Dead men do tell tales. By William R. Maples and Michael Browning. New York Doubleday. 1994. 292 pp. ISBN 0-385-47968-9. $14.95 (paper)код для вставкиСкачать
446 BOOK REVIEWS pologists, for example, will undoubtedly cringe at the equation, C = kP2/AN, where C = cultural evolutionary level (but Graber never defines clearly what he means by the term), P = population size, A = area, and N = number of societies. Via this equation, and at a macro scale, Graber seems to be arguing that a large scale society is not only more complex from the viewpoint of political, economic, and social stratification, but these also depend upon a more complex “cultural system” for their conceptual underpinning and interplay. Graber is not asserting that any particular “culturalobject” such as a kinship terminology is more or less complex when comparing a largz scale with a small scale society, but that the number ofparts and organization of the “cultural system” is more complex. As Graber notes, “. . . would we not expect their subsistence technology to intensify only if, when, and to the extent that their density began to increase? Similarly, would we not expect their social structures to grow more . . . complex only if, when, and to the extent that they began living in larger societies?. . . [Alspects of culture. . . often can be interpreted quite effectively as ‘superstructural’-that is, as largely epiphenomena to underlying technological and socialstructural changes” (p. 125). The strength of this book is that Graber has begun the task of formallylmathematically grappling with the implications of the regularities addressed by these questions; the weakness (if it can be called that) is that the processes responsible for the regularities are not addressed by the mathematical formalism. The book will be of particular interest to those interested in the relationship between population dynamics and macro societal changes. The book has a minor typographic error on each of pages 59 and 61 ( r Pinstead of -rp) and mislabeled curves in Figure 7.7, a s well as one data point that is i n error in Figures 7.6 and 7.1. DEADMEN Do TELLTALES.By William R. Maples and Michael Browning. New York: Doubleday. 1994. 292 pp. ISBN 0-38547968-9. $14.95 (paper) 1995-96 Annual Editions in Biological Anthropology contains 41 articles, only one of which focuses on forensics. A notable exception among textbooks is Michael Parks’ (1996) Biological Anthroplogy, in which one of 15chapters is on the subject. Is the underrepresentation of forensic anthropology due to the applied nature of the subject matter? Is it too close to medicine? Or perhaps it is just too grisly? At any rate, it has been hard to know what to recommend to students who want to know more, especially in a small department in which forensic anthropology is not in the curriculum. Now, Maples and Browning‘s book provides a remedy. Maples is a professor of physical anthropology at the University of Florida and curator of the C.A. Pound Human Identification Laboratory at the Florida Museum of National History. (Keen-eyed primatologists may also recognize him as the author of papers on cropraiding Kenyan baboons, published in this journal.) Browning is a Miamijournalist with a good eye for clean, clear writing. As the Anyone who has taught a n introductory course in biological anthropology will know the youthful fascination with forensic anthropology. The attraction is easy to understand. Whether it’s “searching for” Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid in Bolivia, or closer to home, determining who’s buried in John Wilkes Booth’s grave, the subject makes for compelling reading. (Presumably, it is the same attraction that keeps selling each new mystery novel by Aaron Elkins, in which the hero is the resourceful “skeleton detective,” Gideon Oliver, physical anthrop ~ l ~ ganswer y ’ ~ to Indiana Jones). What is to explain the sparse treatment this subject receives in introductory biological anthropology textbooks, as well in published readers? Most of these cover the subdiscipline little or not at all; e.g., the DWIGHTW. READ Department of Anthropology University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, California BOOK REVIEWS book's subtitle suggests, they have collaborated on a collection of memorable cases over 16 chapters which are well-illustrated with 60 black-and-white photographs (noneexcessively gruesome). Chapters either focus on key cases or on broader topics such as cremation, suicide, dismemberment, etc. Most valuable are down-to-earth descriptions of what is t o be found in a forensic laboratory (a surprising mixture of high and low technology) and what goes on there (e.g., a somewhat poignant, step-by-step protocol of the treatment of MIA remains). The result is totally readable but makes no pretense of being anything scholarly. There is no bibliography, and the index is just a computer-retrieved listing of proper nouns. Still, in paperback it is a bargain. Maples is first and foremost a bones man. When he does stray into soft tissue (e.g. brains) he is less convincing, and his reluctance to call upon DNA testing until late in the book is notable. He is persuasive in advocating skeletal evidence, sometimes movingly so: " . . . the sheer power of human bones: the power to bear witness to the truth beyond death; the power to avenge the innocent; the power to terrify the guilty." He writes graphically with relish, and articulates the case for forensic anthropology (which does not equal forensic pathology, the province of medical examiners). Occasionally, his pride edges over into self-promotion, but this flaw is trivial in the face of the wealth of information he provides, from the mundane (e.g., to calculate rate of decomposition, one week in air equals two weeks in water BOOKS RECEIVED Byrne, R (1995) The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. New York: Oxford University Press. 268 pp. $52.50 (cloth). Holton, G (1996) Einstein, History, and Other Passions: The Rebellion against Science at the End ofthe m e n t i eth Century. New York: Addison-Wesley. 240 pp. $14.00 (paper). Horgan, J (1996) The End of Science: Facing the Limits ofKnowledge in the Zhilight ofthe Scientific Age. New York: Addison-Wesley. 308 pp. $24.00 (cloth). 447 equals eight weeks underground) t o the macabre (e.g., the most efficient tool for do-ityourself cutting up of a corpse is a hacksaw). The cases cited range from sometimes bizarre anecdotes t o meticulously documented sleuthing. The longest chapter traces the eventual solution of a particularly tricky murder-suicide, based on 10,000 bone fragments. Some of the subject matter is enlivened by the Famous Name factor (Robert the Bruce, the Elephant Man, etc.), especially when Maples has been involved first-hand: showing that President Zachary Taylor was not poisoned by arsenic or that the body of the conquistador, Francisco Pizano, on display for centuries in a Lima cathedral, was an imposter. The most stunning case is the penultimate one presented, the identification of the remains of the Romanov family, executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918 but recovered only in 1992. Interestingly, of the 11 persons present and presumed killed, only two cannot be identified from the bones; one is the Princess Anastasia. (If she's still alive, she is 95 years old!) As a primatologist, I cannot comment authoritatively on the factual details of the test (although I now know the differencebetween autolysis and putrefaction), but anyone in biological anthropology will gain from it and it should go onto any introductory book list for undergraduates. W.C. MCGREW Departments of Sociology, Gerontology, and Anthropology, and Zoology Miami University Oxford, Ohio Reynolds, LT, and L Lieberman (eds.) Race and other Misadventures: Essays in Honor of Ashley Montagu in His Ninetieth Year: Dix Hills, Ny: General Hall. 432 pp. $65.95 (cloth). Russell, SA (1996) When the Land Was Young: RefZections on American Archeology. New York: AddisonWesley. 230 pp. $23.00 (cloth). Shore, B (1996) Cultural in Mind: Cognition, Culture, and the Problem of Meaning. New York Oxford University Press. 428 pp. $35.00 (cloth).