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Deciduous dental morphology and the biological affinities of a late Chalcolithic skeletal series from western India.

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 65:23-30 (1984)
Deciduous Dental Morphology and the Biological Affinities of a
Late Chalcolithic Skeletal Series from Western India
JOHN R. LUKACS AND S U B H A S H R. WALIMBE
Department ofAnthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403
(J.R.L.) and Department o f Archaeology, Deccan College Pune 6,
India (S.R. W )
KEY WORDS
Dentition, Teeth, Deciduous, Morphology,
Paleoanthropology, India, Chalcolithic
ABSTRACT
Morphological variations of the dental crown and roots provide valuable data for determining the genetic affinities and evolutionary
adaptedness of prehistoric human skeletal populations. This paper documents
morphological variations of a sample of deciduous teeth from the late Chalcolithic farming village of Inamgaon (1600-700 B.c.) in western India.
Hanihara’s (1963) grading system of deciduous dental traits was employed
in assessing the degree of expression of shovel-shape of incisors, cusp number
of upper and lower first molars, hypocone variation, Carabelli’s trait, cusp
number of lower second molars and the protostylid. Turner’s (1970) classification was used to determine presence and size of accessory cusps: entoconulid
((2-6)and metaconulid ((2-7).
Comparative evaluation of the Inamgaon deciduous dental data is hampered
by the absence of data for dental features of living and prehistoric South Asian
populations. Many of the traits observed in the Inamgaon series exhibit a
frequency of occurrence intermediate between figures characteristic of the
“Mongoloid” dental complex and the “Caucasoid” dental complex.
The primary objectives of this paper are 1)
to document morphological variations of the
crown and roots of deciduous teeth from Inamgaon, 2) to compare deciduous dental trait
frequencies a t Inamgaon with other appropriate samples in India and beyond the borders of the subcontinent, and 3) to interpret
similarities and differences in trait frequency in terms of genetic affinity and evolutionary models of adaptation.
Dental morphology provides crucial evidence for determining the biological affinities and evolutionary adaptedness of
prehistoric human populations. The anthropological significance of dental crown and
root variations is greatly increased for prehistoric skeletal series in which complete and
well preserved crania are rare or absent. In
such instances, the dentition yields the only
reliable clues to the ethnic or biological affinities of the skeletal series.
In contrast to tooth crown dimensioins,
dental morphology is a valuable indicator of
genetic relationships between populations
0 1984 ALAN R. LISS, INC.
because discontinuous dental traits are 1) numerous and often genetically independent of
one another; 2) less influenced by environmental variations than skeletal traits, i.e.,
dental traits have high heritability values;
3) rarely distorted in shape or expression by
post-mortem diagenesis; 4) present in both
living and prehistoric populations, unlike
serological characters; 5) abundant in most
archaeological contents.
In view of these advantageous features, it
is paradoxical that morphological analyses of
living and prehistoric South Asian teeth are
few (Lukacs, 1984).The only anthropological
study of morphological variation in deciduous teeth of a South Asian population is
Kaul and Prakash’s (1981) description of J a t
dentition. Deciduous dental crown dimensions for prehistoric populations from Inamgaon, Sarai Khola, and Timargarha are
reported by Lukacs et al. (1983), who inReceived January 16, 1984; revised April 6, 1984; accepted
April 7, 1984.
24
J.R. LUKACS AND S.R. WALIMBE
cludes a sample of living Gujaratis in his
study. A fuller understanding of major patterns of human dental evolution in South
Asia will come from carefully planned research projects that include the collection of
data on deciduous dental morphology from
many endogamous groups of different ethnic
and subsistence bases throughout the
subcontinent.
Morphological variants of permanent teeth
and ethnic differences in dental trait frequency have been intensively studied by
Western anthropologists since the beginning
of the twentieth century (Lukacs, 1984). The
growth of dental anthropology in India has
been very slow and only recently has this
specialized subfield of physical anthropology
witnessed rapid growth in the subcontinent.
The dental morphology of living Indian
populations are better known than prehistoric skeletal series. A significant limitation
that precluded clear-cut results from earlier
studies of prehistoric dental variation in India was the small and statistically inadequate size of dental samples. Human skeletal
remains from important archaeological sites
in western India, such as Apegaon (Lukacs,
1980), Bagor (Lukacs et al., 19821, Chandoli
(Malhotra, 1965), Langhnaj (Ehrhardt and
Kennedy 1965), and Nevasa (Kennedy and
Malhotra, 19661, yielded small skeletal and
dental samples that were often poorly preserved. The larger, classical sites of the Harappa Civilization including Harappa (Gupta
et al., 1962), Kalibangan (Sharma, 1969-70,
19721, Lothal (Chatterjee and Kumar, 1963),
and Mohenjo-daro (Guha and Basu, 1938;
Sewell and Guha, 1931) yielded abundant
skeletal remains, but the dental morphology
of these valuable series remain either unstudied or inadequately described.
This descriptive and comparative analysis
of dental remains from the early farming
village of Inamgaon is unique in Indian paleoanthropology because it is based on a statistically meaningful sample, focuses on the
deciduous dentition, and reaches conclusions
about genetic affinities and evolutionary
adaptedness of the people of Inamgaon.
1979; Sankalia et al., 1973, 1975, 1984). The
meticulous exhumation and preservation of
infant and adolescent burials at Inamgaon is
testimony to the careful planning and foresight of the Deccan College archaeological
staff. Through 1982, Inamgaon excavations
yielded 228 burials containing skeletal and
dental remains of 176 individuals. These
specimens were derived from three clearly
demarcated cultural periods: Period I Malwa
(1600-1400 B.c.), Period 11Early Jorwe (14001200 B.c.) and Period 111 Late Jorwe (1200700 B.C.). Preliminary reports on the paleodemography (Lukacs and Badam, 1981; Lukacs and Walimbe 19841, paleopathology
(Lukacs et al., in press), and deciduous tooth
crown dimensions (Lukacs, 1981; Lukacs et
al., 1983) of the Inamgaon skeletal series
have been published. Analyses of permanent
tooth size and morphology a t Inamgaon are
currently in progress and will be published
separately.
Since sub-dividing the dental sample by
cultural period results in inadequately small
samples, the present analysis of Inamgaon
dental morphology is based on pooled samples of deciduous teeth from all three cultural levels. The bulk of the dental sample is
derived from Jorwe levels (early and late).
Consequently, this report is a preliminary
description of the Jorwe dental pattern a t
Inamgaon.
The number of deciduous teeth (n = 723)
from Inamgaon is grouped by tooth class in
Table 1. This table reflects the total number
of teeth preserved and includes damaged
specimens, incompletely calcified tooth
crowns, and unerupted tooth germs. As a
result, the number of specimens suitable for
morphological or metrical analysis are a
much reduced subset of the figures given in
Table 1. Although many teeth are anchored
in proper anatomical position in gnathic
fragments, thereby facilitating identification, many teeth were isolated from the jaw
and some crowns lacked roots, rendering correct identification more difficult.
In the tabulation of dental trait frequencies, the individual count method of Scott
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Deccan College has conducted excavations
at Inamgaon since 1968 under the direction
of Dr. H. D. Sankalia and Dr. M. K. Dhavalikar. Their efforts have produced a clear picture of the cultural patterns of early farming
people of western Maharashtra (Dhavalikar,
TABLE 1. Deciduous dental sample from Inamgaon
Maxillary (n)
Mandibular(n)
Total
il
i2
c
rnl
rn2
Total
73
46
119
48
58
106
64
63
127
86
93
179
87
105
192
358
365
723
DECIDUOUS DENTAL MORPHOLOGY AT INAMGAON
(1977, 1980)was used. This technique counts
the fullest expression of a given trait on
either the right or left side of the jaw; if one
side is missing the degree of expression on
the side present is scored. Each individual is
counted only once for each variable. This
technique maximizes sample size in fragmentary skeletal samples derived from archaeological contexts and is well suited for
the Inamgaon dental sample.
The scoring of deciduous dental traits follows the standards outlined by Hanihara
(1963,1968; Hanihara and Minamidate 1965)
in his analysis of deciduous teeth of Japanese-American hybirds. Included in our study
are many of the traits recognized by Hanihara (1966, 1968) as comprising the Mongoloid dental complex of the deciduous
dentition. Deciduous dental traits observed
include 1)shovel-shape of central and lateral
incisor teeth, 2) cusp number of dm’ and
dm2, 3) Carabelli’s trait of dm2, 4)labial (facial) deflection of di’ root apex, 5 ) cusp number of dml and dm2, 6) accessory cusps of
dm2, including the entoconulid (cusp 61, metaconulid (cusp 71, and protostylid. A total of
11 morphological variants were examined in
the deciduous teeth. Three variables were
excluded from analysis due to inconsistent
grading, rapid obliteration of the trait with
attrition, or the frequent occurrence of intermediate categories. These traits include the
distal trigonid crest, deflecting wrinkle, and
groove pattern of dmz.
25
RESULTS: DESCRIPTIVE MORPHOLOGY OF
DECIDUOUS TEETH FROM INAMGAON
Five morphological traits of maxillary incisor and molar teeth are presented in Table
2. If the shovel-shape trait is graded “present
or absent” lateral incisors (84.5%)are found
to exhibit the trait more frequently than central incisors (66.7%).The most frequently occurring expression of shovel-shape is the
trace (grade 1)expression, which is present
in 51.3% of central incisors and 53.8% of lateral incisor teeth. In the trace expression of
this variable in the Inamgaon series, mesial
marginal ridges were frequently less well developed than distal marginal ridges. Included in the frequencies quoted here for
trace-shovel are cases where the mesial marginal ridge is absent but the distal marginal
ridge is clearly present at the trace-grade of
expression (“half shovel”). Both semi- and
full-shovel grades occur more frequently in
lateral than in central incisor teeth; the fullshovel grade is not present in this sample of
39 central incisor teeth.
A rarely discussed anatomical feature of
incisor and canine tooth roots is the facial
(labial) deflection of the apical one third or
one quarter of the root. Jbrgensen (1956:168),
in his comprehensive analysis of deciduous
teeth in Danes and Dutch, notes that labial
deflection of the root apex is a feature commonly found in all deciduous canine and incisor teeth. Labial deflection of central incisor
roots occurs in 22.9% of 35 specimens a t In-
TABLE 2. Morphological variation of maxillary deciduous teeth
Shovel shape
Lateral
Central
Grade
O(absent1
l(trace)
2(semi)
3(full)
Total
Grade
2
3M
3H
4
Total
B
n
%
13
20
6
0
39
(33.3)
(51.3)
(15.4)
( 0.0)
(100.0)
4
14
(15.5)
(53.8)
(19.2)
(11.5)
(100.0)
Cusp Number drn’
___
%
n
(31.8)
14
21
(47.7)
4
( 9.1)
(11.4)
5
44
di 1 root deflection
n
(100.0)
5
3
26
Hypocone size dm2
n
3+A
3
3
3+B
410
4
30
Grade
Total
46
70
6.5)
6.5)
(21.7)
(65.3)
(
(
(100.0)
Grade
n
r/o
Present
Absent
8
27
22.9
77.1
Total
35
(100.0)
Carabelli’s Trait dm2
Grade
n
70
0
1
2+3
4 +5
6+7
Total
15
19
7
2
2
45
33.3)
42.3)
15.6)
( 4.4)
( 4.4)
(100.0)
(
(
(
26
J.R. LUKACS AND S.R. WALIMRE
amgaon. This observation could only be made
for isolated incisor teeth which could easily
be extracted from the alveolus for observation. Radiography was not used in this assessment of incisor root morphology.
In the analysis of cusp number of dml,
seven discontinuous categories were used.
These include subdivisions of the classes
three-Metacone (3M), three-Hypocone (3H),
and four-Hypocone (8,based on the large or
small size of the named cusp. For ease of
analysis and clarity of presentation, the sizebased sub-groups are lumped together. Table
2 shows that three-cusped dmls are most frequent (56.8%), and primarily include specimens in which the third cusp is a metacone
of varying size (47.7%).Three-cusped dm’s in
which the third cusp is a hypocone (9.1%) are
much less frequent. Two-cusped dmls are almost three times a s common a s four-cusped
dmls.
Hypocone variation in dm2s is sorted into
four categories based on size and form of the
hypocone. The large and well-developed degree of expression (grade 4) of this trait occurred most often (65.3%). Essentially threecusped dm2s with a small cuspule of a hypocone, varying slightly in morphology (3+A,
3+B), occurred in 13% of the sample. The
well-developed but slightly reduced grade of
expression (4-) obtained a n intermediate frequency of 21.7%.
The seven grades of Carabelli’s trait were
judged from photographs of Hanihara’s dental plaque standards. Grades 1 through 3
represent pit and groove variants of this
highly polymorphic trait and grades 4
through 7 include small and large cusp variants, respectively. Carabelli’s trait in one of
its many ex ressions occurs in 66.7% of Inamgaon dm s (n - 451, but Carabelli’s cusps
of varying size are present in only 8.8% of
this sample. Pit and groove expressions of
this variable are most frequent (57.9%).
Cusp number of mandibular molar teeth
are graded into three-, four-, five-, and sixcusped categories. Four-cusped dmls are
more common (53.1%)than either five-cusped
(42.6%) or three-cusped (4.2%) variants. In
many instances, the hypoconid of dml was
bifurcated by a shallow sulcus giving rise to
a small but easily discernile hypoconulid.
Teeth exhibiting these cuspules are scored in
the five-cusped category in this analysis.
Eighty percent of dmzs are five-cusped.
Four- and three-cusped deciduous second molar teeth are not present in the Inamgaon
2 -
skeletal series. Six-cusped dm2s reach a moderately high frequency of 19.2%, indicating
the regular occurrence of accessory cusps.
The most common accessory cusp in the Inamgaon dental sample is the entoconulid
CUSP-^), which occurs in 18% of dmzs. The
entoconulid is the only accessory cusp that
exhibits a more extreme degree of expression
than grade 1 (small). Grades 2 and above
occur in 6.5% of dmzs. Other accessory cusps
observed in this analysis are the metaconulid
(cusp-7) and the protostylid; both reached a
frequency of about 2.0% in dmzs. (Only cusp
expressions of the protostylid are counted as
present).
The canine breadth index is obtained by
dividing the mesiodistal (MD) diameter of
the deciduous maxillary canine by the same
dimension (MD) of the maxillary central incisor; the quotient is then multiplied by 100:
(MD cU/MDil) x 100. The canine breadth index for the Inamgaon deciduous dental sample is 99.3, a figure based on mean crown
diameter of 28 canines and 19 central incisors (Lukacs et al., 1983).
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INAMGAON
DECIDUOUS TEETH
Three studies of deciduous dental morphology provide a suitable context for the comparative evaluation of deciduous teeth from
Inamgaon. The populations studied include
the Jats of northern India (Kaul and Prakash, 19811, Japanese and other Mongoloid
peoples (Hanihara, 1963,19681,and northern
Europeans from Medieval and modern samples (Jdrgensen, 1956). These study groups
are widely distributed geographically and
most represent living people in these regions
today. The results of any comparison of dental samples so widely separated in space and
time must be interpreted with caution and
regarded as preliminary. The conclusions
presented here are tenative and subject to
revision as more and larger samples fill the
spatial and temporal gaps separating study
populations.
Comparative frequencies of deciduous dental traits of maxillary teeth are given in percentages (Table 4). In preparing this chart,
the data for Jats and Inamgaon were modified to fit the categories of data reported by
Hanihara (1963, 1968). In reporting shovelshape frequencies, only grades 2 and 3 are
counted; grades 0 and 1are regarded as “noshovel.” In classifying Carabelli’s trait
grades 4 through 7, variants of the “cusp
27
DECIDUOUS DENTAL MORPHOLOGY AT INAMGAON
TABLE 3. Morphological variation of mandibular deciduous teeth
Cusp number of mandibular molar teeth
First molar
%
n
n
Grade
0
20
25
2
47
6
5
4
3
Total
Grade
0
1
2
3f
Total
Second molar
%
12
49
0
0
61
(0.0)
(42.6)
(53.1)
(4.3)
(100.0)
(19.7)
(80.3)
(0.0)
(0.0)
(100.0)
Accessory cusps of second mandibular molar teeth
Entoconulid ((2-6)
Metaconulid C-7
Protostylid
n
%
n
%
n
%
50
7
3
(82.0)
(11.5)
(4.9)
(1.6)
(100.0)
1
61
59
1
0
0
60
(98.3)
(1.7)
60
0
(98.4)
(0.0)
(0.0)
1
(1.6)
(0.0)
(0.0)
0
(100.0)
TABLE 4. Comparative table of deciduous dental trait frequencies (in percentages, with sample size in parenthesis)
Shovel shape
Population
American Whiteb
AmericanNegrob
JatC
Inamgaon
Pima Indianb
Eskimob
Japaneseb
di’
0.0 (20)
10.0 (10)
4.7 (36)
15.4 (39)
61.6 (78)
50.0 (16)
76.6(124)
di2
0.0 (24)
15.0 (22)
1.0 (71)
30.7 (26)
64.3 (98)
60.0 (5)
93.3(163)
Canine
breadth
index
108.2 (18)
104.9 (10)
-
99.3 (19)
103.3 (98)
100.3 (14)
101.0(120)
Carabelli’s
trait
35.7 (56)
11.8 (51)
11.9(306)
8.8 (45)
O.O(l18)
0.0 (54)
11.9(185)
di’(2Ia
60.0 (55)
28.0 (55)
-
38.1 (44)
-
-
15.2(184)
dm’(4)“
73.7 (57)
90.2 (51)
52.3(314)
65.3 (46)
-
-
70.7(191)
*The frequency of 2.cusped dm‘s and 4-cusped dm2s are reported here.
bHanihara (1963,1968).
‘Kaul and Prakash (1981).
degree of expression” are counted in the table; pit and groove form of the trait are not.
For maxillary molar cusp number, the frequency of two-cusped first molar teeth and
four-cusped second molar teeth are reported.
In four of the six traits compared in this
table, the Inamgaon sample exhibits trait
frequencies intermediate between figures for
American whites and populations of Asian
descent (Pima Indian, Eskimo, and Japanese). These traits include shovel-shape of
the central and lateral incisor, Carabelli’s
trait, and two-cusped maxillary first molar.
In comparing Inamgaon and north Indian
Jats, it is observed that similarities exist in
the frequency of Carabelli’s trait and fourcusped second molars, but shoveling of central and lateral incisor teeth is much more
common in the Inamgaon sample. The differences between the Inamgaon and Jat dental
frequencies are in the direction of the Asianderived population samples.
Among South Asian populations, the canine breadth index can be computed from data
reported by Lukacs et al. (1983) for the Iron
Age skeletal sample from Timargarha (103.6)
and for a sample of 100 living Gujarati Hindus from Ahmedabad (101.4). These figures
are 2 to 4 points above the value reported
here for Inamgaon (99.2).
In comparison with populations outside the
subcontinent, the figure reported for Inamgaon is lower than most indical values reported by Hanihara (1968), but it compares
favorably with figures for Eskimo (100.3)and
the people of Tristan de Cunha (97.6 male,
100.6 female).
Hanihara (1968)regards high values of the
canine breadth index as a primary component of the “Caucasoid” dental complex, to-
28
J.R. LUKACS AND S.R. WALIMBE
TABLE 5. Comparative frequencies for accessory cusps
(in percentages with sample size in parenthesis)
Entoconulid
(C-6)
Population
o/r
(n)
Danish’
Dutch]
Jat‘
American White’
American Negro’
Inamgaon
Pima Indian’
Japanese‘
2.3
2.3
2.6
7.3
14.0
18.0
36.8
36.9
(213)
(131)
Eskimo’
37.7
(117)
55)
50)
( 61)
(117)
( 92)
( 53)
(
(
Metaconulid
(C-7)
B
(n)
23.4
13.5
0.0
40.7
46.8
1.7
72.9
73.7
79.4
‘Hanihara (1963, 1968).
‘Kaul and Prdkash (1981).
.’Jnrgensen (1956).
gether with high frequency of Carabelli’s
trait. He also notes that the “much higher
values of the (canine breadth) index which is
peculiar to the Whites seem to be lost very
rapidly through hybridization with nonWhite populations” (Hanihara, 1968:119).
Table 5 presents frequency data for two
accessory cusps: the entoconulid (C-6)and the
metaconulid (C-7). Hanihara (1968)notes that
few data are available for these traits in the
deciduous dentition, but the evidence suggests that in Asians C-6 is more common in
deciduous than in permanent teeth. A preliminary analysis of the permanent dental
sample from Inamgaon indicates this is also
true for the Jorwe people. Entoconulid frequency in the deciduous teeth (18%)is about
7% more common than in the permanent
teeth (10.8%),but this observation does not
hold true for the metaconulid.
Eighteen percent of Inamgaon second lower
molar teeth have entoconulids of varying
size. Entoconulid frequency for northern European populations (2.3%)and Jats (2.6%)of
northern India are very similar, while American whites (7.3%) display the trait in higher
frequencies. Among Asians, the entoconulid
attains its highest incidence exhibiting values between 36.8% among Pima Indians and
37.7% among Eskimo. The entoconulid frequency of the Inamgaon dental sample is
clearly intermediate between figures for
Asian and Euro-American samples.
Metaconulid frequency in the Inamgaon
sample is 1.7%,a figure that compares favorably with the value reported by Kaul and
Prakash (1981)for Jats (0.0).Jdrgensen (1956)
and Hanihara (1968) report higher frequencies for the metaconulid among northern Eu-
ropean and American whites, respectively.
However, these figures are less than one-half
the 70-80% frequency found among Asians.
The Indian data reported here for Inamgaon,
and the data for Jats, suggests that South
Asians may be unique in exhibiting very low
frequencies for the metaconulid, frequencies
that are clearly not intermediate between
Asian and European populations. These differences may be partly attributed to differences in dental trait scoring standards
between Hanihara’s comparative data and
the Turner system used in this study. However, it may also be true that low metaconulid frequency is part of a unique South Asian
deciduous dental pattern, a pattern that requires more thorough documentation temporally and geographically in the Indian
subcontinent.
Maxillary incisor root deflection is a character that can only be discussed from an evolutionary standpoint, since documentation
of the trait for world populations is meager.
Jdrgensen (1956) states that palatal deflection of the deciduous incisor roots is found in
living pongids, but that labial (or facial) deflection of the incisor root apex is common to
all temporary canines and incisors in his
northern European study sample. The functional significance of the labial bend of incisor and canine roots in hominids has been
attributed by Diamond (1944)to “insufficient
space during growth, caused by the close
proximity of the permanent tooth crown to
the deciduous root tip.” (Jdrgensen,
1956:168).
If Diamond’s functional interpretation of
this trait is correct, the frequency of labially
bent incisor tooth roots may yield clues regarding the evolutionary progress of maxillary gnathic reduction. Twenty-three percent
of Inamgaon central incisor teeth exhibit labially diverted roots, the remainder display
straight, unbent roots. Most Inamgaon children (77%) have straight incisor roots presumably indicating ample developmental
space for permanent incisor crowns, either
due to large jaws or small teeth. The children
with bent incisor roots may reflect individuals whose jaw size was too small for the developing tooth germs. As pointed out by
Jdrgensen, this pattern is universal among
technological northern Europeans today.
Perhaps the low frequency of root deflection
at Inamgaon is reflective of differential evolutionary progress in size reduction of the
maxilla.
DECIDUOUS DENTAL MORPHOLOGY AT INAMGAON
Evolutionary changes in the deciduous
dentition of Near Eastern populations are
reported by Smith (1976, 1978). She finds
morphological traits more effective than
tooth size in discriminating between Mousterian (Neanderthal) and later specimens.
Mousterian deciduous teeth are characterized by incisor shoveling and lingual tubercles, and second molars exhibit a higher
frequency of the entoconulid and metaconulid than more recent groups from the same
region. These evolutionary trends may be
parallel worldwide, but are characterized by
different culturalldietary causes and different temporal patterns. If true, predictive hypotheses regarding the pattern of deciduous
dental variation in South Asia can be made.
For example, morphologically complex teeth
with high frequencies of shovel-shaped incisors, accessory cusps of lower second molars,
and large tooth size should be found in sites
chronologically earlier and technologically
more primitive than Inamgaon. Morphologically simple deciduous teeth of small size
should be found later in time in association
with agricultural and technologically complex cultures. Only through the collection of
deciduous dental data from numerous endogamous groups and prehistoric sites in South
Asia can these hypotheses be verified, modified, or negated.
CONCLUSIONS
The comparative analysis of deciduous dental variation a t Inamgaon yields several tentative conclusions that require further
consideration.
1)Morphological features of the deciduous
teeth yield valuable clues to the genetic affinities of prehistoric skeletal series. The
dental evidence is of crucial importance a t
sites like Inamgaon, where complete and
well-preserved crania are few, precluding
more traditional methods of determining biological distance.
2) Five of the eight morphological traits for
which comparative data are available
(shovel-shape of di’ and di2, Carabelli’s trait,
two-cusped dm’, and entoconulid), Inamgaon
occupies a position intermediate between
eastern Asian and Euro-American populations.
3) The intermediate position of the Inamgaon deciduous dentition can be more precisely characterized as near the EuroAmerican phenotypic pattern but exhibiting
a tendency or diversion toward the Asian or
29
“Mongoloid” dental complex of Hanihara
(1966).
4) In three dental characters (Canine
Breadth Index, four-cusped dm2, and metaconulid), the Inamgaon series occupies a
unique position in comparison to Asian and
Euro-American samples, but in the latter two
traits, the Inamgaon series exhibits similarities to the Jats of northern India.
5) The Jorwe people of Inamgaon exhibit a
deciduous dental pattern that is unique
among the world’s populations studied thus
far. Although the Jorwe dental pattern is
European in many respects, it also exhibits
significant departures from that pattern toward the dental pattern of eastern Asian
people.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This paper was prepared for the conference
“Recent Advances in Indian Archaeology”
held at Deccan College, Pune (December 1014, 1983). I am pleased to dedicate the paper
to Dr. H. D. Sankalia, patriarch of Indian
archaeology and initial director of the Inamgaon excavations.
I am deeply indebted to present and past
directors of Deccan College, Postgraduate
and Research Institute (Drs. H. D. Sankalia,
S. B. Deo, and M. K. Dhavalikar) for permission and continued support of my research
on the valuable human skeletal series from
Inamgaon.
Financial support for this research was
provided by the American Institute of Indian
Studies (1974-1975, 1982) Indo-American
Fellowship Program (19791, and Smithsonian
Institution (19821, and it is greatly appreciated. In particular, Mr. Pradeep Mehendriatta (AIIS), Ms. Lydia Z. Gomes (CIES),
and Ms. Francine Berkowitz (SFCP) have
provided logistical assistance in planning and
completing fieldwork in India.
The Ford Foundation Research Scholar
Program provided financial support for
S.R.W. during his research visit to the University of Oregon (spring 1983).Dr. Kenneth
A. R. Kennedy (Cornell University), and Ms.
Peggy Caldwell (Smithsonian Institution)
read and offered valuable comments on the
manuscript. Their cooperation and critical
review contributed to a n improved final draft.
This research could not have been completed without the cooperation and understanding of my flexible wife, Shirley, and my
children, who have accompanied me on ail
major visits to India.
J.R. LUKACS AND S.R. WALIMBE
30
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