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Dermatoglyphic patterns and pattern intensities of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae platyrrhini) with observations on interspecific and subspecific differentiation.

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American Journal of Primatology 19:25-37 (1989)
Dermatoglyphic Patterns and Pattern Intensities of the
Genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini) With Observations
on lnterspecific and Subspecific Differentiation
LAURA NEWELL-MORRIS',' AND THOMAS F. WIENKER'
'Department of Anthropology and Regional Primate Research Center, University of
Washington, Seattle; "Institut fur Humangenetik und Anthropologie der Universitat
Freiburg, Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany
Palmar and plantar dermatoglyphic pattern types, area and total pattern
intensities (API and TPI), and pattern intensity (PI) profiles are presented
for the South American genus Cacajao of the subfamily Pitheciinae. The
data are based on prints from 41 bald-head uacaries (C. calvus), 9 white
bald-head uacaries (C. c. calvus), and 15 black-head uacaries (C. melanocephalus). In each extremity, loops of differing orientation were the most
frequent pattern type; whorls were dominant a t palmar interdigital (I)
area 3 in C. calvus and a t both I3 and I4 in C. melanocephalus. Open fields
characterized the palmar thenar and plantar proximal hypothenar, thenar, calcar, and I3 and 14. There was little evidence of significant sexual
dimorphism a s assessed from PI values. The genus displayed significant
asymmetry a t palmar I3 (P 5 0.001) and plantar distal hypothenar ( P 5
0.004). There were significant group differences between C. calvus and C.
c. calvus in the palmar thenar API and plantar TPIs. The combined baldhead sample of C. calvus and C. c. calvus differed from C. melanocephalus
in API of palmar I4 and plantar distal thenar, 12, and distal hypothenar
(marginally), and in plantar TPIs. In PI profiles, C. melanocephalus departed from the pattern shared by C. calvus and C. c. calvus in both palmar
and plantar interdigital areas. As a genus, the uacaries have markedly
low plantar TPI values relative to palmar values (palm-sole index > 195).
Of eight comparison cebid genera, only Chiropotes, another pitheciine genus, approximated these values.
Key words: New World monkeys, taxonomy, uacaries
INTRODUCTION
Nonhuman primates display a variety of dermatoglyphic patterns on the volar
surfaces of their hands and feet. These patterns differ not only between genera but
also between species, making them a potentially useful morphologic feature for
taxonomic studies. In this paper we describe the dermatoglyphics of the South
Received for publication May 23, 1989; revision accepted August 2, 1989
Address reprint requests to Kate Elias, Publications Editor, Regional Primate Research Center SJ-50,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
0 1989 Alan R. Liss, Inc.
26 I Newell-Morris and Wienker
American uacari (Cacajao). The two classic monographs on nonhuman primate
dermatoglyphics [Midlo & Cummins, 1942; Biegert, 1961I do not include this genus, and this report presents the first description of the palmar and plantar dermatoglyphic pattern types and their distribution in Cacajao.
The analysis was facilitated by Hershkovitz’s [1987] comprehensive review
and revision of the taxonomy of Cacajao, in which he identified two species within
the same genus, i.e., the black-head uacari (C. melanocephalus) with two subspecies and the bald-head uacari (C. caluus) with four subspecies. Of the latter, C. c.
caluus previously had been designated a separate species (C. caluus) and the remainder grouped within the species C. rubicundus [cf. Napier & Napier, 19671.
Hershkovitz’s nomenclature is followed throughout this report.
In addition to a general description of the dermatoglyphic pattern types and
intensities characteristic of the genus, we present a comparison between C. melanocephalus and C . caluus; a small sample of the white bald-head subspecies (C. c.
caluus) is also compared with each of the two species to determine the extent of
subspecific differentiation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Genus Cuca&w: General Distribution and Description
The genus Cacajao is distributed throughout the upper Orinoco and Amazonian regions in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Brazil. The two species, C. caluus
and C. melanocephalus, are probably allopatric. The latter is restricted to the
northeast sector of the generic range in eastern Colombia, the upper Rio Orinoco
basin of Venezuela, and the Rio Negro-upper Rio Solim6es basin of Amazonas,
Brazil. The white bald-head subspecies is confined to the varzea forest of a small
“island” formed by the lower section of the right bank of the Rio Japura, the left
bank of the Rio Solimijes, and the Auati-Parana [Ayres, 19861. For complete distribution maps see Hershkovitz [1987, pp. 4, 61.
The uacaries are the largest of the nonprehensile-tailed platyrrhines, but have
the shortest tails. They are grouped within the subfamily Pitheciinae along with
the two saki genera, Chiropotes and Pithecia. A number of tegmentary, skeletal,
and dental features, singly or in combination, distinguish Cacajao from the related
pitheciine forms. Uacaries are the only non-agouti-colored pitheciines. The larger
of the two species, C. caluus, is reddish orange, buffy, or whitish in general coloration and presents a striking appearance with its bare, unpigmented face that
appears scarlet red in sunlight. In contrast, the more hirsute C. melanocephalus
has a blackish forehead and crown covered with dark hair and is blackish in
general coloration.
The uacari hand is prehensile; the morphological axis lies between the index
and middle fingers, and the thumb and index finger move in tandem [Hershkovitz,
19721. The thumb, although nonopposable, can grasp small objects by pressure
contact at the interphalangeal joint or thenar pad [Napier & Napier, 19671.
The locomotor behavior of the uacaris is not well known. They are broadly
classified as quadrupedal [Napier & Napier 19671. Oxnard [1986] places them
among the primate species that rely on equal use of the fore- and hindlimbs.
Individuals have been observed in suspensory behavior using either fore- or hindlimbs and can cover short distances by bimanual suspensory locomotion [Hollihn,
19841. They also resort occasionally to bipedalism [Stern, 19711.
Samples
The dermatoglyphic materials were obtained from live animals housed in zoos
and research facilities and from preserved specimens in museums and anatomical
Dermatoglyphics of Cacq'ao I 27
institutes throughout Europe and the United States (see Acknowledgments). The
taxonomic classification and site where each animal was collected were checked
against current nomenclature and known geographic distribution. Any specimen
of questionable status was rejected. The final sample consisted of 65 uacaries
including 41 C . calvus (18 males, 22 females, 1 sex unknown), 9 C . c. catvus (3
males, 6 females), and 15 C . melanocephalus (8 male, 7 female).
Dermatoglyphic Data
The dermatoglyphic features of the right and left palms and soles were printed
by standard inking technique or recorded in schematic drawings done a t the time
of visual inspection of the volar surfaces. All prints and drawings had been recorded and interpreted by H. Brehme (Institut fur Humangenetik und Anthropologie der Universitat Freiburg, FRG) several years before the present analysis.
Standard nomenclature was used for the volar areas and dermatoglyphic pattern
types [Midlo & Cummins, 1942; Biegert, 19611 with slight modifications [Brehme
& Wittmann, 1980; Newell-Morris & Wienker, 19861.
Pattern types were assigned pattern intensity (PI) values from 0 to 1.0 a t
intervals of 0.20, after Midlo and Cummins [1942]. According to this scheme, the
higher the PI value, the more complex the pattern. When more than one pattern
covered a single volar area, the areal value was obtained by summing the individual values of the component patterns; the combined maximal value was 1.0.
Where two pads were fused into a single structure, that part of the fused pad
covered by most of the pattern was assigned the value of the respective pattern; the
other part was given the value 0.20. If the pattern was evenly distributed across
the fused area, each component pad received the full PI value of the shared pattern.
Statistics
A mean areal pattern intensity (API) value was calculated separately by sex
and by side (left and right) for each of the seven palmar and nine plantar pad areas.
Total pattern intensities (TPIs) were computed, two for the palm and two for the
sole. TPI6 was derived from the API values for the six primary areas of the palm
(proximal hypothenar, thenar, and four interdigital areas [I1 to 141) and from the
six homologous areas of the sole. TP17 was obtained from the API values for the six
primary areas of the hand plus the nonprimary distal hypothenar area; TPI9 was
obtained from the API values of the six primary areas of the foot plus the three
nonprimary areas-the distal hypothenar, calcar, and distal thenar.
Palmar and plantar API and TPI values were tested for significant side differences by a nonparametric matched-pairs test (Wilcoxon's ranked-signs test); sex
and group differences were tested by a nonparametric location test (Mann-Whitney
U test) [Hull & Nie, 19811. The probability of P < 0.05 for the null hypothesis was
chosen as the acceptable level of significance. The PI data were analyzed on the
1100/82 Sperry UNIVAC computer with the standard SPSS9 statistical program
package [Nie et al., 19751. Note that whereas the PI data are presented as arithmetic means to enable comparison with other published results, the nonparametric
tests employed are sensitive mainly to differences in the medians of the samples.
RESULTS
Pattern T y p e s
The distributions of pattern types by left palmar and plantar areas, sex-combined, are given for each of the three groups in Tables I and 11. The patterns at each
area are arranged from the most to the least frequently observed basic types; the
28 I Newell-Morris and Wienker
TABLE I. Distribution of Pattern Types: Palmar Areas Left Side,
Sex-Combined, Cacajao
C. caluus
( n = 41)
Volar
area
C . melanocephalus
C . c . caluus
in = 9)
(n
=
15)
(Hd)”
Lp(28) VLp(4) Lpr(1)
O(7) V(1)
Lp(5) VLpil) O(2) V(1)
Lp(12) VLp(1) O(1)
fus
HP
Th
-
-
Lu(40) VW(1)
O(33) Lrd(2) LdLp(1)
V(1i
Ld(4)
Ld(8) LdLd(2) LdlV(1)
Lrd,V(l)W(G) accW(3)
tzWi1) VW(3)V/Wi2)
LdWi3) VLd,W(l)
LrdW(2)W,W(l)Si3)
W(17) VW(1) Ld(15)
VLdil) 0(2)Lp(l)
VLp(1) 5x1) VS(1) V(1)
W(16) VW(3) Lp(8)
VLp(1) Ld(7)0(6)
Lp(21) S(7) W(5) VW(1)
0(3)0/V(1)V/Ox( 1)
Ld(1) V(1)
VLp(1)
Lu(8) Lud(1)
0131 Ld(3) Lrd(1)
LpLu(1)
Lu(13) Lud(1)
O(9) Ox(l) Lrd(2) Ld(1)
fus
I1
I2
I3
I4
4u
Ld(2)
Ld(3) O(2) Will VS(1)
Ld(2)
S(6) W(2) tzW(2) W,V(1)
Ld(l)O(l)
W(2) VW(1) Ld(2) 0 i 2 )
VLp( 1)S(1)
Ld(7) O(3) Lp(2) W(2i
Vil)
Lp(4) VLp(1) O(2) W(1)
V(1)
Lp(4) VLp(1) V(2) Ldil)
VLdi 1)
W(7) Ld(3) Oi2) Lp(1)
S(l)V(l)
W(11) S(2) Ld(1) VLp(1)
-
-
Abbreviations: Volar area-4f, marginal fibular accessory pad of 14; 4u, marginal ulnar accessory pad of 14; C,
calcar; CA:4p, central accessory pad proximal to 14; fus, fused pads; Hd, distal hypothenar; Hp, proximal
hypothenar; I, interdigital (11,12,13,14);Th, thenar; Thd, distal thenar; Thp, proximal thenar. Pattern type-A,
arch; accW, accidental whorl; Ld, distal loop; Lf, fibular loop; Lp, proximal loop; Lr, radial loop; Lt, tibia1 loop;
Lu, ulnar loop; 0, open field; Ox, arch over partially reduced radiant; S, double loop, double centric whorl; tzW,
tricentric whorl (of three Loops); V, vestigial pattern (type not identifiable); VW, VLp, etc., vestigial pattern
type; VIW, etc., vestige plus whorl; W, unicentric whorl; LdLd, LdW, etc., combined double pattern. More
complete descriptions of these terms are to be found in Biegert L19611 and Brehme and Wittmann [1980].
“Nonprimary area.
variations of a basic pattern type are presented immediately adjacent to it, e.g.,
proximal loop (Lp) and proximal radial loop (Lpr).
Palmar Areas (Table I)
For the genus Cacajao, the proximal loop is the almost exclusive pattern of the
nonprimary hypothenar distal area, whereas the ulnar loop prevails in the proximal hypothenar area. The thenar area is generally patternless; occasionally it is
fused with the first interdigital pad. A wider range of pattern types and more
interspecific differences are found at 11-14. For the two C. caluus groups, the most
common pattern types are distal loops and whorls at I1 and 12, whorls and proximal loops at 13, and proximal loops at 14. C. melanocephalus appears to differ in
that double loops predominate at I1 and whorls at 14.
Plantar Areas (Table 11)
For all species of the genus, the proximal loop is the dominant pattern type at
the nonprimary distal hypothenar area; open fields occur in equally high frequencies among C . c. caluus and C. melanocephalus. Absence of patterning typifies the
proximal hypothenar, calcar, and proximal thenar areas. At the nonprimary distal
thenar area, open fields and loops in equal frequencies characterize C. caluus,
Dermatoglyphics of Cacajao I 29
TABLE 11. Distribution of Pattern Types: Plantar Areas Left Side,
Sex-Combined, Cacqjao
Volar
area
C. calvus
(n = 41)
(Hd)"
C. c. calvus
(n
9)
C . melanocephalus
(n = 15)
O(8) Lp(5) LpLp(1) V(1)
fus
HP
(C)"
ThP
(Thd)"
I1
I2
I3
O(12) Ld(3)
I4
4f
CA:4p
Abbreviations are as in Table I
"Nonprimary area.
whereas only open and vestigial fields are observed in C. melanocephalus. At 11,
the genus is typified by proximal loops followed in frequency by open fields. At 12,
the dominant patterns are proximal loops in C. calvus and open fields in C . melanocephalus. At I3 and 14, open fields predominate throughout the genus.
Pattern Intensity
Sexual dimorphism. Significant sex differences were demonstrated for only
two areas, both on the right foot: the hypothenar area in C. calvus and I1 in C.
melanocephalus. Within the former, the difference is attributable to four females
that had bilaterally fused distal-proximal hypothenar pads. Here the hypothenar
area, which is generally patternless, was assigned the PI value of 0.20, thereby
elevating the mean female value for the area (API = 0.06) significantly above that
of males (API = 0.00, P = 0.036).
The second sex difference at I1 in C. melanocephalus was only marginally
significant (P = 0.044).The lower mean female API value (0.371 vs. 0.725 in the
male) was attributable to the presence of vestigial loops, whereas the full loop
pattern predominated among males.
Combining groups did not decrease any P value to the level of significance. In
conclusion, the statistical evidence was judged insufficient to warrant presentation
of the data separated by sex.
Lateral asymmetry. When each of the three groups was tested separately,
only the palmar I3 area in C. calvus showed a significant difference between sides
(Table 111).Addition of C. c. calvus to the C. calvus sample increased the P value to
0.05 for 13, but decreased it to significance (0.036) for the plantar distal hypothenar. Combining all data from the two species further decreased the P values for
30 I Newell-Morris and Wienker
TABLE 111. Bilateral Palmar Pattern Intensity Values
Grow
C. calvus
(n
=
Side
(HdY
L
.61
2.05
54
2.06
51
2.12
.44
%.ll
.68
t.07
.64
2.07
41)
R
C. c. calvus
(n = 9)
L
R
C. melanocephalus
(n
=
L
15)
R
HD
.80
k.01
.81
2.01
.80
2.00
.82
i.02
.81
5.01
.83
k.02
f
S.E., Sex-Combined, C a c u ~ b o
Th
I1
I2
I3
I4
TPIG
TP17
.13
5.05
.20
5.05
,513
2.13
.49
2.14
.29
k.10
.35
5.11
.94
2.03
.81
1.04
.73
2.05
.62
5.14
.82
5.11
.63
t.10
.67
t.10
.74b
2.05
.83b
k.05
.53
2.13
.62
5.12
.76
2.10
.85
2.06
.76
5.04
.68
2.05
,518
k .09
.69
2.11
.95
2.04
39
5.07
4.17
5.10
4.12
2.14
3.62
5.33
4.13
*.38
4.33
2.19
4.57
2.18
4.78
2.12
4.66
k.16
4.13
5.34
4.58
2.39
5.01
5.20
5.21
t.20
.88
2.03
56
5.13
.69
2.14
.89
k.07
.99
2.01
"Nonprimary area, not included in computation of TPIG.
hSignificant side difference, P = 0.031 (Wilcoxon matched-pairs ranked-signs test)
both areas (palmar 13, P 5 0.001; plantar distal hypothenar, P = 0.004). Combining samples in this manner did not lower the P values to significance a t any other
area.
In summary, the results from the three groups appear internally consistent
and suggest that slight asymmetry characterizes the dermatoglyphic system of the
genus Cacajao.
TPI and API
The palmar and plantar TPI and API mean values and their standard errors
(S.E.), right and left sides, sex-combined, are given for each of the three Cacujao
groups in Tables I11 and IV.
The absolute palmar and plantar TPIG values for the two species fall within
the ranges defined by eight other South American cebid genera (Fig. 1).Within the
cebid assemblage, however, plantar TPI values of the uacaries are noticeably low
(52.20) relative to palmar values (24.00). This differential is expressed by the
high palm-sole index (palmar TPIG/plantar TPIG x loo), which is especially pronounced in C. melanocephalus (index = 291). Only the Chiropotes values (index =
194) approximate the Cacajao values.
In the hand, intermediate (20.50, 50.74) to high (20.75) API values characterize the distal hypothenar and interdigital areas; values at the thenar area range
from low (C. caluus, 50.20) to intermediate (C. c. caluus). In the foot, API values for
the distal hypothenar area are low to intermediate, whereas the proximal hypothenar, calcar, and proximal thenar areas approximate zero, reflecting the lack of
patterning in these areas. At the distal thenar area, the API values are very low
(50.10 in C. melanocephalus) to intermediate. Values for the plantar interdigital
areas vary more across the individual pads than do those of the palm and range
from high (I2 of C. caluus) to low (I3 throughout the genus). The highest interdigital value is found a t I1 in C. melanocephalus but at I2 in the two C. caluus
samples.
Testing for significant group differences in the hand showed only one significant bilateral difference between C. caluus and C. c. caluus, viz., at the thenar area;
other significant differences were confined to one side (Table V). In the foot, the two
C. caluus samples differed significantly in both TPI values, primarily because of
Dermatoglyphics of Cuccqjao I 31
TABLE IV. Bilateral Plantar Pattern Intensity Values
Group
Side (Hd)" Hp
C. calvus
(n
=
L
41)
R
C. c. calvus
(n
=
L
9)
R
C. melanocephalus
(n
=
L
15)
R
.64
k.05
.53
2.06
.31
5.13
.27
?.13
.35
?.11
.12
2.07
.03
2.01
.04
5.02
.OO
2.00
.OO
5.00
.OO
2.00
.OO
k.00
(C)" Thp (Thd)"
.02
2.02
.03
+.02
.OO
k.00
.OO
k.00
.OO
1.00
.OO
5.00
.35
.OO
k.00 2.07
.OO
.41
t . 0 0 2.07
.31
.OO
t . 0 0 2.13
.18
.OO
z.00 2.12
.00
.04
2.00 k.02
.07
.OO
2.00 &.03
&
S.E., Sex-Combined,Cacqjao
I1
I2
I3
I4
.22
.56 .75 .19
2.06 2.04 2.05 2.05
.25
.22
5 3 .72
2.06 2.04 k.06 2.05
.36
.38 .42 .OO
2.14 2.12 *.OO t . 1 4
.33
.36 .49 .OO
2.14 2.14 k.00 2.13
.16 .I7
.55 .27
2.10 2.10 2.09 t . 0 8
.56 .24 .21 .32
2.09 k.09 lt.10 t . 0 9
TPI6
2.35
2.13
2.25
2.14
1.47
k.27
1.44
2.29
1.49
2.21
1.45
2.27
TP19
2.75
k.16
2.72
2.17
1.78
k.30
1.62
2.33
1.53
k.20
1.52
t.27
=Nonprimary area, not included in computation of TP16
the lower PI values of C. c. calvus a t 11-14. Group differences at the distal hypothenar were confined to the left side.
Comparison of the hands of C. calvus with those of C. melanocephalus yielded
significant interspecific differences only at 14. More differences were noted in the
foot, i.e., at the distal hypothenar, distal thenar, and I2 areas and in both TPI
values. C. c. calvus differed significantly from C. melanocephalus in the hand at I2
and I4 and marginally at I3 and in the foot only at the distal thenar.
When the two C. calvus samples were combined, only the palmar I4 and plantar distal thenar and I2 areas remained significantly different from those of C.
melanocephalus; significant group differences at the plantar distal hypothenar
area were one-sided (right). Each significant interspecific difference can be explained entirely on the basis of the differences between the larger C. calvus sample
and C. melanocephalus, as addition of the C. c. calvus subspecies did not decrease
the P values.
PI Profiles
The PI profiles, which are graphic representations of the PI values from the
left palm and sole (Tables 111and IV), are shown in Figures 2 and 3. Although there
are group differences in absolute PI values, it is obvious that the overall palmar
profiles are similar for the two C. calvus samples. Conversely, the profile describing C . melanocephalus departs from those of C. calvus in its increasing gradient of
areas I3 and I4 relative t o I1 and 12. The peak value observed at 14 in C. melanocephalus was also shown earlier to differ significantly from the values of both C.
calvus samples (Table V).
In plantar profiles, the two C. calvus samples are identical, although the API
values of C. c. calvus are consistently lower, as was also indicated by the significantly lower TPI values (Table V). Again, C. melanocephatus diverges from C .
calvus in possessing the highest API value a t 11, whereas the highest value for
each of the C. calvus groups i s a t 12. This difference is partially reflected in the
significant interspecific differences a t I2 (Table V).
DISCUSSION
Because the samples used in the present study were compiled from diverse
sources, they might be considered a random sampling of the species in question. On
the other hand, a single field expedition often brought back several specimens from
32 I Newell-Morris and Wienker
Cacajao melanocephalus (291)
Cacajao calvus
Chiropotes satanas
Lagothrix lagotricha
Ateles panascus
Ateles geoffroyi
Ateles belzebuth
Ateles fusciceps
Alouatta villosa
Alouatta seniculus
Alouatta caraya
Alouatta belzebul
Cebus apella
Cebus capucinus
Cebus albifrons
S a i m i r i sciureus
Aotus trivirgatus
Callicebus torquatus
Callicebus moloch
u
(132)
(128)
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 0
PALMAR TPIG
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
PLANTAR TPIG
Fig. 1. Left palmar and plantar mean total pattern intensity (TPI6) values for 19 species ( 9 genera) of New
World cebid monkeys. The mean palm-sole index (palmar TPIGiplantar TPIG x 100)is given in parentheses after
each species. Values for Callicebus from Newell-Morris and Wienker [ 19861, Aotus and S a m i r i from Biegert
[ 19611, Cebus from Newell-Morris and Wienker I1987 I, Alouatta from Brehme and Newell-Morris 11981a1,Ateles
and Lagothrir from Brehme and Newell-Morris I1981bl, Chiropotes from Brehme 119651, and Cacajao from the
present study. The C. caluus values include those of C . c. culuus.
the same collecting site; therefore, it is entirely possible (although not testable)
that related animals were included. For still other reasons discussed in previous
publications [Newell-Morris & Wienker, 1986, 19871, the results presented here
are to be interpreted with caution. These reasons include small sample sizes, the
arbitrariness of the scoring system used for assigning PI, the information lost by
collapsing different pattern types into the same PI value, and the lack of detailed
knowledge about locomotor, positional, and manipulative behaviors. Yet, to the
extent that the results are internally consistent and comparable with other pub-
Dermatoglyphics of Cacqjao I 33
TABLE V. Significant P Values for Subspecific and Interspecific Comparisons of PI
Values, Cuccqiao*
Palmar
Groups
Side
c. calvusb vs.
C . c. calvus
C. caLvusb vs.
C. rnelanocephalus
C. c . calvus vs.
C. melanocephalus
Th
I1
I2
I3
I4
0.004
0.029
0.001
0.110
0.764
0.052
0.004
0.007
0.301
0.027
-
0.094
0.021
0.034
0.647
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.039
0.000
0.001
-
c. calvus" vs.
C. melanocephalus
-
0.040
0.658
-
-
0.069
0.052
TPI6
TP17
0.031
0.187
-
Plantar
Groups
C. caLvusb vs.
C . c. calvus
C. caLvusb vs.
C. rnelanocephalus
C. c . calvus vs.
C. rnelanocephalus
C. calvus" vs.
C. rnelanocephalus
Side
(Hd)"
0.009
0.067
0.018
0.001
0.065
0.003
(Thd)"
-
0.025
0.020
0.041
0.937
0.018
0.038
I2
TPI6
TPI9
0.005
0.111
0.000
0.000
0.008
0.016
0.001
0.005
0.020
0.008
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.007
0.020
0.001
0.002
*Significant if P 5 0.05 for a t least one side, Mann-Whitney, U test.
"Nonprimary area.
bC.c a l m s excluding C. c. caluus.
'C. caluus including C. c. caluus.
lished data, certain conclusions can be drawn concerning the dermatoglyphic system of Cacajao.
The absence of strong statistical evidence for significant sexual dimorphism in
PI values agrees with earlier results obtained for the cebid genera of Callicebus
[Newell-Morris & Wienker, 19861 and Cebus [Newell-Morris & Wienker, 19871.
Some statistically significant sex differences have been reported for Old World
Cercopithecidae, including long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) [Cauble &
Mavalwala, 19731 and baboons [Brehme & Wittmann, 19801. However, the extent
of sexual dimorphism in the dermatoglyphic system of nonhuman primates has not
been explored.
The statistical analysis did indicate some asymmetry in PI within the genus
Cacajao, albeit in only two areas, one palmar and one plantar. Similarly, within
the genera Callicebus and Cebus we found no evidence for pronounced or widespread asymmetry in PI [Newell-Morris & Wienker, 1986, 19871. Midlo and Cummins [1942] also noted marked differences in the magnitude of asymmetry in PI
among the several primate genera they described, but they did not test the values
statistically. Among Old World primates, only data from M . fascicularis have been
statistically analyzed; the results showed significant asymmetry in whorl orientation in some areas [Cauble & Mavalwala, 19731. However, to the extent that
significant asymmetry does occur in the dermatoglyphics of the volar surfaces, its
possible relation with functional sidedness has not been investigated.
In overall TPI values, the genus Cacajao appears distinctive among South
American cebids (with the exception of another pitheciine genus, Chiropotes) in its
very high palm-sole index. The high value is attributable to the relatively low
34 I Newell-Morris and Wienker
i:
(Hd)
Hp
Th
I1
C calvus
C c calvus
C melanocephalus
I2
I3
I4
PALMAR AREA (left)
Fig. 2. Pattern intensity profiles for seven palmar areas of the left hand, sex-combined for two species (C. caluus
and C. rnelanocephalus) and one subspecies C. c. caluusi. Plotted values are those ofTable 111. Nonprimary areas
are in parentheses.
plantar PI values and is suggestive of possible intermembral functional differences. Yet, the few reports describing the locomotion and morphology of uacaries
emphasize equal use of the two extremities [cf. Oxnard, 19861. The apparent disagreement between the dermatoglyphic data and the morphometric and behavioral data may be due, on the one hand, to a dissociation of dermatoglyphic pattern
from function or, on the other, to a n overgeneralization of the activities involved in
locomotion and manipulation [cf. Oxnard, 19861.
The original question raised by Midlo and Cummins [1942] as to whether
significant interspecific differences exist in pattern frequencies and intensities has
been answered affirmatively with respect to a number of genera [Brehme & Wittmann, 1980; Newell-Morris, 1979; Newell-Morris & Wienker, 1986, 19871, including Cacajao in the present study. Dermatoglyphic differentiation a t the subspecific
level has also been noted [Newell-Morris & Kerr, 19741. However, the implications
of these group differences are not clear. In particular, interdependence of the various discrete volar areas confounds interpretation of the results. In addition, it is
currently not possible to determine whether the differences are associated with
functional variability or are attributable to stochastic evolutionary processes such
as genetic drift. Recent studies of nonhuman primates at subgeneric levels have
noted behavioral differences and have started to identify some of the associated
morphological adaptations Icf. Oxnard, 19861. However, conclusions regarding the
adaptive advantage of morphological features, including the dermatoglyphic system, remain primarily speculative because of a lack of detailed information on the
behavior of species in their natural habitats, including the three uacari groups
described here. While a functional interpretation [Newell-Morris, 19791 cannot be
Dermatoglyphics of Cacajao I 35
1.00
0.80
L
0.60
3
a
4
0.40
0.20
0.00
(Hd)
Hp
(C)
Thp
(Thd)
I1
12
I3
I4
PLANTAR AREA (left)
Fig. 3. Pattern intensity profiles for nine plantar areas of the left hand, sex-combined for two species (C. calvus
and C. rnelanocephalus) and one subspecies (C. c . calvusJ. Plotted values are those of Table IV. Nonprimary areas
are in parentheses.
excluded, the model of isolated refuges created by repeated dry periods during the
glacial epoch [Kinzey, 1982 I posits conditions under which genetic drift could operate as a major evolutionary process in the differentiation of New World primate
groups.
Perhaps more indicative of the genetic similarity or dissimilarity of groups are
the PI profiles. In this regard, the two C . calvus groups resemble each other,
whereas C. melanocephalus bears less resemblance to either. These results support
Hershkovitz's [ 19871 taxonomic revision of the genus in which the two previously
distinct species C . caluus and C. rubicundus [Napier & Napier, 19671 are assigned
to a single species, C. caluus, and C . melanocephalus retains its specific status. The
dermatoglyphic differences between C. calvus and C. c. calvus were primarily those
of absolute PI values rather than of PI profiles. This degree of divergence might be
expected under the conditions of geographic isolation postulated by Hershkovitz
[1987], whereby the albinotic subspecies (C. c. caluus) evolved from a saturate,
pheomelanic population of C. calvus (probably C . c. rubicundus).
In conclusion, the results presented here and elsewhere suggest that dermatoglyphic data may be a useful supplementary morphologic feature to be considered
in taxonomic analysis.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The distribution of dermatoglyphic pattern types is presented for three
groups of the genus Cacajao. The two bald-head uacari groups ( C . calvus and C. c.
caluus) differ from the black-head species (C. melanocephalus) a t several volar
areas of the hand and foot.
36 I Newell-Morris and Wienker
2. Nonparametric statistical testing of API and TPI values yielded little evidence for sexual dimorphism; some bilateral asymmetry is present in the palms
and soles.
3. Compared with eight other cebid genera, Cacajao most resembles Chiropotes (also of the pitheciine group) in TPI6 values and a low palm-sole index.
4. Statistically significant group differences were demonstrated with respect
to API and TPI values, particularly in the foot. The PI profiles were similar for the
two C. calvus groups, while the PI profiles of C. melanocephalus diverged from
those of C. caluus at the interdigital areas in palm and sole.
5. Results from the dermatoglyphic data are consistent with Hershkovitz’s
119871 revised taxonomy of Cacajao.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was completed while the senior author was on academic leave from
the Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle. H. Brehme
provided the data, without which the analysis could not have been done. The
following museums, institutes, and zoos gave generously of their facilities: Mus.
Naturk., Berlin; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago; Stattl. Mus. Tierk., Dresden; Mus.
Zool., Florence; Senckenberg Mus., Frankfurt; Anat. Inst., Frankfurt; Mus. d’Histoire Natur., Geneva; Zool. Mus., Hamburg; Zool. Mus., Copenhagen; Rijksmus.,
Leiden; BMNH, London; AMNH, New York; Mus. Nation. d’His. Nat., Paris;
USNM, Washington, D.C.; Chicago Zool. Park, Brookfield; Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago; Zool. Garten, Frankfurt; Bronx Zoo, New York; Brackenridge Zoo, San Antonio; San Diego Zoo, San Diego; Fleishhacker Zoo, San Francisco. Special thanks
are due to Prof. U. Wolf, Director, Institute for Human Genetics and Anthropology,
Freiburg, FRG, for providing the opportunity and encouragement to complete this
work. The assistance of Dr. Philip Hershkovitz on questions of taxonomy is gratefully acknowledged. The editorial help of Kate Elias improved the text immensely.
This study was supported in part by grants from the Wenner Gren Foundation (to
H. Brehme for collection of data), Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (to
L.N.-M.), and NIH grant RR00166 to the Regional Primate Research Center a t the
University of Washington.
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