? ?????? ???????? ??н
???? ??? ????? Tiny 4WD, ???????н
??? My Little Ponies. ?????????????
?????? ?????????? ???? ??а?????н
??? ??????????? ??????????, ??н
????? ??а????. ????????? ????
?????? ?а???????????? ???? ?????,
?а????? ?? ?????? ??а???????????
?а??????????? ???????? ?а?????н
????? ???????? Unicorn pHat. ?????
????? ?? ??? ??????, ??????? ????
??н??????? ????????. ????? ??????
?а???????????????, ??????? ?а??н
??? ?????????? Chibitronics, ????н
?? ?аBBC micro:bit. ???????? ???????
???? ???? Code & Craft ?а???????, ??н
?? ????? ?????????? ??а????????????
???? ????? ???а????????.
92
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
Ubuntu Core ?? Pi3
Compute Module
Cannonical ????? Pi ?а??????а? ?а??????? ??????.
aspberry Pi Compute Module 3 (CM3), ???????
Pi 3 ??а?????????? ?????, ?????? ????? ??н
???????????? ?аUbuntu Core ??аCanonical, ??н
????????? ???????? Ubuntu. ????? CM Pi ?????????
?а????????? ????? DDRн2 ?а???? ??????????? ?а???н
????? ??? ??а?????????, ??? ?а??? ?????????. CM3
????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?а?а?????????
?а????? ???????????????? л???????? [snap]╗ Ubuntu
Core ???????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ???н
?????? ?????? ??????????.
Canonical ??? ????????? ?????????? Software
Defined Everything (SDx), ??????????????, ??? ???н
??????? IoT, ??? ?а??? ??????, ?????? ????????
??а??????????? ???????????? ??????, ?а??а??а???н
??? ???????????? ???????????? (?, ?????? ?????,
????????????), ?а?а?????? ????? ???????? ???? ??
??????????? ?а??????????. ????????? ??????
R
????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????,
Pi 3 ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ????????н
????? IoT, ?????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ??н
?????. ??????????? ?????: https://insights.ubuntu.
com/2017/06/27/canonicalнsupportsнubuntuнcoreнonн
theнraspberryнpiнcomputeнmodule
???? ? ?????? Picorder
?????, ??????????, ???????.
??????????? ??а??????.
????? ????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?а???н
????????? ?????? [Durham] ????? ?? ???? ??н
????? ????? ???????? ??а???? Piа? ???????
????????????, ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?, ??????? ??? ??
?????????, ?????????????? ??а?????? ?????? ???н
???. ??? ???????????? ??а?????? ??????? ????????
???????????? ????????. www.raspberrypi.org/blog/
royalнsocietyнgaltonнboard
??? ????? [Wayne Keenan] ?????? ??н
????????? ????????????????, ??????н
??? Pi Zero W, ??? ?????? ??????, ?????
Pimoroni HyperPixel ?а??????????? LiPo. ???????н
???? ????????????????а???? ????? raspivid ??аSSH,
??а????????? ?а?????? ??????? ????????? ???????,
??? ???? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??н
???????. http://bit.ly/2u0b33o
?
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?
???????? Python ?????
Thonny
??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????? Python,
??? ??? ??аIDLE??? ??????.
???????
╗ Thonnyа? ?????????????? ????? ??? Python
??? ???? ???????? ????? Linux?
????? ??????????????, ??а??????? ?????????,
?????????? ???,
????? ??????
???????? ??????????? ?а????,
??????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ??????
?а????????? ?????? ???? ??????
??? ?????? ???
?????? ????? ????? Python?
?
??? ????? Raspberry Pi ?????? ??
Python ????????????. ??? ????н
?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??н
??????? Python, ??а????? ??? ??а?????????
IDLE, ???а???? ????? ???? ????????????,
?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?а??????н
????????. ??? ???, ????? ?а?????? Thonny,
IDE Python ??? ???? ??? ???, ??а??? ???
??а????? ????? ??????????...
Thonnyа? ??? ????????? ????? ?????н
??? ?? ??? Python 3.6. ????? ???? ?? ????н
?? ?????? ???? ?а??????? ????? ?????????
?? ???? ??? ????? Python (REPL). ??? ??н
???? ?а??????????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??н
???? ???????а? ??? ??????? ???????, ???
????????? ????. ???, ?????????? ?а?????н
????, ????? ????????? ?а??????? ?????????
?а??? ?????; ???а?????? ??????? ???????
???????? ????? ????????? ??а????????.
?? ???????????? ?? ??? ??а?????? ???н
??????????? ?????, ???????? ???????? ???,
??? ??а??а??????????. Thonny ?????? ????н
?? ?????????? ?а?????? ??а????????. ?а???
???????? ??? ?а??? ????? ???????? ????н
???: ?????? ??? ???? ???????? (Ctrl + F5),
????? ???????? ??а???? ?????????? ??н
???? (F7), ????????, ??? Python ?а??? ??н
?????? ?а??? ????????? ???? ???? ?????.
????? ??? ?? ?????? ??а???????, ?? ??? F6.
??? ?а?а?????? IDE, ?аThonny ?????????
?????????????? ????, ????? ????????????
??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????/????н
???, ?????? ??????? ??????????, ?а??????
???????? ??? Python. ??, ??? ??а??? ?а???н
???, ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????
????, ?а??а?а??а?????????.
Thonny ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????
Python, ????????? ??а???, ??? ???????????
???????? ?????????
??????? ????????
???????? micro:bit
?????????? ?? ?????? ????,
??????? ????????? ????
??????? ? ?? ????????
?????? ??????? ???????
??????????!
?????????????? Micro
Python ? ??? ?? ???????н
??, ??? ? ??????? Python ?
???????? ??? ?????????
Raspberry Pi.
> Thonny ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????, ? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????
???????? Python, ??????? ??????? ?????????????
?а???????, ?а???????????? ????? ???????н
?????? ????? ??????????, ??а???????? ???н
???? ???. ????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??н
???? ??? ???????????? ??а?????????????.
?а?а????? ??а?? ??????? ??: ?аThonny ????
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а??н
??? ???? ??????? Python (pip), ??? ???????н
?? ????????? ?а????? Python ??аThonny.
Thonny ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?аmicro:bitа?
????? ??а????а?? ???????? ????????, ???
?аmu ??аPython Software Foundation. ?????
???????????? Thonny ?аmicro:bit, ???? ????н
?????? ??????, ?а????? ??????? ??????????н
??? ??аPython 3.6 micro:bit ????? ???? Tools
> Options [??????????? > ?????????]. ??н
??? ??а??????? ?????????? micro:bit ?????
??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????????н
???? ?а??? ????? ???????? Python (REPL).
?? ???а???????
Thonny ??а???? ???. ??а??? ??а? ?????? ??н
????, ??? ????? Python ????? ?? ???? ????
???????? ??а???????? ??? ????, ??? ?? ??
???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? Raspberry
Pi (RPi.GPIO, GPIO Zero, Sense HAT), ???? ??н
????????? ????????????? ??аPython, ????н
????????? ?а???????. ??а????? ?????? ??н
??????????? ????????? ????? ??????????
??????????? ?? ???????. ?? ?? ?а??????н
??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????????, ??а??н
??????, Thonny ????? ??????? ????? ?????
????? ????? Python ??а????????? ??аRaspн
berry Pi.
??? ???? ???????? ?а???, ??? Thonny
??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? Linux
?????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
????? ?? ???????? Thonny ??а???? ??? ??н
??, ?? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????, ???н
???? ??? ??????????? ?а????? ????. ?а???
??а?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????н
???, ????????? ??а?????????? ??а???????
?а?????????. ?? ??? ??а?????? ?????????
?????? ??????? ?? ???????, ??????? ????н
?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??н
?? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ????, ?а?? ??? ????????
????. ?а??? ????? ?????????? Thonny ??н
??? pip, ??? ????? ?????????? ????????????
??????? ????????.
???????? ??а??? ????????, Thonnyа?
?????????? ???????????? IDLE. ?а???? ???н
???? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???????, ?а???? ??
????? ?????? ??????? ????????. ????? ??н
???????, ????????? ????????????? ?????
?????????? ?а????????? ??????.а|
???????
Ubuntu MATE 16?04?2 LTS
???????????: ????? ???????
[Aivar Annamaa]
????: http://thonny.org
????????: MIT
????????????????
??????????????????
???????? ? ??????
????????????? ????
8/10
8/10
7/10
7/10
╗ Thonny ? ???????, ?? ?????? ???н
????????? IDLE. ??????? ??? ???????
????? ????? ? Python.
??????? 7/10
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
93
Raspberry Pi NodeнRED
Node-RED: ??????? ??????????
??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? NodeнRED, ?????? ? Twitter ???????
?????????? ?? ???????, ???????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????.
? ???? ????? ??а???????????? ?аNodeнRED, ?????? ??н
???????? ??????, ?а??????? ??? ??????? ??а???????????
??? ?? ????? л?????╗. ??а????? ??? ??? ???? ???????н
??? ????? Twitter, ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ?а????????? ??????
?а???????????? ????????. ???а????????? ????? ????? ??????????
????????, ?а????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?а????. ?? ??? ??а????? ???н
????? ???????????? ?а??????? ???????? ??????????????? [textн
toнspeech]. ?а?????? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ????? ??????н
???? ??а???? ??????? ?????.
?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??????н
??? ?????????, ???????????? ?аGPIO21 ?а?а????? [GND] ????? ??н
?????? 330а??. ????????? ??. ??а????? ?а??????? ??? ??? ???????н
??? ?а????? ????? ??.
?? ??? ??? Raspberry Pi ?а?? ?? ??? ???? Raspbian, ???? ?? ??
??а??????? ????. ?????? ??????? ?? ?а???? Programming [???н
?????????? ???] ?а?? ??? ?? NodeнRED, ????? ?? ??? ???? ??????
NodeнRED. ????????? ???????? ?а?????????? ??????????. ?а???н
???? ?? ????? ??????? IPн?????, ??? ???????, 192.168.X.аX: 1880.
??? ????? ?????? Raspberry Pi ?а????; ??а??? ???? ????? ?????, ??н
?????????? NodeнRED. ?????? ???????? ??а????? ???????? ??? ??н
???????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????? ?а??????? ???? IPн??н
??? ?а???????? ??????.
????????? NodeнRED ???????? ??а??? ???????. ???? [nodes]а?
??? ?????, ??????? ??а?????????? ??? ???????? ????; ????? ????н
??????????? ?а??????????? ???????, ??? ?? ??????? ?????? [flows],
??????? ?????????? ??? ????? ??. ?а?????? ??????? ??????????
?????????? ??а????????? ?????, ??? ????? ????????????? ???
??? ???????.
?
???
???????
??? ???????а?
????????? ?????
?а??????, ????н
??? ????? ??????н
?? ?а????????.
??а??? ?????????
?????? Picademy
??аRaspberry Pi
?а???????? ?????н
?? ?а????? ????
??аhttp://www.
bigl.es.
???
?????
╗ 40н??????????
Raspberry Pi
????? ??????.
╗ Raspbian Pixel
╗ ???????????
Pi ?а?????????
╗ ???????? ?????
╗ ?????????
╗ 1 ??????????
???? ? ????
╗ 1 ????????
330 ?? (??????н
???, ?????????,
??????????
?а???????).
╗ ??????? ???
?????????? ??
╗ ???? ???? ???:
https://github.
com/lesp/LXF227н
NodeнRED/archive/
master.zip
94
|
???????? ????
?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??. ??? ????? ????
Twitter, ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?аTwitter. ?????? ???? ??????? ??н
??? ??аSocial [???????], ?а????? ?????????? ???? Twitter ?а???????
?????. ??? ???? Twitter ???????? ??? ???????. ????? ???? ????н
????, ??? ???? ??а??? ?????????, ?а??????? ??????????? ?????н
????, ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????????. ???????? ??? ? ?? ??а?????? ????,
?а????? ??а?????? ?????????, ????? ????? ?а???? ??????? ??????
Twitter ?а???????????? NodeнRED ????? ??а????????????.
????? ????????? ?а????? ????????? ???? Twitter. ??? ????????н
????? Twitter ?????? ???? ????????, ??????? ?????????, ??? ?а????
Search [?????] ??????? All Public Tweets [??? ????????????? ???н
??]. ?а???? For [??] ??????? ?????? ??? ??????. ??а?????????? ??
#pounderland. ?а???? Name [???] ????? ???? ?????????, ????????
??? ???????, ??????? ??а?????. ???? ??а?? ????? Deploy [??????н
????], ????? ??? ??? ????????, ??а????? ????????? ??????? Rate
Limit Reached [????????? ????? ????????]а? ??? ????????, ??? ???
????? ????? ????, ???? ?? ??? ??а?????? ???????????? Twitter.
?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??аTwitter. ?а??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??
??????? Debug [???????]. ?????????? ???? ???? ?а?????, ?а?????
LXF227 ???????? 2017
> ????????? ? Node-RED ?? ???????? ??????????, ????? ???????
???????????, ?? ????? ????????????? ???? ? ??????? ??????,
????? ??????? ?????
???????? ?а??????????? ????? ???? ???? ???????. ?????????? ???
?а???? Twitter. ??? ? ?? ???????? ???? Debug / msg.payload, ?????
??????? ???????? ??? ????????. ????? / ?payload?а? ??????????
?????; ??? ???????????? ??а??????? ???????, ??? ??????? ??????
??????? ??а??????.
?? ??? ??????? ???? Tweet Information. ??а????? ???????? ?????,
??????????????? ?????? ???????, ??а??????? ???????. ????? ??н
??? ?? ?????? Deploy, ?а???? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????
?а?? ?????? ????????. ?????? ????????? ?аNodeнRED ?а?????????
??а??????? ???????. ??а???????, ??? ??? ???????? ????, ?а??????,
?????? ??а????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??.
?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??а??????? ??? ??. ?????? ?? ?? ????
??а??? ?? ?? Storage [????????? ?...] ?а?????? ?? ???? File [????]
?а??????? ????? ?????? ??а????. ?????????? ??? ?а????? ?а???н
??????? ?а???? Twitter. ?????? ??? ? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ?а???н
????? ????? ??? ?????, ??????? ?????? ????! ?а????? ??? ???
??? /home/pi/pounderland_tweets, ?а???? ???? ??? ??а??????????,
??а?????????. ?а???? Action [????????] ?????? ???? ??????? Apн
pend toаFile [???????? ?а????]. ?????? ???????? ????, ???????????
???? ?а?????. ?????????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?а????.
??????? ????????
?????? ?? ?? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ???
?а???? ????? ?????. ??а????? Function [???????] ?????????? ????
Trigger [???????] ?а?????????? ??? ?а???? Twitter. ??? ? ?? ????н
???? ??аTrigger ?а???????? ????? ???????? ??а????? ???????. ??н
??? ?а??????? 1а??????? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? 1, ?а?????
???????? ???????? 0. ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??аTrigger 1s.
????? ?????????? ????????? ?а????????. ??а????? Raspberry_Pi
???????? ???? rpi gpio, ?а????????? Pi ??????. ?????????? ??? ?а??н
??? ?а?????????? ?аTrigger 1s. ?????? ??? ? ?? ???????? ??а???? rpi
gpio ?а???????? ????? GPIO ??аPin 40а? GPIO 21. ??????????, ?????
?а???? Type [???] ???? ??????? Digital Output [???????? ?????].
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
NodeнRED Raspberry Pi
??? Node-RED
NodeнREDа? ??? ?????????? ????? ???, ??????? ??н
???????? ????, ???????????? ?а??????, ??? ?????
??????н???? ?а??????????, ?????? ?????????
?????????? ?????а? IoT (Internet ofаThings). ?????н
????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??а???? ??????н
????? ?????.
?? ? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????. ?а??н
??? ??? ??????????? ?????а? ??? ???? ??????,
????????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?а???????
???????. ?а??????а? ??????, ??? ???? ?????, ?????
??? ???????? ??а?????? ????? mqtt. ????????? ??н
?? ????? ????? ????? ?а????? ??????, ????????,
Delays [?? ??????], ??????? ????? ??????????? ???
????? ????? ??????.
?????? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????н
??? ????????? ?? ???, ????????, ???? Function, ????н
??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????????????
??????? ?аJavaScript. ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?????
????????? ???????, ?? ? ??? ??а??????? ?????
????а??????????.
?? ????????? ?????? ???????? NodeнRED?
?н?а???? ??? ???? [Lucy Rogers], ????? Robot Wars
[????? ???????] ??а?? BBC ?а??????????? ?????
?а??????, ?????????? NodeнRED, ????? ??????????
?????????? ??а?????? ???????... ????????, ??а??н
???? ???????, ??? ???????? ????? ??????????? ???н
???? ?а????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??????????,
???????? ?а??????? NodeнRED ??????? ?????? ????
??????????, ??????? ????????? ??а?????? ????? ??
??а??????????? ?а?????? ??????????.
????? ????? ???? ??? LED Pin 21. ?? ????? Done [??????], ????? ??н
???????. ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??н
??????, ?? ????? Deploy. ????????? ???? ?а?????? ????????, ?а???н
????, ??? ???????? ??????????.
??????
??????
????????? ?????
????? ???????? ????????? ?а???? ?????? ????, ??????? ?а??????н
??? Output [?????] ?а?????????? ???? Play Audio [?????????????
?????]. ?????????? ??? ?а???? Twitter. ??? ? ?? ???????? ??а????
Play Audio ?а?????? ?? ?? ??? TTS (Text ToаSpeech) ??аGoogle UK
English Female [?????????? ??????????, ???????], ????? ?? ?????
Done. ????? ???????? ??аDeploy, ??? ?????? ????????? ????????н
??? ???????? ?а????????? ????. ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ????
?????????? ????!
??????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????. ??а??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????
??а?????????аAdvanced [??????????????], ?а?????????? ??аWatch
[??????????]. ???? ???? ????????? ??а???????? ????? ??? ???н
?? ?а???????????, ????? ????? ?????????. ?????????? ???? Watch
?а????? ?а?????? ?? ???? File ??а???? ?а??? ??, ???? ????? ????н
?? ?????. ????? ???? ???. ????? ?????????? ???? Debug ??аOutput
?а?????????? ??? ?а???? Watch. ????? ???? ??????? ???, ?????н
??????, ??? ??а????? ?????? ???? ????? ????? ?а??????? ???????.
?????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??аeнmail. ?а????????? ??н
??? Storage [????????????] ??????? ???? ?а?????? ??????? ????н
?? ?а?????. ?????????? ??? ?а?????????? ?а???? Watch. ??? ???н
?? ????????, ????? ??а?????????????? ?? ?? ?а????? ?????? ?????.
????????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????, ?а????н
??? ???? Topic ofаtheаmessage [???? ?????????]; ?а?????? ??????
??? ??? ?????. ??а????? Function [???????] ?????????? Function
?а?? ??? ?а??? ??? ?? ?? ??а?а??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??. ?? ???
> ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???? Node-RED, ???????????????
??? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? JavaScript?
??? ? ?? ???????? ??а???? Function, ???????? ??? Modify email [??н
?????? ?????????], ?а????? ??????? ????????? ???, ????? ????н
???? ???????? ????? ?а????? ??а?????? ??????????. ??а???????н
??? ?? ????? Done.
msg.topic = msg.topic.replace(?/home/pi/pounderland_tweets?,
??? ??, ??? ??? ???????!!! ?);
return msg;
??? ????????? ????а? ??? Email ??а????????? Social. ??????н
???? ??? ?а?????????? ?а???? Modify Email. ??????? ?????? ???н
??? ???? ???????? ?????? ??а????????н?????????? ??? ???? ???????
?????. ?????? ?? ????? Done, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????,
?а????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????.
?? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ?аNodeнRED ?а????? ?? ???????
?????????? ?а?????? ?а???????? ?????? ?а???? ????????? ????? ??,
?????????????? ?????? ?а???? ?а?????????? ?а????, ?а??? ??? ?а??н
????????? ??????? ????. |
?????? ????, ?????
?????????? Pi ?а??н
????, ??????????
??? ????, ?????
????????? Nodeн
RED ????? SSH.
??? ????? ?? ??
?????? ????? ?аPi
????? SSH (??а????
???? ???? ?? ?? ??н
????????). ?а?????
?а??????? ?? ???н
??? $nodeнredнstart,
????? ?????????
?????? NodeнRED.
??????????
?? ?????
40-???????????
Pi
> ????? ????? ??????? ??????: ?????
????? ??? ????????
Raspberry Pi ? ???
????????
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
95
Raspberry Pi Wikiн??????
Wiki: ??????
??? ????????
?????? ????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????? wiki ?? ?????????
?????????? Raspberry Pi W ? ???????? ??? ? ??????? ????.
???
???????
?????? ????? ??н
?????? ?????????
???????????????
?а???????? Forн
tuneа500. ??а???н
??? ??????????
??а??нWintel ????н
??????, ?а?а???н
?????? ?????
????? ???????
?а??? ???? ??,
???????????
?а???????????.
??????????
?? ?????
Pi
96
|
> ????????? ????? ???????? ? wiki ??????
???? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????? Raspberry Pi, ????
??????? ?? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ????, ??????
??????? ?а?????? ???. ??? ??? ??????, ??а?а????? Pi Zeн
ro W Raspberry Pi Foundation ???????????? ?а?????? ?????.
Zero W ????????? ????? ??????? ??а????????? ??? ?? ?????
?а????????? ????????, ??а??а?????????? ???????????? ????? (??н
???? ?аW ?а????????), ?а??? ??? ???а????????? ????? г 11. ?а????
Zero W, ????????, ????? ??????, ??? ????? Pi 3, ??? ?????????н
????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????????, ?. ?. ??а??????
????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? Raspberry Pi.
??а???? ????? ??а???????, ??? ???????????? Zero W ??? ????????
???????????? wiki ???а??????????, ???? ?а????????. ??? ????н
?????? wiki ?а??? ?а???????!
???? ??а?????????? ??????? Pi Zero W, ??? ??????????? ?????н
????????? ??????????? ??? USBн ?аHDMIн???????????, ?????????
??а?????????? ??? ????? ?????/?????? ??????? micro. ?а???????,
??????????? ????????? Pi ????? ????? ????????? ????????????.
?
LXF227 ???????? 2017
??????, ??? ??? ???? ???????а? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????
MicroSD ?а???? ??? Raspbian OS. ??н??а?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??
?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??а??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? Raspbian Lite,
?а??а?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????. ????? Raspн
bian Lite ????? ????? ??аhttps://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspbian_
lite_latest. ??а????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ?а??а???н
????н????. ???????? ZIPн???? ??а???? ??.
????? ??а???????? ZIPн????, ?? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ????
?????? (?а?????????? ??а?img). ????????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??н
???????? ?????? ??? ?а????????? ???? ??????. ?????????, ???
??а????????? ???????? ?а??? ?????? ???? ???? ??????.
???? ????? ???????? ????? ??а????? microSD ?а???????????
??????а? ???????? dd, ??а??????????? ???????????? ????? GUI,
?а???????????? ????? ?????? ??????? SD. ?????? ????? ??? ???
??????????? ???? ????????? Pi. ??? ????? ????????? ??????????
Etcher. ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?а???????? ??а???? ????????
??????????. Etcher ??????????? ????????? ??????? ddа? ??? ??н
??????, ??? ?????? ??а????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????н
????? ??? ????? ?а????? ?????????????? ?????????????.
????????? Etcher
???????? Etcher ?аhttps://etcher.io ?а?????????? ?????? Linux. ???
??а??????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ?а??? ? ?? ????н
???? ??а????а? ??а???????? ??????? ????? ??а??? ????????? ?????
??????? ?????????? ????????. ???а?????? ??????? ??????????
???????? ????????? ???? ??? ?а???? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ????н
??????? ?????????????. ????????????? Etcher ??? ?????? ??????
??????????? ???????? ????? ??????!
????? ??? ??? ??????? Etcher, ??а??? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??????
?а??? ???? ??, ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????????: ????? ??? ???? ??????
Raspbian ?а???????? (????? MicroSD). ?? ????? ??а?????? Source
?а????????? ?а????????????? ????? Raspbian, ??????????? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Wikiн?????? Raspberry Pi
???? SSH ?? ???????? ??? ????...
???а????????? Raspbian ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????
?????????? ????????? ??????????. ???????? ????????, ??????
???? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????? ????? SSH. ??????
???????? ????? ????? SSH ?????, ?????? ???? ннvvv. ??а????н
??????? ????????, ?????? OpenSSH ???а????????? ??????????
????? ???????????. ???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????
??????? ?????? ????? ???????.
??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ??а???????? ?No
supported key exchange protocols available [?????????? ?????????
??? ???????????? ?????? ??????]? ???а??????? ?аннvvv. ???н
?????? ?????????? ?????????, ????? ?а/etc/ssh ?а???????? ??а??н
?????? ?а???????? ?????. ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??????, ???
????????, ??? ?а???????? ????????.
?????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ?? ? ???? ?????????. ?а??н
??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????????:
sshнkeygen нt rsa нf /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
sshнkeygen нt ecdsa нf /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key
sshнkeygen нt ed25519 нf /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key
?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??а?? ???? ?????? ??? ??
????????????? ?????? SSH ?а?????????, ??? ??? ?а???????.
????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? MicroSD ?а???????? ????н
???? ??????????. ?, ???????, ?? ????? Go. ??????? ?????? ?а????н
??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????.
? ????? ??????? ??а??? ?????? ???? ?а????????? ?????????
MicroSD ??аPi ?а??????????? ?а???. ??а????????? ??? ????????н
???? ?а??????а? ?pi? ?а?raspbian?. ?????????, ???????? ??а??????
?????, ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????н
??? ??, ????????? ??????????? ???? ?а????????? openSSH ??? ???н
??????? ???????.
??? ?????? ????? ????????? SSID (?????) ??????????? ???
sudo iwlist wlan0 scan
?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? SSID, ?????а??? ?? ??????н
????, ??? Pi ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??. ?????? ???а? ?? ?? ???н
???????? SSID ?а?????? ??? ????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??????н
??. ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ???????
????????? ???? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ????????????
???? ?а???????:
sudo nano /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?а?? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??
??????? ???????????? ???? ?а???? ?????????? ?а?????????????
????????? ???? ???? wpa_supplicant?conf. ??????? ??????????
wpa_supplicant?conf ????? ???????? wpa_supplicant. ??? ?????н
????? ??????? ??? ??????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????н
??????? ???????????, ?а???????? ??а??а?????. ??? ?????? ????
??а????, ??а???????? ????? ????????????? ????? ?а???? ???????н
??. ????????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????н
????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????????:
sudo su н
wpa_passphrase ?SSID? ?Password? >> /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_
supplicant.conf
????? ?SSID? ???????? ????, ??????? ?????? ???? ????????????
(????????, ??, ?а??????? ??а???????????? ???а????????????? ??н
??????). ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????,
?????????????? ?????.
> ??? ??? ???? ??????, ????? SSH ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????
????. ?? ????? ???????????? IPн?????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???н
?????? ?????????: ??а??????? ????? ?????????, ?аIPн????? ??н
????????? ???а???? ?? ??????. ????? ???????? ?? ????? IPн?? ???
??а???????????, ??????? ?????, ??????? ??а????????????, ?а????н
???? ???. ??? ?????? ??????????????? IPн?????? ????? ??????н
?????? ping (???а???????, ??? ??????????? ??а????????? ???????).
????? ???????? Pi ?а????????? ??????????? IPн?????, ??????? ??н
????? ???? ??????????. ??? ????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ??н
??? ???? nano:
sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces.
?? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????. ???????? ?????? ??? DHCP
??аstatic [???????????] ?а??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????. ???
????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ??а???????н
???? IPн??????: ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????????? IPн????? ??н
??. ???? ??????????????? ???? ?????? (????????, ???? ?а??? ?????
10.0.0.0/24), ??а?? ?? ???????? ???? ?а??????? ?????, ?а??? ?? IPн??н
???. ??? ?????????, ?? ? ??? ????????? ????? ??н??????!
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.0.8
netmask 255.255.255.0
gateway 192.168.0.254
dnsнnameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4
wpaнconf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
??????
??????
???????? wiki ??н
??? ??????????
??????????,
??а??? ????? ????
???????. ??????
?а???, ????? ???
???? ?????? ????н
???????? ?а??а????н
???? ??. ???? ????
???????? PDF ???
?????? ???????н
???, ????????? ??.
????????? ????н
???????, ???????
?а??? ?????? ????н
???????? ??????
??а????????? ?а??н
??????? ?????н
????. ?? ?а?????
???? ?????.
??????? ??а????????
???????? ???????????? ??????, ??а????? ?????????? ??а??????
??? ?? ????????? ????а? ???? ?? ????? IPн?? ???? ????????????
> ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ribbons ???????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????
╗ ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe!
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
97
Raspberry Pi Wikiн??????
??????
??????
??? ????????
??????? ??а???н
?? Pi Zero W ????
?????? ???? ???н
???????? ????н
???? ????? ???н
??/??????. ???
????????? ????н
?????????????
??а???????? ???н
?????????. ??н
?????? ????????,
??? ?????????????
?????? ??? ?????н
???? ??а??? ??????
?? ???.
????????? ??? ????????? ?а??????? Ctrl + X, ?а????????????н
?? ???? ????? ????????? ????. ????? ?????????, ??? ???? ??????,
??а?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????????????. ???? ??? ??а???????
???????, ??????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ????????
/etc/init.d/networking restart
?? ??? ?? ??????????а?? ???????????? Pi ?а??????? ??????н
????, ????? ????????? ?а???????????? ????????? ????.
???????? ?? ????????, ??????????? ????а? ??? ?????? ??н
?????????? ?????????. ???? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ????н
????, ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ?????????
??а????????? ???????:
sudo su н
aptнget update нy && aptнget upgrade нy && reboot
??????, ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?а????? ?а????, ?? ??
?????????? ?????? OpenSSH ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?????н
????? Pi:
sudo aptнget install opensshнserver нy
????? ???????? ????????? openSSH, ???????? ??????? ???н
??????? raspi-config. ????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ?аGUI ?а??н
?????? ????? SSH. ????? ????????? ?????????? raspi-config, ???н
??? ??????? ??????? sudo raspiнconfig ?а?????????. ?а???????????
raspi-config ????? ???????? ??? ????? ?аraspberrypi ??а??? ????н
??. ????? ??????? ??а????????? ?а?????????, ??? ??? ??? ?????
SSH ????????, ?????? ?а???? ?а??????? ?????????? Linux ??а???????
ssh pi@static_ip_address_just_set
?, ???????, ???????? ??????????? HDMI. ??а????????? ???н
???? ????? ??а????? ??????, ???? ???????????? ????????? HDMI
??а?? ?????????. ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????н
????, ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???а??????????? ??н
???? HDMI:
sudo su н
echo ?hdmi_force_hotplug=1? >> /boot/config.txt
????? ??? ????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???аHDMI, ??а???н
???? ?????? Pi ?а???? ?????. ???? ??а??????????? ?а?????н???? ???н
??????, ???????????? ?????? ???????, ?а??? ?????? ???????????
?????????. ?????? ???, ????????, ???????? ??????????? ?а??????
?????????? ???????. ???????????? ?а??? ?????? ???? ????? SSH
???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????, ?а??а?????? ?????????
?? ??? ????? ??а?????? ??????????.
? OpenSSH ???? ???????? ?а?????????? ?????????? ?а???????н
?? ????????? ?а????????? ??????. ??а??????? ??????? ???? ?????
?а???? ?????? (??. ?????? л???? SSH ??а???????? ??? ?? ??...╗). ??,
?а???? ??? ????????, ????? ?? ????? ???????? wiki.
> ??? ????? ??????? ????????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????
> ??????????? ??????? ?? г 1 (????? ??? ?????) ??????????? ???
Pi Zero W?
?????????? wiki
?????? ?а????????? Apache ?а????????? ???????????? Dokuwiki,
????????? ??????????? ???? ???????, ????? SSH ??а????? ????н
?????? ??? ?????? ???????:
ssh pi@192.168.0.10
sudo aptнget install apache2 libapache2нmodнphp
sudo a2enmod rewrite
service apache2 restart
??? ????????, ??? Apache ????????, ??????????? ??????? IPн
?? ??? ??????? ?а???? ????. ?? ?? ?? ???????, ??? ??а???? ??? ????
Apache ??а?????????.
?????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????? Apache ??? ???????н
?? wiki. ??? ???? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????. ??н??????,
??а???????????? ?а???????? ????? ????? ????? ?а????????? ??н
??????? ?????? Docuwiki. ????? ??а????????????? Docuwiki ?а???н
????? ????? webн????? Apache, ????? ?а??? ????? ???? ????????
?????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? http. ?а?????? ???н
?????? ?????? ??а???????? ??? ?????? (wwwнdata).
cd /var/www
sudo wget https://download.dokuwiki.org/src/dokuwiki/dokuwikiн
stable.tgz
sudo tar xvf dokuwikiнstable.tgz
sudo mv dokuwikiн*/ dokuwiki
sudo chown нR wwwнdata:wwwнdata /var/www/dokuwiki
?????? ??? ???а? ????????? ????????? ???? ??? ?? Apache,
????? ??????? ??а????? dokuwiki. ???????? ???? ????????? Apache,
????????? ????????:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sitesнenabled/000*.conf
???? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? DocumentRoot ?а?? ??н
???? ??а??аDocumentRoot /var/www/dokuwiki. ????????? ?????????
?а??????? ?????????, ????? ????????????? ?????? Apache ??? ???
?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????:
sudo apachectl restart
???? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????? wiki. ????????? Dokuwiki
??????? ????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??аweb ????????? ??н
???????. ???????? ??????? ?а????????? ??аURL, ?????????? ?????
(????????? ???? ??????????? IPн?????). ?????? ?????? ???? ??н
???: http://192.168.0.10/install.php.
????????, ??а???????? ????????? ?????: л??????? PHP utf8_
encode ??????????╗. ??????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????? ????
?а????? ???????:
╗ ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?. 108, ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????.
98
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Wikiн?????? Raspberry Pi
Pi ?? ??? ??????
?????????? ??? ???? Raspberry Pi. ?????? ???????
??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????.
Pi Zero W, ?????????????? ??а????? ?????а?
??? ??????????? ????????? ?а1а??? ?а512 ?? ???.
???? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????, Zero
?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?а?????
????? ??????????????????. ????????? ??????
?????????? (65 ╫ 30 ╫ 5??) ?????? ??? ?????????
??? ????? ???, ????????? ??а???????? ??????
???????, ?а????????. ???????, ???????? ?а?????
????????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????, ??а??????
?а????? ????? ??????????, ??а??? ?? ?а??а???????
??????????. ??????? ?? ?? ?????????? ??????????
?а??? ????????? ??????? ?а??????? ?????????.
??? ???????? ?????? Pi ?????????? ??? ?????
?? ???, ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??, ??????????н
sudo aptнget install phpнmbstring нy
????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????.
? Dokuwiki ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????????.
????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????. ??н
??????? wiki ???? ??а????а? ??? ????? ???? ????????! ??а????????
?? ??????? ????? wiki ???? ????? ?????? ???. ??? ??? ?? ???? ??н
????? ????????? ??а???? ???????? ?????????????????. ?????????
??? ???????????? (????? ???????? ?а???????), ???? ???????? ???,
???? ??????? ????? ?а??????. ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????н
?? ACL. ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????, ????????, ????? ??н
??????????? ???????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ??????????н
????. ?а???????, ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ? ??, ?? ???????? ????????
??ал??а?????????? ?????????? ?а????????╗. ????? ?? ????? Save
[?????????]. ??????? ????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ??? ?? ?????
> ??? ????? ????????? ????????? Docuwiki ? ???????? ?????!
???? ????????? ?а????? ???????????? ?????
??????, ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????н
?????? ??????? Pi Zero W. ?а???? ?а???????????
????? ???н??а???????????, ??а???????? ???
????? ?????? ?а??????. ??????, ??? ??????????
??а????а???????!
> Pi W ?? ???? ????? ??????
??а??????????? ?Continue toаWiki [????????? ?аWiki]?. ?а??? ??????
?????????? ????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ????????? ???? ?????????
????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????.
?? ????????? ????????? ??а??????????? ?????????????? ???н
?? ?аPi ?а??? ???? install?php. ???? ??а???????? ??? ??а?????, ??а??н
?????? ????? ??????????????? ???????. ???????? ???, ????? ?????
SSH ?аPi ??? ???????????? ?pi?:
ssh pi@192.168.0.10
????? ??? ???? ???? ?????????, ????????
rm /var/www/dokuwiki/install.php
??????????? ?а????????? ??????????
??? wiki ?? ???? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ????????? ???н
??? ??. ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??аHTML, ?а??? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??н
????????, ??????? ?а?????????????. ??????? ?????????? ????н
???????? ????? ?????? ????????? (======), ?а????????????? ???
???а??. ???????? ?????? ??а?????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????н
??? ?????? ????? ????????. ????? ??????? ?????? ??а????????,
????? ??а??? ?а????????? ??? ?а??????? ?????????? ??????. ??н
??????, [[mygreatsetupage]]. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????
wiki. ??а?? ??, ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????.
????, ????????? ?????????. ???? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ???н
???, ???? ????? ???????? ?а??????? Pi Zero W, ??а??????????,
????????? ???????????? Piа????? ????. ???????? ??????????????
????? ??, ??? ??? ???????? wiki ??? ??а?? ?? ????????? ???????????
?????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ????????? ?????????. ??? ??н
??????? wiki ???? ????? ??? ???????, ?????????????, ??а??? ???н
????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????.
?? ?? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????. ???? ?????????? ?????????н
???? ?а????? ?????, ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????. ????
??а?????, Pi ???? ????? ???????????? ?а?????????? ???????, ???
??????????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ????????????, ????? Pi ??н
???????? ?????????, ?а??????? ???????? sudo shutdown нh, ???н
?? ??? ????? ?????.
? ?? ??? ?? ???, ???????????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ????? wiki
?а????????? ?? ???н?? ?а?????????? ?????. ???????? ????????????
??а????? ??????? ???? ??аwww.dokuwiki.org/faq:backup. |
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??????
??????
??? ??? ??а???, ???
??а?? ? ??? ??????н
??? ??????, ??????
????? ?????????н
??? ????? ??н
??????? ????????
????? ??????????
raspi-config, ????н
??? ?????????? Pi
?а????????? ?????
?а???? ???. ??????
??а???????? ?????
raspiнconfig ?????н
???? sudo, ?????
????????? ???????
?а??????? root.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
99
?????? ? ???? ?????????
? ???????? ?????
LXFHotPicks
G?MIC-Qt ╗ Ubunsys ╗ HTTraQt ╗ Ring ╗ GsmartControl ╗ Scribus ╗ Krita
╗ KWave ╗ SmartDeblur ╗ Butterfly Effect ╗ Frogatto
????????? ???????
????? ???? ????????? ????? ????? ???????
?а??????? ?????? ????, ????? ???????????
??? ?а???????? ??????? ????????????
?а???????? ??????
?????????? ???????????
G?MIC-Qt
??????: 2.0 ????: https://github.com/cнkoi/gmicнqt
???? ????? ????????? ?????? G?MIC
???? ???????????? ????????? ???
????, ??? ?????????? ????? ??????н
???? ?????? ????? ?аLinux. ???????? ????н
??? ???????, ??? ?????? ????????, ??????н
?? ???????????? GIMP, ?????? ??? ??????
GREYC?s Magic for Image Computing ?????
???????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????н
??? ????? ?????.
G?MICа? ??????????????????? ?????
?а???????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????н
?????, ??????? ???????????????, ?????н
????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ??????
??????? ?????? ?а?. ?.а?????? ?а????????
gmic_gimp ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??н
???? ??? ???? ?? gmic (?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??
?
??????? ?????? ImageMagick), ??????????
C++ ???а?? ??? ?? ?? libgmic ?а??? ??? ???
???? ?? ??? ???. ?????? 2.0 G?MIC ???????
??аQt5, ???? ??а??? ??? ????????? ?аGIMP,
?а??а??? ?? ??? ?? ?а?? ?? Filters [?????н
??] GIMP. G?MIC-Qt ???? ??? ??? ???????н
??? ?а??????????н????????. ??????????
???? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ????н
?? ???? ????????? ???????? ?а????? ???,
?а????????? ?????????? ?а??????????????
> ??????? ??? ?????????? G?MIC ????? ?????????
Smart Coloring ??????? ????? ???????
?????????????.
????????? ????????? G?MIC
??????? ?????????????
???? ?? ??? ????????? ?????????
?????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????, ???????
????????? ?????????.
????? ????????
?? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????
??? ????????? ???????, ???????????
???? ?????? ??????.
????????? ????? ?????/??????
??????????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ???
?????? ??????? ?????, ?????? ??????,
????????? ?а?????? ?????????????.
?????????? ?????? ??????
????????? ??? ??-??????
????????? ????? ?? ??? Favourites
[?????????], ??????????? ?????? ?а?????
Selection [???????] ??? ???? ???? ????
?????? ????? ???.
?? ? ??? ??а????? ??? ???????н
??????, ?а??а??????? ?????
???????? ??? ?? ??????????
????? ??.
100
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?? ? ???? ????? ?? ?а???????, ??? ????? ??н
??????? ?????? ?а??????? ???????? Beн
fore [?????] ?аAfter [?????].
?? ???? ???н??а ?а ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??,
??а?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??
?? ??? ??, ??? ???? ?????, ?? ?? ?? ??? ??н
???. G?MIC ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???н
??? ????? ??, ????? ??? ???????? ???????
??? ???????, ??????? ??? ?? ??????. ?а???
??а???: G?MIC 2.0 ??а???а?? ????? ????????н
??? ???а????? ???????, ??? Smart Coloring
[????? ???????????], ????????? ????????
????? ???????????? ??а???? ??????? ????н
????????? ?а????????? ?????? ?? ?а????н
??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??а????.
??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????
?????????? Color Lookup Tables (CLUT), ???н
?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????
RAW. ?????????????? ????? ?а??? CLUT ??н
?????? ???????? ?????? ?а????? ????? ???
????? ??????????.
? ???? ????? ?????? G?MIC ????? ???н
??? ????? ???а? 480, ??а????????? ???н
??????а? ?а??а???????????? ???????????
??? ??? ???? ??а??????????????. ???????,
??? G?MIC-Qt ??а???????? ????????? ?????н
??????, ??????? ?а????????????? ???????н
???? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ??а??????????
G?MIC ?аKrita, ?????????? ??аQt ??????????
GIMP, ??????? ?а??????? ???? ?????????н
??? ??а???????? ?????????, ??? ??а????н
????? ?????? ?????. ?а???? ??? ??????????
????????? ?? ??? ?????? GIMP ?а????? ??н
???????? Qt.
LXFHotPicks
?????????? ?????????????????
Ubunsys
??????: 2017.06.13 ????: http://bit.ly/2uxx7ji
?
????? Ubuntu ????? ???? ???????
??????????? ???? ? ????? ??????н
?? ?аUnity ??аGnome Shell. ????????,
??? ???, ??? ??а?????????? ???????? ??? ??н
??????? Ubuntu, ??? ??????????, ??а????н
??а?? ??а????????????? ??а??????? ?????н
??? ?????? ????????????? Linux, ???????
Ubuntuа? ??? ??????.
Ubunsysа? ???????? ??????????, ???н
?????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? Ubunн
tu ?а?????????? ?????????????. ??????
??????? ??????????? ?????????????????
Linux ?а??????? ???????? ??????, ?а??а???н
????? ??????????? ????? Ubunsys, ??а?а??
????? ??? ???????. ??? ??????? ?? ????н
?? ???????? ??а???? Qt, ??????? ????????н
?? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а??????н
????? ?????????.
???а???? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ??
????? ?? ???а?? ??? ?? ?? Packages [?? ??н
??], Tweaks [?????????], System [???????]
?аRepair [??????????????]. ?????? Packages
??а???????????? ??????? ????????а? ????н
??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????
Synaptic. ?????? ??? ?? ?? Tweaks, System
?аRepair ?????? ????????, ??? ??? ??? ?????н
?? ??? ??а?????? ?а????????? ???????, ??н
??? ??а??а???????, ??? ??????. Tweaks ????н
?????? ???????? ???????, ?????????????
??а??????? Ubuntu ?а?а??????????? ?аUbunн
tu ???????? ??аStack Overflow ?аReddit, ?????
??? ????????? Sudo ??? ?????? ???а????н
??, ????????? ?????? ??????????, ????н
?? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???н
?????? ????????????. ???????? ????????
Ubunsysа? ??????????? ?????? ???? ????н
??? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????????.
??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????
Disable [?????????].
Ubunsys ??? ?? ???????? ?а??????????н
??, ?а??? ??????? ?а????? ?????? ??????н
??? ???? ?????? ???. ????????? ????????
> ????????? sudo
??? ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ?????!
?????????? ????????
??????? ? ??????????
?????????.
????????? л????? ????? ?????╗ ??? ???н
?? ??? ??????? ????, ?? ???? ?а????? ??н
??? ??а????? ????????? ?????????? ???н
??? Ubuntu ?а?. ?.
??? ?а???????????? ????????, Ubunsys
?? ?? ??? ?????? ?аUbuntu ?а?? ?? ?? ?????
?а???? ???????? ?????, ????? ??? elementaryн
OS, ?а???????? ?а?????????? Ubuntu ?а?????
????????, ??? Apt. ?????????? ????? ??н
??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? Ubunsys,
?а??? ??а???? ?????? ????????????? ?????н
???? ?????? Debн??????? ?а??????? Releasн
es ??а???????? ????? ?? ??аGithub.
????????? ??????
HTTraQt
??????: 1.4.9 ????: http://httraqt.sourceforge.net
?
????????? Linux, ??????? ???н??
?????????, ?????? ?? ?????????н
?? ?а??????????? Wget ??? Aria2.
?а??? HTTraQt ???????? ?????? WinHTTrack,
?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???
????????? ???????.
??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ??? HTTraQt
?а?????????? HTTrack C++а? ??? ??? ???н
?????? ????? ?? ?а???????? ?????, ?????н
???????? ??????? ????? ????; ??а?????
???????????? ??????, ??? ???? ????? ?? ??н
???????? ??????.
???? ??а??????? ????????а? л??????
?????? ??а????????????╗. ?? ?? ?а???, ???
??а????????? ?????????? HTTrack ??????
???????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??н
??????? ?????. ??? ??а??????? ??а??????,
??????? ??а?????? ?????, ??а??а?????????
?????? ????а?? ??????? ???? ????????!
?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???
????? ????????? ??????. ????????? ?????
?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????
?а??????????? ??а??????????? ?а??????
?????? ???? ??. ?? ? ??? ???? ???????????
?а???? ZIPн??????, ??????????? HTML, CSS,
JavaScript ?а??? ????????? ?????, ???????
????? ???????? ????????.
????? ?????? ???? ?а?????? ?аHTTraQt,
????????? ??? ?а???????? ????? ?????? ???
?????, ??????? ?????? ???????. ??? ?? ? ??н
?? ????? ?? ??а?????? ???????? ???? ???
????????? URL, ?????????? ?? ?????????н
???, ????????? ??????н???????, ??????н
?????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??н
??? ???????????? ?????? ??а??????? ?а?. ?.
?????? ??, ????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??н
???????а? ??? ????? ???? ?????. ??? ????н
?????? ?????? ???? ??, ?????????? ????н
??????? ?а?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?? ??.
???? ????, ??????? ??а????????? ???????,
> ??? ?????????
??????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????
HTTraQt ?????????
????? ?? ??????, ???
? Wget, ?? ?? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
?? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???
JavaScript ??? ???? ???????????? ???, ???н
?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ???
??? ??????? ?????????.
HTTraQt ????????? ?????а?? ??????, ???
?аWget (?а???? ???? ??????? ?????????
??????), ??а??а??????? ????? ?????????н
??????????а? ?а?????. ??а?????? ????н
???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????, ?????????
?????? ????? ????????, ???? ?? ?а??????
?????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
101
LXFHotPicks
????????? ????????????
Ring
??????: 2 beta ????: http://bit.ly/2txm7Cr
?????? Microsoft ?????????? ???н
???? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?? Skype
?аLinux, ??а?? ?? Qt, ?а?? ??? ????
???? ??????? ??а????? ?????, ??а????? ????н
???????? ?а???????????? Skype, ???????н
??? ??аElectron. ?а?? ??????, ??? ???????
?????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????????
?????? webн?????? Skype.
??? ??????? ?а????????? ?????? ??а???н
??????????? ????? ??????????? ??, ???н
??? ??, ?а?а?? ??? ??? ?? ???, ??? ??? ???
???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????н
??? ?? ?а?? ??? ???? ?? ??. ??а?? ?? ?? ??,
??? Ring ????? ????? ??? ?????? ???????,
?а???а??????.
GNU Ringа? ??? ????????? ??аIP, ????н
???????? ?а??? ???????? ?а????????????,
?а???????????????? ??а???????. ??? ???н
????????? ?????/????????????????? ?а??н
???????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а????н
?? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????...
??? ??? ?а???? ???? ???? ??? ??? Skype ??
??????? ???аMicrosoft. Ring ??? ?????????
?
???????? ?????????? (????????????) ????н
??, ??а??? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? Asterisk ????????? ??????????? ????????????
??????? ?????? SIP.
????????? ??????? ??а???? ????????
??????: ?????? ?а???????. ????? ???????н
?? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?а??????? ??н
????, ?а?????? ??а????? ???? ???????? GUI,
?а??????? ??а????????????????. ???? ???н
?????? ???????? ??? Ring, ??а??? ???????
????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ?аPlasma
?????? ??аhttps://github.com/KDE/ringнkde
?а????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ?????н
??? Savoirнfaire Linux, ?????????, ???????н
????? ??????????? Ring. ??? ???????????
Ring Gnome ??аGTK3 ?аRing for Android (???н
???? ??? ??аGoogle Play).
> ????????? ?????????, ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?
?а???????????? ????????? ?? ????!
???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????.
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??а??а???), ??а???????? ??? ??????? ????н
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?????????? ???????? ??????????????
Ringа????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??а???н
?? ?????????? Linux ?а??? ?????а? ??а???н
?? ?????????, ?а??????? ?????????? ?а??н
??? ?????. ????? ????????? ???????????
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weavejester/ringнserver. ??? ???????? ?????н
???????? л???????? ???╗ ??? ?????????н
???, ???? ??? ???????????а?????????? ??н
??????? ??????? Ring.
??????????? ?????
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??????: 1.0.1 ????: http://bit.ly/2tZbJWU
????? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?аSSD
??? ??????? ?? SMART (selfнmoniн
toring, analysis and reporting technolн
ogyа? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ????
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?? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????????????
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?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ????н
?? ??а????? ???????????? ????? ???????,
??? smartctl ??? smartd ??а?????? Smartmontools, ??? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???????
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??? Smartctl.
?? ???? ??? ??????? ????а??аGnome ?а??
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????? ?????????, ????????? ?аGSmartControl. ??? ????????? ??? ???????, ?? ?????
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????? ??? Linux, Windows ?аMac OS.
GSmartControl ??? ????? ??? ???? ??н
???????, ??а????? ??????? ?а???????????,
?
102
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??а??? ??????? ????? ??? ?а????????????
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????? Smartctl ?????? ??????? ?а????????.
GSmartControl ????? ??? ??а????? ????н
??? ?а?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ??н
?? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ???????
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????? ?????????
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??а???????? ?????. ??а?????? ??????? ??н
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??????????. ??????????? ???? ?????? ???н
?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??н
?? ??? Linux, ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??
????????? ????????? GSmartControl ??????н
?? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????.
LXFHotPicks
?????????? ???????????? ???????
Scribus
??????: 1.5.3 ????: www.scribus.net
? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??н
?? ?аScribus ??а????????? Linux
Format. ??????? ??????? ?а???,
??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???
?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????
InDesign ??аAdobe, ??????? ??????? LXF
????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???н
?? ??, ??????? ??а?????? ??????? ?а?????.
????????? ?? ???????? ?а2003а?.а?а??????
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Scribus ???????? ?????? ?????????. ??????
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?????? ????????? ?а???????: ????? 1.5.x
> ????? ???????а?
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?????????????????? Scribus, ??????? ?????? ?????
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?????? ? ????.
Scribus ???????н??а????????????? ??????н
?????????? ?????? ??? DTP. ?????? ???н
???? ??????, ??а????????? ?а????????????,
??????????? ?а??????? ????????? ????????
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??? ????? ???? ???, ??? ???? ?? ????? ??
KRAн?????? Krita ?а???????? XDGн??????н
????? ????????. ????? ????, ????? ??????н
???????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?????
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?? ??а??, ??а????????? ????? Scribus ???н
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???????? ???????????
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??????: 4.0.0 preнalpha ????: https://krita.org
??? ?? ???? ?????? ?а?????? ?????н
?????? ?????????, ?????? ????? ??н
??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?аGIMP, ?? ???н
????аAdobe Photoshop ?а???????? ?????.
?????? ??? ??а???????????? ???????????н
??? ????????? ?а???? Linux...
Kritaа? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???н
??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??н
????????. ?а??????? ???? ??а????????н
?? ?? ?а??? ??? 3.0.1 ( LXF217 ), ??а?а????
????????? ???? ?????????а? ???? ????н
??? ?а??????, ?а???????????? Krita ???????
???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? Krita 4.0
Alpha. ??? ??а?а???????????, ??? ??а????н
????????? ??????, ?а?????? ??? ???? ???н
?????? ????? ?а??????????? ???????, ??н
????????????? ??? ????? ??????????.
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??а???? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??н
???, ??????, ?аInkscape ?а????? ?????????
?
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?????????? SVGн????? ?а???? ???? Krita,
?а??? ???? ????? ?а?? ?? ??? ?????? ?????.
???????, ??? Krita 4 ????? ????????? ???н
??, ????????? ?а?????? 3, ??а??а????????.
?? ???, ???????????? ??????? Airbrush,
?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????н
?????, ????? ????? Healing ?а???????????
Text, ??????????? ????? ?? ??? ??, ?????н
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???? ???????, ?????? ?? ??? ??а???. ?? ??
?а??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?аKrita,
??а???????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??????,
??? ???а?????????? ????????? ?а2.x ??а3.0.
Krita ??н???? ???? ????????? ??????н
???? ??? ???????? ???????? ?а?? ?? ???н
???? ????????, ????????? ???? ?????? ??н
????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????
> ??? ? Photoshop, Krita ????? ???????? ? ? ??????????, ? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ????????
?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???а?????? File > New [???? > ?????]. ????
??????? ??????? Krita ??????????? ?а?????н
??? ???????? ??????? ?????????, ???????н
??а????? ???????????? ?а??? ??????????н
??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????.
??????? ?а????????????? AppImage ?????н
??? ??а????? ????? ??, ??????? ??? ???????
???????????? ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ??н
???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????
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?????? ???????? ??????!
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|
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LXFHotPicks
HotGames ??????????????? ??????????
?????????? ????
Butterfly Effect
??????: 0.9.3 ????: http://theнbutterflyнeffect.org
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??а?? ?? ????,
??а??а????? ??? ???? ??а?а????н
??????? ??а??????? ????? ????,
?????????? ???????????, ??????, ?????н
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?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????
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??? ??а??????.
Butterfly Effect [?????? ???????] ??н
?? ???, ??а?????? ??а????????????, ?? ??н
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Wave ?????? ??? ?а???? Audacity,
??????? ?? ??????, ????????, ??н
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??? kwave:plugin %3Aexecute?normalize,
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?????????? ?????
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?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? (??.
LXF214), KWave ????? ????? ?????????
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??????: 1.27 ????: http://bit.ly/2ui7PZx
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www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
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ness [?????????] ?аCorrection Strength [???н
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??????? ???? ????????? ????? ???, ?а??????? ??а????н
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?? ????????? ?а???????? ????? live. ?????? ????? ????
??????????? ?а????????? ?? ???????, ?а??? ??а??????н
?? ???а???????? ????? ?аLinux Format DVD. ??? ??а???н
???? Debian: ??а??????? ?а??а?????????????? ??? ??н
???? ???????? ???????. ??????? ???????. ????????
ISO Debian ?аLinux Format DVD ??а?????? DVD ??? USBн
?????? ?а??????????? ?? ????, ?????? ??? ?а??????????н
???? ?????????????? Debian. ????? ?а??? ????? ??? ??н
??? ?????????: ???? ?а??????? ?????????? ?а??????
?а??????? ????????? ????????????.
?????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??а?????????,
??а???? ??? ??? ???а?? ????????, ??а??а???? ???????!
??????? ????????? ??а????? ???????? ???а????????н
??? ?а?? ??????? ???а??? ???????. ?? ?? ??а?????? ??н
??? ???????????? ??????????, ?а??? ???? ????? ???н
??? ?????? WiнFi, ????? ????????? ??????????, ??а????
?????????? ??а?????, ?? ???????? ??а????? ????????.
??а?????? ?????????? ????????? ????, ??а?????????
????????? ??????? ??а???? ????? ?????????? ?а????н
?? ??а?????? ??а???????? Debian, ?а?????? ????, ????
??а?????? ?а??? ???????????. ????, ??а????????? ????н
?????? Debian Stretch ???а?????????? ?а?????. ??а???н
????, ??? ??? ?????? 9.0.1. ?а?????? 9.0а???? ???????
╗ ?????
????????!
???????? ?????
? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????-?? ??????? ?????? LXFDVD ???????????, ???? ??????,
??а?????? disks@linuxformat.ru ??? ????????
+7 (812) 309-0686.
106
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
> ?а?????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????
?а????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? Debian?
???????? ?а?? ?????????? (??? ??????? ?????????н
??? ????), ?а??а???? ???? ?????? ????????.
??? ??а????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????н
??? ???????????? Debian ?????????? ?????, ???? ???
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????????. ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?а?????????
?????????, ?а??? ?????? Debian ??? ????? ??а????? ??н
????? ?????, ??а???????? ???, ???? ????? ??а???? ???н
????: ???? ???? ???, ?а????????, ????? ????, ?а??а??н
??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ??а???????? ???,
?? ??? ???, ??? ??? ??. ??а?????? ?? Gnomeн??? ???
liveн?? ???? Debian, ???? ?аDebian ??? ???????? ??? ??
??а?????????, ?а???????, ??? ?????? ??а????? ??а??н
??? ??????????, ??а?????? ???????? ??????? ????
??????????? ?? ??????? ?аSynaptic.
?? ???????????????? ??????????: ??? ????????н
????а? user, ??????а? live.
Debian 9.0
??????
????
?????????? ??????? ??? ?????
??????????? ?????????? ??????
???а????!
64-??????
╗ ??????? ???? Gnome ╗ ???? 4.9 LTS ╗ ?????
???????? ??????? ╗ MariaDB ╗ PHP 7.0
Voyager Live 9.0
??????????? ???????????
Linux ?а???????????????
???????а??????
?????
?????
╗ ???? 4.9 ╗ ??????? ???? Xfce
╗а????????? ???аDock ╗а??????? Conky
LIVE-????: ????? ? ??????
??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? LINUX
64-??????
??????? ? Linux?
??????? ??????!
╗ ??? ????? Linux? ??? ??? ???????????
╗ ????а?? ?а??? ?????????? MS Office?
╗ ????? ????? ????????? ???????
╗ ??? ????????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????? ? Index.html ?? ?????.
??????????? ?? ???? Debian
Voyager Live 9.0
Voyagerа? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?а??? ????????
??????????? ?а???? ??????. ??а???????????? ?а???? ??н
???????: ?????? ??аUbuntu ?а??, ??????? ?а??? ?????,
??а???? Debian. ??? ????? ?????? ????? Voyager, ??н
???????? ??а????? Debian 9, ??а?а?????????????? ??н
????? ?????? Xfce. Xfceа? ???????????? ???????????,
??а???а???? ??????????????????? ??????? ????, ??н
????????? ???н??а?????????? ??? ?? ?????????????
???????? ??????? ??аKDE ?аGnome ?а????? ??????????н
??, ?????? ??? LXDE ?аIceWM.
Voyager ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????? Debian,
??а?а?????? ??? ??? ??а??? ?? ????????? ??а????????
????? live: ??а??????? ??а?а??????? System [??? ????]
????????? ????. ?????????? ISO Voyager ??а???? ???
USBн?????? ??а?? ??. ?????? ?а??? ????? ??????????
????????, ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????, ???
??а????? ??????? ???????? ??????? root. ????? ???н
???? ?????? ???????? ?????а? ????????? GParted ?а??н
?? ?? ?? ??? ?? live, ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?а??? ??? ?? ??
??а???????, ?? ????? ???????????? ????? ???аVoyagн
er, ?а????? ????????? ????????? ?????????. ????????,
??? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ????????, ??????? ?а???н
????? ?а??????????, ??? ??а???? ??а???????? ??????
? ???!
????????? ???????????
???????
Checkinstall ????????? tar-?????? ?а??????? ????? ???? ???????.
GNU Core Utils ???????? ???????, ???????
??????? ?????????????? ?а?? ? ??? ???????????? ???????.
Hardinfo ?????????? ????????????
???????.
Kernel ???????? ??? ?????? ??????????
??????????? ?????? ????.
Memtest86+ ????????? ??? ??а???????
?????????????? ?а?????.
Plop ??????? ????? ??? ????????
???а??????? ?? ?аCD, DVD ?аUSB.
RaWrite ?????????? ??????????? ???????
?аMS-DOS ?аWindows.
> ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????????
Voyager ??????????? ????????? ????? ? GParted?
???????? ????? ??а??????????? ????? ????? ??????н
??? ??а???????; ?????? ????????????? GPartedа? ??н
??? ??????? ???????.
??????? ??????? ?а???, ??? Voyager ????????? ??н
????????? ??а????????? ???а??????????? ?а?????????.
?? ???????????????? ??????????: ??? ????????н
????а? user, ??????а? live.
SBM ??????????? ??а?? ????? ???
???????? ?а????????? ???????????.
WvDial ???????????? ?а??????????
?????а?????????? ?????.
??????
??????? ?????
??????????? ??????????? ??а????????
Bash ??????? ????????? ???????? ???
?????.
??????????? Bash ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? Bash.
??????????? ??а???????? ????????
Bourne Shell ????????? ????????? ???????
????????.
TheаCathedral and theаBazaar [?????
?а?????] ???????????? ????? ????? ?. ???????? [Eric S Raymond], ???????????
???????????? ???????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????????????? Debian
??????? ??????????? ??? ?????????
???????????????.
???????? ?аLinux ??????? ???????????
??а?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? Linux.
??????? Linux ???????????? Linux
??а?а??а?.
Linux Kernel inаaаNutshell [???? Linux ?а????
??????] ???????? ?а????, ??????????
??????? ?????????
???? ?????? ????????????? [Greg
Kroah-Hartman].
???????????
?????????? ????н
?????????? Linux
?????????????
???? ???????.
????? ????????????
?????? ????? ?????????????? GNU.
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
107
?????????? ??????
???????? ??? ?? ????? www.linuxformat.ru ? л???/????????????╗!
??????? ???????????? ? ? ????????, ? ? ??????????? ?????,
??? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? LXF ????? ?????? ?????
???? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????!
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LXF225
LXF224
?????? 2017
???? 2017
???? 2017
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??????????? ?аKDE
╗ ????????, ?????
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LXFDVD:аBackBox Linux, Elementary OS, Manjaro, Tails,
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LXFDVD:аUbuntu, Solus, Androidнx86, 12 ???? ?аLinux
(?? ??????????), ??????? ???????, ????? LXF
??а2005?2016 ??. ? ??????...
LXFDVD:аUbuntu, Linux Lite, Manjaro, Netrunner, 12а????
???????? ??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_226/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_226/
???????? ??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_225/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_225/
???????? ??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_224/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_224/
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250 ????
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LXF222
LXF221
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?????? 2017
???? 2017
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╗ ???? ?а???????? ?????????? webн??????
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╗ ?????? ??а?????? CentOS,
???? Red Hat
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LXFDVD:аferen OS, IPFire, openSUSE Tumbleweed,
RancherOS, Rescatux, Ubuntu Studio, XenialDog, 12а????
?аLinux (??а??????????), ??????? ??????? ?а??????...
LXFDVD:аDevuan, Linux Mint, ROSA, Scientific Linux,
Ubuntu Budgie, 12 ???? ? Linux (??а??????????),???????
??????? ?а??????...
LXFDVD:аExTiX, Porteus, Rebecca Black Linux, Siduction,
???????? ??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_223/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_223/
???????? ??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_222/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_222/
???????? ??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/lxf_221/
PDF-??????: shop.linuxformat.ru/elxf_221/
Ubuntu, Zorin, 12 ???? ? Linux (??а??????????), ???????
??????? ?а??????...
??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
??? www.linuxcenter.ru, ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????!
???????? ?????? ????????
╗ ?????н?????????: (812) 309-0686
╗ ??????: (499) 271-4954
Linux Format ?????????:
vk.com/linuxform
DVD
?????????? ? ?????
????????????
????????? ?? ??????? ╗
?? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????н
????? ?а???, ??? ????????????? ?а????????????
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??? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????
?? ????? ?????????????, ??????? ??????????????
????????? ?а????? ????????? ?а???????????????
???????????.
DVD-?????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 9 (227). ???????? 2017
HOTPICKS
?? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ???н
?????? ????? ???????????? ???????: RPM, Deb ???
????? ??????. ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????, ???
?? ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ?а??????н
???? ????????? ????????? ????????. ?? ????????н
???, ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????
??????, ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????????.
??????????
????????????
??????? ???????
??????? 1
Debian 9?0?1 Stretch (64н??????)
????????? ????????? ?? ??а???? Linux. ???????? ???
??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ???????????,
???????????? ?а????? ??? 50 000 ??????? (????????н
?????????? ??а?а???????, ????? ???????????????
??а????? ??). ???????????? ????????? ??? ???? ???
????????????? ???????????? ???? ???????????, ??н
????? Debian ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????
???????????.
Voyager Live 9 (64н??????)
??????????? ?аliveDVD ??а???? Xubuntu, ?а?????н
?????? ??????? ?????? Xfce. ???????? Avant
Window Navigator ??? AWN (?????? ????????? ?а????
???н???????), Conky (??????? ???????) ?а?????
300а?????????? ?а????????, ????????? ?а????????
????? ???????? ?????.
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LXFDVD!
?????? ???????????? Linux.
?? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???
????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????
??????. ?а??????????? ???????, ????????? ??????
????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?а???????
лEssentials [???????]╗ ?? ??????????? ?????. ???н
????, ???? ?а????? ??????? ???????? ????????
?а?????????????, ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????
?????? ????.
Butterfly Effect 0?9?3 ???? ? ???????
the-butterfly-effect.org
Frogatto (Git) ????н??????
bit.ly/2tdsRUe
G?MIC-Qt 2?0 ?? ??? ????????? ???????????
github.com/c-koi/gmic-qt
Gsmartcontrol 1?0?1 ??????????? ?????
bit.ly/2tZbJWU
HTTraQt 1?4?9 ????????? ??????
httraqt.sourceforge.net
Krita 4?0?0 pre-alpha ???????? ???????????
krita.org
Kwave 17?04?2 ???????? ?????
github.com/KDE/kwave
Ring 2 beta ????????? ??? ???????
bit.ly/2txm7Cr
Scribus 1?5?3 ?????????? ???????????? ???????
????: www.scribus.net
SmartDeblur 1?27 ???????? ???????????
bit.ly/2ui7PZx
Ubunsys 2017?06?13 ?????????? ?????????
bit.ly/2uxx7ji
??????????? ???????
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Debian 9.0
?????????? ??????? ??? ?????
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?????
?????
64-??????
www.linuxformat.ru/subscribe
Voyager Live 9.0
??????????? ???????????
Linux ?а???????????????
???????а??????
╗ ???? 4.9 ╗ ??????? ???? Xfce
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??? ????????????, ?? ???? ???а?? ???????????
?а??????? ???? ?????????, ??????????, ?????????
? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ?????:
disks@linuxformat.ru
LIVE-????: ????? ? ??????
???? ???? ??а???????????
??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? LINUX
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???????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??????????:
╗ ???_?????????-1?0?1?i386?rpmа? ????????,
???а???????? ????? RPM, ???????????????
???а?????? ?? ???????? x86;
╗ ???_?????????-1?0?1?i386?debа? ?????а?? ?????,
?? ??? ??? Debian;
╗ ???_?????????-1?0?1?tar?gzа? ?????? ???
????????а???;
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╗ ???_?????????-1?0?1?tar?bz2а? ??? ?? ????,
?? ?????? bzip2 ?????? ???????? gzip;
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???, ?? ???????????? ??? RPMн????? ??? ?????????
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???а???????????? ??????? Fedora Core 4;
╗ ???_?????????-1?0?1?ppc?Suse9?rpmа? ????????
????? RPM, ??????????????? ??????????
???а???????????? ??????? SUSE 9.x PPC;
╗ ???_?????????-devel-1?0?1?i386?rpmа? ??????
???а?????????????.
???????? 2017 LXF227
|
109
110
|
LXF227 ???????? 2017
??????????, ????? ?????????????? ??????? ????? ????????????
? ???????????, ??????????????
? ??????? ?? ???. 109!
Advanced Bash Scripting Guide ????????? ???????????
??а???????????????? ??аBash
Bash Guide for Beginners ??????????? ??аBash
???а??????????
????????????: 12 ???? ? LINUX
(?? ?????????? ?????)
??????? LXF: ????????? ?
????? Copy ?? Python
????????
CheckInstall
Coreutils
HardInfo
Kernel
Memtest86+
Plop
SBM
WvDial
???????
????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???н
??? ?????, ???????????, ??????????, ?? ?????? disks@linuxformat.ru
???????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????
?????: info@linuxformat.ru
Bourne Shell Scripting ????????? ???????????
??а???????????????? ??аBash
TheаCathedral and theаBazaar ???????????? ?????
????? ???????? [Eric S Raymond] л????? ?а?????╗
TheаDebianаAdministrator?s Handbook ???????????
??????????????, ?????????? ????????? ????????н
?????? Debian
Dive Into Python ??????? ??а????????????????
??аPython
Intro toаLinux ????????? ??????????? ??аLinux
Linux Dictionary ??????? Linux, ??????????? ?????н
???????? ????????????
Linux Kernel inаaаNutshell ???????? ???? Linux,
????????? ????? ??а??? ?????????? ??????????н
???а? ?????? ????н????????? [Greg KroahнHartman]
Rute ?????????? ??????????
SystemаAdministrators Guide ??????????? ??а????????
????????????????? Linux
GNU Tools Summary ??????????? ??а?????? ?а??????н
??? ?????? ?а????? ???????? ?????? GNU
??????????
DVD-?????????? ? ??????? Linux Format ? 9 (227). ???????? 2017
Frogatto (Git) ????н??????
bit.ly/2tdsRUe
HOTPICKS
Zentyal 5?0 (64н??????)
?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? Ubuntu,
?а??????????? webн???????????, ?????????? ?????н
?????? ?????????????????. ?????? ??????????????
?а????????????? ??? ?????? ?????, ??????? ??????,
??????????????? ?????? ????????????.
????? ?????????? ??? л??????╗, 188652, ??????, ????????????? ???????, ???????????? ?н?, ???. ????, ???????? ??., 7н?. ???????? ???? ??? N 77н103.
????????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????; ??????, ??? ? ? ?????? ? ????? ????? ??, ?? ??????????? ???
???????????? ???????????? ??????. ?? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????.
? ?????????, ???????? Linux Format ?? ? ????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ?? ????? ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???? ??????, ???????
????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ????? DVD, ?????????????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??????. ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????н???? ?? ?? ?????????,
???????????? ? ????, ??????????????????? ? ??????? ???????????????.
??? ???????????? ???????????? ISOн???????, ??????? ????? ?а???????? ??а????????? ????????, ?а?????????а?аliveн?????? ????? ?аLXFDVD.
?а???? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??а???????а????.
ClearOS 7?0 (64н??????)
??????????? ??? ?????? ???????, ?? ???? CentOS,
?а???????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?а???н
??. ???? ? ??? ???????????? webн?????????, ?????
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??????????? ?? ???? CentOS, ????????? ??? ?????н
????? ?????? ???????? ?????: ????????? ???????,
????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????/?????.
????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????
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NethServer 7?3 (64н??????)
??????????? ?? ???? CentOS, ? ????????? ????????,
????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ? ????????
??????, ??????, webн??????, ??????????. ??????????
webн????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? л?????
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DVD
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?????????? ??????????? л???????╗, ?. ?/?, ???. ?
???. (812) 462-8383, e-mail: office@ldprint.ru
????? 16432
? ??????????? ??????
????? ???????...
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???????, ??? ?а??????? Linux ???? ????? ??????
?а?????? ?????????? ??а?????? ???????? FOSS.
????? ????? Ubuntu Phone
??????????, ??? ????? ??а??? ?аUbuntu Phone ?а??????
???????????а???????????? ??аCanonical.
Linux Multimedia Studio
?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? (???, ??????!)
??а???????????????? ?????? ???а?????? ????????? LMMS
???а????????????.
???????? ???????: ?????
???? ????? ???????, ??а??а??????????? ??? ?????
????????????а??????, ??? ????? ?а?????.
???????? ???????????? ??????
???????? ???? ??? [Neil Mohr] neil.mohr@futurenet.com
??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? [Jonni Bidwell]
jonni.bidwell@futurenet.com
??????????? ???????? ?????o?? ???? [Cliff Hope]
clifford.hope@futurenet.com
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????-???????
[Efrain Hernandez-Mendoza] efrain.hernandez-mendoza@futurenet.com
?????????? ??????????
?????? ??????? [Jonni Bidwell], ???? ?????? [Neil Bothwick],?????? ?????
[Stuart Burns], ???? ????? [Nate Drake], ???? ??????? [Leif Johnson],
??????? ????? [Jeremy Laird], ???? ??? [Neil Mohr], ??? ???? [Nick Peers],
??? ??????? [Les Pounder], ????? ????? [Mayank Sharma], ?????? ?????
[Shashank Sharma], ????????? ??????? [Alexander Tolstoy], ??????? ???????
[Mihalis Tsoukalos], ?????? ???? [Rachel Wong], ??????? ??????,
?????? ???????????, ??????? ???????????, ??????? ????????,
?????? ?????????
??????????? ???? ???????? [Shane Collinge]
??????????? ? ??????? www.magictorch.com
?????????? ??????????
UK: Linux Format, 30 Monmouth Street, Bath BA1 2BW
Te?. +44 (0) 1604 251045, email: linuxformat@myfavouritemagazines.co.uk
??????: ?????-?????????, ??. ???????, 5, ????. 7
???. +7 (812) 309-0686, e-mail: info@linuxformat.ru
?? ???????? ??????????????, ???????????, ??????? ???????:
partner@linuxcenter.ru
????????? ?????: ??????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? Linux Format, ????????
?????????????? ??? ????????????? Future Publishing Ltd (Future plc group company). ??? ?????
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??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????.
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???? ???? ?? ??????? ????. ???????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????
?????? ? ?????? ?????????. ???????? Linux Format ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????, ???? ?? ???? ????????? ????. Linux Format
????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ??? ????????. ?????????
? ????, ???? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???? ??????????, ? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????. ???????? Linux Format ?? ????? ??????????????? ?? ????????.
??????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????. ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????
? ??????? ????????.
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Linux ? ?????????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? [Linus Torvalds].
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?? ??????????? ? ????????, ?????????? Future plc group company, ??????????? ?? ????
www.futureplc.com.
????? ????? ? ??????
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112
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??? ????????? ?а???? Linux...
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??? ?а??????, ?а???????????? Krita ???????
???? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? Krita 4.0
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????????? ??????, ?а?????? ??? ???? ???н
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|
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