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Current developments in anthropological genetics. Volume I. Edited by J. H. Mielke and M. H. Crawford. New York Plenum Press. 1980. XIV + 436 pp. figures tables references index. $ 45

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Book Reviews
I NS ANTHRO- opments of current concepts, M.S. Schanfield’s
VOLUMEI. Edited presentation deals with the occurrence and use of
by J.H. Mielke and M.H. Crawford. New polymorphism at two specific markers (HLA and
Gm). Why were these systems dealt with and the
York Plenum Press. 1980. xiv
436 pp.,
figures, tables, references, index. $45.00 other polymorphic systems not? Even though
“Methodsand Theories” had a number of artides
on other polymorphic systems,a review of the cup
Seven years prior to the appearance of this vol- rent stateof-theart would have been refreshing,
ume, Crawford and Workman published their particularly if it contrasted the utility and prob
Methods and Theories of Anthropological Genet- lems associated with the HLA and Gm systems,
ics (reviewed in this journal by Friedlaender, where the degree of polymorphism is perhaps the
1977). In it J.N. Spuhler identified the major greatest, with other known markers.
Livingstone’s article refers to the central dethemes of “AnthropologicalGenetics”as the study
of breeding populations and their gene pools; the bate of population genetics, the “neutralistexamination of systems of matings and their ef- selectionist controversy.” I t does not take
fects on the process of gene (or genotypic) €re- much reading to see his position. While there is
quency changes and variations of population no denying the fact that in natural populations
structure; the study of affinities between popula- (of man, in particular) gene frequencies are not
tions by use of genetic polymorphisms known in in equilibrium, the author’s summary stateman; and the analysis of demographic processes ment, ‘‘. . . the assumption of neutrality does
through computer simulation to understand their not seem to be in accord with the world-wide
short-termevolutionaryeffects. In the present vol- gene frequency distributions for most loci. . .
ume (which is actually meant to be a “companion (p. 106) may not find wide scientific
and continuation”of ’Methods and Theories’?D.F. endorsement.
The titles of Part I11 and Part IV (Analytical
Roberts, in the concluding chapter echoes this be
lief and defies the subject of anthropologicalge Theory, withoutlwith examples) are puzzling.
netics as “the study of the genetic variation that These eight chapters describe what may be
occurs within and between human populations,its called similarities and variations between and
origin, and the factors and processes that main- within populations: causes and nature (Chap
tain it” (p. 419).Not all of the chapters in the cur- ters 7 and 8), and similarities and differrent volume strictly fall into anthropological ge ences between and within family members:
netics as so defined. Nevertheless, this 436 page causes and characterization (Chapters 9
volume is enjoyablereading, in spite of small slips; through 14).L.B. Jorde reviews the analysis of
and in collecting these contributions the editors the genetic structure of subdivided populations. However, a few errors and inaccurate cihave done a commendable job.
The book embraces fourteen contributions and tations mar this, otherwise, excellent article.
one summary overview chapter and is dividedinto For example, the description of Nei’s measure
four parts. The first part, titled Historical Ap- of standard genetic distance (p. 141) is not corproaches, consists of two articles by K.M. Weiss rect. The normalized gene identity used in the
(Voicesof our Ancestors)and A.C. Swdund (His- distance computation (equation 2.6) is not the
torical Demography).Through these lucid presen- arithmetic mean of the (normalized)gene identations, the danger of over-interpretationof the tities of individual loci. On the contrary, the
paleodemographic material as well as the vast use average normalized gege identity, I, used in
fulness of historical demography are excellently equ-ation 2.6 is I = j x y l v where jxy,
told. The second part, called Evolutionary Per- ix,
j y.are the arithmetic means of the j-values of
spectives, consists of four chapters ranging from individual loci. Futuyama’s “Evolutionary BioH. Harpending‘s Social Evolution to J.W. logy” (Futuyama, 1979, p. 418) has a similar
MacCluer’s Simulationof Fertility. While three of error. J.M. Lalouel, in this volume (p. 225;
these (Harpending’s, Livingstone’s and equation 2.30) describes the distance accurMacCluer’s)are either general or theoretical devel- ately. Jorde, incidentally, criticizes the time of
0 1982 ALAN R. LISS, INC.
divergence estimates based on gene identity in
the presence of migration (p. 142).The fact that
migration (even if it is small) increases gene
identity (and hence decreases the divergence
time estimate based on it)was known from Nei
and Feldman (1972)and Chakraborty and Nei
(1974)even before Slatkin, Maruyama, and Li’s
papers (cited by Jorde) and Nei and
Roychoudhury (1974) made adjustments
accounting for recent migration. The blunt
characterization of such estimates as an
“exercise in futility” (p. 142) is, thus, overly
harsh. Similar comments apply to his migration-models section as well. Nevertheless, it is a
good review and should stimulate new readers
of the subject.
The subject of genetic epidemiology, which
constitutes the major thrust of the volume,
and where the connection to anthropological
genetics is loosest, is presented in six chapters
(Chapters 9 through 14).Though the history of
this subject is reviewed at great length in these
writings, it is unfortunate to see that no single
article cites Neel and Schull(l954)or Neel et al.
who coined the term and identified all of
the aspects of genetic epidemiology that characterize the current directions of research in
this subject. These six chapters, in aggregate,
set forth the methodological approaches of the
proponents of segregation analysis (R.C.
Elston, C. Cannings, E.A. Thompson, etc.)
path analysis (N.E. Morton, D.C. Rao, T.
Reich, etc.), and the use of specific sampling
designs (e.g., Half-sib design reviewed by C.C.
Li). The 165 pages of reading leaves one with
the idea that these methods are bestowed with
the “power of resolution” in distinguishing
between the degrees of biological and cultural
determination for traits that run in families
and refer to the “greatly oversimplified
models” of others. But are these methodologies
without caveat? Lewontin (1974), Karlin
as well as others, have raised objections
to the different aspects of these various analytic strategies, some of which are obviously
known to these authors. We expected some
words of caution if such criticisms are indeed
valid, or at least counterarguments proving
their inadequacies. A critical reader will find
this to be a serious drawback.
Overall, the book is certainly an up-to-date
description of the subject and should be useful
for students and teachers alike. I t is well produced, and should tolerate the heavy use it
warrants. A few typographic errors (none very
damaging however) occasionally marred the,
otherwise, nice print-scripts (e.g. an extra 6
factor in the denominator of the intermediate
step of equation 2.3 on page 330; and on Figure
5 of p. 332 the vertical dotted lines are to be
labeled as $,,
and $AA instead of 4,,,
and 4,).
By James R.
Flynn. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 313 pp., tables, appendices, notes,
indices. $27.50 (cloth).
Of all the articles and books I have read on
the “race and 1Q”issuethis is the most honest,
thorough, and readable. I t offers a critical but
responsible appraisal of Jensen’s work and pre-
Chakraborty, R, and Nei, M (1974) Dynamics of gene differentiation between incompletely isolated populations of
unequal sizes. Theor. Pop. Biol. 5;460-469.
Friedlaender. JS (1977) Book review of Methods and Theories of Anthropological Genetics. MH Crawford and PL
Workman (edsl. Am. J. Phs. Anthrop. 42500-501.
Futuyama, D J (1979) Evolutionary Biology. Sunderland
Karlin, S (1979) Comments on statistical methodology in
medical genetics. In CF Sing and M Skolnick (eds): Genetic Analysis of Common Diseases: Applications to Predictive Factors in Coronary Disease. New York: Alan R. Liss,
pp. 497-520.
Lewontin, RC (1974)The analysis of variance and the analysis of causes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 26400-411.
Neel, JV, and Schull WJ (1954) Human Heredity. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Neel, JV, Schull, WJ, and Shaw, MW (1965) Genetics and
the Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases. Washington, D.C.:
Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
Nei, M, and Feldman, MW (1972) Identity of genes by descent within and between populations under mutation and
migration pressures. Theor. Pop. Biol. 3460-465.
Nei, M, and Roychoudhury, AK (1974)Gene variation within and between the three major races of man, Caucasoids,
Negroids, and Mongoloids. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 26
Ranajit Chakraborty
Center for Demographic
and Population Genetics
The University of Texas
Health Science Center at Houston
Houston, Texas
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development, current, figuren, references, index, 1980, new, anthropological, volume, york, xiv, 436, edited, tablet, mielke, crawford, genetics, pres, plenum
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