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Dental anthropological indications of agriculture among the Jomon people of central Japan. X. Peopling of the Pacific

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Dental Anthropological Indications of Agriculture Among- the
Jomon People of Central Japan
X. PEOPLING OF THE PACIFIC'
CHRISTY G. TURNER I1
Department of Anthropology, Arizona State Uniuersity, Tempe, Arizona 85281
KEY WORDS Dentition
agriculture
.
.
Oral pathology
.
Dental anthropology
Japanese
Asian
ABSTRACT
The high rate of crown caries (8.6%;119/1,377 teeth) and other
oral pathologies in 101 central Japan Middle to Late Jomon Period (ca. 1000
B.C.) crania indicate a level of carbohydrate consumption consistent with an
agriculture hypothesis. Because Jomon dental crown and root morphology
shows strong resemblances with past and present Southeast Asians, but not
with ancient Chinese or modern Japanese, Jomon agriculture could be of great
antiquity in the isolated Japanese islands. These dental data and other
assembled facts suggest that ancestral Jomonese might have carried t o Japan a
cariogenic cultigen such as taro before the end of the Pleistocene from tropical
Sundaland by way of the now-submerged east Asian continental shelf.
The purpose of this paper is t o provide independent physical anthropological evidence in
support of the growing but still minority view
that the Jomon people of at least central
Japan possessed an economy that was based
on agricultural or horticultural activity as
well as fishing, hunting, and gathering. The
evidence will consist of oral health in Middle
t o Late Jomon Period crania from central
Japan and comparative dental samples from
prehistoric and historic North and Southeast
Asian agricultural populations, and prehistoric North American hunters and gatherers.
Jomon midden sites have yielded large
amounts of prehistoric material culture,
human burials, and food refuse consisting
largely of shellfish, fish, sea mammals, deer,
boar, and other wild animals. Despite a generally Upper Paleolithic-Mesolithic content,
the possibility of agriculture has been proposed for the Jomonese by, among others, Kidder ('59) on the basis of stable communities,
occurrences of stone hoes and other tools adaptable for cultivation, and numerous large pottery vessels suitable for food storage. Kidder,
for one, maintains that agriculture was present among the Jomonese by at least 1,000 B.C.
He notes that it must have been present by
Late Jomon times because a few millet grains
AM. J. PHYS. ANTHROP. (1979) 51: 619-636
have been found for this period (Kidder, '59: p.
54). In Kyushu, some Jomon pottery has been
found with what appears to be rice kernel
impressions (Elisseeff, '74: p. 1121, although
convincing evidence for rice does not occur
until Yayoi times (beginning ca. 300-200 B.C.)
when it and many other Chinese elements of
culture appear on Honshu.
Among the more recent attempts to determine the possibility of Jomon agriculture is
that of Hurley ('74) who has found large
amounts of charred plant remains and grinding stones in an Early Jomon Period site (ca.
3500 B.c.) on Hokkaido called Hamanasuna.
Among the floatation-recovered charred remains have been identified small amounts of
millet, buckwheat, and unidentified tuber
(Hurley, '78; Crawford et al., '78). M. Yoshizaki feels that a t least in southwest Hokkaido
the Jomonese subsisted largely if not mainly
on a vegetarian diet (personal communication
to Hurley, '74: p. 175). Yoshizaki's opinion is
based on his archeological findings, including
many metates in southwest Hokkaido Jomon
L This paper 13 the tenth of a planned series on dental anthropolof the Pacific basin and adjoining a r e a . The purpose of the
series is to develop the use of dental polymorphism8 as aids to understanding Pacific, New World, and Asian population origins, formation, and micro-evolution. Most previous papers in this series are
identified in Turner and Swindler ('781.
ow
619
620
CHRISTY G. TURNER I1
sites (Yoshizaki, '65). Thus, there is growing
archeological evidence supportive of an hypothesis t h a t t h e Jomon diet included
agricultural products such as millet. I will try
to show on the basis of oral health that the
amount of carbohydrate eaten was substantial, indicative of considerable agriculture or
horticulture, and that plants other than
millet may have been grown for food. For
reasons to be discussed, I will propose that
taro or a taro-like starchy tuber could have
been cultivated, and that this plant may have
been carried to Japan from Southeast Asia
(Sundaland) by the late Pleistocene ancestors
of the Jomonese. I t is worth pointing out t h a t
t h e argument to be developed here of
Jomonese taro or similar root crop consumption has potential value for aiding in the reconstruction of the history of agriculture
since, as Yen ('77: p. 590) has noted, there is as
yet no direct evidence of prehistoric root utilization in Southeast Asia despite the ethnographic importance of roots and tubers in
various native economies (for example see
Lebar, '72, '75). Furthermore, taro consumption is associated with a very high pre-contact
rate of carious teeth (ca. 20%; ca. 1,400/6,800
teeth) if the poi-eating Hawaiian cranial data
of Lai and Snow (Snow, '74) is representative,
although other Polynesian series are not as
diseased (table 3). All things considered, my
explicit theoretical view about the antiquity
of Asian plant husbandry is that it began in
late Pleistocene times on and around the nowsubmerged Sunda Shelf of Southeast Asia. I t
reached Japan prior to the post-glacial flooding of the continental shelves by 12.000 B.P.
(Hopkins,'791, introduced there by the Sundadont ancestors of the Jomonese, who also
brought "Hoabinhian" pottery-producing
techniques. I maintain this theoretical view
on the bases of accumulating supportive archeological evidence (Gorman, '70; Solheim,
'72;Chang, '72; Howells, '73; Golson, '77; Yen,
'77), and diachronic and synchronic patterns
of dental variation in Asian and Pacific populations. Elsewhere (Turner, '78) I have shown
how prehistoric diet can be estimated on the
basis of oral health, particularly the caries
component. This approach follows the classic
demonstration by Leigh ('25) that the degree
of American Indian dental caries corresponded positively with their dietary intake of
carbohydrates, although i t is recognized that
caries is a multifactorial disease.
Fig. 1 Jomon maxillary teeth, University Tokyo Museum unnumbered specimen age 13 t o 17 years, sex unknown. Weak shoveling (grade l), no double-shoveling or
winging. Weak tuberculum dentale and strong mesial and
distal interruption grooves on 12. Canines ablated and
mostly healed. No caries or abscessing, but periodontal
disease present around premolars. Chipping occurs on several teeth but is exaggerated by recurrent linear hypoplasia (CGTneg. no. 21A 9-25-75).
Fig. 2 Jomon maxillary teeth, University Tokyo Museum no. 64-1 (194,8.11), age 7 to 12 years, sex unknown.
Strong I 1 shoveling (grade 41, no double-shoveling, trace
of tuberculum dentale on 12. Occluaal caries occur on LR
MI. No other pathology is present. MI hypocone reduced
(grade 3.51, cusp 5 present on MI. Carabelli trait is absent
(grade 0). Absence of ablation suggests practice was done
between 12-15 years of age in both sexes (CGT neg. no. 31
9-25-75).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This paper is based on observations made
chiefly in 1975on the permanent dental crown
and root morphology and oral pathology of several skeletal collections in Hawaii, Taiwan,
and Japan. Those to be discussed here include
101 central Japan Jomon crania of mainly
Middle but including some probable Late
Jomon Period s i t e s (2500 t o 300 B.C.;
JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE
Hanihara, '75; 3600 to 1000 B.C., Chard, '74: p.
116),85recent and living Hokkaido Ainu dental casts, all series a t the University Museum,
University of Tokyo; 277 Shang Dynasty
(1400 to 1100 B.C.) Chinese from the site of Anyang in North China, and 48 recent Taiwan
Atayal aborigine skulls in the 1nst.itute of
History and Philology, Academia Sinica,
Taipei, Taiwan; 23 individuals from t h e
eastern Thailand site of Ban Chiang, which
dates younger than 3600 B.C., a t the Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii,
Honolulu; and several hundred Aleuts and
Indians previously studied and under restudy
(Turner, '67, '79).
The Jomon sample contains 52 males, 26
females, and 23 individuals of indeterminable
sex. I personally assessed age and sex of all individuals, creating comparability if not accuracy. There are 9 children of 12 or less years, 5
aged 13-17 years, and 87 adults. As to completeness, 68 skeletons have both a maxilla
and a mandible, 10 are represented by only the
maxilla, and 23 by only a mandible. Figures 14 illustrate 3 of the better preserved Jomon individuals. The age and sex composition of the
comparative samples is similar t o that of the
Jomonese and will be reported in later papers
dealing with Pacific basin dental anthropology. Although the An-yang Chinese, Ainu, and
Atayal will he compared with the Jomonese
for periodontal disease, abscessing, caries, and
ante-mortem tooth loss, the small and fragmented Ban Chiang sample will have to be
limited to only a caries comparison.
The relevant economic background on these
dental samples indicates that the Jomon people were involved in hunting, fishing, shellfish
collecting and an uncertain amount of plant
gathering and possible agriculture. The
Atayal were agriculturists who, according to
Sung ('751, are considered the descendants of
Indonesians or south Chinese who introduced
millet, taro, and pottery to Taiwan before
4000 B.C. Actually, deforestation began on
Taiwan about 12,000 years ago suggestive of
burning and clearing for horticulture (Chang,
'72: p. 61). The An-yang Chinese grew rice,
wheat, and millet (Li, '77) and raised a variety
of domesticated animals (Yang, '75). The Ban
Chiang people were growing rice as well as
hunting a t 3600 B.C. (Gorman and Charoenwongsa, '76). The Ainu are today agriculturalists and fishermen, although Watanabe ('73)
looks upon them as having learned farming
62 1
Fig. 3 Mandible of figure 2 individual. Characteristic
S E A s i a n 4-cusped M2 present. No enamel extensions on
M1 or M2, and both molars have two roots. Occlusal caries
present in L M1 (CGT neg. no. 24 9-25-75).
Fig. 4 Jomon upper and lower teeth, University Tokyo
Museum no. 20,adult male. Ablation, which is common i n
SE Asia, of R 12, LR C, and LR 112. There are no caries or
abscesses, but periodontal disease is generalized and
localized in four pockets. Chipping also generalized. No
double-shoveling (CGT neg. no. 35 9-25-75).
from the Japanese. However, he presents no
archeological evidence for this view.
Caries is defined as any necrotic pit in
enamel or dentine equal to or greater in size
than Koritzer's ('77) grade 1. Frequencies
given here should be viewed as minimal estimates, especially for the Ainu sample which is
based on plaster casts. Periodontal disease and
abscessing identification and classification
(table 5) follows I. Glickman ('72: pp. 418431). Ante-mortem tooth loss is recognized by
alveolar bone resorption, socket filling, mesial
or distal wear facets on remaining adjacent
teeth, mesial drift, spaces, and other individual considerations. Teeth lost immediately
before death will be confused with those lost
after death. Fortunately, careful excavation
experience shows this source of confusion to be
622
CHRISTY G. i u n i ~ f i nI-'I
mTTml'--
essentially insignificant. Because of the highly fragmented condition of the Jomon skeletal
series a tooth count has been used to quantify
the extent of caries. Individual counts or the
DMF approach are better suited to samples of
living individuals. All observations were made
with standardized lighting, use of a 10-power
hand lens, explorer, and a standardized routine designed t o minimize recording and observation error. No X-ray equipment was
available. Methods used in the morphological
observations follow those cited in Turner and
Swindler ('781, Turner and Hanihara ('77),
and Turner and Scott ('77).
RESULTS
Table 1 shows the occurrence of carious
Jomon permanent teeth by sex, tooth, and
jaw. Molars have significantly more caries
than non-molars. There are but few significant differences in the number of carious
teeth of males and females. No significant difference exists in the number of carious teeth
between jaws, although there tends to be
slightly more in the lower teeth. Of individual
Jomonese age 12 years or greater, regardless
of degree of preservation, 57.3% 65/96] have
no identifiable carious teeth. Of the remaining 41 with caries, 11have 1 carious tooth, 8
have 2, 8 have 3, 5 have 4, 3 have 5 , 3 have 6,
and 3 have 7 carious teeth. The average number of caries in these individuals is 1.3. The
total of 125 carious teeth here differs from the
119 totals of tables 1 and 2 because there,
minimal age was set a t 18 years as adult to
facilitate comparisons with other workers.
Statistical comparisons of the Jomon and
other studied dentitions are shown in table 2.
The table shows that lower teeth tend to have
more caries so t h e comparisons between
groups are by each jaw separately. The sexes
have been pooled because testing shows but
few significant inter-sex differences per tooth
in these samples, although I suspect larger
samples might reveal some interesting sexual
differences in caries frequencies. I believe
that the average age for these samples is
about the same in each and that the age by
itself is not the chief variable responsible for
the differences in the caries frequencies. Deciduous teeth are not included, nor are any
unerupted or erupted ones without some wear.
The major point of table 2 is that the
Jomonese sample has as many carious teeth as
do the Asian comparative agricultural groups.
In fact, they have significantly more than the
An-yang Chinese and recent Ainu. The Ban
Chiang Thailanders show no significant difference from the Jomonese and the higher
Atayal caries rate is attributable t o their eating of sugar cane. Since dental caries is almost
wholly a disease involving carbohydrate utilization (Leigh '25; see also table 3), it would
appear that the Jomonese consumed as much
if not more carbohydrate than the majority of
these agriculturalists. Although many factors
may have contributed to some of the intergroup differences, none is attributable to inter-observer error or methods. Furthermore,
none of the various factors involved in caries
production can detract from the essential fact
of table 1, namely that the Jomonese must
have had access to and long exposure with significant amounts of sticky carbohydrate
foodstuffs. Patently, the level of carbohydrate
use exceeds that obtained from wild roots and
tubers collected by modern Ainu (OhnukiTierney, '74) and food collectors elsewhere in
the world (table 3).
One can reasonably question whether or not
a high caries rate ever occurs in hunting and
gathering economies. Data of table 3 answer
this question in the negative if these works
are representative and if inter-observer error
and methods are assumed to be minimal. Furthermore, table 3 illustrates that caries seldom exceed a l-2%rate without the addition of
agriculture or agricultural products.
In compiling table 3 I have intentionally excluded the many studies on modern populations with access to cheap abundant refined
sugar and flour since these raise the rate of
carious teeth to artificially high levels (Pedersen, '38). Excluding the Jomonese, the average number of carious teeth reported by the
various workers cited in table 3 is: hunting
and gathering economies, 1.3%; mixed economies, 4.84%; agricultural groups, 10.43%.
Pooling the teeth tends to lower the averages
slightly: Hunting and gathering, 1.72% (818/
47,672 teeth); mixed economy, 4.37% (2,543/
58,137 teeth), and agriculture, 8.56% (43,1641
504,095 teeth). Regardless of which averaging
method one uses, it is obvious that hunters
and gatherers have fewer carious teeth on the
average than do agriculturalists. As expected,
the frequency of carious teeth in the mixed
economies falls between those of food collectors and producers. Frequency comparisons of
carious Jomon teeth with those of the hunting
and gathering, mixed, and fully agricultural
economies are most interesting. There is no
JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE
623
TABLE 1
Jomon dental caries
(adult tooth count, one or more caries per toothi
Male
Tooth
Maxilla
I1
12
C
P1
P2
M1
M2
M3
Total
Mandible
I1
I2
C
P1
P2
MI
M2
M3
Total
Female
No.
x
33
33
27
53
59
63
56
30
354
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.7
9.5
14.3
16.7
5.6
42
48
49
72
83
91
87
66
538
0.0
No.
14
18
14
21
24
34
22
9
156
9
13
22
24
24
28
32
14
166
0.0
0.0
2.8
2.4
15.4
10.3
18.2
7.2
Sexes pooled
%
No.
14.3
11.1
0.0
4.8
0.0
17.6
13.6
22.2
10.3
55
57
3.6
3.5
46
85
90
114
83
41
571
59
67
78
104
124
145
139
90
806
0.0
7.7
4.5
4.2
4.2
28.6
34.4
21.4
15.7
Maxilla and mandible have no significant dlfference in carim (Xt
7
2.64; P
=
'y,
Sex difference
x:
P
0.0
1.2
1.1
11.4
15.7
21.9
7.2
2.14
1.51
0.00
0.27
0.41
0.97
0.01
0.06
3.50
0.2-0.1
0.3-0.2
>0.9
0.7-0.5
0.7-0.5
0.5-0.3
>0.9
0.0
1.5
3.8
3.8
3.2
18.6
15.8
18.9
9.7
0.00
0.57
0.20
0.11
0.06
2.46
9.65
0.08
10.71
>0.9
0.9-0.8
0.9-0.8
0.9-0.8
0.1-0.05
>0.9
0.9-0.8
0.2-0.1
0.01-0.001
0.8-0.7
0.01-0.001
0.2-0.1)
TABLE 2
Dental caries in Jomon and other directly comparable samples
(adult tooth count, sexes pooled, one or more caries per permanent toothi
Population sample
Maxillary teeth
Jomon, Japan
Aleut, Alaska
SJo-68, California
Atayal, Taiwan
Ban Chiang, Thailand
Ainu, Japan
An-yang, China
Mandibular teeth
Jomon, Japan
Aleut, Alaska
Ban Chiang, Thailand
Ainu, Japan
An-yang, China
No. of
carious
teeth
Jomon comparison
x
carious
Economy
X:
Hunting & gathering
Hunting & gathering
Hunting & gathering
Agriculture & hunting
Agriculture & hunting
Agriculture & fishing
Agriculture
-
-
69.8
13.2
9.6
0.01
16.3
40.5
<0.001
411571
<1/1000
71289
501378
91121
201780
6512948
7.2
<0.1
2.4
13.2
7.4
2.6
2.2
781806
<lilOOO
13/205
29i855
112/2162
9.7 Hunting & gathering
<0.1 Hunting & gathering
6.3 Agriculture & hunting
3.4 Agriculture & fishing
5.2 Agriculture
P
<0.001
<0.01
n.s.
10.001
10.001
-
-
118.9
2.2
27.2
19.8
<0.001
ns.
<0.001
<0.001
Maxillary and mandibular teeth combined.
2No Atayal mandibles were available for study
significant difference between the Jomonese
(119/1,377) and the pooled (43,164/504,095)
agricultural sample (X: = 0.01; P > 0.81, but
it is significantly greater than that of the
pooled (2,424156,7601 mixed economies (X: =
61.4; P < 0.001), and very significantly
greater than the pooled (818/47,672) hunting
and gathering sample (Xi = 342.7; P <
0.001). Were it not for independent and direct
diachronic information about t h e Jomon
economy, namely the nature of their midden
refuse, these comparisons would require the
conclusion that oral health, as measured by
caries, is identical in Jomon and the average
agricultural society, and as far as caries frequencies is concerned, there is no way t o say
624
CHRISTY G . TURNER I1
that the Jomonese were not agriculturalists.
The variability of caries as assessed by the
range of frequencies of carious teeth increases
from hunting and gathering economies (0.053x1, through the mixed economies (0.4410.3X), to the agricultural ones (2.3-26.9%).
Like table 2, table 3 shows one essential fact,
namely that the Jomonese caries rate corresponds much better with that of agricultural
groups than with hunters and gatherers, although some allowance has to be given for inter-observer variation.
Turning to another but more general expression of oral health, table 4 shows the extent of alveolar bone abscessing in the Jomonese and comparative Asian groups. No sex dimorphism occurs for abscessing in any of the
four samples. The recent Ainu have the least
amount of abscessing, probably due to my
studying plaster casts where some to much of
the alveolar bone was not impressed (living
Ainu excluded here). The Jomonese have the
greatest number of individuals with some
degree of abscessing, although this value of ca.
40%is not significantly different from that of
the Atayals.
Both occurrence and number of abscesses
are remarkably similar in these groups when
the Ainu are excluded. This would tend to support the agricultural hypothesis based on the
caries rate since abscessing is mainly associated with pulp exposures, and the chief cause
of exposure is caries when attrition rates do
not exceed the rate of secondary dentin deposition. Thus, although abscessing cannot by itself demonstrate a high carbohydrate diet, the
amount and expression do not contradict the
agricultural hypothesis.
Table 5 shows the extent of periodontal disease in the Jomonese and three of the comparative samples. There is no identifiable sex
difference for periodontal disease in any of
these. The Ainu, followed by the Jomon have
the greatest number of individuals with periodontal disease. However, it is most destructive in the sugar cane-chewing Atayal, followed by the Jomonese. From the viewpoint of
hygiene, it is apparent that Jomon oral health
was very poor. This is in keeping with the
agricultural hypothesis. Periodontal disease
arises chiefly from irritation and low grade
infection associated with plaque and tartar
deposits. Both are maintained and accumulate
in the absence of tooth cleaning, either intentionally or naturally with tough or fibrous
foodstuffs. Thus, high rates of periodontal dis-
ease and caries together speak fairly strongly
for a soft textured and cariogenic diet. Such a
diet is found in many Southeast Asian groups
where cooked starchy tubers make up a significant portion of the diet, or where calories are
obtained from consumption of large amounts
of rice beer. Recent and living Hokkaido Ainus
consume mainly soft rice and noodle dishes.
The relatively low frequency of periodontal
disease among the An-yang Chinese probably
corresponds with both methods of cooking and
abundant additions of fibrous plant parts in
Chinese dishes. Also, millet preparations may
have contained enough fiber to be but minimally adhesive and plaque prone. Rice was
probably not the chief staple cereal of North
China during the Shang Dynasty (Li, '77:
p. 196).
Table 6 details the situation for Jomon
tooth chipping. Few Jomon dentitions have
the extremely crushed occlusal surfaces seen
among High Arctic Eskimos which are believed caused by the teeth being used for
crushing bones and other starvation or crisis
needs. That which does occur is limited mainly
to one or a few teeth and only small portions of
the crown are affected. Unlike Aleuts, Eskimos, and Indians there is a significant difference in the amount of tooth chipping in males
and females. Males have more. Compared with
recent and living Ainu, the frequency of
Jomon tooth chipping is not significant (Xi =
7.7; 0.2 > P > 0.1). The ecologically wealthy
Aleuts' tooth chipping frequency also does not
differ significantly from that of the Jomonese
(X: = 0.05; P > 0.8). Both of these comparisons suggest dietary sufficiency among
the Jomonese, which was not the case for the
markedly-chipped, starvation-disposed High
Arctic Eskimos (Turner and Cadien, '69).
Tooth chipping, which is in theory another
aspect of tooth use behavior, does not detract
from the agricultural hypothesis, even though
it probably is favorable evidence for more food
collecting than can be quantified a t the
present.
Jomon origins and biological
relations hips
Tables 7-10 provide quantitative information on the variation in Jomon tooth crown
and root morphology, and comparisons of that
variation with dental samples from Southeast
and North Asia that I have personally studied
but not yet published upon. As can be seen in
table 10 Jomon teeth and jaw shape are much
TABLE 3
A sampling of reports on carious teeth in differenteconomies (age more than IS, sexes pooled, upper and lower teeth1
Population
Location
Hunting and gathering economy
Neanderthal
Europe
Homo sapien
Eurafrica
Nubian
Sudan
Aborigine
Australia
Aborigine
Australia
Aborigine
Australia
Aborigine
Tasmania
Siberia
NE Siberia
Eskaleut
pan-Arctic
Eskimo
Greenland
Eskimo
Greenland
Aleut
Alaska
Indians
NW Coast
Alaska & B.C.
Nootka
B.C.
Old Copper
Wisconsin
Indian Knoll
Kentucky
Gray site
Saskatchewan
SJo-68
Central Calif.
Indian
California
Time
Paleolithic
Up. Paleo.
Mesolithic
Skeletal
Skeletal
Living
Skeletal
Skeletal
Skeletal
Skeletal
Living
Skeletal
Skeletal
Skeletal
5600 B.C.
3000 B.C.
3200 B.C.
1000 B.C.
Skeletal
259
523
% carious
Source
0.0
1.0
1.0
2.3
1.6
4.6
5.3
0.0
0.08
<1.0
2.2
0.0
Brothwell, '63
Brothwell, '63
Armelagos, '66
Steadman, '39
Campbell, '25
Campbell, '38
Steadman, '37
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Pedersen, '38
Pedersen, '38
Present study
0.42
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.7
2.4
1.6
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Cybulski, '78
Herrala, '61
Herrala, '61
Knutson, '75
Present study
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
1,377
3,977
1,096
29,767
2,279
6,142
1,166
11,072
182
868
513
434
641
8.6
2.3
1.0
3.2
0.44
3.81
1.7
9.3
8.2
7.4
10.3
2.6
7.8
Present study
Shaw, '31
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Wells, '75
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Sinclair et al., '50
Klatsky and Klatelt, '43
Davies, '56
Herrala, '61
Herrala, '61
Herrala, '61
Herrala, '61
Bentzen. '29
(11,680)
1,742
2,219
161
2,526
932
4,784
2,302
6,869
116,500
6,104
267
2,585
3,821
932
790
826
129,634
95,830
20,778
1,205
76,893
353
266
225
1,027
1,707
1,817
3,298
3,295
2,727
(11.5)
2.3
4.4
12.4
11.9
14.8
26.9
4.26
4.2
8.1
9.62
12.0
6.2
26.5
15.9
12.0
4.1
7.65
2.46
2.14
19.7
17.98
6.5
4.9
7.1
15.0
6.3
15.2
4.64
6.25
15.5
15.4
Friel, '10
Brothwell, '63
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Arrnelagos, '66
Armelagos, '66
Armelagos, '66
Holloway e t al., '63
Brabant, '68 ( others)
Brabant, '69
Wells, '75
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Angel, '44
Angel, '44
Angel, '44
Angel, '44
Tattersall, '68
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Montelius, '33
Afonsky, '51
Anderson, '32
Sanui, '60
Sanui, '60
Nickens. '74
Robinson, '76
Ryan, '77
Ryan, '77
Ryan, '77
Swanson, '76
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Klatsky and Klatell, '43
Stewart, '31
MacCurdy, '23
-
2,653
10,561
1,844
662
76
2,539
-
17,917
>2,000
5,500
(278)
232
912
989
289
438
+
Mixed economy (agriculture
Jomon
Bantu
Black
White
Melanesian
Papuan
Polynesian
Polynesian
Oakwood Md.
Dickson Md.
Angel Village
Sauk
Mirnbrenos
hunting, gathering, or fishing)
Central Japan
1000 B.C.
Skeletal
So. Africa
Skeletal
W & So. Africa
Neolithic
Europe
New Britian +
Skeletal
New Guinea
Living
Pacific Is.
Skeletal
Living
Pukapuka
1600 A.D.
Indiana
1300 A.D.
Indiana
1300 A.D.
Indiana
1800 A.D.
Illinois
1600 A.D.
New Mexico
Agricultural economy
Black
Egyptian
Egyptian
Meriotic
X-Group
Christian
Tristan da Cunha
White
White
White
White
Greek
Greek
Greek
Greek
Clopton
Mongoloid
Mongoloid
Mongoloid
Chinese
Yayoi
Japanese
Puebloan
Puebloan
Puebloan
Puebloan
Hopi
Gran Quivira
Mexican
So. American
Pachacamac
Peruvian
So. Africa
E m t
E m t
Nubia
Nubia
Nubia
Atlantic
Europe
France
Europe
Europe
Greece
Greece
Greece
Greece
England
China, Japan, Korea
China
Cent. China
China
Japan
Japan
Mancos Canyon
Mancos Canyon
NE Arizona
NE Arizona
Old Walpi, AZ
New Mexico
Mexico
Bolivia etc.
Peru
Peru
I
No. of teeth
Living
26-30 Dyn.
Skeletal
Skeletal
Skeletal
Skeletal
Living
Neolithic
Neolithic
Post -Neolithic
Skeletal
3000 B.C.
2000-150 B.C.
1300 A.D.
Living
Medieval
Skeletal
Living
Living
Living
200 B.C.
-
c.1200 A.D.
c.1200 A.D.
Pueblo I1
Pueblo 111
Pueblo IV
Skeletal
Skeletal
Skeletal
Skeletal
Skeletal
Probably consumed varying amounts of refined sugar and flour.
-
+
626
CHRISTY G. TURNER I1
TARLE 4
Alueolar abscesslng (indivadual count, sexes pooled, adults only)
Numher of abscesses
Group
Ainu
no.
An-yang
no.
%
no.
X
no.
%
Atayal
Jomon
L
Sex difference
None
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
28
90.3
126
73.3
29
60.4
40
59.7
3
9.7
35
20.3
12
25.0
17
25.4
0
0.0
4
2.3
6
12.5
6
8.9
0
0.0
2
1.2
0
0.0
4
2.3
1
2.1
1
1.5
0
0
0.0
3
4.5
0.0
1
0.6
0
0.0
0
X'
df.
P
31
n.r.'
-
-
172
1.13
2
0.7-0.5
48
2.50
1
0.2-0.1
67
n.r.
-
-
Total
0.0
Visual inspection indicates no test required.
'Skeletal Ainu only.
1
TABLE 5
Periodontal disease (individual count, sexes pooled)
General presence
Group
Sex difference
1 2
An-yang
no.
Atayal
no.
%
%
Jomon
no.
%
Ainu
no.
%
None
pockets
Light
103
69.1
22
46.8
28
40.6
4
13.3
22
14.8
2
4.3
10
14.5
3
10.0
16
10.7
4
8.5
7
10.1
Moderate Marked
9
30.0
6
4.1
9
19.1
12
17.4
13
43.3
2
1.3
10
21.3
12
17.4
1
3.3
Total
X'
df.
149
0.42
3
47
2.06
1
69
nx.?
-
-
30
n.s.
-
-
1'
>0.9
0.2-0.1
' Pockets can occur alone or with generalized disease which is assessed as follows. None, alveolar border bard and smooth, root
exposure does nut exceed 1-3 mm dependent on age. Light, 3-5 mm of exposed root plus possible alveolar border pitting Moderate, 14-5mm exposure, ragged border. and sometimes deep pockets. Marked, >50% of mot exposed, border severely eroded.
Pocket depth and form easily grade into appearance of abscess. Because bone loss IS usually not uniform, generalized amount is
estimated nn average state of one or both jaws.
'Visual inspection indicates no test required
>Skeletal Ainu only.
TABLE 6
Jomon tooth chipping (indiuidual count; adults only)
Nu. of
chipped teeth
0
1
2
3
4
>4
Totals
Male
Female
14
8
2
4
2
11
41
13
3
3
0
0
2
21
Sexes p l e d
29
14
6
4
2
15
70
41.4%
20.0%
8.6%
5.7%
2.9%
21.4%
more like those of Southeast Asians than
North Asians. Other Asian dental data in my
files supports fully the correctness of this fact
(Turner, '79, n.d.1. The Jomonese dental pattern is much more like that of the peoples to
the south than t h a t of those of the north despite the latter's closer geographic proximity.
In fact, the 3,000-year-old Jomon dentitions
are more like those of prehistoric and modern
Southeast Asians (Sundadonts) than like
modern Japanese in most respects. However,
study of more Jomon dental samples is needed
before variability measures can be offered.
The morphological comparisons suggest to
me but one interpretation. When weighed
against estimated rates of dental microevolution and other kinds of human and experimental animal genetic change, both within and between populations, the Jomonese must have
had significant genetic ties with Southeast
Asian Sundaland groups. The archeological
record for the Jomon Period shows very little
maritime capability (the only boats a r e
dugout log canoes; Ploszajski, '63) and no
important Neolithic contact with Korea, the
nearest and most logical point for exchange
(Sample, '74, '76). Furthermore, early Jomon
627
JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE
TABLE 7
Jomon crown morphology (indwidual count, sexes pooled)
-
Sex difference
Trait and expression
Tooth and
frequency
No
-
Winging
1 Bilateral (A-strong. B=weak)
2 Unilateral
3 Straight
4 Counter-winging
5 Bi- and unilateral winging
Shoveling
0 None
1 Faint
2 Trace
3 Semi-shovel
4 Semi-shovel
5 Shovel
6 Shovel
7 Barrel
Weighted % (D coef.=0.143)
Double-shovel (labial)
0 None (smooth surface!
1 Mesial border ridged
2 Distal border ridged
3 Mesial and distal ridges
Weighted o/n (D coef. =0.5)
Incisor interruption grooves
0 None
1 Mesial lingual border
2 Distal lingual border
3 Medial lingual area
4 Mesial and distal borders
5 Other combinations
Tuberculum dentale
0 None (smooth)
1 Weak ridging
2
3
4
5
Weighted % (D coef. = 0.143)
Canine mesial ridge (Bushman)
0 None
1 T.d. and MLR weakly joined
2 T.d. and MLR joined, medium
3 T.d. and MLR joined, large
Weighted % (D coef.=0.333)
Canine distal accessory ridge
0 None
1 Trace
2 Weak
3 Moderate
4 Strong
5 Very strong
Weighted % (D coef. = 0.2)
Premolar cusp number
2 Twocusps
3 Threecusps
Premolar accessory cusps
0 None
1 Mesial
2 Distal
3 Mesial and distal
13.3
3.3
83.3
0.0
16.6
12
0.0
38.5
26.9
26.9
7.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.291
12
96.8
0.0
93.7
6.3
0.0
0.0
0.031
0.0
3.2
0.032
11
Procedure
and nntps
0.3
0.7-0.5
Enoki and
Dahlberg
(‘58)
2.4(2df)
0.8(2dfl
1.1
0.3
0.7-0.5
0.3
Scott (’73)
I 1 30
0.0
25.9
44.4
25.9
3.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.345
11
P
~
11
11
X‘(1dn
c
31.6
68.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.098
11 27
12 26
c
19
This scale
approximates t h a t
of Hrdlitka (‘20)
as: O=none; l-Z=trace;
3-4=semi; 5-6=
shovel.
c
95.8
11 31
4.2
12 32
0.0
C 24
0.0
0.021
0.4
0.1
-
0.7-0.5
0.8
-
Modified
from
Dahlberg (‘51)
12
84.0
8.0
8.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
11
0.0
52.0
32.0
8.0
8.0
0.0
0.246
34.5
20.7
27.6
17.2
0.0
0.0
12
37.0
22.2
0.0
37.0
3.7
0.0
0.296
c
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.000
c
c
45.5
45.5
4.5
0.0
4.5
0.0
0.145
11 25
I2 29
0.2
0.6
0.7-0.5
0.5-0.3
Turner (‘67)
11 25
12 27
c 22
0.8
0.3
0.0
0.5-0.3
0.7-0.5
0.9
11 modified
c
25
-
-
Modified
after
Morris (‘75)
13
16
-
-
Scott (‘73)
after Scott
(‘73); I2 & c
Turner h d . )
~
100.0
0.0
C
25.0
18.7
37.5
12.5
6.3
0.0
0.313
PZ
100.0
0.0
P1
P2
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.7
23.1
38.5
23.1
0.0
7.7
0.416
PI
0.0
C
C
-
PI 50
P2 52
Turner (‘67)
PI 51
P2 54
Turner (n.d.)
(Continued on next page)
628
CHRISTY G. TURNER I1
TABLE 7 iconttnuedl
Sex difference
Trait and expression
Tuberculated premolar
0 None (tooth count)
1 Present
Hypocone
0 None
1 Weak ridges
2 Cuspule
3 Small cusp
3.5 Reduced cusp
4 Largecusp
5 Very large cusp
Weighted % (D coef.=0.167)
cusp 5
0 None
1-5 R e s e n t
Carabelli’s trait
0 None (smooth)
1 Line o r furrow
2 Pit
3 Double line
4 Y-form
5 No contact with groove
6 Small contact with groove
7 High cone
Weighted % (D coef.=0.1431
Lower incisor shoveling
0 None
1
2
3 Trace
Weighted % (D coef.=0.333)
Premolar lingual cusps
A No lingual cusp
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Molar groove pattern
Y (cusps 2 and 3 in contact)
+ (cusps 1to 4 i n contact1
X (cusps 1 and 4 in contact)
Molar cusp number
4 Cusps 1-4present
5 Cusps 1-5 present
6 Cusps 1-6 present
5 Cusps (male)
5 Cusps Ifemale)
6 Cusps (male)
6 Cusps (female1
Deflecting wrinkle
0 None
1 Swelling C 2 central ridge
2 Small deflecting wrinkle
3 Strong deflecting wrinkle
Weighted X (D coef.=0.333)
Tooth and
frequency
PU
100.0
0.0
MI
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
36.2
63.8
0.0
0.773
M1
48.7
51.3
ML
71.7
17.4
6.5
2.2
0.0
0.0
2.2
0.0
0.072
175
33.3
66.7
0.0
0.0
0.222
Pi
-
No.
0.0
7.0
2.3
0.0
4.6
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
Mi
88.9
7.9
3.2
Mi
0.0
40.7
59.2
24.0
60.0
76.0
40.0
Mi
45.8
4.2
25.0
25.0
0.431
P
Procedure
and notes
__
P1Z
100.0
0.0
M2
4.3
12.8
21.3
31.9
25.5
4.3
0.0
0.457
M2
84.4
15.6
M2
93.7
6.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.009
PU 100
P12 130
-
-
Alexandersen
(‘70)
M 1 58
MZ 47
Ma 23
1.1
2.5(2df)
1.0
0.3
0.3-0.2
0.5-0.3
Larson, Scott,
and Turner in
Scott (‘73) The
Dahlberg (‘51)
scale is: 3=0-1;
3 f =2; 4-=3-3.5:
4 pattern= 4-5
of this scale.
1.8
0.4
0.2-0.1
0.7-0.5
Turner (‘67)
M1 46
M2 32
M3 21
0.1
0.2
0.01
0.8-0.7
0.7-0.5
0.9
Dahlberg
(‘63)
112
30
2.2
0.2-0.1
Scott (‘73)
Grade 3
approximates
HrdliEka’s
112 “trace”
P i 43
P2 53
0.1
0.7(2df)
0.8
0.8-0.7
Modified after
Scott (‘73).
This scale
also counts
lingual cusps:
A = O 0=1; 1-7=2;
8-9= 3 lingual
cusps. Grade A
not looked for
in Jomon sample.
M I 63
M2 73
0.1
3.4Udfl
0.4 (2df)
0.8-0.7
0.2-0.1
0.9-0.8
Gregory (‘16);
Hellman (‘28);
Jorgensen (‘55)
M i 54
M2 51
M3 40
6
9
19
6
5.2
0.4(2dfl
0.3(2dD
0.05-0.02
0.9-0.8
0.9-0.8
Modified after
Gregory (‘161;
Turner (‘67)
M i 24
M2 36
M3 31
0.3
0.7-0.5
Seyhert and
Turner (scale
under develop.)
My
34.8
17.4
30.4
13.0
4.3
0.0
0.0
0.224
M3
75.0
ML 39
25.0
M2 32
M3 8
-
-
M3
80.9
4.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
14.3
0.150
PZ
-
83.7
X‘Odf)
15.1
3.8
24.5
30.2
9.4
1.9
0.0
1.9
0.0
13.2
M2
31.5
28.8
39.7
M3
11.8
13.7
74.5
MZ
M’J
31.4
54.9
13.7
MZ
100.0
0.0
12.5
57.5
30.0
M3 51
Ma
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.000
0.0
0.000
-
-
629
JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE
TABLb 7 (rontinuedJ
Sex difference
Trait and expression
Protostylid
0 None
1 Pit in buccal groove
2 Curved buccal groove
3 Small cusp, initial groove
4 Slight cusp
5 Moderate cusp
6 Largecusp
Weighted X (D coef.=0.125)
Cusp 6 Yentoconulid')
0 None
1 C5 > >C6
2 C5> C6
3 C5= C6
4 C5< C6
5 C5 < <C6
Weighted X (D coef. =0.2)
1-5 Present (male1
1-5 Present (female)
Cusp 7 Ymetaconulid")
0 None
1 Weak grooves a t C2 and C4
1A C7 on C2 weakly
2 Small distinct cuspule
3 Medium-sized cusp
4 Largecusp
Weighted % (D coef. = 0.2)
Third molar occurrence
L and R absent
L o r R absent
L and R present
L and R present (both jaws)
Torus
0 None
1 Trace, palpable
2 Medium, <'A'' high
3 Marked, 114-318"
4 Very marked, >3/8"
Weighted % (D coef. = 0.25)
Rocker jaw
0 None
1 Threshold
2 Rocker
Weighted %. (D coef. ~0.5)
Tooth and
frequency
Mi
M2
65.6
79.7
23.4
16.9
7.8
0.0
3.1
1.7
0.0
1.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.060
0.036
Mi
M2
42.0
86.0
10.0
2.0
38.0
8.0
10.0
2.0
0.0
2.0
0.0
0.0
0.232
0.064
77.3
35.7
M2
Mi
98.5
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.5
0.0
0.0
0.012
M3
6.7
11.1
82.2
0.0
0.000
M3
13.0
6.5
80.5
Nu.
Procedure
and notes
M3
78.3
M I 64
4.3
M2 59
2.2
M3 46
2.2
8.7
0.0
4.3
0.095
M3
72.5
50
7.5
M2 50
7.5
M3 40
12.5
0.0
0.0
0.120
22
14
M3
100.0
M I 67
MZ 66
0.0
0.0
M3 45
0.0
0.0
MI
0.8(2df)
0.01
0.7
0.7-0.5
0.9
0.5-0.3
Dahlherg
6.2
0.4
0.2
0.02
0.7-0.5
0.7-0.5
Turner ('701
-
Turner ('701
-
-
0.4
1.3
0.7-0.5
0.3-0.2
No sign of
tooth for
absence
score
0.5(2df)
4.5 (2df)
0.8-0.7
Mand.. after
N. Morris
1'701; Pal.
scale under
development
-
('63)
0.0
0.000
M 3 45
M3 77
65.5
Pal.
44.1
49.1
6.8
0.0
0.0
0.157
Mand.
62.5
0.0
37.5
0.375
P
S'Odf?
Mand.
49.4
35.4
12.7
2.5
29
P. 59
M. 79
0.0
0.2-0.1
0.171
pottery is similar in shape and marking t o
that of the Hoabinhian Mesolithic-Neolithic
in Southeast Asia. Taken altogether, these
facts suggest t h a t a Jomonese-Southeast
Asian population network existed on the
Asian continental shelf prior t o 12,000 years
ago when sea levels rose to isolate Japan and
the Jomonese by a significant oceanic barrier.
Even the relatively narrow Korea Strait had
limited traffic (Sample, '74: p. 121). Archeologically-obtained evidence also reveals that
this oceanic barrier was culturally, genetically, and probably linguistically effective, with
16
Turner (n.d.1
Scale under
development
only minor penetrations, until Yayoi times
when Chinese culture, mainland-made materials, rice agriculture, and people appeared as
a major migration impulse to Honshu (Turner,
'76). Dental evidence decidedly favors the
view that the Jomonese were ancestral t o the
modern Ainu, not the Japanese (Turner, '76;
p. 913). Craniometric comparisons by Howells
('66) support the same conclusion.
I believe that the data in table 10 suggest
that the Jomonese probably were the northern
node of a linked but subsequently disrupted
geographic and temporal population network
630
CHRISTY G . TURNER I1
TABLE 8
Jomon root number hndiuzdual count, sexes pooled)
Sex difference
Tuoth
Maxillary r w t s
I1
12
C
PI
P2
M1
M2
M3
Mandibular roots
I1
12
c
P1
P2
M1
M2
M3
1
2
3
4
No
X'Udf)
P
100.0
100.0
95.6
62.5
98.1
1.8
6.7
54.2
0.0
0.0
4.4
35.7
1.9
3.6
26.7
29.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.8
0.0
94.6
64.4
16.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.2
0.0
51
47
23
56
54
55
45
24
-
-
-
0.35
>0.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
2.6
11.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
94.0
94.9
79.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.0
2.6
9.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
38
39
40
48
52
83
78
54
-
-
0.02
0.03
>0.8
10.8
-
Notes and
procedure
Turner ('67)
-
TABLE 9
Jomon root variation (indiudual count, sexes pooled)
Buccal enamel exlension
Sex difference
Tooth
Maxilla
PI
P2
M1
M2
M3
Mandible
P1
P2
M1
M2
M3
X'(ldf1
1
2
0
No.
97.9
96.0
75.4
53.2
70.8
2.1
4.0
9.8
14.9
20.8
0.0
0.0
3.3
10.6
8.3
0.0
0.0
11.5
21.3
0.0
48
50
100.0
98.5
72.0
40.0
74.5
0.0
1.5
12.0
14.7
9.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
8.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
16.0
37.3
15.7
48
65
75 0.2
75 1.5(3df)
51 0.02
0
-
-
61 0.9
47
24
P
>0.3
>0.2
1.4
-
-
> 0.5
>0.5
>0.8
Wt. 2,
(D=CJ.~W
0.007
0.013
0.170
0.333
0.125
0.000
0.005
0.172
0.475
0.190
Xotes and
procedure
Modified after
Lasker ('50)
0 =none
l=slight (<1.5 mm)
2=medium (>1.5 mm)
3=marked ( > > 1 . 5 m m )
Rare reverse
extensions
counted as 0.
-
from late Jomon Japan back through time and
down the east Asian continental shelf to late
Pleistocene Sundadont peoples in now submerged tropical Sundaland. If this hypothesized link between the Jomon people and those
of late Pleistocene tropical Sundaland is correct, and if the meager but very significant
evidence for the beginnings of agriculture in
Southeast Asia in early Holocene or even late
Pleistocene times is also correct, then the idea
that the Jomonese could have brought to
Japan some form of cultigen is not as radical
as it first appears. I t would also help to explain
the long-standing enigma of why pottery appeared so very early in prehistoric Japan,
when nearly everywhere else in the world its
development and use is associated with agricultural activities. In fact, sherds from Kyushu, Japan, dating at 12,700 ? 500 (Gak-950)
(Chard, '74: p. 111), are among the oldest
examples of pottery in the world. The idea of
late Pleistocene agriculture is still too novel
to be readily accepted. But evidence for it is
slowly amassing. The most recent documentation is the finding by Wendorf ('79) of
domestic barley dating more than 18,000
years ago in a site on the Nile River near
Aswan in southern Egypt. In addition to the
seeds, agricultural implements were also
found.
JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE
TABLE 10
Key dental traits in Jomonese and other eastern Asians
hdzuidual count, sexes pooled)
Trait
X
Winging, bilateral 11
Shovel, 11
(wt. %)
Double-shovel, 11
(wt. X )
Carabelli trait, M I
(wt. Y,)
Y groove, Mi
4-cusped M2
Deflecting wrinkle,
(wt. %)
Enamel ext. MI
(wt. %l
1-rooted PA
3-rooted Mi
1-rooted MZ
Rocker jaw
Mi
Southeast
Asia
0.0-26.7
15-15)
0.242-0.382
(11-17)
0.025-0.033
(15-20)
0.241-0.325
(14-29)
15.4-22.2
(26-27)
24.0-61.5
(25-26)
0.455-0.542
(8-11)
0.235-0.241
(17-29)
33.3-48.3
(29-33)
14.3-15.4
(28-39)
13.0-18.2
(23-33)
33.3
(24)
Jomon
13.3
(30)
0.345
(27)
0.032
(31)
0.072
(46)
31.5
(73)
31.4
(51)
0.431
(24)
0.170
(61)
62.5
(56)
6.0
(83)
2.6
(78)
37.5
(16)
North
Asia
16.7-17.2
(18.145)
0.559-0.653
(14-119)
0.229-0.411
(17-142)
0.148-0.179
(24-157)
5.9-6.0
(17-152)
12.5-13.5
(16-96)
0.792-0.809
(7-8)
0.444-0.600
(27-224)
69.0-70.1
(29-144)
20.8-38.4
(24-172)
20.8-26.3
(24-141)
3.8-6.8
(26-191)
Coefficients for weighted percentages are given in table I .
Southeast Asia based on samples from Non Nok Tha, Thailand, and
Niah Cave, Sarawak (Borneo). North Asia based on An-yang
Chinese and recent Japanese. Numbers indicated in parentheses. All
samples except the Japanese are approximately contemporary.
What few significant differences that do exist between the An yang
Chinese and the Japanese occur because the latter are shifted
towards the Jomon values as expected (Turner. '76).
DISCUSSION
Assessing t h e likelihood of agriculture
through oral health is best done solely with
the caries variable, since i t has the most direct
and strongest relationship with amount, kind,
texture, and adhesiveness of all possible foodstuffs. The other oral pathologies that can be
reliably and consistently identified in skeletal
remains, namely alveolar bone loss and periodontal pocketing, abscessing (alveolar bone
destruction by bacteria originating either
through the pulp canal or along the external
root surface; Clickman, '7.21, and a n t e mortem tooth loss (which can be caused by
trauma and ablation as well as by disease), are
not nearly as strongly related to diet. Nevertheless, there should be some degree of correspondence in the frequencies of each, so i t is
important as well a s interesting to compare
the total oral health of the Jomonese with
631
other Asian agricultural groups. Table 11
shows the frequencies and rankings for caries,
periodontal disease, abscessing, and antemortem tooth loss. In each case, the Jomonese
are in relatively poor health, and taken altogether, they have the worst oral health of
the four groups. Jomon oral health is most like
that of the Atayal and least like that of the
An-yang Chinese, suggesting epidemiological
parallels not expected on the basis of cultural,
geographic, or temporal considerations. Many
factors undoubtedly contribute to oral health
variability. Whatever all was involved, i t was
intensified in the Jomon population of central
Japan.
According to the archeological evidence
already cited some indeterminate amount of
cereal almost certainly was present in the
Jomonese diet. Millet seems to be the best established cultigen by a t least Late Jomon
times. However, millet was also the main
cereal most likely eaten by the An-yang
Chinese, and its cariogenic effect was significantly less than what has been shown to have
occurred in Jomonese teeth. This simple fact
suggests that Jomonese caries were caused
either by (1) some unknown factor that enhanced the cariogenicity of millet, or (2) the
skeletal samples lack comparability due to
differences in age or ante-mortem loss by
caries, or (3) the Jomon diet was actually more
cariogenic because of additional or different
carbohydrates not suspected on archeological
grounds.
On the basis of Jomon food refuse I doubt if
the Jomonese ate more carbohydrate than the
An-yang Chinese. Jomon sites contain far
more shellfish, fish, and mammal remains
than do any reported Shang Dynasty sites (Li,
'77). Ante-mortem tooth loss can be ruled out
as responsible for the greater Jomon caries
frequency because it also is greater in the
Jomonese than in the An-yang Chinese. If
tooth loss was due mainly to caries then the
Jomon could be expected to have a lower
caries rate. Age is also not the cause of the difference, because although there are more
subadults in the Jomon sample (13.9%;14/
101) than in the Chinese one (3.2%;9/277)
only two of the Jomon subadults have any
carious teeth. Caries in the Jomonese was a
mature adult disease for the most part, just as
i t was in the An-yang Chinese.
The cariogenicity of millet may have been
enhanced by some food preparation technique,
632
CHRISTY G. TURNER I1
TABLE 11
Summary of East Asian oral health
Group
An-yang
Ainu
Atayal
Jomon
Maxillary
carlee
Periodontal
disease
Abaceuaes
___
Rank
Rank
Y,
Rank
X
1
2
4
3
2.2
2.6
13.2
7.2
1
4
2
3
30.9
86.7
53.2
59.4
2
1
3
4
Ante-mortem
loss
X
Rank
%
Total
rank
26.7
9.7
39.6
1
2
3
40.3
4
2.3
4.6
9.7 1
11.6'
5
9
12
14
' Excluding ablated 12.
'Excluding ablated maxillary and mandibular canines.
but surely any such technical development
would have also been long employed by the
fully agricultural Shang Dynasty Chinese. On
the other hand, the Chinese may have consumed various cariostatic substances, such as
fluoride-possessing teas, that inhibited caries
that might have arisen with sticky carbohydrate foodstuffs. However, fluoride would be
equally expected in the marine foods collected
and captured by the Jomonese.
If one argues that the Chinese-Jomonese
caries difference is due to some manner of preburial status, as noted by Suzuki ('67) in
historic Japanese nobility burials, then it is
all the more likely that the Jomonese had
access to sufficient carbohydrate sources to
harm proportionally more of the teeth in persons of hypothetically high status than did
even the lowest status agricultural Chinese.
Patently, this sort of differential burial argument only strengthens the hypothesis that the
Jomonese were growing and eating plants
with high yields of carbohydrate since no
gatherers amassed sufficient seeds, nuts,
fruits, or tubers to push their caries rate
beyond the 2% non-agricultural threshold
(table 4).
It seems to me that t h e explanation for the
relatively high Jomonese caries rate must rest
with their having cultivated some species of
plant more cariogenic than millet (as assessed
by the Chinese caries rate). Roots and tubers
with their potentially high starch content are
good candidates, and taro would be among the
most promising to search for archeologically.
Taro has been a significant crop in Japan for
more than 600 years despite the heavy emphasis on rice. Frederic ('72: p. 130) found records of it having been grown by Thirteenth
Century Japanese farmers along with rice and
other plant species. Howells ('73: p. 205) suggests that taro might have been cultivated in
Southeast Asia as early as 14,000 years ago,
but only reached Japan in Middle Jomon
times, although he does not see any indication
of horticulture other than what is implied by
the widespread Jomon pottery.
Another consideration that leads me to
suspect that taro or some such starchy tuber
was eaten by the Jomonese is that the modern
Ainu diet probably does not produce as severe
an oral health problem, except possibly for periodontal disease, as did those of the Atayals
and Jomonese. Significantly, the modern Ainu
diet does not contain much if any taro, yam, or
sweet potato. According to Koishi et al. ('75: p.
314) representative menus of modern Ainu include considerable rice, pumpkin, radish,
white potato, fish flakes, noodles, soups, oils,
and small amounts of other food types including some sugar. This is beyond doubt more carbohydrate than used by the Jomonese, but it is
less cariogenic. The severe periodontal disease
in the Ainu and Jomon samples (table 11) is
not suggestive of any major oral hygiene difference between them. Thus, the large amount
of carbohydrates eaten by modern Ainu,
whose tooth morphology is very similar to that
of the Jomonese, compels me to think that the
Jomonese must have eaten an amount of carbohydrate approximating the rations of Chinese millet or Ainu rice-noodles. Since millet
was seemingly not as harmful to teeth as was
whatever carbohydrate the Jomonese were
eating, and because whatever the Jomonese
were eating was more cariogenic than the
rice-noodle diet of the Ainu, I am led to the
conclusion that the Jomonese were consuming
less of but a more cariogenic foodstuff than
either the Chinese or Ainu. Such a food must
have been something other than rice or millet.
I offer that taro or some such starchy tuber
which needs cooking be considered. Even now,
wild bulbs and roots are not unfamiliar to the
JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE
Sakhalin Ainu (Ohnuki-Tierney, ’74). These
data and analyses support Howells’ (‘73) suggestion that taro was in use by Middle to Late
Jomon times. However, I believe there is
enough evidence on hand to hypothesize that
taro or a similar tuber had been introduced to
Japan earlier, namely in the late Pleistocene
prior to the flooding of the east Asian continental shelf. The evolutionarily conservative
dentition, when coupled with Japanese
prehistory, indicates that the resulting postglacial Sea of Japan and East China Sea
became and remained barriers to most mainland gene flow and cultural diffusion until as
recently as Yayoi times. At this time the
Chinese and other mainland Asians penetrated these marine barriers starting the end of
the Jomon culture. The possibility of agricultural technology being introduced by postglacial migrants from the Ryukyu Islands is
not supported by Pearson’s work (Pearson,
’69).He finds that the Ryukyus were seemingly first inhabited by the Jomonese around
3000 B C . bringing with them from the north
pottery, adzes [hoes? CGTl, dogs, among other
items. Later, after A.D. 200, he sees influences
from the south (Taiwan) (Pearson, ’69: pp.
134-136).Nor can it be shown that agriculture
entered Japan by way of Korea where it appears later than in China, southern Manchuria and possibly Japan (Sample, ’76).
Finally, I would like to suggest that the dental anthropology of the Jomonese provides a
new insight into why rice agriculture spread
so rapidly in the brief Yayoi time period. The
reason is that the Jomonese were probably
already functional farmers as well as hunters
and fishermen.
CONCLUSIONS
This study is the first known attempt to
show by dental anthropological means that
the prehistoric Jomon people of Japan, usually
thought of as hunters and fishermen, also
practiced farming. The main conclusions,
based on 101 personally-inspected Middle to
Late Jomon Period skeletons of central Japan
are:
1. Because Jomon oral pathology, particularly the extent of caries, exceeds that of all
known hunters and gatherers as well as that
of directly comparable e a s t e r n Asian
agricultural groups, it is believed that the
Jomonese ate much more carbohydrate than
archeological evidence has heretofore shown.
2. The source of the carbohydrate is felt t o
633
be taro or some other starchy tuberous cultigen as well as archeologically-recognized
millet.
3. Jomon dental morphology suggests a
closer genetic link with Southeast Asians
than with adjacent mainland Chinese or
modern Japanese. This finding hints that
ancestral Jomonese entered Japan in late
Pleistocene times before the post-glacial rise
in sea levels. They remained isolated until
Yayoi times. This isolation. coupled with a
lack of Jomon maritime capability, strong
Jomon odontological ties with Southeast Asia,
and early Jomon ceramic similarities with
Hoabinhian pottery, permit hypothesizing
that taro or a similar tuber was introduced to
Japan along the now-submerged continental
shelf prior to the end of the Pleistocene by
northerly-expanding fishing and “farming”
Southeast Asian Sundadont peoples.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am deeply appreciative to the following individuals and institutions for assistance in
and permission t o examine their respective
collections: Jomon and Ainu, K. Hanihara,
University of Tokyo; An-yang Chinese and
Atayal, H. M. Yang, Li Chi, and W. L. Ch’u, Institute of History and Philology, Academia
Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Ban Chiang, M. Pietrusewsky, University of Hawaii, Honolulu;
Non Nok Tha and Great Niah Cave, S. Brooks,
University of Nevada at Las Vegas; Japanese,
J. L. Angel, US.National Museum of Natural
History and I . Tattersall, American Museum
of Natural History; Aleuts, J. L. Angel, I. Tattersall, G. Cole, Field Museum, Chicago, and
W. S. Laughlin, University of Connecticut,
Storrs.
Data collection and analysis was done in
part on a 1975-76 sabbatical leave of absence
with the aid of a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for
Anthropological Research, and later by aid
from Arizona State University Research Committee, and the National Geographic Society.
I initiated intensive study of the relationships between dental variation, health, microevolution, and culture in 1970-71 while a
Fellow a t the Center for Advanced Study in
the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California.
There, discussions and seminars with staff
and other Fellows, particularly D. Shimkin,
considerably helped me to appreciate relationships between biology and culture.
634
CHRlSTY G. TURNER 11
My debt extends also t o David A. Breternitz
for copies of the P. R. Nickens and C. K. Robinson manuscripts and t o William Wade for a
copy of the I. Knutson work.
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