Deciduous dental morphology and the biological affinities of a late Chalcolithic skeletal series from western India.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 65:23-30 (1984) Deciduous Dental Morphology and the Biological Affinities of a Late Chalcolithic Skeletal Series from Western India JOHN R. LUKACS AND S U B H A S H R. WALIMBE Department ofAnthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (J.R.L.) and Department o f Archaeology, Deccan College Pune 6, India (S.R. W ) KEY WORDS Dentition, Teeth, Deciduous, Morphology, Paleoanthropology, India, Chalcolithic ABSTRACT Morphological variations of the dental crown and roots provide valuable data for determining the genetic affinities and evolutionary adaptedness of prehistoric human skeletal populations. This paper documents morphological variations of a sample of deciduous teeth from the late Chalcolithic farming village of Inamgaon (1600-700 B.c.) in western India. Hanihara’s (1963) grading system of deciduous dental traits was employed in assessing the degree of expression of shovel-shape of incisors, cusp number of upper and lower first molars, hypocone variation, Carabelli’s trait, cusp number of lower second molars and the protostylid. Turner’s (1970) classification was used to determine presence and size of accessory cusps: entoconulid ((2-6)and metaconulid ((2-7). Comparative evaluation of the Inamgaon deciduous dental data is hampered by the absence of data for dental features of living and prehistoric South Asian populations. Many of the traits observed in the Inamgaon series exhibit a frequency of occurrence intermediate between figures characteristic of the “Mongoloid” dental complex and the “Caucasoid” dental complex. The primary objectives of this paper are 1) to document morphological variations of the crown and roots of deciduous teeth from Inamgaon, 2) to compare deciduous dental trait frequencies a t Inamgaon with other appropriate samples in India and beyond the borders of the subcontinent, and 3) to interpret similarities and differences in trait frequency in terms of genetic affinity and evolutionary models of adaptation. Dental morphology provides crucial evidence for determining the biological affinities and evolutionary adaptedness of prehistoric human populations. The anthropological significance of dental crown and root variations is greatly increased for prehistoric skeletal series in which complete and well preserved crania are rare or absent. In such instances, the dentition yields the only reliable clues to the ethnic or biological affinities of the skeletal series. In contrast to tooth crown dimensioins, dental morphology is a valuable indicator of genetic relationships between populations 0 1984 ALAN R. LISS, INC. because discontinuous dental traits are 1) numerous and often genetically independent of one another; 2) less influenced by environmental variations than skeletal traits, i.e., dental traits have high heritability values; 3) rarely distorted in shape or expression by post-mortem diagenesis; 4) present in both living and prehistoric populations, unlike serological characters; 5) abundant in most archaeological contents. In view of these advantageous features, it is paradoxical that morphological analyses of living and prehistoric South Asian teeth are few (Lukacs, 1984).The only anthropological study of morphological variation in deciduous teeth of a South Asian population is Kaul and Prakash’s (1981) description of J a t dentition. Deciduous dental crown dimensions for prehistoric populations from Inamgaon, Sarai Khola, and Timargarha are reported by Lukacs et al. (1983), who inReceived January 16, 1984; revised April 6, 1984; accepted April 7, 1984. 24 J.R. LUKACS AND S.R. WALIMBE cludes a sample of living Gujaratis in his study. A fuller understanding of major patterns of human dental evolution in South Asia will come from carefully planned research projects that include the collection of data on deciduous dental morphology from many endogamous groups of different ethnic and subsistence bases throughout the subcontinent. Morphological variants of permanent teeth and ethnic differences in dental trait frequency have been intensively studied by Western anthropologists since the beginning of the twentieth century (Lukacs, 1984). The growth of dental anthropology in India has been very slow and only recently has this specialized subfield of physical anthropology witnessed rapid growth in the subcontinent. The dental morphology of living Indian populations are better known than prehistoric skeletal series. A significant limitation that precluded clear-cut results from earlier studies of prehistoric dental variation in India was the small and statistically inadequate size of dental samples. Human skeletal remains from important archaeological sites in western India, such as Apegaon (Lukacs, 1980), Bagor (Lukacs et al., 19821, Chandoli (Malhotra, 1965), Langhnaj (Ehrhardt and Kennedy 1965), and Nevasa (Kennedy and Malhotra, 19661, yielded small skeletal and dental samples that were often poorly preserved. The larger, classical sites of the Harappa Civilization including Harappa (Gupta et al., 1962), Kalibangan (Sharma, 1969-70, 19721, Lothal (Chatterjee and Kumar, 1963), and Mohenjo-daro (Guha and Basu, 1938; Sewell and Guha, 1931) yielded abundant skeletal remains, but the dental morphology of these valuable series remain either unstudied or inadequately described. This descriptive and comparative analysis of dental remains from the early farming village of Inamgaon is unique in Indian paleoanthropology because it is based on a statistically meaningful sample, focuses on the deciduous dentition, and reaches conclusions about genetic affinities and evolutionary adaptedness of the people of Inamgaon. 1979; Sankalia et al., 1973, 1975, 1984). The meticulous exhumation and preservation of infant and adolescent burials at Inamgaon is testimony to the careful planning and foresight of the Deccan College archaeological staff. Through 1982, Inamgaon excavations yielded 228 burials containing skeletal and dental remains of 176 individuals. These specimens were derived from three clearly demarcated cultural periods: Period I Malwa (1600-1400 B.c.), Period 11Early Jorwe (14001200 B.c.) and Period 111 Late Jorwe (1200700 B.C.). Preliminary reports on the paleodemography (Lukacs and Badam, 1981; Lukacs and Walimbe 19841, paleopathology (Lukacs et al., in press), and deciduous tooth crown dimensions (Lukacs, 1981; Lukacs et al., 1983) of the Inamgaon skeletal series have been published. Analyses of permanent tooth size and morphology a t Inamgaon are currently in progress and will be published separately. Since sub-dividing the dental sample by cultural period results in inadequately small samples, the present analysis of Inamgaon dental morphology is based on pooled samples of deciduous teeth from all three cultural levels. The bulk of the dental sample is derived from Jorwe levels (early and late). Consequently, this report is a preliminary description of the Jorwe dental pattern a t Inamgaon. The number of deciduous teeth (n = 723) from Inamgaon is grouped by tooth class in Table 1. This table reflects the total number of teeth preserved and includes damaged specimens, incompletely calcified tooth crowns, and unerupted tooth germs. As a result, the number of specimens suitable for morphological or metrical analysis are a much reduced subset of the figures given in Table 1. Although many teeth are anchored in proper anatomical position in gnathic fragments, thereby facilitating identification, many teeth were isolated from the jaw and some crowns lacked roots, rendering correct identification more difficult. In the tabulation of dental trait frequencies, the individual count method of Scott MATERIALS AND METHODS Deccan College has conducted excavations at Inamgaon since 1968 under the direction of Dr. H. D. Sankalia and Dr. M. K. Dhavalikar. Their efforts have produced a clear picture of the cultural patterns of early farming people of western Maharashtra (Dhavalikar, TABLE 1. Deciduous dental sample from Inamgaon Maxillary (n) Mandibular(n) Total il i2 c rnl rn2 Total 73 46 119 48 58 106 64 63 127 86 93 179 87 105 192 358 365 723 DECIDUOUS DENTAL MORPHOLOGY AT INAMGAON (1977, 1980)was used. This technique counts the fullest expression of a given trait on either the right or left side of the jaw; if one side is missing the degree of expression on the side present is scored. Each individual is counted only once for each variable. This technique maximizes sample size in fragmentary skeletal samples derived from archaeological contexts and is well suited for the Inamgaon dental sample. The scoring of deciduous dental traits follows the standards outlined by Hanihara (1963,1968; Hanihara and Minamidate 1965) in his analysis of deciduous teeth of Japanese-American hybirds. Included in our study are many of the traits recognized by Hanihara (1966, 1968) as comprising the Mongoloid dental complex of the deciduous dentition. Deciduous dental traits observed include 1)shovel-shape of central and lateral incisor teeth, 2) cusp number of dm’ and dm2, 3) Carabelli’s trait of dm2, 4)labial (facial) deflection of di’ root apex, 5 ) cusp number of dml and dm2, 6) accessory cusps of dm2, including the entoconulid (cusp 61, metaconulid (cusp 71, and protostylid. A total of 11 morphological variants were examined in the deciduous teeth. Three variables were excluded from analysis due to inconsistent grading, rapid obliteration of the trait with attrition, or the frequent occurrence of intermediate categories. These traits include the distal trigonid crest, deflecting wrinkle, and groove pattern of dmz. 25 RESULTS: DESCRIPTIVE MORPHOLOGY OF DECIDUOUS TEETH FROM INAMGAON Five morphological traits of maxillary incisor and molar teeth are presented in Table 2. If the shovel-shape trait is graded “present or absent” lateral incisors (84.5%)are found to exhibit the trait more frequently than central incisors (66.7%).The most frequently occurring expression of shovel-shape is the trace (grade 1)expression, which is present in 51.3% of central incisors and 53.8% of lateral incisor teeth. In the trace expression of this variable in the Inamgaon series, mesial marginal ridges were frequently less well developed than distal marginal ridges. Included in the frequencies quoted here for trace-shovel are cases where the mesial marginal ridge is absent but the distal marginal ridge is clearly present at the trace-grade of expression (“half shovel”). Both semi- and full-shovel grades occur more frequently in lateral than in central incisor teeth; the fullshovel grade is not present in this sample of 39 central incisor teeth. A rarely discussed anatomical feature of incisor and canine tooth roots is the facial (labial) deflection of the apical one third or one quarter of the root. Jbrgensen (1956:168), in his comprehensive analysis of deciduous teeth in Danes and Dutch, notes that labial deflection of the root apex is a feature commonly found in all deciduous canine and incisor teeth. Labial deflection of central incisor roots occurs in 22.9% of 35 specimens a t In- TABLE 2. Morphological variation of maxillary deciduous teeth Shovel shape Lateral Central Grade O(absent1 l(trace) 2(semi) 3(full) Total Grade 2 3M 3H 4 Total B n % 13 20 6 0 39 (33.3) (51.3) (15.4) ( 0.0) (100.0) 4 14 (15.5) (53.8) (19.2) (11.5) (100.0) Cusp Number drn’ ___ % n (31.8) 14 21 (47.7) 4 ( 9.1) (11.4) 5 44 di 1 root deflection n (100.0) 5 3 26 Hypocone size dm2 n 3+A 3 3 3+B 410 4 30 Grade Total 46 70 6.5) 6.5) (21.7) (65.3) ( ( (100.0) Grade n r/o Present Absent 8 27 22.9 77.1 Total 35 (100.0) Carabelli’s Trait dm2 Grade n 70 0 1 2+3 4 +5 6+7 Total 15 19 7 2 2 45 33.3) 42.3) 15.6) ( 4.4) ( 4.4) (100.0) ( ( ( 26 J.R. LUKACS AND S.R. WALIMRE amgaon. This observation could only be made for isolated incisor teeth which could easily be extracted from the alveolus for observation. Radiography was not used in this assessment of incisor root morphology. In the analysis of cusp number of dml, seven discontinuous categories were used. These include subdivisions of the classes three-Metacone (3M), three-Hypocone (3H), and four-Hypocone (8,based on the large or small size of the named cusp. For ease of analysis and clarity of presentation, the sizebased sub-groups are lumped together. Table 2 shows that three-cusped dmls are most frequent (56.8%), and primarily include specimens in which the third cusp is a metacone of varying size (47.7%).Three-cusped dm’s in which the third cusp is a hypocone (9.1%) are much less frequent. Two-cusped dmls are almost three times a s common a s four-cusped dmls. Hypocone variation in dm2s is sorted into four categories based on size and form of the hypocone. The large and well-developed degree of expression (grade 4) of this trait occurred most often (65.3%). Essentially threecusped dm2s with a small cuspule of a hypocone, varying slightly in morphology (3+A, 3+B), occurred in 13% of the sample. The well-developed but slightly reduced grade of expression (4-) obtained a n intermediate frequency of 21.7%. The seven grades of Carabelli’s trait were judged from photographs of Hanihara’s dental plaque standards. Grades 1 through 3 represent pit and groove variants of this highly polymorphic trait and grades 4 through 7 include small and large cusp variants, respectively. Carabelli’s trait in one of its many ex ressions occurs in 66.7% of Inamgaon dm s (n - 451, but Carabelli’s cusps of varying size are present in only 8.8% of this sample. Pit and groove expressions of this variable are most frequent (57.9%). Cusp number of mandibular molar teeth are graded into three-, four-, five-, and sixcusped categories. Four-cusped dmls are more common (53.1%)than either five-cusped (42.6%) or three-cusped (4.2%) variants. In many instances, the hypoconid of dml was bifurcated by a shallow sulcus giving rise to a small but easily discernile hypoconulid. Teeth exhibiting these cuspules are scored in the five-cusped category in this analysis. Eighty percent of dmzs are five-cusped. Four- and three-cusped deciduous second molar teeth are not present in the Inamgaon 2 - skeletal series. Six-cusped dm2s reach a moderately high frequency of 19.2%, indicating the regular occurrence of accessory cusps. The most common accessory cusp in the Inamgaon dental sample is the entoconulid CUSP-^), which occurs in 18% of dmzs. The entoconulid is the only accessory cusp that exhibits a more extreme degree of expression than grade 1 (small). Grades 2 and above occur in 6.5% of dmzs. Other accessory cusps observed in this analysis are the metaconulid (cusp-7) and the protostylid; both reached a frequency of about 2.0% in dmzs. (Only cusp expressions of the protostylid are counted as present). The canine breadth index is obtained by dividing the mesiodistal (MD) diameter of the deciduous maxillary canine by the same dimension (MD) of the maxillary central incisor; the quotient is then multiplied by 100: (MD cU/MDil) x 100. The canine breadth index for the Inamgaon deciduous dental sample is 99.3, a figure based on mean crown diameter of 28 canines and 19 central incisors (Lukacs et al., 1983). COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INAMGAON DECIDUOUS TEETH Three studies of deciduous dental morphology provide a suitable context for the comparative evaluation of deciduous teeth from Inamgaon. The populations studied include the Jats of northern India (Kaul and Prakash, 19811, Japanese and other Mongoloid peoples (Hanihara, 1963,19681,and northern Europeans from Medieval and modern samples (Jdrgensen, 1956). These study groups are widely distributed geographically and most represent living people in these regions today. The results of any comparison of dental samples so widely separated in space and time must be interpreted with caution and regarded as preliminary. The conclusions presented here are tenative and subject to revision as more and larger samples fill the spatial and temporal gaps separating study populations. Comparative frequencies of deciduous dental traits of maxillary teeth are given in percentages (Table 4). In preparing this chart, the data for Jats and Inamgaon were modified to fit the categories of data reported by Hanihara (1963, 1968). In reporting shovelshape frequencies, only grades 2 and 3 are counted; grades 0 and 1are regarded as “noshovel.” In classifying Carabelli’s trait grades 4 through 7, variants of the “cusp 27 DECIDUOUS DENTAL MORPHOLOGY AT INAMGAON TABLE 3. Morphological variation of mandibular deciduous teeth Cusp number of mandibular molar teeth First molar % n n Grade 0 20 25 2 47 6 5 4 3 Total Grade 0 1 2 3f Total Second molar % 12 49 0 0 61 (0.0) (42.6) (53.1) (4.3) (100.0) (19.7) (80.3) (0.0) (0.0) (100.0) Accessory cusps of second mandibular molar teeth Entoconulid ((2-6) Metaconulid C-7 Protostylid n % n % n % 50 7 3 (82.0) (11.5) (4.9) (1.6) (100.0) 1 61 59 1 0 0 60 (98.3) (1.7) 60 0 (98.4) (0.0) (0.0) 1 (1.6) (0.0) (0.0) 0 (100.0) TABLE 4. Comparative table of deciduous dental trait frequencies (in percentages, with sample size in parenthesis) Shovel shape Population American Whiteb AmericanNegrob JatC Inamgaon Pima Indianb Eskimob Japaneseb di’ 0.0 (20) 10.0 (10) 4.7 (36) 15.4 (39) 61.6 (78) 50.0 (16) 76.6(124) di2 0.0 (24) 15.0 (22) 1.0 (71) 30.7 (26) 64.3 (98) 60.0 (5) 93.3(163) Canine breadth index 108.2 (18) 104.9 (10) - 99.3 (19) 103.3 (98) 100.3 (14) 101.0(120) Carabelli’s trait 35.7 (56) 11.8 (51) 11.9(306) 8.8 (45) O.O(l18) 0.0 (54) 11.9(185) di’(2Ia 60.0 (55) 28.0 (55) - 38.1 (44) - - 15.2(184) dm’(4)“ 73.7 (57) 90.2 (51) 52.3(314) 65.3 (46) - - 70.7(191) *The frequency of 2.cusped dm‘s and 4-cusped dm2s are reported here. bHanihara (1963,1968). ‘Kaul and Prakash (1981). degree of expression” are counted in the table; pit and groove form of the trait are not. For maxillary molar cusp number, the frequency of two-cusped first molar teeth and four-cusped second molar teeth are reported. In four of the six traits compared in this table, the Inamgaon sample exhibits trait frequencies intermediate between figures for American whites and populations of Asian descent (Pima Indian, Eskimo, and Japanese). These traits include shovel-shape of the central and lateral incisor, Carabelli’s trait, and two-cusped maxillary first molar. In comparing Inamgaon and north Indian Jats, it is observed that similarities exist in the frequency of Carabelli’s trait and fourcusped second molars, but shoveling of central and lateral incisor teeth is much more common in the Inamgaon sample. The differences between the Inamgaon and Jat dental frequencies are in the direction of the Asianderived population samples. Among South Asian populations, the canine breadth index can be computed from data reported by Lukacs et al. (1983) for the Iron Age skeletal sample from Timargarha (103.6) and for a sample of 100 living Gujarati Hindus from Ahmedabad (101.4). These figures are 2 to 4 points above the value reported here for Inamgaon (99.2). In comparison with populations outside the subcontinent, the figure reported for Inamgaon is lower than most indical values reported by Hanihara (1968), but it compares favorably with figures for Eskimo (100.3)and the people of Tristan de Cunha (97.6 male, 100.6 female). Hanihara (1968)regards high values of the canine breadth index as a primary component of the “Caucasoid” dental complex, to- 28 J.R. LUKACS AND S.R. WALIMBE TABLE 5. Comparative frequencies for accessory cusps (in percentages with sample size in parenthesis) Entoconulid (C-6) Population o/r (n) Danish’ Dutch] Jat‘ American White’ American Negro’ Inamgaon Pima Indian’ Japanese‘ 2.3 2.3 2.6 7.3 14.0 18.0 36.8 36.9 (213) (131) Eskimo’ 37.7 (117) 55) 50) ( 61) (117) ( 92) ( 53) ( ( Metaconulid (C-7) B (n) 23.4 13.5 0.0 40.7 46.8 1.7 72.9 73.7 79.4 ‘Hanihara (1963, 1968). ‘Kaul and Prdkash (1981). .’Jnrgensen (1956). gether with high frequency of Carabelli’s trait. He also notes that the “much higher values of the (canine breadth) index which is peculiar to the Whites seem to be lost very rapidly through hybridization with nonWhite populations” (Hanihara, 1968:119). Table 5 presents frequency data for two accessory cusps: the entoconulid (C-6)and the metaconulid (C-7). Hanihara (1968)notes that few data are available for these traits in the deciduous dentition, but the evidence suggests that in Asians C-6 is more common in deciduous than in permanent teeth. A preliminary analysis of the permanent dental sample from Inamgaon indicates this is also true for the Jorwe people. Entoconulid frequency in the deciduous teeth (18%)is about 7% more common than in the permanent teeth (10.8%),but this observation does not hold true for the metaconulid. Eighteen percent of Inamgaon second lower molar teeth have entoconulids of varying size. Entoconulid frequency for northern European populations (2.3%)and Jats (2.6%)of northern India are very similar, while American whites (7.3%) display the trait in higher frequencies. Among Asians, the entoconulid attains its highest incidence exhibiting values between 36.8% among Pima Indians and 37.7% among Eskimo. The entoconulid frequency of the Inamgaon dental sample is clearly intermediate between figures for Asian and Euro-American samples. Metaconulid frequency in the Inamgaon sample is 1.7%,a figure that compares favorably with the value reported by Kaul and Prakash (1981)for Jats (0.0).Jdrgensen (1956) and Hanihara (1968) report higher frequencies for the metaconulid among northern Eu- ropean and American whites, respectively. However, these figures are less than one-half the 70-80% frequency found among Asians. The Indian data reported here for Inamgaon, and the data for Jats, suggests that South Asians may be unique in exhibiting very low frequencies for the metaconulid, frequencies that are clearly not intermediate between Asian and European populations. These differences may be partly attributed to differences in dental trait scoring standards between Hanihara’s comparative data and the Turner system used in this study. However, it may also be true that low metaconulid frequency is part of a unique South Asian deciduous dental pattern, a pattern that requires more thorough documentation temporally and geographically in the Indian subcontinent. Maxillary incisor root deflection is a character that can only be discussed from an evolutionary standpoint, since documentation of the trait for world populations is meager. Jdrgensen (1956) states that palatal deflection of the deciduous incisor roots is found in living pongids, but that labial (or facial) deflection of the incisor root apex is common to all temporary canines and incisors in his northern European study sample. The functional significance of the labial bend of incisor and canine roots in hominids has been attributed by Diamond (1944)to “insufficient space during growth, caused by the close proximity of the permanent tooth crown to the deciduous root tip.” (Jdrgensen, 1956:168). If Diamond’s functional interpretation of this trait is correct, the frequency of labially bent incisor tooth roots may yield clues regarding the evolutionary progress of maxillary gnathic reduction. Twenty-three percent of Inamgaon central incisor teeth exhibit labially diverted roots, the remainder display straight, unbent roots. Most Inamgaon children (77%) have straight incisor roots presumably indicating ample developmental space for permanent incisor crowns, either due to large jaws or small teeth. The children with bent incisor roots may reflect individuals whose jaw size was too small for the developing tooth germs. As pointed out by Jdrgensen, this pattern is universal among technological northern Europeans today. Perhaps the low frequency of root deflection at Inamgaon is reflective of differential evolutionary progress in size reduction of the maxilla. DECIDUOUS DENTAL MORPHOLOGY AT INAMGAON Evolutionary changes in the deciduous dentition of Near Eastern populations are reported by Smith (1976, 1978). She finds morphological traits more effective than tooth size in discriminating between Mousterian (Neanderthal) and later specimens. Mousterian deciduous teeth are characterized by incisor shoveling and lingual tubercles, and second molars exhibit a higher frequency of the entoconulid and metaconulid than more recent groups from the same region. These evolutionary trends may be parallel worldwide, but are characterized by different culturalldietary causes and different temporal patterns. If true, predictive hypotheses regarding the pattern of deciduous dental variation in South Asia can be made. For example, morphologically complex teeth with high frequencies of shovel-shaped incisors, accessory cusps of lower second molars, and large tooth size should be found in sites chronologically earlier and technologically more primitive than Inamgaon. Morphologically simple deciduous teeth of small size should be found later in time in association with agricultural and technologically complex cultures. Only through the collection of deciduous dental data from numerous endogamous groups and prehistoric sites in South Asia can these hypotheses be verified, modified, or negated. CONCLUSIONS The comparative analysis of deciduous dental variation a t Inamgaon yields several tentative conclusions that require further consideration. 1)Morphological features of the deciduous teeth yield valuable clues to the genetic affinities of prehistoric skeletal series. The dental evidence is of crucial importance a t sites like Inamgaon, where complete and well-preserved crania are few, precluding more traditional methods of determining biological distance. 2) Five of the eight morphological traits for which comparative data are available (shovel-shape of di’ and di2, Carabelli’s trait, two-cusped dm’, and entoconulid), Inamgaon occupies a position intermediate between eastern Asian and Euro-American populations. 3) The intermediate position of the Inamgaon deciduous dentition can be more precisely characterized as near the EuroAmerican phenotypic pattern but exhibiting a tendency or diversion toward the Asian or 29 “Mongoloid” dental complex of Hanihara (1966). 4) In three dental characters (Canine Breadth Index, four-cusped dm2, and metaconulid), the Inamgaon series occupies a unique position in comparison to Asian and Euro-American samples, but in the latter two traits, the Inamgaon series exhibits similarities to the Jats of northern India. 5) The Jorwe people of Inamgaon exhibit a deciduous dental pattern that is unique among the world’s populations studied thus far. Although the Jorwe dental pattern is European in many respects, it also exhibits significant departures from that pattern toward the dental pattern of eastern Asian people. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This paper was prepared for the conference “Recent Advances in Indian Archaeology” held at Deccan College, Pune (December 1014, 1983). I am pleased to dedicate the paper to Dr. H. D. Sankalia, patriarch of Indian archaeology and initial director of the Inamgaon excavations. I am deeply indebted to present and past directors of Deccan College, Postgraduate and Research Institute (Drs. H. D. Sankalia, S. B. Deo, and M. K. Dhavalikar) for permission and continued support of my research on the valuable human skeletal series from Inamgaon. Financial support for this research was provided by the American Institute of Indian Studies (1974-1975, 1982) Indo-American Fellowship Program (19791, and Smithsonian Institution (19821, and it is greatly appreciated. In particular, Mr. Pradeep Mehendriatta (AIIS), Ms. Lydia Z. Gomes (CIES), and Ms. Francine Berkowitz (SFCP) have provided logistical assistance in planning and completing fieldwork in India. The Ford Foundation Research Scholar Program provided financial support for S.R.W. during his research visit to the University of Oregon (spring 1983).Dr. Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (Cornell University), and Ms. Peggy Caldwell (Smithsonian Institution) read and offered valuable comments on the manuscript. Their cooperation and critical review contributed to a n improved final draft. This research could not have been completed without the cooperation and understanding of my flexible wife, Shirley, and my children, who have accompanied me on ail major visits to India. J.R. LUKACS AND S.R. WALIMBE 30 LITERATURE CITED Chatterjee, BK, and Kumar, GD (1963) Racial elements in post-Harappan skeletal remains at Lothal. In B Ratnam (ed): Anthropology on the March. Madras: Social Sciences Assn, pp. 104-110. 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