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Darwin sex and status Biological approaches to mind and culture. By Jerome H. Barkow. Toronto The University of Toronto Press. 1989. xi + 453 pp. references indexes. $45

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tions many specimens perhaps not known to
all non-specialists in this field. He also mentions, but does not real1 discuss, Wolpoff
et al. (1984) and their we 1-developed model
for regional emergence of "modern Homo
sapiens." In this sense, the title is somewhat
Adrienne Zihlman ("Common Ancestors
and Uncommon Apes") discusses her wellknown ideas regarding the relevance of the
"pygmy chimp" to the origins of both the
"common chimp" and humans. Her suggestion that the "pygmy chim is a prototype,
or living missing link, the ast common ancestor of other chimps and humans, was
discredited three years prior to the series
published here (Latimer et al., 1981), yet
curiously, no reference to Latimer et al.'s
work is mentioned in the text or biblio aphy. At the same time, towards the end o the
chapter, she does briefly discuss several interestin aspects of "pygmy chimp" behavior
(with ref;erences). These touch upon, among
other things, mother-infant interaction
styles and language acquisition skills.
"Cutting and Carrying: Archaeolo
the Emergence of the Genus Homo,"is yand
late Glynn Isaac. It is a reiteration of his
well-known ecological model for the origins
of Homo: first, a patchy environment; next,
bipedalism for energetic reasons (both exnditure and intake); then, tool use; finally,
ome bases linked to protection and resource
sharing. He mentions the work of two students at the time of writing (Potts and Toth),
who have since gone on to publish extensively themselves. Their work largely builds
on, amends, and demonstrates the essential
validity of Isaac's model as presented here.
For those who have read R.E. Passingham's TheHuman Primate (1982)this chatter ("The Origins of Human Intelligence )
will contain little new. It is, however, an
exceptionally well-written and concise syno sis of ideas presented in the larger work.
compares the human brain to that of
By Jerome
H. Barkow. Toronto: The University of
Toronto Press. 1989. xi + 453 pp., references, indexes. $45.00 (cloth).
other mammals as regards size, com lexity,
and the way it is programmed, i.e., uman
reliance on language and active teaching of
pre-adult individuals. In the end, it is a very
nice treatment of how, in his terms, "we can
account for the vast mental gap" between
ourselves and chimps.
As must be clear by now, this is a very
uneven book. Several of the chapters are, to
this reader, of no value to anthropology students, in that they present information
readily available in most introductory texts.
Two chapters (Jeffreys and Passingham)
could serve as useful additional readings in
an introductory or even mid-level generalized course in biological anthropology.
The price seems somewhat steep for the
len h of the book, but it could be a useful
ad ition to a university library, ifonly for the
two chapters mentioned above and for two
lessons that I think can be learned from it.
First, it demonstrates how ra idly data accumulate and hypotheses evo ve in paleoanthropology. Second, it underscores the need
to rapidly publish papers deriving from congresses, conferences, or public speaker series
if the contents are to be germane to on-going
issues in the field.
Ddpartement d 'anthropologie
Uniuersite de Montreal
Montreal, Canada
Dawkins R (1986) The Blind Watchmaker. London:
Latimer B, White TD, Kmbel WH,Johanson DC, and
Lovejoy CO (1981) The pygmy chimpanzee is not a
livin missing link in human evolution.J . Hum. Eool.
Passingham R (1982) The Human Primate. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
Wol ff MH, Wu Xln 2, and Thorne AG (1984) Modem
&o sapiens origins: A general theory of homonid
evolution involvin the fossil evidence from east Asia.
In FH Smith a n f F Spencer (eds.): The Origns of
Modem Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss,Inc., pp. 411483.
When Peter Medawar reissued Art of the
Soluble as a part of Pluto's Republic (1982!,
he commented in the introduction that
". . . the art of research was the art of making
difficult problems soluble by devising means
of etting at them” (Medawar, 1982:2).It is
wit this end in mind that Jerome Barkow
presents Darwin, Sex, and Status: Biological
A proaches to Mind and Culture. The final
”#ocus” section of the book lists what Barkow
considers to be 30 testable hypotheses culled
from the previous pages of text. While issue
may be taken with one or two of these (for
instance equatin severity of child training
appiness in populations
with general
and using this as a comparative parameter),
the majority represent sound reasoning and
interesting lines of research and provide a
fitting synthesis to a work that stresses the
creation of testable as opposed to untestable
Barkow’s work should be of interest to a
fairly broad audience, if not for its contributions to sociobiology, then certainly for its
value as a resource book. Beyond the extensive bibliography, Barkow makes liberal use
of footnotes guided by a high level of academic integrity, to point the reader to more
detailed discussions of to ics which he covers only briefly or about w ich he offers only
Perhaps the best use of Darwin, Sex, and
Status would be as the focal point of a
uate-level seminar. The book is divide into
five sections. The first of these contains
three chapters dealin with the basic theories of sociobiology. A l e this section could
not replace an introductory text (Barkow
refers students to three or four such works),
it does provide an adequate “refresher
course” covering such topics as inclusive fitness, altruism, reproductive success, and the
“genesfor . . .” model. Also emphasized is the
importance of a firm understanding of basic
genetics in the field of sociobiology.
The second art of the book contains two
chapters whic discuss “Mind and Awareness” or the role of conscious and subconscious thoughts as points of synthesis between genes and behavior. It is in this
section that Barkow introduces his original
h thesis. In what he terms the “intrain ividual system” Barkow describes what
he perceives to be a hierarchical s stem of
lans and goals which an indivi ual will
ormulate in interaction with his environment to support biological objectives which
he or she may or may not consciously perceive. Supporting these plans and goals are
subplans and subgoals and supporting these
are subnplans (the n representing a number
which, as it increases, re resents plans further and further remove from the original
lan) and subngoals. The further that one
ollows the cascade away from the original
lans and goals (as n increases), the,rnore
Ekely one is to see what on the surface may
ap ear to be maladaptive behavior or at least
beiavior which does not provide an immediate benefit.
“Culture, Prestige, and Self-Esteem,”
three of the book, opens with a chapter w ch
provides an introduction to culture and theories of culture as was provided for theories
of sociobiologyin the first section. Particular
emphasis is given to the definitions of culture formulated by Kroeber, Kluckhohn, and
Geertz. The following chapter (seven) shows
how culture can be combined with the intra-
greater extent. Chapter eight subsumes a
more narrow focus as it discusses the role of
self-perception and status in the intra-individuai system and relates this to the broader
theories of sociobiology.Ethnographic examples (including the author’s original fieldwork) of the processes discussed in the previous two chapters are presented in chapter
nine, which closes this section.
The three cha ters in section four represent other mode s of the synthesis of genes
and culture along with some discussion of
how these models may be reconciled with the
intra-individual system model. Particular
attention is paid to the works of Marvin
Harris, Lumsden and Wilson, Boyd and
Richerson, and Richard Alexander. It is at
Lumsden and Wilson in particular that
Barkow directs his complaint concerning the
generation of interesting, but untestable hypotheses.
The final section ofDarwin,Sex, and Status addresses questions of human sexuality.
Included here are several models for the
possible modes of evolution of hidden estrus
in females, sexual jealousy, paternity ceras a reproductive strategy, and
like. he final chapter, of course, provides a summation of the many topics covered throughout the book. However, it also
introduces some fascinating questions concerning how humans deal with fitnessthreatening aspects of the environment such
as soil depletion, destruction of the ozone
layer, and threat of nuclear war from a socio-
biological perspective. It is unfortunate that
these matters are discussed only very
briefly, but perha s Barkow will deal more
thoroughly with t ese new applications of
sociobiological theory in an ensuing book.
Barkows book is one of those valuable
pieces to which a researcher often returns for
sources. Graduate students in particular
will find the suggested lines of research an
interesting point from which to design their
own projects, but those already working in
the field should not overlook the list of testable hypotheses either. The main complaint
I would level at Darwin, Sex,and Status is
that the titie does not ade uatel represent
the range of topics covere8 in tKe book. In
this case, Barkow sells himself short. However, if a misnomer will help sell books, this
is a case in which the consumer should be
pleasantly surprised by the additional, if
unexpected, material.
Department of Anthropology
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania
Medawar P (1982) Pluto’s Republic.Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress.
explain that their chimpanzees were not
Edited by R. Allen Gardner, Beatrix T. taught sign language. Instead, they learned
a e In a manner comparable to
Gardner, and Thomas E. Van Cantfort.
sign lofa nea
r children living in households
Albany: State University of New York that
Press. 1989. xviii + 324 p fi res, ta- with deaf parents. Indeed, the argument is
made that teaching sign language ISactually
bles, index. $19.95 (paper! $k9.&(cloth).
detrimental to the process of sign langua e
ac uisition. Additionally, based on the tit e
Anyone who is even remotely familiar with an the fact that this is an edited volume, I
the research on language acquisition in expected that this publication would present
chimpanzees has at least a nodding familiar- results from several langua e facilities. Contrary to my expectations, t is book almost
ity with the work of R. Allen Gardner
Beatrix T. Gardner, Roger S. Fouts, and exclusive1 presents work with chim anzees
their colleagues. Teaching Sign Language to that first earned to sign in the Gar ner and
Chimpanzees reintroduces the reader to this Gardner facilit in Reno and are now housed
groundbreaking research. Although their re- together in El ensburg, Washington. This
sults have been published previously, this was particular1 surprising as one contributbook is a compilation of that research and ing author, R. 8outs, worked with chimpanincludes more detailed information than is zees learning sign Ian age in Norman,
enerally available in other formats. The Oklahoma. Research con ucted at that instikmk is packed with data; tables and y p h s tution, however, is never presented. Simiconsume approximately one-third o f t e vol- larly, althou h one chapter is devoted to
presenting a ternative explanations to Terume. -.
Teaching S g n Langua e to Chimpanzees rence’s results, Terrence does not have a
is a curious and somew at self-defeating cha ter in the book.
‘de book is divided into 10 chapters, most
title as the authors go to great lengths to
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approach, mind, university, biological, references, toronto, sex, statue, darwin, jerome, 1989, 453, culture, indexes, pres, barkow
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