Deciduous teeth of the Neandertal mandible from Molare Shelter near Scario (Salerno Italy).код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 79:475482 (1989) Deciduous Teeth of the Neandertal Mandible From Molare Shelter, Near Scario (Salerno, Italy) F. MALLEGNI A N D A.T. RONCHITELLI Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Set. di Paleontologia Umana Uniuersitd degli Studi, 56100 Pisa (F.M.) and Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Sez. di Preistoria Uniuersith degli Studi, 53100 Siena (A.T.R.), Italy KEY WORDS: ern Italy Paleodontology, Homo s. neanderthalensis, South- ABSTRACT Excavations a t hearth levels a t the Molare Shelter in 1985 yielded the mandible of a 3-4-year-old child. The associated lithic artifacts recovered with it are Mousterian. Its features, although quite archaic, are within the known range of variation of Neandertals. Four deciduous molars are still preserved in the mandible. They were compared with other known specimens, which date to the Middle and Upper Pleistocene. The metrical characteristics are surprisingly primitive, within the range of variation of Homo erectus, or at least within that of European Pre-Neandertals, more so than within the variability of typical Neandertal specimens. On the other hand, the morphological characteristics, except for a few that are decidedly plesiomorph, are predominantly Neandertal. The Molare Shelter excavation sequence began in 1984 and is still in progress. It was the subject of a preliminary description, based on field observations in the first study on the juvenile human mandible found there in September, 1985(Mallegni and Ronchitelli, 1987).As there have since been no significant paleoethnological discoveries or new facts useful for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, we shall restrict our comments here to the general stratigraphy and chronology of the deposits. (Data on the lithic industry associated with the human mandible are discussed in Mallegni and Ronchitelli, (1987). Analyses of sediments, fauna, and pollen are underway.) STRATIGRAPHY The Molare Shelter is what remains of a n ancient cave opening onto the Tyrrenian Sea on the Cilento coast between Palinuro and Sapri, about 2 km southwest of the village of Scario (Province of Salerno, Campania) (Fig. 1). The 10-m-thickcontinental deposit consists of red clay soils, alternating with breccia or concretions, which are intercalated in the upper part with four pyroclastic layers. The upper strata of the series occur as small outcrops on the rock wall, eroded and covered by @ 1989 ALAN R. LISS, INC stalagmite. There are 16 archeological layers, varying in abundance of archeological residues; they generally coincide with the layers of breccia. The whole deposit dates back to the Middle Paleolithic, a s will be shown below. The middle part of the infilling is the most interesting from a paleoethnological point of view, a s there are seven successive hearth levels rich in lithics and faunal remains, indicative of intense human occupation. The fauna of this accumulation consists mainly of cervids, with occasional caprids, bovids, wild boar, and rhinoceros; no horse remains occur. The human mandible was found at the bottom of this layer. As shown by Mallegni and Ronchitelli (1987), certain characteristics, especially the general volume of the main body of the jaw and also the teeth, are very archaic. In the absence of radiometric dating and systematic study of the findings, this poses the problem of the chronological dating of the deposit. For the moment we limit ourselves to a n estimate made from the layers below the continental series, and from evidence afforded by the lithic industry. Received April 5, 1988; accepted June 27, 1988. F. MALLEGNI AND A.T.RONCHITELLI 476 1 erodad 2 At the base of the continental series there is a layer of marine conglomerates, consisting of cemented pebbles of small-to-medium size. The upper limit, probably eroded, is now at 5.6 m above sea level. Below there is a second marine deposit consisting of large, not very elaborated blocks, in a matrix of yellowish cemented sand containing molluscs (mostly Spondylus) and coral (CladoCora coespitosa). (Radiometric dates ThZ3'/ U234on specimens of C. coespitosa from the same marine level of the Grotta della Cala a t Marina di Camerota are being performed by U.B. Schwarcz at the Department of Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada). The older level reaches 4.2 m above sea level and outcrops for long stretches along the coast of the Gulf of Policastro. It probably corresponds to the biocalcarenitic deposits of C. coespitosa of the Tyrrhenian coast of North Calabria, attributed by radiometric dating to a pre-Tyrrehnian sea level (Carobene et al., 1986). (Studies are in progress to establish the possible correlation between Cilento and Calabria deposits. Th230/U234 dates on Calabrian Cladocora have a range between > 350,000 and 252,000 years; dating of the same layer on Spondylus yielded a n age of about 142,000 years.) It is more difficult to date with certainty the overlying marine conglomerate, which does not seem to contain fossils. It should be noted, however, that in the adjacent Grotta Grande there are the same two successive deposits, and two specimens of Strombus were recently found in the red breccia contacting the upper conglomerate, suggesting a Tyrrhenian age for the higher sea level and thus a Last Glacial Age for the continental deposits. Such a chronological attribution is supported by the characteristics of the artifacts of the Molare Shelter, which can be assigned to a Mousterian industry. There is a certain amount of variation within the levels; the upper levels (Fig 1, levels 1 and 2) yielded tools from a late phase of the Middle Paleolithic, including flat and elongated artifacts t h a t are mostly points a n d side-scrapers, with only a modest incidence of the Levallois technique, although more than from the underlying levels. The tools associated with the mandible thus seem to belong to a n early phase of the Last Glacial, based on comFig. 1. Molare Shelter, schematic stratigraphic section. Numbers refer to archeological levels. NEANDERTAL TEETH FROM M O U E SHELTER parison with other Mousterian complexes in the region (Mallegni and Ronchitelli, 1987, pp. 166-168 and Fig. 3). The lithic industry studied to date-57 tools-is mostly points and side-scrapers; there is a Quinson piece and a few demi-Quina elements. It appears to be classifiable as Typical Mousterian with a medium index of scrapers (IRess = 45.8), nonLevallois “d6bitage” (IL = 3.1), faceted platforms (IF = 49.6 and IFs = 38.0), and a medium blade index (Ilam = 8.1). It is hoped that as the excavation and the study of a larger sample of archeological material progresses, fuller chronostratigraphic a n d cultural knowledge of the deposit will be gained. ODONTOLOGY In September, 1985the mandible (Fig. 2) of a 3-4-year-old Neandertal child was found (Mallegni and Ronchitelli, 1987). Anthropological study showed that the mandible has a number of both plesiomorphic and apomorphic metrical and morphometrical characteristics similar to those of more ancient Neandertal specimens. The great size is especially worth noting, in spite of the diagnosed dental age. Its four deciduous molars are the subject 477 of the present study. The anterior teeth were lost post mortem. State of preservation Of the four molars, only the right ml is perfectly preserved (Fig. 3); the others show post mortem enamel fractures. The right m2 lacks two enamel chips, one on the buccal face, below the protoconid, and the other on the occlusal surface, near the base of the entoconid, which is also largely damaged on the both sides (Fig.3).The left ml lacks almost all enamel on the buccal face (anterior half), the lingual face (posterior half), and the enamel once covering the occlusal surface. The hypoconid is preserved. The left m2 lacks the apex of the metaconid and the entoconid (Fig. 3). Measurements Measurements were taken by a Helios-digit EL 37594 caliber; values are shown in Table 1, with their respective indices. Absolute values of the maximal length (MD) and maximal breadth (BL) diameters of the left teeth are almost always greater than those of the right teeth, although only by a few tenths of a unit. The opposite is observed for the MD diameter at the neck and the two heights on Fig. 2. Molare Shelter mandible: norma superior. 478 F.MALLEGNI AND A.T. RONCHITELLI Fig. 3. Deciduous molars of the Neandertal mandible from Molare. A Occlusal side. B Buccal side. (Scale, 3:l). both the vestibular and the lingual side. In all measurements ml is smaller than m2,as is usually observed in modern children. Crown indices are always below 100 and range between 80.0 and 92.9. This finding indicates a slightly rectangular crown, in which MD diameter is always longer than BL, as in the teeth of modern children. Biometrical analysis and morphological observation of the first molars MD diameters in Molare 1 are usually longer than those of other Neandertal children and are only equalled by the maximum value of the series from Krapina. (The value of the left ml is in doubt due to the fragmentary condition of the crown.) This value seems to be more consistent with specimens from the Middle Pleistocene of Europe and of Zhoukoudian (ZKD) LOC.1 125 (right). The same phenomenon is observed in the case of the BL diameter; its value is only equalled by Arago XI (right) and Krapina (maximum value) and is only exceeded by Teshik Tash (right and left). The values of these two diameters are decidedly higher than those of the homologous teeth of the Upper Paleolithic human infants. The robustness of the crown of Molare 1 is consistently greater than that of other Neandertal children and is only exceeded by the largest example from Krapina. The crown index indicates a rec- tangular shape, as is nearly always observed in the European Mid-Pleistocene specimens and in ZKD-1 125 (right) (even though the value of the latter is quite exceptional). The West European Neandertal specimens USUally show more quadrangular shapes. Rectangular shapes are only observed in Bourgeois-Delaunay and Chateauneuf 2. Therefore it seems this shape is primitive, like the Bourgeois-Delaunay specimens (Genet-Varcin, 1982). Morphological observations are only possible on the right ml because the left is too fragmentary. The occlusal surface h a s four cusps, two on the buccal side (protoconid and hypoconid) a n d two on the lingual side (metaconid and entoconid), as in Chateauneuf 2, Combe Grenal, La Ferrassie 8, Krapina (mandible A), Kebara, and Pech de L'AzB. The number of cusps in the Neandertal ml is quite variable, from three (Archi) to five (Gibraltar 2, La Chaise, BourgeoisDelaunay, and some second molars from Krapina). The protoconid is big and robust, and its apex is higher t h a n those of the other cusps, in spite of slight wear on the hypoconid. The entoconid is smaller than the other three cusps, while the metaconid is only slightly less developed than the protoconid. Mesially, there is a deep fovea anterior, the axis of which is almost parallel to the mesial face of the crown. The protoconid 479 NEANDERTAL TEETH FROM MOLARE SHELTER TABLE 1. Comparison of metrical arid morphometrical values of the teeth from Molare 1 with those of Middle and Upper Pleistocene humans' MD BL MD X BL BL X 100/MD MD BL MD X BL BL X 100/MD 1 a b c d e f Rt Rt R R R R a b Lt Lt Rt 2 t t t t 7,7 9,8 - - - 6,6 7,O 9,0 10,l 8,4 9,9 94,5 123,2 98,3 110,9 85,7 82,8 71,4 88,4 9,5 9,3 98,8 99,5 91,3 86,9 de-Lumley, 1972 - 103,4 85,4 Tillier and Genet-Varcin, 1980 103,7 110,7 118,6 98,5 95,6 88,8 86,7 92,9 87,7 88,4 - - Patte, 1959; Tillier, 1979 79,O 90,9 103,6 93,l 89,4 89,l 88,s 96,9 Tillier, 1983 Genet-Varcin, 1982 Virchow, 1920 - 76,8 83,3 Heim, 1982 101,3 108,8 85.3 88,3 83,7 102.6 87,8 113,8 92,9 105,6 98,9 87,9 86,l 86,l 91,l 87,2 90,9 95,3 88,6 85,8 93,l 94,4 - 10,5 12,2 11,7 11,2 80,O 10,4 10,7 - - - 78,9 76,9 84,O 80,8 (81,6) 85,2 82,2 11,o 112 10,8 11,3 11,3 10,6 10,4 9,4 (8,4) 9,6 9.8 10,5 9,3 9,2 63,6 49,6 58,8 67,3 86,O - - 62t2 62,l 72,5 90,3 88,l 83,8 - - 75,O 80,3 65,2 83,l 83,6 86,2 65,7 66,O 81,l 85,2 - - - 10,O 8,O 80,O Rt 9,3 7,3 Lt 9,l 7,O b Lt 8,8 7,4 Molare Rt 9,9 8,O Lt (103) 6 4 ) 4 Rt 9.0 7.7 Lt 9,0 7,4 5 8,6 7,4 a Rt b Rt 8,O 6,2 6 Rt 8,4 7,O 7 Lt 9,l 7,4 - Rt 8 9 - Lt a b Rt 8,3 7,5 Lt 8,4 7,4 10 Lt 9,3 7,8 - 11 Rt - Lt - 12 X Mn 9,5 7,9 Mx 9,8 8,2 Rt 8,7 7,5 13 - 14 Lt - Rt 15 - Lt Rt 16 9,0 7,3 Lt 8,8 7,5 - Lt 17 - Lt 18 67,9 63,7 c - - - - - 50,8 68,6 85,7 71,4 Reference Weidenreich, 1937 - 3 a 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ~- Lt Rt Lt Rt Lt Rt Rt Lt Rt Lt Lt Rt Lt x ~~ 65,l 79,2 (865) 69,3 66,6 - - 77,s 83,3 81,3 - - - - - 8,s 9,0 9,0 9,0 8,9 7,5 8,5 8,7 7,l 7,5 66,O 76,5 78,3 63,9 66,7 85,2 94,4 96,5 78,9 84,3 8,8 8.8 7,8 7,5 68,6 66,O 88,6 85,2 9,5 7,5 71,2 78,9 - - - - - - 8.7 7.5 7:85 7;3 - - 65.2 67:6 - - 86.2 81:5 8,4 8,4 10,l 9,0 10,8 9,6 9,8 9 3 9,6 - 8,O - 10,9 11,l 92 9,2 10,8 10,l 11,5 10,l 11,O 11,o 10,5 10,6 10,6 10,2 9,3 9,8 (9,U 9,l 9,5 8,7 9,9 9,2 9,6 10,o 10,3 9,4 9,l 9,5 10,8 10,2 - 11,o 108,l 99,6 96,4 96,9 110,l - - - Ascenzi and Segre, 1971 Tillier, 1982 de Lumley, 1973 Wolpoff, 1979 Legoux, 1970 Genet-Varcin, 1972 Ullrich, 1955 Madre-Dupouy, 1985 Kolossov et al., 1975 Palma di Cesnola and Messeri, 1967 Schoetensack, 1895 Movixus, Jr., 1953 - - - - 11,O 10,2 9,6 9,5 105,6 96,9 87,3 81,3 92,4 95,7 93,l 93,9 96,4 90,9 88,5 95,O 92,l 85,8 - McCown and Keith, 1939 101,2 83,6 83.9? 9l;O 86,7 McCown and Keith, 1939 McCown and Keith. 1939 Senyuerek, 1959 Brabant. 1970 - 10,l 10,4 9,9 10,l 10,6 - - 9,15 9,2 9,4 9,3 9,l - 11,o 9,2 11.2 9.4-10 10,o '9,l 10,2 8,8 - - 105.8? 91;o 89,3 - Smith and Arensburgh, 1977 Suzuki and Takai, 1970 Tillier, 1979 IMI), maximal length in mm; BL, maximal breadth in mm; MD X BL, robustness of the crown; BL X 100/MD, crown index; rt, right; It, left. la-f, ZKD-1, 123, 125, 126,127, 128, 129; 2a-c, Arago I, V, XI; 3a, b, La Chaise; Suard 13,14;4,Archi; 5a, b, Chateuneauf 1,2;6, Engis; 7, La Chaise; Bourgeois-Delaunay; 8, Ehringsdorf; 9a, b, La Ferrassie 4bis, 8; 10, Gibraltar 2; 11, Hortus; 12, Krapina; 13, Pech de 1'Aze; 14, Le Placard;15, Staroselje;16,RocdeMarsal; 17, Zaskalnaya; 18,Uluzzo A; 19,Taubach;20, Teshik-Tash;21, Kebara;22, Amud 111; 23, Qafzeh 4; 480 F. MALLEGNI AND A.T. RONCHITELLI is joined to the metaconid by a thick enamel ridge, which is oblique and concave in the middle. On the mesial side, the enamel ridge defines a quite developed and deep fossa centralis, in the middle of which the grooves separate the four cusps, because they are confluent. The fovea posterior is almost absent; instead, there is a bent groove that separates the entoconid from the hypoconid. The trigonid is rather higher than the talonid and decidedly more extended, a s is usually observed in the Neandertal ml. The buccal face of the crown has a strong and continuous swelling, (cingulum) above the neck, which is more developed in the part corresponding to the protoconid and lessens when descending toward the middle of the neck. The maximum swelling is associated with the hypoconid. A similar disposition is present in the ml from Archi, Hortus, and La Ferrassie 8. The buccal face is rather higher mesially than distally. In the middle, between the protoconid and the hypoconid, there is a slight vertical groove. The lingual face is slightly convex and protrudes only slightly above the neck. X-rays reveal very wide pulp cavities. Biometrical analysis and morphological examination of the second molars The value of the mesiodistal diameter MD is among the highest of those taken on the m2 of Neandertal children. It is only exceeded by TABLE 2. Measurements and indices of the posterior deciduous inferior teeth of the Neandertal child from Molare m2 ml Maximal length (MD) Maximal breadth (BL) Mesio-distal diameter at at the neck Maximal buccal height Maximal lingual height Module of the crown1 MD-BL/ 2 Robustness of the crownz MD BL Crown index3 BL 100/MD HeightAength index4 H 100/MD Height/breadth index4 H buccal 100/BL lde Terra, 1905. PWeidenreich, 1937. 3Hrdlicka, 1920. 4Senyiierek, 1959. Right Left Right Left 9,9 8,0 (10,3) 9,s (9,7) 11,3 9,8 9,9 11,3 10,5 10,5 6,2 6,2 8,95 - 6,6 6,5 10,55 6,4 6,O 10,90 (8,4) (9,35) 79,2 (86,5) 110,7 118,65 80,8 (81,6) 86,7 92,9 63,6 - 58,4 56,6 78,6 - 67,3 61.0 the maximum value from Krapina. Similar to Molare are (in descending order): Tabun, Gibraltar 2, Teshik Tash, Staroselje, and Le Placard. Such a high value also exceeds those of known European Mid-Pleistocene children’s teeth, which usually show higher values than the Neandertals. In addition to the maximum value from Krapina, it is only exceeded by those of ZKD-1 nos. 127 and 128. An almost identical phenomenon is observed in the case of the buccal-lingual diameter, which exceeds that of all known Neandertals and also those of the so-called Pre-Neandertals. I n comparison with the ZKD-1 specimens, the value of Molare’s M2 is quite within their range of variation and is even slightly higher in the case of the left m2. I n comparison with values of the two diameters taken on Upper Paleolithic specimens, those of Molare are always higher. The robustness of Molare’s second deciduous molars is exceptional, especially in the case of the left m2; it is only exceeded by ZKD-1no. 127. Even Krapina, whichis nearly always higher than Molare as regards the values of the diameters, is rather lower in the case of its robustness, and only slightly exceeds Molare on the right side. With regard to the crown index, the right m2 is more rectangular than the left m2, which, on the other hand, tends to be more quadrangular. The values of this index are also quite variable in the other specimens. There are no clear tendencies toward the quadrangular shape passing from Homo erectus to Homo s. sapiens of the Upper Paleolithic. Although some ZKD-1 specimens show very low values, this phenomenon does not occur in European Pre-Neandertals. The occlusal face has a shape half-way between trapezoidal and rectangular. A trapezoidal shape seems to be more clearly defined, because the talonid is decidedly wider than the trigonid. We can clearly observe five cusps, placed according to the Dryopithecus scheme. The protoconid is well developed and high (the right m2 does not allow analysis because it is quite fragmentary due to post mortem fractures). Moreover, it is large, and slightly shifted forward with respect to the metaconid. Its size exceeds those of the other cusps, as usually occurs in the decidous m2 of other Neandertals. Only in Gibraltar 2 and Chateauneuf 2 is the metaconid the largest cusp (Tillier, 1979, 1982). The protoconid is separated from the hypoconid by a wide, but not very deep groove, while a groove of the NEANDERTAL TEETH FROM MOLARE SHELTER same sort separates the latter cusp from the hypoconulid. The hypoconid is approximately the same size of the metaconid. The hypoconulid is sharp (on the left m2 its apex is broken), and it is separated from the entoconid by a wide, deep space that is anteriorly and posteriorly circumscribed by two enamel ridges connecting the hypoconulid and entoconid. This space, defined as the fovea posterior, is more clearly delineated on the left m2 than on the corresponding right m2, where it is almost entirely filled with enamel fragments, which probably constitute the remains of the basal part of the entoconid, cemented here post mortem. It seems that the fovea posterior is a highly archaic structure, rarely present in modern second deciduous molars, but usually observed, either wider or narrower, in Neandertal children. Only in Combe Grenal 1 (Genet-Varcin, 1982) a n d Chateauneuf 2 (Tillier, 1979) is this structure absent or not clearly defined. The entoconid is large, but its cusp is flattened due to post mortem wear. It is separated anteriorly from the latter by an enamel ridge a n d from the metaconid by a wide groove t h a t is deeper than t h a t separating the protoconid from the hypoconid. The metaconid (in the left tooth its apex is fractured) is second in size after the protoconid. It is anteriorly separated from the latter by a n enamel ridge that defines a wide, deep fovea anterior, triangular in shape, with the apex facing the fossa centralis. The size order of the cusps is as follows: protoconid > metaconid > hypoconid = entoconid > hypoconulid. T h e trigonid is higher t h a n the talonid. The fossa centralis is deep and characterized by a certain complexity of grooves and wrinkles; one groove, in particular, interrupts the enamel ridge connecting the protoconid with the metaconid. An enamel granule (in the left m2) is a t the base of the groove that separates the protoconid from the hypoconid; at the base of the entoconid are three very small enamel granules, one of which (the distal one) anteriorly defines the fovea posterior. The buccal face is rather high, bulges just above the neck, and tends to flatten near the occlusal plane. It is divided into three lobes by the grooves separating the three cusps. The anterior lobe is slightly wider (on the right m2 the enamel was lost due to a post mortem fracture); the anterior groove ends, on the right and on the left, in a dimple, as in La Chaise Suard 14 (Tillier and Genet- 481 Varcin, 1980), Pech de YAz6 (Legoux, 1970), and Combe Grenal (Genet-Varcin, 1982). The mesial face, although obscured by sediments t h a t firmly join it to the distal face of ml, seems to be vertical, like the distal face. The lingual face, lower than the buccal, is slightly convex, more so distally in t h a t part t h a t corresponds to the entoconid. A very small groove, between the metaconid and the entoconid, divides it into two parts, as far as half-way up the crown. X-rays show two roots with very wide pulp cavities. CONCLUSIONS Study of the deciduous molar teeth of the Neandertal child from Molare shows that they have diameters and volumes recalling those of the teeth of Mid-Pleistocene hominids. They always exceed Neandertal values (either Western or Eastern Eurasian examples). Only a few teeth, usually the largest sample from Krapina (ml: A 51 left; mz: 63 left and 68 right), are equal to or slightly exceed the values in the Molare individual. Therefore we suggest that these teeth show plesiomorph traits, as in the case of the subrectangular (ml) and trapezoidal shape (m3 of their occlusal faces. Their morphological characteristics, however, are quite within the range of variation of Neandertal homologues. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was financed by grants from the Minister0 della Pubblica Istruzione (4060%)and the C.N.R. (Com. 05). Stratigraphic archeological study was by A. Ronchitelli and paleodontological study by F. Mallegni. The excavation is directed by A. Ronchitelli for the Soprintendenza Archeologica di Salerno, with the participation of P. Gambassini (Siena University) and T. Alkouri, C. Balbi, C.A. Bartoli, E. Battista, C. Camici, A. Cipollone, F. Cangemi, G. Gardalino, G. Grandinetti, M.A. Luperto, A. Maddalena, G. Marroni, S. Martinelli, R. Mattia, A. Mazzoleni, A. Moroni, S. Porcellotti, F. Russo, M. Serra, G. Santi, and N. Spocci. LITERATURE CITED Ascenzi A and Segre A (1971) A new Neandertal child mandible from an Upper Pleistocene site in Southern Italy. Nature 233~280-282. Brabant H (1970) La denture humaine au Paleolithique supkieur d'Europe. In G Camp and G Olivier (eds.): L'homme de Cro-Magnon 1868-1968. Arts et Metiers Graphiques, Pans pp. 99-119. Carobene L, Dai Pra G, and Gewelt M (1986)Niveaux marins du Pleistocene moyen-superieur de la cdte tyrrhenienne de la Calabre (Italie mkridionale). Datation 482 F. MALLEGNI AND A.T. RONCHITELLI Th/23o/U234 et tectonique rkcente. Z. Geomorph. N.F., Suppl.-Bd. 62141-158. Genet-Varcin E (1972) Etude de deux molaires infkrieures humaines dkcouvertes dans le gisement du Placard (Charante). Ann. Paleontol. (Vertebr.) 58:133-147. Genet-Varcin E (1982)Vestiges humains du Wurmien infkrieur de Combe-Grenal Commune de Domme (Dordogne). Ann. Palkontol. (Vertebr.) 68~133-169. Heim J L (1982) Les enfants Nkanderthaliens de La Ferrassie. Fondation Singer Polignac. Paris: Masson. Hrdlicka A (1920) Shovel-shaped teeth. Am. J . Phys. Anthropol. 3:429-463. Kolossov YG, Kharitonov VM, and Yakimov VP (1975) Paleanthropic specimens from site Zaskalnaya VI in the Crimea. In RH Tuttle (ed.):Paleanthropology, Morphology, and Paleaecology. La Haye: pp. 419-428. Legoux P (1970) Etude odontologique de l’enfant Nkanderthalien du Pech de l’Azk. In n Ferembach et a1 (eds): L‘Enfant du Pech de l’Azk. Arch. Inst. Palbntol. Hum. 33:53-87 and 140-143. Lumley de AM (1972) Les Neanderthaliens de la grotte de 1’Hortus. In: La Grotte de l’Hortus (Valflaunb-Herault). Etud. Quat. 1:375-385. Lumley de MA (1973) Antkneanderthaliens et Nkanderthaliens du Bassin mkditerranken occidental europeen. Etud. Quat. 2:626. Madre-Dupouy M (1985) Les dents dkciduales de l’enfant Nkanderthalien du Roc de Marsal, Dordogne, France. Etude analytique et comparative. Deuxibme partie: Btude de la dentition infkrieure.Anthropologie 89:93-109. Mallegni F and Ronchitelli A (1987) Dkcouverte d’une mandible nkandertalienne A I’abri du Molare prks de Scario (Salerne-Italie): Observations stratigraphiques et palethnologiques. Etude anthropologique. Anthropologie 91:163-174. McCown TD and Keith A (1939) The stone age of Mount Carmel. 11. The fossil remains from the LevalloisMousterian. Oxford Clarendon Press. Movius HL J r (1953)The mousterian cave of Teshik-Tash, southeastern Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Bull. Am. School. Prehist. Res. 17:ll-71. Palma di Cesnola A and Messeri P (1967) Quatre dents humaines paleolithiques trouvkes dans les caverns de 1’Italie M6ridionale. Anthropologie 71:249-262. Patte E (1959) La dentition des Nkandertaliens. Ann. Paleontol. 45223-238. Schoetensack 0 (1895) Diluvial funde van Tauback (Weiner).Z. Ethnol. 27~92-95. Senyderek MS (1959) A study of the decidous teeth of a fossil Shanidar infant. Ankara: Turk Tarish Kurumu Basimeir. Smith P and Arensburgh B (1977) A Mousterian skeleton from Kebara Cave. Moshk Stekelis Memorial Volume. Jerusalem: The Israel Society, pp. 164-176. Suzuki H and Takai F (1970)The Amud man and his cave. Orlando, FL Academic Press (University of Tokyo). Tillier AM (1979) La dentition de I’enfant mousterien Chateauneuf 2 dkcouvert A l’abri de Hauteroche (Charente). Anthropologie 83:417-438. Tillier AM (1982) Les enfants nkanderthaliens de Devil’s Tower (Gibraltar). Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 73:125-148. Tillier AM (1983) Le Cr6ne d’enfand d’Engis 2: un exemple de distribution des carectkus iuvbniles. orimitifs et n6anoterthaliens. Bull. Sac. Roy. Belge, Anthrop. Prhhist., 94: 51-76. Tillier AM and Genet-Varcin E (1980) La plus ancienne mandibule d’enfant dkouverte en France dans le gisement de La Chaise de Vouthon (Abri Suard) en Charente. Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 71:196-214. Ullrich van H (1955) Palaolithische Menschenreste aus der Sowjetunion. 1: Das Kind van Staroseje (Krim). Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 47:90-112. Virchow H (1920) Die Menschlichen Skelettreste aus dem Kampe’schen Brusch im Travertin van Ehringsdorf bei Weimar. G. Fischer, Iena pp. 1-14. Weidenreich F (1937) The dentition of Sinanthropus pekinensis, a comparative odontography of the hominids. Palaeontol. Sinica, D 1:180. Wolpoff MH (1979) The Krapina dental remains. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 50537-114. ,.