Dental anthropological indications of agriculture among the Jomon people of central Japan. X. Peopling of the Pacificкод для вставкиСкачать
Dental Anthropological Indications of Agriculture Among- the Jomon People of Central Japan X. PEOPLING OF THE PACIFIC' CHRISTY G. TURNER I1 Department of Anthropology, Arizona State Uniuersity, Tempe, Arizona 85281 KEY WORDS Dentition agriculture . . Oral pathology . Dental anthropology Japanese Asian ABSTRACT The high rate of crown caries (8.6%;119/1,377 teeth) and other oral pathologies in 101 central Japan Middle to Late Jomon Period (ca. 1000 B.C.) crania indicate a level of carbohydrate consumption consistent with an agriculture hypothesis. Because Jomon dental crown and root morphology shows strong resemblances with past and present Southeast Asians, but not with ancient Chinese or modern Japanese, Jomon agriculture could be of great antiquity in the isolated Japanese islands. These dental data and other assembled facts suggest that ancestral Jomonese might have carried t o Japan a cariogenic cultigen such as taro before the end of the Pleistocene from tropical Sundaland by way of the now-submerged east Asian continental shelf. The purpose of this paper is t o provide independent physical anthropological evidence in support of the growing but still minority view that the Jomon people of at least central Japan possessed an economy that was based on agricultural or horticultural activity as well as fishing, hunting, and gathering. The evidence will consist of oral health in Middle t o Late Jomon Period crania from central Japan and comparative dental samples from prehistoric and historic North and Southeast Asian agricultural populations, and prehistoric North American hunters and gatherers. Jomon midden sites have yielded large amounts of prehistoric material culture, human burials, and food refuse consisting largely of shellfish, fish, sea mammals, deer, boar, and other wild animals. Despite a generally Upper Paleolithic-Mesolithic content, the possibility of agriculture has been proposed for the Jomonese by, among others, Kidder ('59) on the basis of stable communities, occurrences of stone hoes and other tools adaptable for cultivation, and numerous large pottery vessels suitable for food storage. Kidder, for one, maintains that agriculture was present among the Jomonese by at least 1,000 B.C. He notes that it must have been present by Late Jomon times because a few millet grains AM. J. PHYS. ANTHROP. (1979) 51: 619-636 have been found for this period (Kidder, '59: p. 54). In Kyushu, some Jomon pottery has been found with what appears to be rice kernel impressions (Elisseeff, '74: p. 1121, although convincing evidence for rice does not occur until Yayoi times (beginning ca. 300-200 B.C.) when it and many other Chinese elements of culture appear on Honshu. Among the more recent attempts to determine the possibility of Jomon agriculture is that of Hurley ('74) who has found large amounts of charred plant remains and grinding stones in an Early Jomon Period site (ca. 3500 B.c.) on Hokkaido called Hamanasuna. Among the floatation-recovered charred remains have been identified small amounts of millet, buckwheat, and unidentified tuber (Hurley, '78; Crawford et al., '78). M. Yoshizaki feels that a t least in southwest Hokkaido the Jomonese subsisted largely if not mainly on a vegetarian diet (personal communication to Hurley, '74: p. 175). Yoshizaki's opinion is based on his archeological findings, including many metates in southwest Hokkaido Jomon L This paper 13 the tenth of a planned series on dental anthropolof the Pacific basin and adjoining a r e a . The purpose of the series is to develop the use of dental polymorphism8 as aids to understanding Pacific, New World, and Asian population origins, formation, and micro-evolution. Most previous papers in this series are identified in Turner and Swindler ('781. ow 619 620 CHRISTY G. TURNER I1 sites (Yoshizaki, '65). Thus, there is growing archeological evidence supportive of an hypothesis t h a t t h e Jomon diet included agricultural products such as millet. I will try to show on the basis of oral health that the amount of carbohydrate eaten was substantial, indicative of considerable agriculture or horticulture, and that plants other than millet may have been grown for food. For reasons to be discussed, I will propose that taro or a taro-like starchy tuber could have been cultivated, and that this plant may have been carried to Japan from Southeast Asia (Sundaland) by the late Pleistocene ancestors of the Jomonese. I t is worth pointing out t h a t t h e argument to be developed here of Jomonese taro or similar root crop consumption has potential value for aiding in the reconstruction of the history of agriculture since, as Yen ('77: p. 590) has noted, there is as yet no direct evidence of prehistoric root utilization in Southeast Asia despite the ethnographic importance of roots and tubers in various native economies (for example see Lebar, '72, '75). Furthermore, taro consumption is associated with a very high pre-contact rate of carious teeth (ca. 20%; ca. 1,400/6,800 teeth) if the poi-eating Hawaiian cranial data of Lai and Snow (Snow, '74) is representative, although other Polynesian series are not as diseased (table 3). All things considered, my explicit theoretical view about the antiquity of Asian plant husbandry is that it began in late Pleistocene times on and around the nowsubmerged Sunda Shelf of Southeast Asia. I t reached Japan prior to the post-glacial flooding of the continental shelves by 12.000 B.P. (Hopkins,'791, introduced there by the Sundadont ancestors of the Jomonese, who also brought "Hoabinhian" pottery-producing techniques. I maintain this theoretical view on the bases of accumulating supportive archeological evidence (Gorman, '70; Solheim, '72;Chang, '72; Howells, '73; Golson, '77; Yen, '77), and diachronic and synchronic patterns of dental variation in Asian and Pacific populations. Elsewhere (Turner, '78) I have shown how prehistoric diet can be estimated on the basis of oral health, particularly the caries component. This approach follows the classic demonstration by Leigh ('25) that the degree of American Indian dental caries corresponded positively with their dietary intake of carbohydrates, although i t is recognized that caries is a multifactorial disease. Fig. 1 Jomon maxillary teeth, University Tokyo Museum unnumbered specimen age 13 t o 17 years, sex unknown. Weak shoveling (grade l), no double-shoveling or winging. Weak tuberculum dentale and strong mesial and distal interruption grooves on 12. Canines ablated and mostly healed. No caries or abscessing, but periodontal disease present around premolars. Chipping occurs on several teeth but is exaggerated by recurrent linear hypoplasia (CGTneg. no. 21A 9-25-75). Fig. 2 Jomon maxillary teeth, University Tokyo Museum no. 64-1 (194,8.11), age 7 to 12 years, sex unknown. Strong I 1 shoveling (grade 41, no double-shoveling, trace of tuberculum dentale on 12. Occluaal caries occur on LR MI. No other pathology is present. MI hypocone reduced (grade 3.51, cusp 5 present on MI. Carabelli trait is absent (grade 0). Absence of ablation suggests practice was done between 12-15 years of age in both sexes (CGT neg. no. 31 9-25-75). MATERIALS AND METHODS This paper is based on observations made chiefly in 1975on the permanent dental crown and root morphology and oral pathology of several skeletal collections in Hawaii, Taiwan, and Japan. Those to be discussed here include 101 central Japan Jomon crania of mainly Middle but including some probable Late Jomon Period s i t e s (2500 t o 300 B.C.; JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE Hanihara, '75; 3600 to 1000 B.C., Chard, '74: p. 116),85recent and living Hokkaido Ainu dental casts, all series a t the University Museum, University of Tokyo; 277 Shang Dynasty (1400 to 1100 B.C.) Chinese from the site of Anyang in North China, and 48 recent Taiwan Atayal aborigine skulls in the 1nst.itute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; 23 individuals from t h e eastern Thailand site of Ban Chiang, which dates younger than 3600 B.C., a t the Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu; and several hundred Aleuts and Indians previously studied and under restudy (Turner, '67, '79). The Jomon sample contains 52 males, 26 females, and 23 individuals of indeterminable sex. I personally assessed age and sex of all individuals, creating comparability if not accuracy. There are 9 children of 12 or less years, 5 aged 13-17 years, and 87 adults. As to completeness, 68 skeletons have both a maxilla and a mandible, 10 are represented by only the maxilla, and 23 by only a mandible. Figures 14 illustrate 3 of the better preserved Jomon individuals. The age and sex composition of the comparative samples is similar t o that of the Jomonese and will be reported in later papers dealing with Pacific basin dental anthropology. Although the An-yang Chinese, Ainu, and Atayal will he compared with the Jomonese for periodontal disease, abscessing, caries, and ante-mortem tooth loss, the small and fragmented Ban Chiang sample will have to be limited to only a caries comparison. The relevant economic background on these dental samples indicates that the Jomon people were involved in hunting, fishing, shellfish collecting and an uncertain amount of plant gathering and possible agriculture. The Atayal were agriculturists who, according to Sung ('751, are considered the descendants of Indonesians or south Chinese who introduced millet, taro, and pottery to Taiwan before 4000 B.C. Actually, deforestation began on Taiwan about 12,000 years ago suggestive of burning and clearing for horticulture (Chang, '72: p. 61). The An-yang Chinese grew rice, wheat, and millet (Li, '77) and raised a variety of domesticated animals (Yang, '75). The Ban Chiang people were growing rice as well as hunting a t 3600 B.C. (Gorman and Charoenwongsa, '76). The Ainu are today agriculturalists and fishermen, although Watanabe ('73) looks upon them as having learned farming 62 1 Fig. 3 Mandible of figure 2 individual. Characteristic S E A s i a n 4-cusped M2 present. No enamel extensions on M1 or M2, and both molars have two roots. Occlusal caries present in L M1 (CGT neg. no. 24 9-25-75). Fig. 4 Jomon upper and lower teeth, University Tokyo Museum no. 20,adult male. Ablation, which is common i n SE Asia, of R 12, LR C, and LR 112. There are no caries or abscesses, but periodontal disease is generalized and localized in four pockets. Chipping also generalized. No double-shoveling (CGT neg. no. 35 9-25-75). from the Japanese. However, he presents no archeological evidence for this view. Caries is defined as any necrotic pit in enamel or dentine equal to or greater in size than Koritzer's ('77) grade 1. Frequencies given here should be viewed as minimal estimates, especially for the Ainu sample which is based on plaster casts. Periodontal disease and abscessing identification and classification (table 5) follows I. Glickman ('72: pp. 418431). Ante-mortem tooth loss is recognized by alveolar bone resorption, socket filling, mesial or distal wear facets on remaining adjacent teeth, mesial drift, spaces, and other individual considerations. Teeth lost immediately before death will be confused with those lost after death. Fortunately, careful excavation experience shows this source of confusion to be 622 CHRISTY G. i u n i ~ f i nI-'I mTTml'-- essentially insignificant. Because of the highly fragmented condition of the Jomon skeletal series a tooth count has been used to quantify the extent of caries. Individual counts or the DMF approach are better suited to samples of living individuals. All observations were made with standardized lighting, use of a 10-power hand lens, explorer, and a standardized routine designed t o minimize recording and observation error. No X-ray equipment was available. Methods used in the morphological observations follow those cited in Turner and Swindler ('781, Turner and Hanihara ('77), and Turner and Scott ('77). RESULTS Table 1 shows the occurrence of carious Jomon permanent teeth by sex, tooth, and jaw. Molars have significantly more caries than non-molars. There are but few significant differences in the number of carious teeth of males and females. No significant difference exists in the number of carious teeth between jaws, although there tends to be slightly more in the lower teeth. Of individual Jomonese age 12 years or greater, regardless of degree of preservation, 57.3% 65/96] have no identifiable carious teeth. Of the remaining 41 with caries, 11have 1 carious tooth, 8 have 2, 8 have 3, 5 have 4, 3 have 5 , 3 have 6, and 3 have 7 carious teeth. The average number of caries in these individuals is 1.3. The total of 125 carious teeth here differs from the 119 totals of tables 1 and 2 because there, minimal age was set a t 18 years as adult to facilitate comparisons with other workers. Statistical comparisons of the Jomon and other studied dentitions are shown in table 2. The table shows that lower teeth tend to have more caries so t h e comparisons between groups are by each jaw separately. The sexes have been pooled because testing shows but few significant inter-sex differences per tooth in these samples, although I suspect larger samples might reveal some interesting sexual differences in caries frequencies. I believe that the average age for these samples is about the same in each and that the age by itself is not the chief variable responsible for the differences in the caries frequencies. Deciduous teeth are not included, nor are any unerupted or erupted ones without some wear. The major point of table 2 is that the Jomonese sample has as many carious teeth as do the Asian comparative agricultural groups. In fact, they have significantly more than the An-yang Chinese and recent Ainu. The Ban Chiang Thailanders show no significant difference from the Jomonese and the higher Atayal caries rate is attributable t o their eating of sugar cane. Since dental caries is almost wholly a disease involving carbohydrate utilization (Leigh '25; see also table 3), it would appear that the Jomonese consumed as much if not more carbohydrate than the majority of these agriculturalists. Although many factors may have contributed to some of the intergroup differences, none is attributable to inter-observer error or methods. Furthermore, none of the various factors involved in caries production can detract from the essential fact of table 1, namely that the Jomonese must have had access to and long exposure with significant amounts of sticky carbohydrate foodstuffs. Patently, the level of carbohydrate use exceeds that obtained from wild roots and tubers collected by modern Ainu (OhnukiTierney, '74) and food collectors elsewhere in the world (table 3). One can reasonably question whether or not a high caries rate ever occurs in hunting and gathering economies. Data of table 3 answer this question in the negative if these works are representative and if inter-observer error and methods are assumed to be minimal. Furthermore, table 3 illustrates that caries seldom exceed a l-2%rate without the addition of agriculture or agricultural products. In compiling table 3 I have intentionally excluded the many studies on modern populations with access to cheap abundant refined sugar and flour since these raise the rate of carious teeth to artificially high levels (Pedersen, '38). Excluding the Jomonese, the average number of carious teeth reported by the various workers cited in table 3 is: hunting and gathering economies, 1.3%; mixed economies, 4.84%; agricultural groups, 10.43%. Pooling the teeth tends to lower the averages slightly: Hunting and gathering, 1.72% (818/ 47,672 teeth); mixed economy, 4.37% (2,543/ 58,137 teeth), and agriculture, 8.56% (43,1641 504,095 teeth). Regardless of which averaging method one uses, it is obvious that hunters and gatherers have fewer carious teeth on the average than do agriculturalists. As expected, the frequency of carious teeth in the mixed economies falls between those of food collectors and producers. Frequency comparisons of carious Jomon teeth with those of the hunting and gathering, mixed, and fully agricultural economies are most interesting. There is no JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE 623 TABLE 1 Jomon dental caries (adult tooth count, one or more caries per toothi Male Tooth Maxilla I1 12 C P1 P2 M1 M2 M3 Total Mandible I1 I2 C P1 P2 MI M2 M3 Total Female No. x 33 33 27 53 59 63 56 30 354 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 9.5 14.3 16.7 5.6 42 48 49 72 83 91 87 66 538 0.0 No. 14 18 14 21 24 34 22 9 156 9 13 22 24 24 28 32 14 166 0.0 0.0 2.8 2.4 15.4 10.3 18.2 7.2 Sexes pooled % No. 14.3 11.1 0.0 4.8 0.0 17.6 13.6 22.2 10.3 55 57 3.6 3.5 46 85 90 114 83 41 571 59 67 78 104 124 145 139 90 806 0.0 7.7 4.5 4.2 4.2 28.6 34.4 21.4 15.7 Maxilla and mandible have no significant dlfference in carim (Xt 7 2.64; P = 'y, Sex difference x: P 0.0 1.2 1.1 11.4 15.7 21.9 7.2 2.14 1.51 0.00 0.27 0.41 0.97 0.01 0.06 3.50 0.2-0.1 0.3-0.2 >0.9 0.7-0.5 0.7-0.5 0.5-0.3 >0.9 0.0 1.5 3.8 3.8 3.2 18.6 15.8 18.9 9.7 0.00 0.57 0.20 0.11 0.06 2.46 9.65 0.08 10.71 >0.9 0.9-0.8 0.9-0.8 0.9-0.8 0.1-0.05 >0.9 0.9-0.8 0.2-0.1 0.01-0.001 0.8-0.7 0.01-0.001 0.2-0.1) TABLE 2 Dental caries in Jomon and other directly comparable samples (adult tooth count, sexes pooled, one or more caries per permanent toothi Population sample Maxillary teeth Jomon, Japan Aleut, Alaska SJo-68, California Atayal, Taiwan Ban Chiang, Thailand Ainu, Japan An-yang, China Mandibular teeth Jomon, Japan Aleut, Alaska Ban Chiang, Thailand Ainu, Japan An-yang, China No. of carious teeth Jomon comparison x carious Economy X: Hunting & gathering Hunting & gathering Hunting & gathering Agriculture & hunting Agriculture & hunting Agriculture & fishing Agriculture - - 69.8 13.2 9.6 0.01 16.3 40.5 <0.001 411571 <1/1000 71289 501378 91121 201780 6512948 7.2 <0.1 2.4 13.2 7.4 2.6 2.2 781806 <lilOOO 13/205 29i855 112/2162 9.7 Hunting & gathering <0.1 Hunting & gathering 6.3 Agriculture & hunting 3.4 Agriculture & fishing 5.2 Agriculture P <0.001 <0.01 n.s. 10.001 10.001 - - 118.9 2.2 27.2 19.8 <0.001 ns. <0.001 <0.001 Maxillary and mandibular teeth combined. 2No Atayal mandibles were available for study significant difference between the Jomonese (119/1,377) and the pooled (43,164/504,095) agricultural sample (X: = 0.01; P > 0.81, but it is significantly greater than that of the pooled (2,424156,7601 mixed economies (X: = 61.4; P < 0.001), and very significantly greater than the pooled (818/47,672) hunting and gathering sample (Xi = 342.7; P < 0.001). Were it not for independent and direct diachronic information about t h e Jomon economy, namely the nature of their midden refuse, these comparisons would require the conclusion that oral health, as measured by caries, is identical in Jomon and the average agricultural society, and as far as caries frequencies is concerned, there is no way t o say 624 CHRISTY G . TURNER I1 that the Jomonese were not agriculturalists. The variability of caries as assessed by the range of frequencies of carious teeth increases from hunting and gathering economies (0.053x1, through the mixed economies (0.4410.3X), to the agricultural ones (2.3-26.9%). Like table 2, table 3 shows one essential fact, namely that the Jomonese caries rate corresponds much better with that of agricultural groups than with hunters and gatherers, although some allowance has to be given for inter-observer variation. Turning to another but more general expression of oral health, table 4 shows the extent of alveolar bone abscessing in the Jomonese and comparative Asian groups. No sex dimorphism occurs for abscessing in any of the four samples. The recent Ainu have the least amount of abscessing, probably due to my studying plaster casts where some to much of the alveolar bone was not impressed (living Ainu excluded here). The Jomonese have the greatest number of individuals with some degree of abscessing, although this value of ca. 40%is not significantly different from that of the Atayals. Both occurrence and number of abscesses are remarkably similar in these groups when the Ainu are excluded. This would tend to support the agricultural hypothesis based on the caries rate since abscessing is mainly associated with pulp exposures, and the chief cause of exposure is caries when attrition rates do not exceed the rate of secondary dentin deposition. Thus, although abscessing cannot by itself demonstrate a high carbohydrate diet, the amount and expression do not contradict the agricultural hypothesis. Table 5 shows the extent of periodontal disease in the Jomonese and three of the comparative samples. There is no identifiable sex difference for periodontal disease in any of these. The Ainu, followed by the Jomon have the greatest number of individuals with periodontal disease. However, it is most destructive in the sugar cane-chewing Atayal, followed by the Jomonese. From the viewpoint of hygiene, it is apparent that Jomon oral health was very poor. This is in keeping with the agricultural hypothesis. Periodontal disease arises chiefly from irritation and low grade infection associated with plaque and tartar deposits. Both are maintained and accumulate in the absence of tooth cleaning, either intentionally or naturally with tough or fibrous foodstuffs. Thus, high rates of periodontal dis- ease and caries together speak fairly strongly for a soft textured and cariogenic diet. Such a diet is found in many Southeast Asian groups where cooked starchy tubers make up a significant portion of the diet, or where calories are obtained from consumption of large amounts of rice beer. Recent and living Hokkaido Ainus consume mainly soft rice and noodle dishes. The relatively low frequency of periodontal disease among the An-yang Chinese probably corresponds with both methods of cooking and abundant additions of fibrous plant parts in Chinese dishes. Also, millet preparations may have contained enough fiber to be but minimally adhesive and plaque prone. Rice was probably not the chief staple cereal of North China during the Shang Dynasty (Li, '77: p. 196). Table 6 details the situation for Jomon tooth chipping. Few Jomon dentitions have the extremely crushed occlusal surfaces seen among High Arctic Eskimos which are believed caused by the teeth being used for crushing bones and other starvation or crisis needs. That which does occur is limited mainly to one or a few teeth and only small portions of the crown are affected. Unlike Aleuts, Eskimos, and Indians there is a significant difference in the amount of tooth chipping in males and females. Males have more. Compared with recent and living Ainu, the frequency of Jomon tooth chipping is not significant (Xi = 7.7; 0.2 > P > 0.1). The ecologically wealthy Aleuts' tooth chipping frequency also does not differ significantly from that of the Jomonese (X: = 0.05; P > 0.8). Both of these comparisons suggest dietary sufficiency among the Jomonese, which was not the case for the markedly-chipped, starvation-disposed High Arctic Eskimos (Turner and Cadien, '69). Tooth chipping, which is in theory another aspect of tooth use behavior, does not detract from the agricultural hypothesis, even though it probably is favorable evidence for more food collecting than can be quantified a t the present. Jomon origins and biological relations hips Tables 7-10 provide quantitative information on the variation in Jomon tooth crown and root morphology, and comparisons of that variation with dental samples from Southeast and North Asia that I have personally studied but not yet published upon. As can be seen in table 10 Jomon teeth and jaw shape are much TABLE 3 A sampling of reports on carious teeth in differenteconomies (age more than IS, sexes pooled, upper and lower teeth1 Population Location Hunting and gathering economy Neanderthal Europe Homo sapien Eurafrica Nubian Sudan Aborigine Australia Aborigine Australia Aborigine Australia Aborigine Tasmania Siberia NE Siberia Eskaleut pan-Arctic Eskimo Greenland Eskimo Greenland Aleut Alaska Indians NW Coast Alaska & B.C. Nootka B.C. Old Copper Wisconsin Indian Knoll Kentucky Gray site Saskatchewan SJo-68 Central Calif. Indian California Time Paleolithic Up. Paleo. Mesolithic Skeletal Skeletal Living Skeletal Skeletal Skeletal Skeletal Living Skeletal Skeletal Skeletal 5600 B.C. 3000 B.C. 3200 B.C. 1000 B.C. Skeletal 259 523 % carious Source 0.0 1.0 1.0 2.3 1.6 4.6 5.3 0.0 0.08 <1.0 2.2 0.0 Brothwell, '63 Brothwell, '63 Armelagos, '66 Steadman, '39 Campbell, '25 Campbell, '38 Steadman, '37 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Pedersen, '38 Pedersen, '38 Present study 0.42 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.7 2.4 1.6 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Cybulski, '78 Herrala, '61 Herrala, '61 Knutson, '75 Present study Klatsky and Klatell, '43 1,377 3,977 1,096 29,767 2,279 6,142 1,166 11,072 182 868 513 434 641 8.6 2.3 1.0 3.2 0.44 3.81 1.7 9.3 8.2 7.4 10.3 2.6 7.8 Present study Shaw, '31 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Wells, '75 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Sinclair et al., '50 Klatsky and Klatelt, '43 Davies, '56 Herrala, '61 Herrala, '61 Herrala, '61 Herrala, '61 Bentzen. '29 (11,680) 1,742 2,219 161 2,526 932 4,784 2,302 6,869 116,500 6,104 267 2,585 3,821 932 790 826 129,634 95,830 20,778 1,205 76,893 353 266 225 1,027 1,707 1,817 3,298 3,295 2,727 (11.5) 2.3 4.4 12.4 11.9 14.8 26.9 4.26 4.2 8.1 9.62 12.0 6.2 26.5 15.9 12.0 4.1 7.65 2.46 2.14 19.7 17.98 6.5 4.9 7.1 15.0 6.3 15.2 4.64 6.25 15.5 15.4 Friel, '10 Brothwell, '63 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Arrnelagos, '66 Armelagos, '66 Armelagos, '66 Holloway e t al., '63 Brabant, '68 ( others) Brabant, '69 Wells, '75 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Angel, '44 Angel, '44 Angel, '44 Angel, '44 Tattersall, '68 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Montelius, '33 Afonsky, '51 Anderson, '32 Sanui, '60 Sanui, '60 Nickens. '74 Robinson, '76 Ryan, '77 Ryan, '77 Ryan, '77 Swanson, '76 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Klatsky and Klatell, '43 Stewart, '31 MacCurdy, '23 - 2,653 10,561 1,844 662 76 2,539 - 17,917 >2,000 5,500 (278) 232 912 989 289 438 + Mixed economy (agriculture Jomon Bantu Black White Melanesian Papuan Polynesian Polynesian Oakwood Md. Dickson Md. Angel Village Sauk Mirnbrenos hunting, gathering, or fishing) Central Japan 1000 B.C. Skeletal So. Africa Skeletal W & So. Africa Neolithic Europe New Britian + Skeletal New Guinea Living Pacific Is. Skeletal Living Pukapuka 1600 A.D. Indiana 1300 A.D. Indiana 1300 A.D. Indiana 1800 A.D. Illinois 1600 A.D. New Mexico Agricultural economy Black Egyptian Egyptian Meriotic X-Group Christian Tristan da Cunha White White White White Greek Greek Greek Greek Clopton Mongoloid Mongoloid Mongoloid Chinese Yayoi Japanese Puebloan Puebloan Puebloan Puebloan Hopi Gran Quivira Mexican So. American Pachacamac Peruvian So. Africa E m t E m t Nubia Nubia Nubia Atlantic Europe France Europe Europe Greece Greece Greece Greece England China, Japan, Korea China Cent. China China Japan Japan Mancos Canyon Mancos Canyon NE Arizona NE Arizona Old Walpi, AZ New Mexico Mexico Bolivia etc. Peru Peru I No. of teeth Living 26-30 Dyn. Skeletal Skeletal Skeletal Skeletal Living Neolithic Neolithic Post -Neolithic Skeletal 3000 B.C. 2000-150 B.C. 1300 A.D. Living Medieval Skeletal Living Living Living 200 B.C. - c.1200 A.D. c.1200 A.D. Pueblo I1 Pueblo 111 Pueblo IV Skeletal Skeletal Skeletal Skeletal Skeletal Probably consumed varying amounts of refined sugar and flour. - + 626 CHRISTY G. TURNER I1 TARLE 4 Alueolar abscesslng (indivadual count, sexes pooled, adults only) Numher of abscesses Group Ainu no. An-yang no. % no. X no. % Atayal Jomon L Sex difference None One Two Three Four Five 28 90.3 126 73.3 29 60.4 40 59.7 3 9.7 35 20.3 12 25.0 17 25.4 0 0.0 4 2.3 6 12.5 6 8.9 0 0.0 2 1.2 0 0.0 4 2.3 1 2.1 1 1.5 0 0 0.0 3 4.5 0.0 1 0.6 0 0.0 0 X' df. P 31 n.r.' - - 172 1.13 2 0.7-0.5 48 2.50 1 0.2-0.1 67 n.r. - - Total 0.0 Visual inspection indicates no test required. 'Skeletal Ainu only. 1 TABLE 5 Periodontal disease (individual count, sexes pooled) General presence Group Sex difference 1 2 An-yang no. Atayal no. % % Jomon no. % Ainu no. % None pockets Light 103 69.1 22 46.8 28 40.6 4 13.3 22 14.8 2 4.3 10 14.5 3 10.0 16 10.7 4 8.5 7 10.1 Moderate Marked 9 30.0 6 4.1 9 19.1 12 17.4 13 43.3 2 1.3 10 21.3 12 17.4 1 3.3 Total X' df. 149 0.42 3 47 2.06 1 69 nx.? - - 30 n.s. - - 1' >0.9 0.2-0.1 ' Pockets can occur alone or with generalized disease which is assessed as follows. None, alveolar border bard and smooth, root exposure does nut exceed 1-3 mm dependent on age. Light, 3-5 mm of exposed root plus possible alveolar border pitting Moderate, 14-5mm exposure, ragged border. and sometimes deep pockets. Marked, >50% of mot exposed, border severely eroded. Pocket depth and form easily grade into appearance of abscess. Because bone loss IS usually not uniform, generalized amount is estimated nn average state of one or both jaws. 'Visual inspection indicates no test required >Skeletal Ainu only. TABLE 6 Jomon tooth chipping (indiuidual count; adults only) Nu. of chipped teeth 0 1 2 3 4 >4 Totals Male Female 14 8 2 4 2 11 41 13 3 3 0 0 2 21 Sexes p l e d 29 14 6 4 2 15 70 41.4% 20.0% 8.6% 5.7% 2.9% 21.4% more like those of Southeast Asians than North Asians. Other Asian dental data in my files supports fully the correctness of this fact (Turner, '79, n.d.1. The Jomonese dental pattern is much more like that of the peoples to the south than t h a t of those of the north despite the latter's closer geographic proximity. In fact, the 3,000-year-old Jomon dentitions are more like those of prehistoric and modern Southeast Asians (Sundadonts) than like modern Japanese in most respects. However, study of more Jomon dental samples is needed before variability measures can be offered. The morphological comparisons suggest to me but one interpretation. When weighed against estimated rates of dental microevolution and other kinds of human and experimental animal genetic change, both within and between populations, the Jomonese must have had significant genetic ties with Southeast Asian Sundaland groups. The archeological record for the Jomon Period shows very little maritime capability (the only boats a r e dugout log canoes; Ploszajski, '63) and no important Neolithic contact with Korea, the nearest and most logical point for exchange (Sample, '74, '76). Furthermore, early Jomon 627 JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE TABLE 7 Jomon crown morphology (indwidual count, sexes pooled) - Sex difference Trait and expression Tooth and frequency No - Winging 1 Bilateral (A-strong. B=weak) 2 Unilateral 3 Straight 4 Counter-winging 5 Bi- and unilateral winging Shoveling 0 None 1 Faint 2 Trace 3 Semi-shovel 4 Semi-shovel 5 Shovel 6 Shovel 7 Barrel Weighted % (D coef.=0.143) Double-shovel (labial) 0 None (smooth surface! 1 Mesial border ridged 2 Distal border ridged 3 Mesial and distal ridges Weighted o/n (D coef. =0.5) Incisor interruption grooves 0 None 1 Mesial lingual border 2 Distal lingual border 3 Medial lingual area 4 Mesial and distal borders 5 Other combinations Tuberculum dentale 0 None (smooth) 1 Weak ridging 2 3 4 5 Weighted % (D coef. = 0.143) Canine mesial ridge (Bushman) 0 None 1 T.d. and MLR weakly joined 2 T.d. and MLR joined, medium 3 T.d. and MLR joined, large Weighted % (D coef.=0.333) Canine distal accessory ridge 0 None 1 Trace 2 Weak 3 Moderate 4 Strong 5 Very strong Weighted % (D coef. = 0.2) Premolar cusp number 2 Twocusps 3 Threecusps Premolar accessory cusps 0 None 1 Mesial 2 Distal 3 Mesial and distal 13.3 3.3 83.3 0.0 16.6 12 0.0 38.5 26.9 26.9 7.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.291 12 96.8 0.0 93.7 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.031 0.0 3.2 0.032 11 Procedure and nntps 0.3 0.7-0.5 Enoki and Dahlberg (‘58) 2.4(2df) 0.8(2dfl 1.1 0.3 0.7-0.5 0.3 Scott (’73) I 1 30 0.0 25.9 44.4 25.9 3.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.345 11 P ~ 11 11 X‘(1dn c 31.6 68.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.098 11 27 12 26 c 19 This scale approximates t h a t of Hrdlitka (‘20) as: O=none; l-Z=trace; 3-4=semi; 5-6= shovel. c 95.8 11 31 4.2 12 32 0.0 C 24 0.0 0.021 0.4 0.1 - 0.7-0.5 0.8 - Modified from Dahlberg (‘51) 12 84.0 8.0 8.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11 0.0 52.0 32.0 8.0 8.0 0.0 0.246 34.5 20.7 27.6 17.2 0.0 0.0 12 37.0 22.2 0.0 37.0 3.7 0.0 0.296 c 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.000 c c 45.5 45.5 4.5 0.0 4.5 0.0 0.145 11 25 I2 29 0.2 0.6 0.7-0.5 0.5-0.3 Turner (‘67) 11 25 12 27 c 22 0.8 0.3 0.0 0.5-0.3 0.7-0.5 0.9 11 modified c 25 - - Modified after Morris (‘75) 13 16 - - Scott (‘73) after Scott (‘73); I2 & c Turner h d . ) ~ 100.0 0.0 C 25.0 18.7 37.5 12.5 6.3 0.0 0.313 PZ 100.0 0.0 P1 P2 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.7 23.1 38.5 23.1 0.0 7.7 0.416 PI 0.0 C C - PI 50 P2 52 Turner (‘67) PI 51 P2 54 Turner (n.d.) (Continued on next page) 628 CHRISTY G. TURNER I1 TABLE 7 iconttnuedl Sex difference Trait and expression Tuberculated premolar 0 None (tooth count) 1 Present Hypocone 0 None 1 Weak ridges 2 Cuspule 3 Small cusp 3.5 Reduced cusp 4 Largecusp 5 Very large cusp Weighted % (D coef.=0.167) cusp 5 0 None 1-5 R e s e n t Carabelli’s trait 0 None (smooth) 1 Line o r furrow 2 Pit 3 Double line 4 Y-form 5 No contact with groove 6 Small contact with groove 7 High cone Weighted % (D coef.=0.1431 Lower incisor shoveling 0 None 1 2 3 Trace Weighted % (D coef.=0.333) Premolar lingual cusps A No lingual cusp 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Molar groove pattern Y (cusps 2 and 3 in contact) + (cusps 1to 4 i n contact1 X (cusps 1 and 4 in contact) Molar cusp number 4 Cusps 1-4present 5 Cusps 1-5 present 6 Cusps 1-6 present 5 Cusps (male) 5 Cusps Ifemale) 6 Cusps (male) 6 Cusps (female1 Deflecting wrinkle 0 None 1 Swelling C 2 central ridge 2 Small deflecting wrinkle 3 Strong deflecting wrinkle Weighted X (D coef.=0.333) Tooth and frequency PU 100.0 0.0 MI 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 36.2 63.8 0.0 0.773 M1 48.7 51.3 ML 71.7 17.4 6.5 2.2 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.072 175 33.3 66.7 0.0 0.0 0.222 Pi - No. 0.0 7.0 2.3 0.0 4.6 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 Mi 88.9 7.9 3.2 Mi 0.0 40.7 59.2 24.0 60.0 76.0 40.0 Mi 45.8 4.2 25.0 25.0 0.431 P Procedure and notes __ P1Z 100.0 0.0 M2 4.3 12.8 21.3 31.9 25.5 4.3 0.0 0.457 M2 84.4 15.6 M2 93.7 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.009 PU 100 P12 130 - - Alexandersen (‘70) M 1 58 MZ 47 Ma 23 1.1 2.5(2df) 1.0 0.3 0.3-0.2 0.5-0.3 Larson, Scott, and Turner in Scott (‘73) The Dahlberg (‘51) scale is: 3=0-1; 3 f =2; 4-=3-3.5: 4 pattern= 4-5 of this scale. 1.8 0.4 0.2-0.1 0.7-0.5 Turner (‘67) M1 46 M2 32 M3 21 0.1 0.2 0.01 0.8-0.7 0.7-0.5 0.9 Dahlberg (‘63) 112 30 2.2 0.2-0.1 Scott (‘73) Grade 3 approximates HrdliEka’s 112 “trace” P i 43 P2 53 0.1 0.7(2df) 0.8 0.8-0.7 Modified after Scott (‘73). This scale also counts lingual cusps: A = O 0=1; 1-7=2; 8-9= 3 lingual cusps. Grade A not looked for in Jomon sample. M I 63 M2 73 0.1 3.4Udfl 0.4 (2df) 0.8-0.7 0.2-0.1 0.9-0.8 Gregory (‘16); Hellman (‘28); Jorgensen (‘55) M i 54 M2 51 M3 40 6 9 19 6 5.2 0.4(2dfl 0.3(2dD 0.05-0.02 0.9-0.8 0.9-0.8 Modified after Gregory (‘161; Turner (‘67) M i 24 M2 36 M3 31 0.3 0.7-0.5 Seyhert and Turner (scale under develop.) My 34.8 17.4 30.4 13.0 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.224 M3 75.0 ML 39 25.0 M2 32 M3 8 - - M3 80.9 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.3 0.150 PZ - 83.7 X‘Odf) 15.1 3.8 24.5 30.2 9.4 1.9 0.0 1.9 0.0 13.2 M2 31.5 28.8 39.7 M3 11.8 13.7 74.5 MZ M’J 31.4 54.9 13.7 MZ 100.0 0.0 12.5 57.5 30.0 M3 51 Ma 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.000 0.0 0.000 - - 629 JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE TABLb 7 (rontinuedJ Sex difference Trait and expression Protostylid 0 None 1 Pit in buccal groove 2 Curved buccal groove 3 Small cusp, initial groove 4 Slight cusp 5 Moderate cusp 6 Largecusp Weighted X (D coef.=0.125) Cusp 6 Yentoconulid') 0 None 1 C5 > >C6 2 C5> C6 3 C5= C6 4 C5< C6 5 C5 < <C6 Weighted X (D coef. =0.2) 1-5 Present (male1 1-5 Present (female) Cusp 7 Ymetaconulid") 0 None 1 Weak grooves a t C2 and C4 1A C7 on C2 weakly 2 Small distinct cuspule 3 Medium-sized cusp 4 Largecusp Weighted % (D coef. = 0.2) Third molar occurrence L and R absent L o r R absent L and R present L and R present (both jaws) Torus 0 None 1 Trace, palpable 2 Medium, <'A'' high 3 Marked, 114-318" 4 Very marked, >3/8" Weighted % (D coef. = 0.25) Rocker jaw 0 None 1 Threshold 2 Rocker Weighted %. (D coef. ~0.5) Tooth and frequency Mi M2 65.6 79.7 23.4 16.9 7.8 0.0 3.1 1.7 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.060 0.036 Mi M2 42.0 86.0 10.0 2.0 38.0 8.0 10.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.232 0.064 77.3 35.7 M2 Mi 98.5 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.012 M3 6.7 11.1 82.2 0.0 0.000 M3 13.0 6.5 80.5 Nu. Procedure and notes M3 78.3 M I 64 4.3 M2 59 2.2 M3 46 2.2 8.7 0.0 4.3 0.095 M3 72.5 50 7.5 M2 50 7.5 M3 40 12.5 0.0 0.0 0.120 22 14 M3 100.0 M I 67 MZ 66 0.0 0.0 M3 45 0.0 0.0 MI 0.8(2df) 0.01 0.7 0.7-0.5 0.9 0.5-0.3 Dahlherg 6.2 0.4 0.2 0.02 0.7-0.5 0.7-0.5 Turner ('701 - Turner ('701 - - 0.4 1.3 0.7-0.5 0.3-0.2 No sign of tooth for absence score 0.5(2df) 4.5 (2df) 0.8-0.7 Mand.. after N. Morris 1'701; Pal. scale under development - ('63) 0.0 0.000 M 3 45 M3 77 65.5 Pal. 44.1 49.1 6.8 0.0 0.0 0.157 Mand. 62.5 0.0 37.5 0.375 P S'Odf? Mand. 49.4 35.4 12.7 2.5 29 P. 59 M. 79 0.0 0.2-0.1 0.171 pottery is similar in shape and marking t o that of the Hoabinhian Mesolithic-Neolithic in Southeast Asia. Taken altogether, these facts suggest t h a t a Jomonese-Southeast Asian population network existed on the Asian continental shelf prior t o 12,000 years ago when sea levels rose to isolate Japan and the Jomonese by a significant oceanic barrier. Even the relatively narrow Korea Strait had limited traffic (Sample, '74: p. 121). Archeologically-obtained evidence also reveals that this oceanic barrier was culturally, genetically, and probably linguistically effective, with 16 Turner (n.d.1 Scale under development only minor penetrations, until Yayoi times when Chinese culture, mainland-made materials, rice agriculture, and people appeared as a major migration impulse to Honshu (Turner, '76). Dental evidence decidedly favors the view that the Jomonese were ancestral t o the modern Ainu, not the Japanese (Turner, '76; p. 913). Craniometric comparisons by Howells ('66) support the same conclusion. I believe that the data in table 10 suggest that the Jomonese probably were the northern node of a linked but subsequently disrupted geographic and temporal population network 630 CHRISTY G . TURNER I1 TABLE 8 Jomon root number hndiuzdual count, sexes pooled) Sex difference Tuoth Maxillary r w t s I1 12 C PI P2 M1 M2 M3 Mandibular roots I1 12 c P1 P2 M1 M2 M3 1 2 3 4 No X'Udf) P 100.0 100.0 95.6 62.5 98.1 1.8 6.7 54.2 0.0 0.0 4.4 35.7 1.9 3.6 26.7 29.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 0.0 94.6 64.4 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 51 47 23 56 54 55 45 24 - - - 0.35 >0.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 2.6 11.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 94.0 94.9 79.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 2.6 9.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 38 39 40 48 52 83 78 54 - - 0.02 0.03 >0.8 10.8 - Notes and procedure Turner ('67) - TABLE 9 Jomon root variation (indiudual count, sexes pooled) Buccal enamel exlension Sex difference Tooth Maxilla PI P2 M1 M2 M3 Mandible P1 P2 M1 M2 M3 X'(ldf1 1 2 0 No. 97.9 96.0 75.4 53.2 70.8 2.1 4.0 9.8 14.9 20.8 0.0 0.0 3.3 10.6 8.3 0.0 0.0 11.5 21.3 0.0 48 50 100.0 98.5 72.0 40.0 74.5 0.0 1.5 12.0 14.7 9.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.0 37.3 15.7 48 65 75 0.2 75 1.5(3df) 51 0.02 0 - - 61 0.9 47 24 P >0.3 >0.2 1.4 - - > 0.5 >0.5 >0.8 Wt. 2, (D=CJ.~W 0.007 0.013 0.170 0.333 0.125 0.000 0.005 0.172 0.475 0.190 Xotes and procedure Modified after Lasker ('50) 0 =none l=slight (<1.5 mm) 2=medium (>1.5 mm) 3=marked ( > > 1 . 5 m m ) Rare reverse extensions counted as 0. - from late Jomon Japan back through time and down the east Asian continental shelf to late Pleistocene Sundadont peoples in now submerged tropical Sundaland. If this hypothesized link between the Jomon people and those of late Pleistocene tropical Sundaland is correct, and if the meager but very significant evidence for the beginnings of agriculture in Southeast Asia in early Holocene or even late Pleistocene times is also correct, then the idea that the Jomonese could have brought to Japan some form of cultigen is not as radical as it first appears. I t would also help to explain the long-standing enigma of why pottery appeared so very early in prehistoric Japan, when nearly everywhere else in the world its development and use is associated with agricultural activities. In fact, sherds from Kyushu, Japan, dating at 12,700 ? 500 (Gak-950) (Chard, '74: p. 111), are among the oldest examples of pottery in the world. The idea of late Pleistocene agriculture is still too novel to be readily accepted. But evidence for it is slowly amassing. The most recent documentation is the finding by Wendorf ('79) of domestic barley dating more than 18,000 years ago in a site on the Nile River near Aswan in southern Egypt. In addition to the seeds, agricultural implements were also found. JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE TABLE 10 Key dental traits in Jomonese and other eastern Asians hdzuidual count, sexes pooled) Trait X Winging, bilateral 11 Shovel, 11 (wt. %) Double-shovel, 11 (wt. X ) Carabelli trait, M I (wt. Y,) Y groove, Mi 4-cusped M2 Deflecting wrinkle, (wt. %) Enamel ext. MI (wt. %l 1-rooted PA 3-rooted Mi 1-rooted MZ Rocker jaw Mi Southeast Asia 0.0-26.7 15-15) 0.242-0.382 (11-17) 0.025-0.033 (15-20) 0.241-0.325 (14-29) 15.4-22.2 (26-27) 24.0-61.5 (25-26) 0.455-0.542 (8-11) 0.235-0.241 (17-29) 33.3-48.3 (29-33) 14.3-15.4 (28-39) 13.0-18.2 (23-33) 33.3 (24) Jomon 13.3 (30) 0.345 (27) 0.032 (31) 0.072 (46) 31.5 (73) 31.4 (51) 0.431 (24) 0.170 (61) 62.5 (56) 6.0 (83) 2.6 (78) 37.5 (16) North Asia 16.7-17.2 (18.145) 0.559-0.653 (14-119) 0.229-0.411 (17-142) 0.148-0.179 (24-157) 5.9-6.0 (17-152) 12.5-13.5 (16-96) 0.792-0.809 (7-8) 0.444-0.600 (27-224) 69.0-70.1 (29-144) 20.8-38.4 (24-172) 20.8-26.3 (24-141) 3.8-6.8 (26-191) Coefficients for weighted percentages are given in table I . Southeast Asia based on samples from Non Nok Tha, Thailand, and Niah Cave, Sarawak (Borneo). North Asia based on An-yang Chinese and recent Japanese. Numbers indicated in parentheses. All samples except the Japanese are approximately contemporary. What few significant differences that do exist between the An yang Chinese and the Japanese occur because the latter are shifted towards the Jomon values as expected (Turner. '76). DISCUSSION Assessing t h e likelihood of agriculture through oral health is best done solely with the caries variable, since i t has the most direct and strongest relationship with amount, kind, texture, and adhesiveness of all possible foodstuffs. The other oral pathologies that can be reliably and consistently identified in skeletal remains, namely alveolar bone loss and periodontal pocketing, abscessing (alveolar bone destruction by bacteria originating either through the pulp canal or along the external root surface; Clickman, '7.21, and a n t e mortem tooth loss (which can be caused by trauma and ablation as well as by disease), are not nearly as strongly related to diet. Nevertheless, there should be some degree of correspondence in the frequencies of each, so i t is important as well a s interesting to compare the total oral health of the Jomonese with 631 other Asian agricultural groups. Table 11 shows the frequencies and rankings for caries, periodontal disease, abscessing, and antemortem tooth loss. In each case, the Jomonese are in relatively poor health, and taken altogether, they have the worst oral health of the four groups. Jomon oral health is most like that of the Atayal and least like that of the An-yang Chinese, suggesting epidemiological parallels not expected on the basis of cultural, geographic, or temporal considerations. Many factors undoubtedly contribute to oral health variability. Whatever all was involved, i t was intensified in the Jomon population of central Japan. According to the archeological evidence already cited some indeterminate amount of cereal almost certainly was present in the Jomonese diet. Millet seems to be the best established cultigen by a t least Late Jomon times. However, millet was also the main cereal most likely eaten by the An-yang Chinese, and its cariogenic effect was significantly less than what has been shown to have occurred in Jomonese teeth. This simple fact suggests that Jomonese caries were caused either by (1) some unknown factor that enhanced the cariogenicity of millet, or (2) the skeletal samples lack comparability due to differences in age or ante-mortem loss by caries, or (3) the Jomon diet was actually more cariogenic because of additional or different carbohydrates not suspected on archeological grounds. On the basis of Jomon food refuse I doubt if the Jomonese ate more carbohydrate than the An-yang Chinese. Jomon sites contain far more shellfish, fish, and mammal remains than do any reported Shang Dynasty sites (Li, '77). Ante-mortem tooth loss can be ruled out as responsible for the greater Jomon caries frequency because it also is greater in the Jomonese than in the An-yang Chinese. If tooth loss was due mainly to caries then the Jomon could be expected to have a lower caries rate. Age is also not the cause of the difference, because although there are more subadults in the Jomon sample (13.9%;14/ 101) than in the Chinese one (3.2%;9/277) only two of the Jomon subadults have any carious teeth. Caries in the Jomonese was a mature adult disease for the most part, just as i t was in the An-yang Chinese. The cariogenicity of millet may have been enhanced by some food preparation technique, 632 CHRISTY G. TURNER I1 TABLE 11 Summary of East Asian oral health Group An-yang Ainu Atayal Jomon Maxillary carlee Periodontal disease Abaceuaes ___ Rank Rank Y, Rank X 1 2 4 3 2.2 2.6 13.2 7.2 1 4 2 3 30.9 86.7 53.2 59.4 2 1 3 4 Ante-mortem loss X Rank % Total rank 26.7 9.7 39.6 1 2 3 40.3 4 2.3 4.6 9.7 1 11.6' 5 9 12 14 ' Excluding ablated 12. 'Excluding ablated maxillary and mandibular canines. but surely any such technical development would have also been long employed by the fully agricultural Shang Dynasty Chinese. On the other hand, the Chinese may have consumed various cariostatic substances, such as fluoride-possessing teas, that inhibited caries that might have arisen with sticky carbohydrate foodstuffs. However, fluoride would be equally expected in the marine foods collected and captured by the Jomonese. If one argues that the Chinese-Jomonese caries difference is due to some manner of preburial status, as noted by Suzuki ('67) in historic Japanese nobility burials, then it is all the more likely that the Jomonese had access to sufficient carbohydrate sources to harm proportionally more of the teeth in persons of hypothetically high status than did even the lowest status agricultural Chinese. Patently, this sort of differential burial argument only strengthens the hypothesis that the Jomonese were growing and eating plants with high yields of carbohydrate since no gatherers amassed sufficient seeds, nuts, fruits, or tubers to push their caries rate beyond the 2% non-agricultural threshold (table 4). It seems to me that t h e explanation for the relatively high Jomonese caries rate must rest with their having cultivated some species of plant more cariogenic than millet (as assessed by the Chinese caries rate). Roots and tubers with their potentially high starch content are good candidates, and taro would be among the most promising to search for archeologically. Taro has been a significant crop in Japan for more than 600 years despite the heavy emphasis on rice. Frederic ('72: p. 130) found records of it having been grown by Thirteenth Century Japanese farmers along with rice and other plant species. Howells ('73: p. 205) suggests that taro might have been cultivated in Southeast Asia as early as 14,000 years ago, but only reached Japan in Middle Jomon times, although he does not see any indication of horticulture other than what is implied by the widespread Jomon pottery. Another consideration that leads me to suspect that taro or some such starchy tuber was eaten by the Jomonese is that the modern Ainu diet probably does not produce as severe an oral health problem, except possibly for periodontal disease, as did those of the Atayals and Jomonese. Significantly, the modern Ainu diet does not contain much if any taro, yam, or sweet potato. According to Koishi et al. ('75: p. 314) representative menus of modern Ainu include considerable rice, pumpkin, radish, white potato, fish flakes, noodles, soups, oils, and small amounts of other food types including some sugar. This is beyond doubt more carbohydrate than used by the Jomonese, but it is less cariogenic. The severe periodontal disease in the Ainu and Jomon samples (table 11) is not suggestive of any major oral hygiene difference between them. Thus, the large amount of carbohydrates eaten by modern Ainu, whose tooth morphology is very similar to that of the Jomonese, compels me to think that the Jomonese must have eaten an amount of carbohydrate approximating the rations of Chinese millet or Ainu rice-noodles. Since millet was seemingly not as harmful to teeth as was whatever carbohydrate the Jomonese were eating, and because whatever the Jomonese were eating was more cariogenic than the rice-noodle diet of the Ainu, I am led to the conclusion that the Jomonese were consuming less of but a more cariogenic foodstuff than either the Chinese or Ainu. Such a food must have been something other than rice or millet. I offer that taro or some such starchy tuber which needs cooking be considered. Even now, wild bulbs and roots are not unfamiliar to the JOMON DENTITION AND AGRICULTURE Sakhalin Ainu (Ohnuki-Tierney, ’74). These data and analyses support Howells’ (‘73) suggestion that taro was in use by Middle to Late Jomon times. However, I believe there is enough evidence on hand to hypothesize that taro or a similar tuber had been introduced to Japan earlier, namely in the late Pleistocene prior to the flooding of the east Asian continental shelf. The evolutionarily conservative dentition, when coupled with Japanese prehistory, indicates that the resulting postglacial Sea of Japan and East China Sea became and remained barriers to most mainland gene flow and cultural diffusion until as recently as Yayoi times. At this time the Chinese and other mainland Asians penetrated these marine barriers starting the end of the Jomon culture. The possibility of agricultural technology being introduced by postglacial migrants from the Ryukyu Islands is not supported by Pearson’s work (Pearson, ’69).He finds that the Ryukyus were seemingly first inhabited by the Jomonese around 3000 B C . bringing with them from the north pottery, adzes [hoes? CGTl, dogs, among other items. Later, after A.D. 200, he sees influences from the south (Taiwan) (Pearson, ’69: pp. 134-136).Nor can it be shown that agriculture entered Japan by way of Korea where it appears later than in China, southern Manchuria and possibly Japan (Sample, ’76). Finally, I would like to suggest that the dental anthropology of the Jomonese provides a new insight into why rice agriculture spread so rapidly in the brief Yayoi time period. The reason is that the Jomonese were probably already functional farmers as well as hunters and fishermen. CONCLUSIONS This study is the first known attempt to show by dental anthropological means that the prehistoric Jomon people of Japan, usually thought of as hunters and fishermen, also practiced farming. The main conclusions, based on 101 personally-inspected Middle to Late Jomon Period skeletons of central Japan are: 1. Because Jomon oral pathology, particularly the extent of caries, exceeds that of all known hunters and gatherers as well as that of directly comparable e a s t e r n Asian agricultural groups, it is believed that the Jomonese ate much more carbohydrate than archeological evidence has heretofore shown. 2. The source of the carbohydrate is felt t o 633 be taro or some other starchy tuberous cultigen as well as archeologically-recognized millet. 3. Jomon dental morphology suggests a closer genetic link with Southeast Asians than with adjacent mainland Chinese or modern Japanese. This finding hints that ancestral Jomonese entered Japan in late Pleistocene times before the post-glacial rise in sea levels. They remained isolated until Yayoi times. This isolation. coupled with a lack of Jomon maritime capability, strong Jomon odontological ties with Southeast Asia, and early Jomon ceramic similarities with Hoabinhian pottery, permit hypothesizing that taro or a similar tuber was introduced to Japan along the now-submerged continental shelf prior to the end of the Pleistocene by northerly-expanding fishing and “farming” Southeast Asian Sundadont peoples. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply appreciative to the following individuals and institutions for assistance in and permission t o examine their respective collections: Jomon and Ainu, K. Hanihara, University of Tokyo; An-yang Chinese and Atayal, H. M. Yang, Li Chi, and W. L. Ch’u, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Ban Chiang, M. Pietrusewsky, University of Hawaii, Honolulu; Non Nok Tha and Great Niah Cave, S. Brooks, University of Nevada at Las Vegas; Japanese, J. L. Angel, US.National Museum of Natural History and I . Tattersall, American Museum of Natural History; Aleuts, J. L. Angel, I. Tattersall, G. Cole, Field Museum, Chicago, and W. S. Laughlin, University of Connecticut, Storrs. Data collection and analysis was done in part on a 1975-76 sabbatical leave of absence with the aid of a Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, and later by aid from Arizona State University Research Committee, and the National Geographic Society. I initiated intensive study of the relationships between dental variation, health, microevolution, and culture in 1970-71 while a Fellow a t the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California. There, discussions and seminars with staff and other Fellows, particularly D. Shimkin, considerably helped me to appreciate relationships between biology and culture. 634 CHRlSTY G. TURNER 11 My debt extends also t o David A. Breternitz for copies of the P. R. Nickens and C. K. Robinson manuscripts and t o William Wade for a copy of the I. Knutson work. LITERATURE CITED Afonsky, D. A. 1951 Some ohservations on dental caries in central China. J . Dent. Research, 30: 53-61. 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