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Deciduous teeth of the Neandertal mandible from Molare Shelter near Scario (Salerno Italy).

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 79:475482 (1989)
Deciduous Teeth of the Neandertal Mandible From Molare
Shelter, Near Scario (Salerno, Italy)
F. MALLEGNI A N D A.T. RONCHITELLI
Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Set. di Paleontologia Umana
Uniuersitd degli Studi, 56100 Pisa (F.M.) and Dipartimento di Archeologia e
Storia delle Arti, Sez. di Preistoria Uniuersith degli Studi, 53100 Siena
(A.T.R.), Italy
KEY WORDS:
ern Italy
Paleodontology, Homo s. neanderthalensis, South-
ABSTRACT
Excavations a t hearth levels a t the Molare Shelter in 1985
yielded the mandible of a 3-4-year-old child. The associated lithic artifacts
recovered with it are Mousterian. Its features, although quite archaic, are
within the known range of variation of Neandertals. Four deciduous molars are
still preserved in the mandible. They were compared with other known
specimens, which date to the Middle and Upper Pleistocene. The metrical
characteristics are surprisingly primitive, within the range of variation of
Homo erectus, or at least within that of European Pre-Neandertals, more so
than within the variability of typical Neandertal specimens. On the other hand,
the morphological characteristics, except for a few that are decidedly plesiomorph, are predominantly Neandertal.
The Molare Shelter excavation sequence
began in 1984 and is still in progress. It was
the subject of a preliminary description,
based on field observations in the first study
on the juvenile human mandible found there
in September, 1985(Mallegni and Ronchitelli,
1987).As there have since been no significant
paleoethnological discoveries or new facts
useful for paleoenvironmental reconstruction,
we shall restrict our comments here to the
general stratigraphy and chronology of the
deposits. (Data on the lithic industry associated with the human mandible are discussed in Mallegni and Ronchitelli, (1987).
Analyses of sediments, fauna, and pollen are
underway.)
STRATIGRAPHY
The Molare Shelter is what remains of a n
ancient cave opening onto the Tyrrenian Sea
on the Cilento coast between Palinuro and
Sapri, about 2 km southwest of the village
of Scario (Province of Salerno, Campania)
(Fig. 1).
The 10-m-thickcontinental deposit consists
of red clay soils, alternating with breccia or
concretions, which are intercalated in the
upper part with four pyroclastic layers. The
upper strata of the series occur as small outcrops on the rock wall, eroded and covered by
@ 1989 ALAN R. LISS, INC
stalagmite. There are 16 archeological layers,
varying in abundance of archeological residues; they generally coincide with the layers
of breccia.
The whole deposit dates back to the Middle
Paleolithic, a s will be shown below. The middle part of the infilling is the most interesting
from a paleoethnological point of view, a s
there are seven successive hearth levels rich
in lithics and faunal remains, indicative of
intense human occupation. The fauna of this
accumulation consists mainly of cervids, with
occasional caprids, bovids, wild boar, and
rhinoceros; no horse remains occur.
The human mandible was found at the
bottom of this layer. As shown by Mallegni
and Ronchitelli (1987), certain characteristics, especially the general volume of the
main body of the jaw and also the teeth, are
very archaic. In the absence of radiometric
dating and systematic study of the findings,
this poses the problem of the chronological
dating of the deposit. For the moment we
limit ourselves to a n estimate made from the
layers below the continental series, and
from evidence afforded by the lithic industry.
Received April 5, 1988; accepted June 27, 1988.
F. MALLEGNI AND A.T.RONCHITELLI
476
1
erodad
2
At the base of the continental series there
is a layer of marine conglomerates, consisting of cemented pebbles of small-to-medium
size. The upper limit, probably eroded, is
now at 5.6 m above sea level. Below there is
a second marine deposit consisting of large,
not very elaborated blocks, in a matrix of
yellowish cemented sand containing molluscs (mostly Spondylus) and coral (CladoCora coespitosa). (Radiometric dates ThZ3'/
U234on specimens of C. coespitosa from the
same marine level of the Grotta della Cala
a t Marina di Camerota are being performed
by U.B. Schwarcz at the Department of
Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton,
Canada). The older level reaches 4.2 m
above sea level and outcrops for long
stretches along the coast of the Gulf of Policastro. It probably corresponds to the biocalcarenitic deposits of C. coespitosa of the
Tyrrhenian coast of North Calabria, attributed by radiometric dating to a pre-Tyrrehnian sea level (Carobene et al., 1986).
(Studies are in progress to establish the possible correlation between Cilento and Calabria deposits. Th230/U234
dates on Calabrian
Cladocora have a range between > 350,000
and 252,000 years; dating of the same layer
on Spondylus yielded a n age of about
142,000 years.)
It is more difficult to date with certainty
the overlying marine conglomerate, which
does not seem to contain fossils. It should be
noted, however, that in the adjacent Grotta
Grande there are the same two successive
deposits, and two specimens of Strombus
were recently found in the red breccia contacting the upper conglomerate, suggesting a
Tyrrhenian age for the higher sea level and
thus a Last Glacial Age for the continental
deposits.
Such a chronological attribution is supported by the characteristics of the artifacts
of the Molare Shelter, which can be assigned
to a Mousterian industry. There is a certain
amount of variation within the levels; the
upper levels (Fig 1, levels 1 and 2) yielded
tools from a late phase of the Middle Paleolithic, including flat and elongated artifacts
t h a t are mostly points a n d side-scrapers,
with only a modest incidence of the Levallois
technique, although more than from the
underlying levels. The tools associated with
the mandible thus seem to belong to a n early
phase of the Last Glacial, based on comFig. 1. Molare Shelter, schematic stratigraphic section.
Numbers refer to archeological levels.
NEANDERTAL TEETH FROM M O U E SHELTER
parison with other Mousterian complexes in
the region (Mallegni and Ronchitelli, 1987,
pp. 166-168 and Fig. 3). The lithic industry
studied to date-57 tools-is mostly points
and side-scrapers; there is a Quinson piece
and a few demi-Quina elements. It appears to
be classifiable as Typical Mousterian with a
medium index of scrapers (IRess = 45.8), nonLevallois “d6bitage” (IL = 3.1), faceted platforms (IF = 49.6 and IFs = 38.0), and a
medium blade index (Ilam = 8.1).
It is hoped that as the excavation and the
study of a larger sample of archeological
material progresses, fuller chronostratigraphic a n d cultural knowledge of the deposit will be gained.
ODONTOLOGY
In September, 1985the mandible (Fig. 2) of
a 3-4-year-old Neandertal child was found
(Mallegni and Ronchitelli, 1987). Anthropological study showed that the mandible has a
number of both plesiomorphic and apomorphic metrical and morphometrical characteristics similar to those of more ancient Neandertal specimens. The great size is especially
worth noting, in spite of the diagnosed dental
age. Its four deciduous molars are the subject
477
of the present study. The anterior teeth were
lost post mortem.
State of preservation
Of the four molars, only the right ml is perfectly preserved (Fig. 3); the others show post
mortem enamel fractures. The right m2 lacks
two enamel chips, one on the buccal face,
below the protoconid, and the other on the
occlusal surface, near the base of the entoconid, which is also largely damaged on the
both sides (Fig.3).The left ml lacks almost all
enamel on the buccal face (anterior half), the
lingual face (posterior half), and the enamel
once covering the occlusal surface. The hypoconid is preserved. The left m2 lacks the apex
of the metaconid and the entoconid (Fig. 3).
Measurements
Measurements were taken by a Helios-digit
EL 37594 caliber; values are shown in Table
1, with their respective indices. Absolute
values of the maximal length (MD) and maximal breadth (BL) diameters of the left teeth
are almost always greater than those of the
right teeth, although only by a few tenths of
a unit. The opposite is observed for the MD
diameter at the neck and the two heights on
Fig. 2. Molare Shelter mandible: norma superior.
478
F.MALLEGNI AND A.T. RONCHITELLI
Fig. 3. Deciduous molars of the Neandertal mandible from Molare. A Occlusal side. B Buccal
side. (Scale, 3:l).
both the vestibular and the lingual side. In
all measurements ml is smaller than m2,as is
usually observed in modern children. Crown
indices are always below 100 and range
between 80.0 and 92.9. This finding indicates
a slightly rectangular crown, in which MD
diameter is always longer than BL, as in the
teeth of modern children.
Biometrical analysis and morphological
observation of the first molars
MD diameters in Molare 1 are usually
longer than those of other Neandertal children and are only equalled by the maximum
value of the series from Krapina. (The value
of the left ml is in doubt due to the fragmentary condition of the crown.) This value
seems to be more consistent with specimens
from the Middle Pleistocene of Europe and of
Zhoukoudian (ZKD) LOC.1 125 (right). The
same phenomenon is observed in the case of
the BL diameter; its value is only equalled by
Arago XI (right) and Krapina (maximum
value) and is only exceeded by Teshik Tash
(right and left). The values of these two
diameters are decidedly higher than those
of the homologous teeth of the Upper Paleolithic human infants. The robustness of the
crown of Molare 1 is consistently greater
than that of other Neandertal children and is
only exceeded by the largest example from
Krapina. The crown index indicates a rec-
tangular shape, as is nearly always observed
in the European Mid-Pleistocene specimens
and in ZKD-1 125 (right) (even though the
value of the latter is quite exceptional). The
West European Neandertal specimens USUally show more quadrangular shapes. Rectangular shapes are only observed in Bourgeois-Delaunay and Chateauneuf 2. Therefore
it seems this shape is primitive, like the
Bourgeois-Delaunay specimens (Genet-Varcin, 1982).
Morphological observations are only possible on the right ml because the left is too
fragmentary. The occlusal surface h a s four
cusps, two on the buccal side (protoconid
and hypoconid) a n d two on the lingual side
(metaconid and entoconid), as in Chateauneuf 2, Combe Grenal, La Ferrassie 8, Krapina (mandible A), Kebara, and Pech de
L'AzB. The number of cusps in the Neandertal ml is quite variable, from three (Archi) to
five (Gibraltar 2, La Chaise, BourgeoisDelaunay, and some second molars from
Krapina). The protoconid is big and robust,
and its apex is higher t h a n those of the
other cusps, in spite of slight wear on the
hypoconid. The entoconid is smaller than
the other three cusps, while the metaconid is
only slightly less developed than the protoconid. Mesially, there is a deep fovea anterior, the axis of which is almost parallel to
the mesial face of the crown. The protoconid
479
NEANDERTAL TEETH FROM MOLARE SHELTER
TABLE 1. Comparison of metrical arid morphometrical values of the teeth from Molare 1 with those of Middle and
Upper Pleistocene humans'
MD
BL MD X BL BL X 100/MD MD BL MD X BL BL X 100/MD
1
a
b
c
d
e
f
Rt
Rt
R
R
R
R
a
b
Lt
Lt
Rt
2
t
t
t
t
7,7
9,8
-
-
-
6,6
7,O
9,0
10,l
8,4
9,9
94,5
123,2
98,3
110,9
85,7
82,8
71,4
88,4
9,5
9,3
98,8
99,5
91,3
86,9
de-Lumley, 1972
-
103,4
85,4
Tillier and Genet-Varcin,
1980
103,7
110,7
118,6
98,5
95,6
88,8
86,7
92,9
87,7
88,4
-
-
Patte, 1959; Tillier, 1979
79,O
90,9
103,6
93,l
89,4
89,l
88,s
96,9
Tillier, 1983
Genet-Varcin, 1982
Virchow, 1920
-
76,8
83,3
Heim, 1982
101,3
108,8
85.3
88,3
83,7
102.6
87,8
113,8
92,9
105,6
98,9
87,9
86,l
86,l
91,l
87,2
90,9
95,3
88,6
85,8
93,l
94,4
-
10,5
12,2
11,7
11,2
80,O
10,4
10,7
-
-
-
78,9
76,9
84,O
80,8
(81,6)
85,2
82,2
11,o
112
10,8
11,3
11,3
10,6
10,4
9,4
(8,4)
9,6
9.8
10,5
9,3
9,2
63,6
49,6
58,8
67,3
86,O
-
-
62t2
62,l
72,5
90,3
88,l
83,8
-
-
75,O
80,3
65,2
83,l
83,6
86,2
65,7
66,O
81,l
85,2
-
-
-
10,O 8,O
80,O
Rt
9,3 7,3
Lt
9,l 7,O
b
Lt
8,8 7,4
Molare Rt
9,9 8,O
Lt (103) 6 4 )
4
Rt
9.0 7.7
Lt
9,0 7,4
5
8,6 7,4
a
Rt
b
Rt
8,O 6,2
6
Rt
8,4 7,O
7
Lt
9,l 7,4
- Rt
8
9
- Lt
a
b
Rt
8,3 7,5
Lt
8,4 7,4
10
Lt
9,3 7,8
- 11
Rt
- Lt
- 12
X
Mn
9,5 7,9
Mx 9,8 8,2
Rt
8,7 7,5
13
- 14
Lt
- Rt
15
- Lt
Rt
16
9,0 7,3
Lt
8,8 7,5
- Lt
17
- Lt
18
67,9
63,7
c
-
-
-
-
-
50,8
68,6
85,7
71,4
Reference
Weidenreich, 1937
-
3
a
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
~-
Lt
Rt
Lt
Rt
Lt
Rt
Rt
Lt
Rt
Lt
Lt
Rt
Lt
x
~~
65,l
79,2
(865)
69,3
66,6
-
-
77,s
83,3
81,3
-
-
-
-
-
8,s
9,0
9,0
9,0
8,9
7,5
8,5
8,7
7,l
7,5
66,O
76,5
78,3
63,9
66,7
85,2
94,4
96,5
78,9
84,3
8,8
8.8
7,8
7,5
68,6
66,O
88,6
85,2
9,5
7,5
71,2
78,9
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.7 7.5
7:85 7;3
-
-
65.2
67:6
-
-
86.2
81:5
8,4 8,4
10,l 9,0
10,8 9,6
9,8 9 3
9,6
-
8,O
-
10,9
11,l
92
9,2
10,8
10,l
11,5
10,l
11,O
11,o
10,5
10,6
10,6
10,2
9,3
9,8
(9,U
9,l
9,5
8,7
9,9
9,2
9,6
10,o
10,3
9,4
9,l
9,5
10,8 10,2
-
11,o
108,l
99,6
96,4
96,9
110,l
-
-
-
Ascenzi and Segre, 1971
Tillier, 1982
de Lumley, 1973
Wolpoff, 1979
Legoux, 1970
Genet-Varcin, 1972
Ullrich, 1955
Madre-Dupouy, 1985
Kolossov et al., 1975
Palma di Cesnola and
Messeri, 1967
Schoetensack, 1895
Movixus, Jr., 1953
-
-
-
-
11,O
10,2
9,6
9,5
105,6
96,9
87,3
81,3
92,4
95,7
93,l
93,9
96,4
90,9
88,5
95,O
92,l
85,8
-
McCown and Keith, 1939
101,2
83,6
83.9?
9l;O
86,7
McCown and Keith, 1939
McCown and Keith. 1939
Senyuerek, 1959
Brabant. 1970
-
10,l
10,4
9,9
10,l
10,6
-
-
9,15
9,2
9,4
9,3
9,l
-
11,o 9,2
11.2 9.4-10
10,o '9,l
10,2 8,8
-
-
105.8?
91;o
89,3
-
Smith and Arensburgh, 1977
Suzuki and Takai, 1970
Tillier, 1979
IMI), maximal length in mm; BL, maximal breadth in mm; MD X BL, robustness of the crown; BL X 100/MD, crown index; rt, right; It, left.
la-f, ZKD-1, 123, 125, 126,127, 128, 129; 2a-c, Arago I, V, XI; 3a, b, La Chaise; Suard 13,14;4,Archi; 5a, b, Chateuneauf 1,2;6, Engis; 7, La
Chaise; Bourgeois-Delaunay; 8, Ehringsdorf; 9a, b, La Ferrassie 4bis, 8; 10, Gibraltar 2; 11, Hortus; 12, Krapina; 13, Pech de 1'Aze; 14, Le
Placard;15, Staroselje;16,RocdeMarsal; 17, Zaskalnaya; 18,Uluzzo A; 19,Taubach;20, Teshik-Tash;21, Kebara;22, Amud 111; 23, Qafzeh 4;
480
F. MALLEGNI AND A.T. RONCHITELLI
is joined to the metaconid by a thick enamel
ridge, which is oblique and concave in the
middle.
On the mesial side, the enamel ridge defines
a quite developed and deep fossa centralis, in
the middle of which the grooves separate the
four cusps, because they are confluent. The
fovea posterior is almost absent; instead,
there is a bent groove that separates the
entoconid from the hypoconid. The trigonid is
rather higher than the talonid and decidedly
more extended, a s is usually observed in the
Neandertal ml. The buccal face of the crown
has a strong and continuous swelling, (cingulum) above the neck, which is more developed in the part corresponding to the
protoconid and lessens when descending
toward the middle of the neck. The maximum
swelling is associated with the hypoconid. A
similar disposition is present in the ml from
Archi, Hortus, and La Ferrassie 8. The buccal
face is rather higher mesially than distally. In
the middle, between the protoconid and the
hypoconid, there is a slight vertical groove.
The lingual face is slightly convex and
protrudes only slightly above the neck. X-rays
reveal very wide pulp cavities.
Biometrical analysis and morphological
examination of the second molars
The value of the mesiodistal diameter MD
is among the highest of those taken on the m2
of Neandertal children. It is only exceeded by
TABLE 2. Measurements and indices of the
posterior deciduous inferior teeth of
the Neandertal child from Molare
m2
ml
Maximal length (MD)
Maximal breadth (BL)
Mesio-distal diameter at
at the neck
Maximal buccal height
Maximal lingual height
Module of the crown1
MD-BL/ 2
Robustness of the crownz
MD BL
Crown index3
BL 100/MD
HeightAength index4
H 100/MD
Height/breadth index4
H buccal 100/BL
lde Terra, 1905.
PWeidenreich, 1937.
3Hrdlicka, 1920.
4Senyiierek, 1959.
Right
Left
Right
Left
9,9
8,0
(10,3)
9,s
(9,7)
11,3
9,8
9,9
11,3
10,5
10,5
6,2
6,2
8,95
-
6,6
6,5
10,55
6,4
6,O
10,90
(8,4)
(9,35)
79,2
(86,5)
110,7
118,65
80,8
(81,6)
86,7
92,9
63,6
-
58,4
56,6
78,6
-
67,3
61.0
the maximum value from Krapina. Similar to
Molare are (in descending order): Tabun,
Gibraltar 2, Teshik Tash, Staroselje, and Le
Placard.
Such a high value also exceeds those of
known European Mid-Pleistocene children’s
teeth, which usually show higher values than
the Neandertals. In addition to the maximum
value from Krapina, it is only exceeded by
those of ZKD-1 nos. 127 and 128. An almost
identical phenomenon is observed in the case
of the buccal-lingual diameter, which exceeds
that of all known Neandertals and also those
of the so-called Pre-Neandertals. I n comparison with the ZKD-1 specimens, the value of
Molare’s M2 is quite within their range of
variation and is even slightly higher in the
case of the left m2. I n comparison with values
of the two diameters taken on Upper Paleolithic specimens, those of Molare are always
higher. The robustness of Molare’s second
deciduous molars is exceptional, especially in
the case of the left m2; it is only exceeded by
ZKD-1no. 127. Even Krapina, whichis nearly
always higher than Molare as regards the
values of the diameters, is rather lower in the
case of its robustness, and only slightly
exceeds Molare on the right side.
With regard to the crown index, the right
m2 is more rectangular than the left m2,
which, on the other hand, tends to be more
quadrangular. The values of this index are
also quite variable in the other specimens.
There are no clear tendencies toward the
quadrangular shape passing from Homo erectus to Homo s. sapiens of the Upper Paleolithic. Although some ZKD-1 specimens show
very low values, this phenomenon does not
occur in European Pre-Neandertals.
The occlusal face has a shape half-way
between trapezoidal and rectangular. A trapezoidal shape seems to be more clearly defined,
because the talonid is decidedly wider than
the trigonid.
We can clearly observe five cusps, placed
according to the Dryopithecus scheme. The
protoconid is well developed and high (the
right m2 does not allow analysis because it is
quite fragmentary due to post mortem fractures). Moreover, it is large, and slightly
shifted forward with respect to the metaconid. Its size exceeds those of the other
cusps, as usually occurs in the decidous m2 of
other Neandertals. Only in Gibraltar 2 and
Chateauneuf 2 is the metaconid the largest
cusp (Tillier, 1979, 1982). The protoconid is
separated from the hypoconid by a wide, but
not very deep groove, while a groove of the
NEANDERTAL TEETH FROM MOLARE SHELTER
same sort separates the latter cusp from the
hypoconulid. The hypoconid is approximately
the same size of the metaconid. The hypoconulid is sharp (on the left m2 its apex is
broken), and it is separated from the entoconid by a wide, deep space that is anteriorly
and posteriorly circumscribed by two enamel
ridges connecting the hypoconulid and entoconid. This space, defined as the fovea posterior, is more clearly delineated on the left m2
than on the corresponding right m2, where it
is almost entirely filled with enamel fragments, which probably constitute the remains
of the basal part of the entoconid, cemented
here post mortem.
It seems that the fovea posterior is a
highly archaic structure, rarely present in
modern second deciduous molars, but usually observed, either wider or narrower, in
Neandertal children. Only in Combe Grenal
1 (Genet-Varcin, 1982) a n d Chateauneuf 2
(Tillier, 1979) is this structure absent or not
clearly defined. The entoconid is large, but
its cusp is flattened due to post mortem
wear. It is separated anteriorly from the latter by an enamel ridge a n d from the metaconid by a wide groove t h a t is deeper than
t h a t separating the protoconid from the
hypoconid. The metaconid (in the left tooth
its apex is fractured) is second in size after
the protoconid. It is anteriorly separated
from the latter by a n enamel ridge that
defines a wide, deep fovea anterior, triangular in shape, with the apex facing the fossa
centralis.
The size order of the cusps is as follows:
protoconid > metaconid > hypoconid = entoconid > hypoconulid. T h e trigonid is
higher t h a n the talonid. The fossa centralis
is deep and characterized by a certain complexity of grooves and wrinkles; one groove,
in particular, interrupts the enamel ridge
connecting the protoconid with the metaconid. An enamel granule (in the left m2) is
a t the base of the groove that separates the
protoconid from the hypoconid; at the base
of the entoconid are three very small enamel
granules, one of which (the distal one) anteriorly defines the fovea posterior.
The buccal face is rather high, bulges just
above the neck, and tends to flatten near the
occlusal plane. It is divided into three lobes
by the grooves separating the three cusps.
The anterior lobe is slightly wider (on the
right m2 the enamel was lost due to a post
mortem fracture); the anterior groove ends,
on the right and on the left, in a dimple, as
in La Chaise Suard 14 (Tillier and Genet-
481
Varcin, 1980), Pech de YAz6 (Legoux, 1970),
and Combe Grenal (Genet-Varcin, 1982).
The mesial face, although obscured by sediments t h a t firmly join it to the distal face of
ml, seems to be vertical, like the distal face.
The lingual face, lower than the buccal, is
slightly convex, more so distally in t h a t part
t h a t corresponds to the entoconid. A very
small groove, between the metaconid and
the entoconid, divides it into two parts, as
far as half-way up the crown. X-rays show
two roots with very wide pulp cavities.
CONCLUSIONS
Study of the deciduous molar teeth of the
Neandertal child from Molare shows that
they have diameters and volumes recalling
those of the teeth of Mid-Pleistocene hominids. They always exceed Neandertal values
(either Western or Eastern Eurasian examples). Only a few teeth, usually the largest
sample from Krapina (ml: A 51 left; mz: 63
left and 68 right), are equal to or slightly
exceed the values in the Molare individual.
Therefore we suggest that these teeth show
plesiomorph traits, as in the case of the subrectangular (ml) and trapezoidal shape (m3
of their occlusal faces. Their morphological
characteristics, however, are quite within the
range of variation of Neandertal homologues.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research was financed by grants from
the Minister0 della Pubblica Istruzione (4060%)and the C.N.R. (Com. 05). Stratigraphic
archeological study was by A. Ronchitelli and
paleodontological study by F. Mallegni.
The excavation is directed by A. Ronchitelli
for the Soprintendenza Archeologica di
Salerno, with the participation of P. Gambassini (Siena University) and T. Alkouri,
C. Balbi, C.A. Bartoli, E. Battista, C. Camici,
A. Cipollone, F. Cangemi, G. Gardalino,
G. Grandinetti, M.A. Luperto, A. Maddalena,
G. Marroni, S. Martinelli, R. Mattia, A. Mazzoleni, A. Moroni, S. Porcellotti, F. Russo,
M. Serra, G. Santi, and N. Spocci.
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