Demographic trends and biological status of historic populations from Central Poland The Ostrw Lednicki microregion.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 125:369 –381 (2004) Demographic Trends and Biological Status of Historic Populations From Central Poland: The Ostrów Lednicki Microregion Alicja Budnik,* Grażyna Liczbińska, and Izabela Gumna Department of Anthropology, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-701 Poznań, Poland KEY WORDS life tables; opportunity for natural selection; exogamy; coefﬁcients of kinship ABSTRACT The microregion of Ostrów Lednicki in the province of Wielkopolska was the center of the formation of the Polish State in Early Middle Ages. The analysis of skeletal remains and parish records from the region documented the biological status of inhabitants and its changes over a millennium. The study material comprised 424 human skeletons from an Early Medieval burial ground on Lake Lednica, records of 2,704 deaths from the registers of the Roman Catholic parish of Dziekanowice, made between 1818 –1903, data on the deaths of 929,192 inhabitants of rural areas all over the province Wielkopolska obtained from Prussian statistical materials for the years 1865–1900, and comparative data from the literature. Assuming both a stationary population model and a stable population model with nonzero natural increase, parameters of life tables and measures of opportunity for natural selection (Crow’s index Im, potential gross reproductive rate Rpot, and the biological state index Ibs) were calculated for the Early Middle Ages and for the two periods of the 19th century which were characterized by different laws of land ownership and thus different rural economies. In the ﬁrst period, peasants were tenants, whereas in the second, they were given freehold of the land they cultivated. Causes of death were also analyzed. A distinct increase in longevity from the early Middle Ages to the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century was found. This was related to a higher level of demographic development in the parish of Dziekanowice during the 19th century, which was achieved earlier than in other areas of Poland. This was conﬁrmed by genetic measures: coefﬁcients of exogamy and coefﬁcients of kinship. The reasons were related to the historical prominence of this region and to its proximity to the ﬁrst two capitals of the Polish state, Gniezno and Poznań. Am J Phys Anthropol 125:369 –381, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. In the vicinity of Poznań and Gniezno, the two ﬁrst capitals of the Medieval Polish state, within the ancient territory of the Polanie tribe (Polonians), there lies the glacial channel of Lake Lednica (Fig. 1). The landscapes of the areas around the lake are typical for the Wielkopolska region, with its numerous moraine hills, extensive ﬂat farmlands, and scrub forests. Richness of the local natural resources was conducive to human activity in the past. The second half of the 10th century (the early Middle Ages in Poland) brought a dramatic increase in settlement in the area surrounding the lake. At that time, on the lake’s largest island (called Ostrów Lednicki), Prince Mieszko I, the ﬁrst historical ruler of the Polish state, built one of the country’s leading cities of great strategic, residential, and religious importance (Górecki, 1991; Kurnatowska, 1987; Kurnatowska and Kurnatowski, 1991). Ruins of the city are protected as a national monument because it was the site of the ofﬁcial acceptance of the Polish state into the Christendom in 966. The construction of the city on Ostrów Lednicki island initiated the erection of numerous settlements around the lake. Archaeologists observed a distinct concentration of archaeological ﬁnds in the surroundings of the present-day villages of this microregion. The majority of these villages have documented medieval origins (Kurnatowska and Kurnatowski, 1991; Sulimierski, 2002). Among them are the villages of the Roman Catholic parish of Dziekanowice (Fig. 1). The parish has well-kept public registers covering the years 1818 –1903. In the proximity of the village of Dziekanowice, on the shore of Lake Lednica, there is the Early Medieval burial ground Dziekanowice 22 (Fig. 1). The purpose of this work is: 1) to characterize biological dynamics in rural populations of the Ostrów Lednicki microregion in the Early Middle Ages, in the 19th century, and at the beginning of the 20th century; and 2) to determine whether the fact that in the Early Middle Ages Ostrów Lednicki was the © 2004 WILEY-LISS, INC. *Correspondence to: Alicja Budnik, Department of Anthropology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland. E-mail:email@example.com Received 24 April 2001; accepted 13 December 2002. DOI 10.1002/ajpa.10272 Published online 26 July 2004 in Wiley InterScience (www. interscience.wiley.com). 370 A. BUDNIK ET AL. Fig. 1. Wielkopolska (Provinz Posen) in 19th century on map of present-day Poland and Ostrów Lednicki microregion. 1, Lake Lednica; 2, Ostrów Lednicki island; 3, burial ground Dziekanowice 22; solid circles, villages of parish of Dziekanowice. locus of one of the most important centers of power in the Polish state could have an effect on the demographic development of the microregion and the biological status of its inhabitants in the following ages. MATERIALS Two types of materials were used in the study. First, there were the skeletal remains excavated from the burial ground in Dziekanowice, site 22. This burial ground is situated at a distance of approximately 90 m from the eastern shore of Lake Lednica, opposite Ostrów Lednicki island, in the vicinity of one of the Medieval bridge abutments (Fig. 1). Graves are dated to the period extending from the mid-11th century through the end of the 12th century (the Early Middle Ages).The remains of a settlement, existing from the 10th through the mid-11th century, were discovered in the same area (Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński, 1998a). Most skeletons were oriented in an east-west axis. Nearly every other skeleton had accompanying grave goods. Among those most common were knives and hair-rings (small hoops hung around the temples of women). Also, a number of objects of everyday use were found: nails, bone adzes, earthenware weaving weights, pottery, buckets, sharpening stones, a ﬂintbox, scissors, bone whistles, and jewelry. Among the jewelry were glass and tin beads, belt buckles and studs, silver and bronze rings, and gilded objects. In several graves, coins were found, while in several others, small stone balls, probably sling missiles, were present. One burial contained an arrowhead. Among especially richly endowed burials was that of a male with a sword. It was covered by a cobblestone pavement (Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński, 1998b). Systematic excavation of the burial ground started in 1977. Thus far 424 human skeletons have been excavated. For these individuals, Anna Wrzesińska constructed a preliminary stationary life table (Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński, 1998a). Secondly, there were the data on the mortality of the population of the Roman Catholic parish of Dziekanowice found in the parish death registers for the years 1818 –1903, deposited in the State Archives in Poznań and in the Archdiocesan Archives in Gniezno. In the period under study, the parish comprised nine villages: Dziekanowice, Jeziorzany, Komorowo, Lednogóra, Moraczewo, Piaski, Siemianowo, Waliszewo, and Żydówko (Fig. 1). All of them had complete death records for the period studied. The parish was and still is a typical rural microregion of Wielkopolska. The study covers a period of great signiﬁcance for the history of the 19th century in rural Wielkopolska, because in the years 1823– 1865, Prussian enfranchisement laws were implemented in the region. The enfranchisement abolished tenancy and gave peasants full ownership (freehold) of lands they cultivated. This removed feudal dependence on landowners, and caused gradual replacement of feudal structures in rural areas by the free market system, typical for a capitalist economy. The Prussian state took the ﬁrst step towards enfranchisement in its 1811 edict. The process of changing land ownership rights reached Wielkopolska several years later. Full implementation of the reforms stretched over the next 40 years (Borowski, 1962, 1967; Davies, 1981; Jakóbczyk, 1959a,b). For the purposes of the present analysis, two periods were distinguished. The ﬁrst (1818 – 1850) covers the time preceding the principal part of the agrarian reform. The second, lasting from 1851– 1903, covers the actual time of the implementation of the reform and the time following the enfranchisement. In total, data on the deaths of 2,704 individuals of Roman Catholic persuasion were gathered. We were also able to establish the cause of death for most of them (88%). In addition, for comparison purposes, data on the deaths of 929,192 inhabitants of all the villages of Wielkopolska were gathered from original Prussian statistics for the years 1865–1900. At that time, this part of Poland was occupied by Prussia and was referred to as Provinz Posen (Preussische Statistik, 1869, 1870, 1874, 1876a,b, 1878 –1900). We also used data from literature referring to mortality in two 19th century rural parishes: Szczepanowo in Wielkopolska (Henneberg, 1977a,b, 1978), and Wielkie Drogi near Kraków in southern Poland (at that time, Galicia was under the rule of Austria; Puch, 1989, 1993). METHODS The determination of sex and age at death of the skeletons found in the burial ground Dziekanowice 22 was performed by Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński (1998a). 371 BIOLOGICAL STATUS: POLISH HISTORICAL POPULATIONS Methodological and theoretical problems and controversies concerning mortality in earlier human populations are well-known (e.g., Acsádi and Nemeskéri, 1970; Angel, 1969; Bocquet-Appel and Masset, 1982, 1996; Buikstra and Konigsberg, 1985; Gage, 1988, 1991; Henneberg and Steyn, 1994; Howell, 1982; Johansson and Horowitz, 1986; Konigsberg and Frankenberg, 1992, 1994; Meindl and Russel, 1998; Milner at al., 1989; Paine, 1989; Piontek and Weber, 1990; Sattenspiel and Harpending, 1983; Van Gerven and Armelagos, 1983; Weiss, 1973; Wood at al., 1992). In particular, hazard models (Gage, 1988, 1991; Wood at al.,1992) and maximum likelihood methods (Paine, 1989) are recommended in paleodemography, instead of standard life tables calculated by Halley’s method. It is commonly thought that the age structure reconstructed from the age-at-death distribution of individuals buried in a cemetery, especially one used over a long period of time, does not reﬂect age structure of a living population in a given period. Hence, life tables built from archaeological skeletal samples are regarded with criticism. However, Henneberg and Henneberg (2001) showed that the age distribution of persons deceased during the catastrophic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD in Pompeii did not differ from age distributions derived from classical ancient cemeteries in Southern Italy. These cemeteries would normally be criticized as unreliable sources of demographic data, and yet they produce parameters of life tables very similar to those obtained for Pompeii. Moreover, the age distribution in the series from Pompeii does not differ signiﬁcantly from the age structure derived earlier by Henneberg (1977a) from the parish records of a preindustrial Central European population. In this work, life tables were constructed both for the skeletal material and for the death register material from the 19th century and from the beginning of the 20th century. In each case, tables were made for two population models: 1) for the stationary population model, by Halley’s classical method (Acsádi and Némeskeri, 1970), and 2) for the stable population model with nonzero natural increase. Natural increase is deﬁned here as the difference between crude birth and death rates (Holzer, 1980; Pressat, 1961). In the latter case, distribution of the deceased was reconstructed according to the following formula: D⬘x ⫽ Dx(1 ⫹ r)x (Holzer, 1980; Pressat, 1961), where Dx⬘ is the number of deceased at age x for the stable population, Dx is the number of deceased at age x for the stationary population, r is the annual natural increase rate, and x is number of years from birth till death. Details of this approach were discussed by Henneberg and Steyn (1994). The values of natural increase for the population of Wielkopolska from the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century were adopted after Borowski (1969). A number of life tables were built for the Early Medieval sample from the Dziekanowice burial ground, using various levels of natural increase, from 0.000 – 0.025. These life tables were then compared with the model life tables of Weiss (1973), and the one closest to the model was chosen as representative. In this way, the most probable rate of natural increase was determined. In archaeological skeletal materials, there is often no adequate representation of deceased children, and of neonates, infants, and young children in particular. Since a similar situation occurred at the Dziekanowice 22 site, we adjusted the number of the individuals deceased at age 0 –14 years, using the method proposed by Henneberg (1977c): d 0–14 ⫽ 1 ⫺ Ro 䡠 2 , Rpot 䡠 Uc where d0 –14 is a fraction of children deceased before reaching year 15 of life, Uc is an average number of children born over the reproductive period of a female in the population under study, Rpot denotes the potential gross reproductive rate (see below), and R0 is the net reproductive rate. For the stationary population model, R0 ⫽ 1. The difference between the probable child death frequency estimated in this way and the frequency obtained for the burial ground was distributed among child age categories according to the most common sequence of child mortality in historical populations from the area of Poland (e.g., Gumna, 2000; Puch, 1989). Rpot rate measures the opportunity for natural selection through adult mortality, and is expressed with the following formula (Henneberg, 1975, 1976): 冘 ds, R pot ⫽ 1 ⫺ x x x⫽15 where dx is a fraction of the individuals deceased at the age x, is the age of the oldest individual in the group, and sx is a probability of not having a complete number of offspring at age x or, in other words, the index of reproductive loss by age. This is a value resulting from the “fertility archetype” which is common for non-Malthusian populations. In this work, we used sx values given by Henneberg (1975, 1976; see also Stephan and Henneberg, 2001). The Rpot rate is a component of the biological state index Ibs. The index is a measure of the total opportunity for natural selection through mortality. It takes into account both the deaths of sexually immature individuals and the differential mortality of individuals in the reproductive phase of adult life. The general form of this index is (Henneberg, 1976; Henneberg and Piontek, 1975; Stephan and Henneberg, 2001): 冘ds, I bs ⫽ 1 ⫺ x x x⫽0 symbols as explained above. 372 A. BUDNIK ET AL. TABLE 1. Abridged life table for the Early Medieval skeletal sample of Dziekanowice 221 Age N dx lx qx ex 0 1 7 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 ⫺ x 32.0 68.0 25.0 28.0 89.5 76.5 63.5 33.5 7.0 1.0 7.5 16.0 5.9 6.6 21.1 18.0 15.0 7.9 1.7 0.2 99.9 92.2 76.4 70.5 63.9 42.8 24.8 9.8 1.9 0.2 0.07 0.17 0.08 0.09 0.33 0.42 0.60 0.81 0.89 1.0 26.4 27.5 26.7 20.6 17.4 13.6 9.8 7.1 6.0 5.0 1 Stationary population model, without correction of number of children, after Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński, 1998a, N ⫽ 424. Theoretically, the values of Rpot and Ibs can fall into the range from 0 –1. Apart from the two above-mentioned measures of intensity of natural selection through mortality, we also estimated the value of Crow’s classical index Im (Crow, 1958). In this index, mortality variance is measured by the ratio of individuals who died before reaching sexual maturity (Pd) to the number of individuals who reached the age at which the reproductive period starts (Ps): Im ⫽ Pd/Ps. The statistical signiﬁcance of the differences in life expectancy ex in life tables was assessed using nomograms and standard error tables (Henneberg and Strzałko, 1975). Percentage frequencies of causes of death in the parish Dziekanowice and in other rural settlements of Wielkopolska were determined. Statistical significance of differences between those distributions was tested by means of the u-test (Oktaba, 1976). A single level of signiﬁcance ␣ ⫽ 0.05 was adopted for all tests. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Mortality and biological dynamics in the Ostrów Lednicki microregion in the Early Middle Ages The starting point for our analyses was the age distribution of the deceased buried at the cemetery. The newborn life expectancy e0 in the life table constructed on the basis of this distribution for the stationary population model was 26.4 years (Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński, 1998a; Table 1). It is a relatively high value. It is similar to the e0 value from the Early Medieval model Hungarian table (Acsádi and Némeskeri, 1970). However, it is insufﬁcient for drawing serious biological conclusions. This is because it may result from an unrealistically low frequency of child skeletons excavated at this cemetery. Many authors (e.g., Angel, 1969; Henneberg, 1977c; Lovejoy et al., 1977; Meindl and Russell, 1998; Mensforth, 1990; Piasecki and Florkowski, 1979; Piontek, 1977) pointed to the fact that the numbers of children in cemeteries were often underestimated. In Dziekanowice 22, the proportion of the deceased in the 0 –14-year category was 29.4%, and the 0 –1-year category was represented only by 7.5% of the deceased. It is hardly possible that the death rate of children, especially of neonates and infants, in this population was lower than the death rate recorded in 19th century rural populations. This underrepresenation of individuals who had died in the ﬁrst year of life also resulted in apparently high survivorship to reproductive age (l15 ⫽ 70.5%). Dependence between frequencies of deceased children and newborn life expectancies is illustrated in Table 2. Due to questionable reliability of e0 values computed directly from skeletal samples, Table 2 also contains adult life expectancies (e20) that should be less inﬂuenced by age-speciﬁc underrepresentation of skeletons. Adult life expectancies were rather low in all skeletal samples from the Ostrów Lednicki microregion: Dziekanowice 22, Diekanowice 2 (a small burial ground about 2 km south of Dziekanowice 22), and Ostrów Lednicki. Comparison of adult age distributions (Fig. 2) provides a partial explanation of low adult life expectancy values. In all samples, with the exception of Ostrów Lednicki, the modal number of deceased lies in the age category 20 –29 years. A similar situation was observed in Early Medieval skeletal samples from Western Pomerania (Miłosz, 1989). We attempted to adjust the number of the deceased children with the method proposed by Henneberg (1977c). The total number of deceased in the 0 –14-year category was estimated at 47.9% of all the deceased with the following assumptions: gross reproductive rate Rpot ⫽ 0.64 (Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński, 1998a), net reproductive rate R0 ⫽ 1 (the stationary population model), and average number of births per woman Uc ⫽ 6. Two-thirds of the difference between the estimated number of deceased children and the actual number excavated were allocated to 0 –1-year category, and one-third to 1– 6year category. The distribution of deceased by age adjusted in this manner was adopted as a basis for the construction of a new life table. Following this correction, the newborn life expectancy decreased by more than 6.5 years (Table 3, Fig. 3). This is a statistically signiﬁcant difference. Probability of a newborn’s death increased more than tripled, while the survivorship to age 15 years became about 50%. This life table ﬁts much better one of the models of Weiss (1973) (MT, 20.0 –50.0) than the life table without correction. The assumption of the stationary character of the population involves a great generalization and was frequently criticized in the past (e.g., Angel, 1969; Howell, 1982; Johansson and Horowitz, 1986). Bennett (1973) and Weiss (1973) were the ﬁrst researchers to apply the stable population theory to skeletal materials. A number of life tables were constructed for the Early Medieval sample from the Dziekanowice 22 site, assuming various rates of natural increase. From among these, we selected a table with values best ﬁtting the model life table MT 22.5– 65.0 (Weiss, 1973). In this way, we concluded that the 373 BIOLOGICAL STATUS: POLISH HISTORICAL POPULATIONS TABLE 2. Percentage of deceased subadults d0 –14, values of newborn life expectancy e0, and adult life expectancy e20 (in years) for skeletal samples in Middle Ages1 Sample Period d0–14 e0 e20 Authors Dziekanowice 22, Poland Dziekanowice 2, Poland Ostrów Lednicki, Poland 11th–12th centuries 11th century 10th–14th centuries 29.4 9.3 2.1 26.4 28.0 41.4 17.4 16.0 17.9 Westerhus, Sweden Hungarian series (model) Espenfeld, Germany 1100–1350 AD 10th–12th centuries Early Middle Ages 56.6 39.4 49.2 19.9 28.7 19.0 21.1 27.5 15.4 Ptuj, Slovenia 10th–11th centuries 22.8 37.3 26.6 Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński, 1998a Henneberg and Puch, 1989 Calculated by authors from Godycki, 1956; Wokroj, 1953; Henneberg and Kozak, 1976 Calculated by authors from Gejvall, 1960 Acsádi and Nemeskéri, 1970 Bach and Bach, after Henneberg and Strzal兾lko, 1975 Calculated by authors from Ivaniček, 1951 1 Stationary population model, without correction of number of children. Fig. 2. Distribution of age at death in skeletal samples of adults from Middle Ages. Fig. 3. Values of life expectancy ex in Early Medieval skeletal sample of Dziekanowice 22 (stationary population model and stable population model with r ⫽ 0.015). most likely rate of natural increase in the Early Medieval population of Dziekanowice was 0.015 per year (Table 3).When this natural increase was taken into account, the newborn life expectancy increased signiﬁcantly to 25.4 years. The average age of an adult at death was almost 40 years (Fig. 3). The percentage of individuals reaching the reproductive period (l15 ⫽ 64.1%) was practically as high as in the villages of the studied microregion in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century (Table 6). However, the percentage of individuals surviving to senility (l60 ⫽ 2.7%) was incommensurately lower (Table 6). This may reﬂect problems with assessing the age of older individuals in skeletal material. Values of the indices of the opportunity for natural selection through differential mortality in Dziekanowice and in a number of other Medieval populations are shown in Table 4. Values of the potential gross reproductive rate (Rpot) indicate that individuals who reached adulthood realized 69% of their reproductive potential, due to premature mortality during their reproductive lifespans. In general, at best, 45% of all individuals born into the population had a chance to fully participate in the reproduction of the next generation and hence to pass their genes into its gene pool. This is indicated by the values of the biological state index (Ibs). This index measures the overall opportunity for the operation of natural selection through mortality. It takes into account not only deaths of sexually immature subadults (as does the Crow’s Im) but also the premature mortality of adults before they reach the end of their reproductive life span. Thus, the biological state index provides more complete information about the opportunity for natural selection through differential mortality than does the Crow’s Im index. Values of the indices of the opportunity for selection calculated for the Dziekanowice 22 sample fall within the range of values observed for other Medieval populations (Table 4). Mortality and biological dynamics in the parish of Dziekanowice in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century Biometric functions of life tables calculated from Dziekanowice parish records for the two periods: I (before the enfranchisement of peasants) and II (after enfranchisement) are shown in Tables 5 and 6. In addition, Tables 7 and 8 and Figures 4 –7 show 374 A. BUDNIK ET AL. TABLE 3. Abridged life tables for Early Medieval skeletal sample of Dziekanowice 22 after correcting for underrepresenation of children Stable population model (rate of natural increase of r ⫽ 0.015 per year) Stationary population model Age dx lx qx ex dx lx qx ex 0 1 7 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 ⫺ x 23.1 20.5 4.3 4.9 15.6 13.3 11.0 5.8 1.2 0.2 100.0 76.9 56.3 52.0 47.1 31.6 18.3 7.2 1.4 0.2 0.23 0.27 0.07 0.09 0.33 0.42 0.60 0.81 0.87 1.0 19.9 24.7 26.7 20.6 17.4 13.6 9.8 7.2 6.2 5.0 16.6 15.5 3.6 4.5 16.1 16.0 15.4 9.4 2.3 0.4 100.0 83.3 67.8 64.1 59.6 43.5 27.5 12.1 2.7 0.4 0.17 0.19 0.05 0.07 0.27 0.37 0.56 0.78 0.86 1.0 25.4 29.4 29.4 22.9 19.4 14.8 10.5 7.5 6.4 5.0 TABLE 4. Measures of opportunity for natural selection through differential mortality in skeletal samples in Middle Ages (stationary population model) Sample Period Im Rpot Ibs Dziekanowice 22, Poland Dziekanowice 22, Poland1 Dziekanowice 2, Poland2 Ostrów Lednicki, Poland3 Gruczno, Poland4 West Pomerania, Poland5 Sulejovice, Czech Republic4 Mikulčice, Czech Republic4 Ptuj, Slovenia4 Westerhus, Sweden6 Espenfeld, Germany7 11th–12th centuries 11th–12th centuries 11th century 10th–14th centuries 11th–12th centuries 10th–12th centuries 10th century Early Middle Ages 10th–11th centuries 1100–1350 AD Early Middle Ages 0.92 0.56 1.00 0.64 0.69 0.62 0.65 0.65 0.69 0.56 0.76 0.71 0.66 0.60 0.33 0.45 0.31 0.33 0.39 0.28 0.30 0.49 0.48 0.29 0.30 1.30 0.96 Stable population model (r ⫽ 0.015). After Henneberg and Puch, 1989. 3 After Henneberg and Kozak, 1976. 4 After Piontek, 1979. 5 After Miłosz, 1989. 6 Calculated by authors from Gejvall, 1960. 7 Calculated by authors from Bach and Bach, after Henneberg and Strzałko, 1975. 1 2 TABLE 5. Abridged life tables for parish of Dziekanowice in 19th century and at beginning of 20th century1 Period I, before enfranchisement (1818–1850), N ⫽ 751 Period II, during and after enfranchisement (1851–1903), N ⫽ 1,891 Age dx lx qx ex dx lx qx ex 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90–100 40.5 5.6 3.5 4.1 3.3 4.3 3.5 4.7 1.6 3.3 2.0 4.0 2.3 6.8 2.7 4.5 0.5 2.1 0.8 100.0 59.5 53.9 50.5 46.3 43.0 38.7 35.3 30.6 29.0 25.7 23.7 19.7 17.4 10.6 8.0 3.5 2.9 0.8 0.40 0.09 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.1 0.09 0.13 0.05 0.11 0.08 0.17 0.11 0.39 0.25 0.57 0.15 0.72 1.0 28.3 39.5 38.3 35.8 33.7 31.1 29.3 26.9 25.6 21.9 19.4 15.9 13.6 10.0 9.8 7.2 8.5 4.5 5.0 53.0 5.8 1.8 1.9 2.5 3.2 1.9 3.2 2.3 2.8 2.0 3.9 2.7 4.2 2.8 3.0 1.2 0.9 0.6 100.0 47.0 41.1 39.3 37.4 34.9 31.7 29.8 26.5 24.3 21.4 19.4 15.5 12.7 8.5 5.7 2.7 1.5 0.6 0.53 0.12 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.06 0.11 0.09 0.12 0.09 0.20 0.18 0.33 0.34 0.52 0.43 0.62 1.0 23.3 40.1 40.4 37.2 34.0 31.2 29.1 25.9 23.7 20.7 18.1 14.7 12.8 10.1 8.8 7.0 7.0 5.3 5.0 1 Stationary population model, without stillbirths. newborn and adult life expectancies in Dziekanowice and in some other 19th century populations selected for comparison. Compared to the Early Middle Ages, the reduction of mortality was very distinct, especially when life tables for the stable population model are consid- 375 BIOLOGICAL STATUS: POLISH HISTORICAL POPULATIONS TABLE 6. Abridged life tables for parish of Dziekanowice in 19th century and at beginning of 20th century (stable population model) Period II, during and after enfranchisement (1851–1903), rate of natural increase of r ⫽ 0.0151 per year Period I, before enfranchisement (1818–1850), rate of natural increase of r ⫽ 0.0122 per year Age dx lx qx ex dx lx qx ex 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90–100 28.2 4.1 2.7 3.4 2.9 4.0 3.5 4.7 1.8 4.0 2.5 5.4 3.3 10.4 4.3 7.8 1.0 4.1 1.8 100.0 71.8 67.7 65.0 61.5 58.6 54.6 51.1 46.4 44.6 40.6 38.1 32.7 29.4 19.0 14.7 6.9 5.9 1.8 0.28 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.04 0.09 0.06 0.14 0.10 0.35 0.23 0.53 0.14 0.70 1.0 38.9 47.0 44.7 41.5 38.7 35.5 32.9 30.0 27.8 23.8 20.9 17.1 14.5 10.9 10.4 7.7 8.7 4.7 5.0 35.8 4.2 1.4 1.6 2.3 3.1 2.1 3.7 2.8 3.8 2.9 6.8 4.6 7.6 5.5 6.1 2.6 2.3 1.6 100.0 64.2 60.0 58.5 56.9 54.6 51.5 49.5 45.8 43.0 39.2 36.3 30.3 25.7 18.2 12.7 6.5 3.9 1.6 0.36 0.07 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.17 0.15 0.29 0.30 0.48 0.40 0.58 1.0 36.3 48.8 47.1 43.2 39.4 35.9 32.9 29.2 26.3 22.9 19.9 16.2 14.0 11.0 9.5 7.6 7.4 5.6 5.0 TABLE 7. Values of life expectancy (in years) in parish of Dziekanowice and in selected 19th century rural populations (stationary population model) Period I, before enfranchisement Rural populations 1 Dziekanowice Wielkopolska2 Szczepanowo3 Wielkie Drogi4 Period II, during and after enfranchisement e0 e20 e0 e20 28.3 33.7 23.1* 25.9* 29.8* 30.8* 23.2 23.0 26.9* 23.0 34.0 35.3* 31.6* 33.0 1 Period I, 1818 –1850; period II, 1851–1903. Period II, 1865–1900. After Henneberg, 1977a (period I, 1828 –1854; period II, 1855– 1874). 4 Calculated by authors from Puch, 1989 (period I, 1786 –1849; period II, 1850 –1899). * Statistically signiﬁcant differences between parish of Dziekanowice and population marked. 2 3 ered. There was a statistically signiﬁcant increase in ex values. During the period 1818 –1903, the newborn life expectancy increased on average to more than 37 years. Having survived the ﬁrst 5 years, an average parishioner had a chance to live for a further 48 years, while the average age of an adult at death was almost 60 years. In the stationary population model, these values are of course lower, but still much higher than in the Middle Ages. Comparison of the pre- and postenfranchisement periods in the parish of Dziekanowice shows that the situation was better in the former period. Assuming the stationary population model, value e0 decreased signiﬁcantly in period II. If we assume the stable population model, this value obtained for period II is still signiﬁcantly lower than the same value for period I. However, for example, value e10 increased from 44.7 to 47.1 years. Parameter e20 was at a similar level in both periods (Tables 5 and 6). Thus, the conditions of adult mortality were hardly changing. It seems that lower values of e0 in period II are not so much a result of increased mortality as an artifact of the greater natural increase in this period. Of course, various other causes of the decline in newborn life expectancy after 1851 cannot be excluded, but are difﬁcult to point out. As mentioned before, the second half of the 19th century covers the core part of the implementation of the Prussian enfranchisement reform and the following years. Although the reform’s long-term effects included signiﬁcant socioeconomic advancement and the betterment of the material status of the rural areas in Wielkopolska (Borowski, 1962, 1968), the very years of its implementation also brought adverse results for a part of the population (Davies, 1981). The numbers of rural workers with no farmland of their own or holders of small plots increased. These growing numbers of the rural proletariat with their poor living conditions and poor health could have worsened the death rates. After the implementation of the reform, increased emigration from Wielkopolska and migrations from rural areas to cities were observed (Borowski, 1962, 1968). This could result in a disturbance to the living population’s age structure. We have no data on the emigration of the inhabitants of the parish of Dziekanowice. However, the proximity of two large cities (Poznań and Gniezno) could to a certain extent facilitate the outﬂow of the parish’s rural population. On the other hand, poor development of large-scale industry in Wielkopolska limited the absorption of the excess of the labor force from rural areas (Jakóbczyk, 1959a,b). With regard to the mortality measures, the parish of Dziekanowice ﬁts quite well into the overall situation in all villages of Wielkopolska. Values ex calculated from death records for the rural inhabitants 376 A. BUDNIK ET AL. TABLE 8. Values of life expectancy (in years) in parish of Dziekanowice and in selected 19th century rural populations (stable population model) Period II, during and after enfranchisement Period I, before enfranchisement Rural populations Dziekanowice1 Wielkopolska2 Szczepanowo3 Wielkie Drogi4 r 0.0122 ⫺0.0050 0.0081 e0 e20 r e0 e20 38.9 38.7 20.1* 31.7* 28.4* 33.2* 0.0151 0.0166 0.0200 0.0158 36.3 37.7 42.5* 35.6 39.4 40.8* 38.0* 37.9 1 Period I, 1818 –1850; period II, 1851–1903. Period II, 1865–1900. 3 After Henneberg, 1977a (period I, 1828 –1854; period II, 1855–1874). 4 Calculated by authors from Puch, 1989 (period I, 1786 –1849; period II, 1850 –1899). * Statistically signiﬁcant differences between parish of Dziekanowice and population marked. 2 Fig. 4. Values of life expectancy ex in population of parish of Dziekanowice and in selected rural populations from 19th century (stationary population model, period I: before enfranchisement). Fig. 5. Values of life expectancy ex in population of parish of Dziekanowice and in selected rural populations from 19th century (stable population model, period I: before enfranchisement). of the entire Wielkopolska in the second half of the 19th century (Table 8 and Fig. 7) are practically the same as the corresponding measures from life tables constructed by Ke˛delski (1980, 1985), taking into consideration the structure of the living population. Fig. 6. Values of life expectancy ex in population of parish of Dziekanowice and in selected rural populations from 19th century (stationary population model, period II: during and after enfranchisement). Fig. 7. Values of life expectancy ex in population of parish of Dziekanowice and in selected rural populations from 19th century (stable population model, period II: during and after enfranchisement). This conﬁrms the reliability of the estimates for the stable population model, and allows us to hope that after making an adjustment for the natural increase rate, the age structure of the deceased quite accu- BIOLOGICAL STATUS: POLISH HISTORICAL POPULATIONS Fig. 8. Distribution of selected causes of death in parish of Dziekanowice and in Wielkopolska villages in 19th century. rately reﬂects the actual mortality in a living population. Similar conformity of results obtained with the stable population model and with the age-speciﬁc mortality rate method was achieved for the 19th century Danzig (Gdańsk) District (Budnik and Liczbińska, 1997). Finally, better parameters in the life tables for period I could result from inaccuracy in the recording of deaths in the parish registers during the ﬁrst decades of the 19th century. Inaccurate death registration was a common phenomenon at that time (Gieysztorowa, 1976), and probably also occurred in populations that were compared with the parish of Dziekanowice. Despite this, values of life expectancy for Dziekanowice were much higher than for other populations, including the population of Szczepanowo, another parish in Wielkopolska (Tables 7 and 8; Figs. 4, 5). In period II, there was less variation in the results for all groups (Figs. 6, 7). We suggest that the population of the parish of Dziekanowice had achieved an improvement in living conditions before the enfranchisement reform, much earlier than in other rural populations of the region. These better living standards prevailing in the parish of Dziekanowice seem to be conﬁrmed to a certain extent also by the analysis of causes of death. In general, with regard to this issue, the situation in Dziekanowice was not worse than in other villages in Wielkopolska (Fig. 8). It is important to note here that epidemics which occurred in the studied population from time to time, as evidenced by numbers of deaths exceeding numbers of births in some years, had little inﬂuence on the general level of mortality in a longer perspective. These epidemics were of short duration. Among several epidemics of cholera that occurred in Wielkopolska during the 19th century (1831, 1837–1838, 1848 – 1849, 1852, 1855–1856, and 1866; Karaśkiewicz, 1936 –1937; Borowski, 1967), only those of 1849, 1852, and 1866 reached the parish. The ﬁrst two resulted in 377 27 deaths, i.e., 12% of all deaths that occurred in the parish in the period 1848 –1852. The last epidemics had only a few victims. In general, deaths due to cholera constituted less than 1% of all deaths analyzed here. None of the other infectious diseases noted in the parish records as a cause of death (most often whooping cough, diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhoid, and smallpox) was responsible for more than 20% of all deaths during a period in which it was present in the population. It seems the inhabitants of the parish were able to control infectious disease fairly effectively. Since the parish was situated halfway between Poznań and Gniezno, it was probably inﬂuenced by city ordinances and regulations instructing people how they should act in cases of epidemics. Such documents were prepared as early as 1815 and 1835 (Karaśkiewicz, 1936 –1937). This opportunity was surely denied to the parish of Szczepanowo, which in the ﬁrst half of the 19th century had a dramatically low level of natural increase (⫺0.005; Henneberg, 1977a; see also Table 8). At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century, epidemics were brought under control through improved health education and a better health service system in Wielkopolska. Over 80 years, the number of medical practitioners per 10,000 people increased from 1.0 to 2.3, midwives from 1.0 to 4.2, and hospitals from 1 to 5 per 100,000 population. Even more important seem to be the effects of much-improved training of medical personnel and of increased efﬁciency of medical treatments (Borowski, 1967). Indices of the opportunity for natural selection through differential mortality, derived from parish records, are presented in Tables 9 and 10. In comparison with the Early Middle Ages, values of these indices are better. This is especially evident for the potential gross reproductive rate (Rpot), indicating a signiﬁcant decrease in premature adult mortality. Values of the biological state index Ibs were still low, while values of Crow’s index Im were higher than at present. This was due to very high child mortality, indicating that children were under much greater selection pressure than adult individuals. Assessment of the degree of genetic isolation of parish Dziekanowice in the 19th century and at the begining of the 20th century The degree of genetic isolation of the population of the Dziekanowice parish and its changes through time were analyzed using coefﬁcients of exogamy (m) and coefﬁcients of inbreeding (f) (Budnik et al., 2002). The coefﬁcient of exogamy (m) used here is a ratio of marriages contracted between local women and males from other villages to the total number of marriages contracted by local women. This approach is dictated by the matrilocal registration of Roman Catholic marriages. Estimates of inbreeding coefﬁcients were derived from the data on the spatial distribution of mating distances (distances between birthplaces of spouses). Two methods of estimation were used, those of Malé- 378 A. BUDNIK ET AL. TABLE 9. Measures of opportunity for natural selection through differential mortality in parish of Dziekanowice and in selected 19th century rural populations (stationary population model) Period II, during and after enfranchisement Period I, before enfranchisement Rural populations Dziekanowice1 Wielkopolska2 Szczepanowo3 Wielkie Drogi4 Im Rpot Ibs Im Rpot Ibs 0.98 0.78 0.39 1.32 1.11 0.78 0.80 0.34 0.38 1.54 1.64 0.96 1.51 0.83 0.85 0.82 0.82 0.32 0.32 0.42 0.32 1 Period I, 1818 –1850; period II, 1851–1903. Period II, 1865–1900. 3 After Henneberg, 1978 (period I, 1828 –1854; period II, 1855–1874). 4 Calculated by authors from Puch, 1989 (period I, 1786 –1849; period II, 1850 –1899). 2 TABLE 10. Measures of opportunity for natural selection through differential mortality in parish of Dziekanowice and in selected 19th century rural populations (stable population model) Period I, before enfranchisement Rural populations Dziekanowice1 Wielkopolska2 Szczepanowo3 Wielkie Drogi4 r Period II, during and after enfranchisement Im Rpot Ibs r Im Rpot Ibs 0.0122 0.54 0.85 0.55 ⫺0.0050 0.0081 1.53 0.76 0.76 0.84 0.30 0.48 0.0151 0.0166 0.0200 0.0158 0.71 0.68 0.38 0.68 0.89 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.52 0.54 0.65 0.53 1 Period I, 1818 –1850; period II, 1851–1903. Period II, 1865–1900. Calculated by authors from Henneberg, 1977a (period I, 1828 –1854; period II, 1855–1874). 4 Calculated by authors from Puch, 1989 (period I, 1786 –1849; period II, 1850 –1899). 2 3 TABLE 11. Values of coefficient of exogamy m and of coefficient of kinship f in parish of Dziekanowice and in selected 19th century rural populations I, before enfranchisement Rural populations 1 Dziekanowice Szczepanowo2 Wielkie Drogi3 II, during and after enfranchisement m fHenneberg fMalécot m fHenneberg fMalécot 0.44 0.24 0.18 0.0020 0.0035 0.0086 0.0012 0.0042 0.62 0.50 0.33 0.0004 0.0013 0.0014 0.0005 0.0015 1 After Budnik et al., 2002; period I, 1818 –1850; period II, 1851–1903. After Henneberg, 1977b, 1978; period I, 1828 –1854; period II, 1855–1874. 3 After Puch, 1993; period I, 1786 –1849; period II, 1850 –1899. 2 cot (Cavalli-Sforza and Bodmer, 1971) and Henneberg (1978, 1979; Budnik, 2000). As seen in Table 11, in each of the populations, enfranchisement of peasants resulted in a noticeable increase of exogamy coefﬁcients and a signiﬁcant decrease of coefﬁcients of inbreeding, indicating the opening up of local gene pools. It is also striking that values of exogamy coefﬁcients for pre-enfranchisement Dziekanowice were about twice those in other populations, including another Wielkopolska population, that of Szczepanowo. Correspondingly, coefﬁcients of inbreeding in pre-enfranchisement Dziekanowice were only 23–57% of those in other parishes. These facts indicate that genetic isolation of the Dziekanowice parish had been weakened long before land ownership reforms. Its gene pool was more open to other inﬂuences, and was more heterogenous. CONCLUSIONS Two phenomena discussed in this work deserve special attention. First, in the period from the Early Middle Ages through the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a distinct decrease in the mortality of the population occurred in the villages of the Ostrów Lednicki microregion. This is conﬁrmed both by the parameters of the life tables and by the values of the measures of the opportunity for natural selection. These measures are a good reﬂection of the changes of the ecological and cultural situations in the region’s population brought about mainly by the advancement in agriculture and all the social and economic implications of this process. Hence the clear improvement of the biological state of the inhabitants of the investigated microregion was noticed. The similarity between the mortality situation in the Middle Ages and in the early 19th century observed by some authors (Piontek, 1977; Piontek and Henneberg, 1981) was an effect of the dramatically bad situation of the rural population haunted with cholera epidemics at the beginning of the 19th century (see also Henneberg, 1977a). Values of various measures describing mortality in the Early Medieval population of Dziek- BIOLOGICAL STATUS: POLISH HISTORICAL POPULATIONS anowice, though ﬁtting within the range characteristic for Early Medieval populations, lie close to its lower limits. This may reﬂect the inner crisis in the Polish state of the Piast Dynasty during the fourth decade of the 11th century, exacerbated by destructive incursions of the Czech Prince Brzetysław I into the Wielkopolska. Although these factors did not result in the depopulation of the Ostrów Lednicki region, there is no doubt that ﬁghting took place, as evidenced by numerous military artifacts found in Lednica Lake and by layers of burned material in the city itself (Łastowiecki, 1989). It may be that some items of weaponry and armor found at the Dziekanowice 22 burial ground are a reﬂection of these struggles, or at least reﬂect the sociopolitical organization of the Polish state at that time. During the early Piast Dynasty, there were organized troops protecting the ruler, and there arose a class of warriors derived from the local population (Wyrozumski, 1984; Modzelewski, 1991). These warriors were buried in local cemeteries. It may be that some burials at Dziekanowice 22 are of warriors who were called upon from time to time to provide military service to the city on the Ostrów Lednicki island (Wrzesińska and Wrzesiński, 1998b). Second, the 19th century parish of Dziekanowice had achieved a higher level of demographic development and a better biological status earlier than other contemporary rural populations. This is indicated, for instance, by the biological state index Ibs, Crow’s index Im, and life expectancy values for the ﬁrst half of the 19th century. The parish’s modernity was also reﬂected in measures of gene ﬂow. The proximity of the two big cities Poznań and Gniezno, coupled with the presence of a good road network in the microregion, undoubtedly contributed to that result. In 1872, a railroad was opened connecting Lednica with Poznań and Gniezno (Dohnalowa, 1994). At the beginning of the 20th century, the average density of highways in the district that included the parish of Dziekanowice was 15.6 km per 100 km2, while the District of Żnin, where the parish of Szczepanowo was situated, had only 9.3 km of highway per 100 km2 (Dohnalowa, 1973). The development of both the cities and transportation routes had its origins as early as the Early Middle Ages. Gniezno and Poznań, cities built in the mid-10th century, were the seats of the ﬁrst rulers of Poland with their armed forces and functionaries (Wyrozumski, 1984). Therefore, similar to Ostrów Lednicki, they were the centers of the state’s rule. The Ostrów Lednicki microregion was situated on a busy Medieval trade route between Poznań and Gniezno, and Lake Lednica had a direct connection with Poznań through the Główna River waterway. Furthermore, at that time, the microregion was the most densely populated area of the ﬁrst Piasts’ state, with a population density of 10.5 persons/km2 (Kurnatowska and Kurnatowski, 1991). The average density for the whole of Poland reached 4 –5 379 persons/km2 at the turn of the 11th century. For comparison, in Italy there were 24 persons/km2, in Belgium 20, in France 17, in Germany 10, and in Norway 0.6 person per km2 around the year 1000 (after Vielrose, 1957). At the beginning of the 10th century, there were just a few small villages scattered around the Lednica Lake. In the second half of the 10th century, after the city on the Ostrów Lednicki Island became one of the most important seats of power in the Polish state, the situation had changed radically. Between the second half of the 10th century and the mid-11th century, the number of villages in the microregion quadrupled. The second half of the 11th century and the entire 12th century witnessed a further increase in the number of settlements and other archaeological sites by about 1/3 (Kurnatowska and Kurnatowski, 1991). This rapid increase of population density was undoubtedly a result of deliberate colonization directed by the ﬁrst members of the Piast Dynasty in order to provide adequate provisioning to the royal court and its military detachments. It seems that agriculture in the microregion of Ostrów Lednicki developed rather rapidly, beginning in the 10th century and reaching a level of intense production of cereals using animal traction. This is indicated by rapid deforestation occurring at the time. Initial estimates indicate that at the middle of the 11th century, about 63% of the territory was deforested (at least 6 hectares per person; Kurnatowska and Kurnatowski, 1991). With the natural richness of the local environment, this must have produced good economic effects. 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