Dermatoglyphics and anthropometric relationships within the Iupiat (Eskimo) hand.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 83:103-109 (1990) Dermatoglyphic and Anthropometric Relationships Within the lfiupiat (Eskimo) Hand CHERYL SORENSON JAMISON, PAUL L. JAMISON, AND ROBERT J. MEIER Anthropology Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 KEY WORDS Handprints, Fingerprints, Hand measurements, Bilateral asymmetry ABSTRACT On the basis of earlier findings with Easter Islanders suggesting a positive correlation between dermatoglyphic variables and hand anthropometric measurements, the present study was designed to determine if such a relationship could be generalized to another population, namely, Iiiupiat (Eskimo). Since some dermatoglyphic and anthropometric variables were available for both sides of the body, the extension of this study to explore the question of asymmetry was also possible. The Inupiat sample numbered 142 male and 176 female adult inhabitants of five Alaskan North Slope communities. The major findings of this study included, for males, significant negative correlations between left arm length and digital ridge counts and positive relationships between the palmar variable of axial index and hand length on both hands. For females, the hand breadthAength index was negatively related to most of the digital variables. Very little definitive information regarding the relationship of the asymmetry variables between the two types of measures was ascertained. If adult anthro ometric measurements are at least artial y a function of developmental tren s established during the early prenatal eriod (Lowery, 1986; Frisancho, 19781, anadermatoglyphic traits are formed before the 20th gestational week (Cummins, 1929; Hale, 1949,1952; Mulvihill and Smith, 1969; Penrose and Ohara, 1973) the possibility that the two measures might demonstrate interrelationships generates a number of interesting research questions. Anthropometric and dermatoglyphic characteristics both result from a combination of genetic and environmental forces. Although the op ortunity for environmental impact upon t e latter is limited to the early prenatal period, the environment continues to affect anthropometric variation throughout the lifetime of the individual. Therefore, we would assume that even if similar prenatal events do have a causal effect on both kinds of traits, they might not be strongly evidenced in adult anthropometric measurements. In an earlier study with Easter Islanders 8 f K 0 1990 WII,EY-I,ISS, INC. (Meier and Sorenson Jamison, 19871, we found that for males, there were statistically significant product-moment correlations between hand measurements and digital dermatoglyphics, while for females, the significant relationships were between anthropometrics and palmar dermatoglyphics. For that study, hand measurements were only available for the ri ht side, so bilateral asymmetry could not e examined. The findings from that investi ation suggested that a longer and narrower and was developmentally associated with higher ridge counts. This conclusion differed markedly from that reached by Rothhammer et al. (1982) in a study of Chilleans where higher a-b counts were associated with longer and wider hands. The resent research represents an extension o the earlier Easter Islander investigation. We were interested in determining (1)whether those results would be repeated f a P Received May 1,1989; revised October 2,1989 104 C.S. JAMISON ET AL with a different population (Alaskan Inupiat); and (2) since for some of these individuals, bilateral anthropometric measurements were available, whether a relationship between the asymmetry of the two types of traits could also be demonstrated. Anthropometric asymmetry, when it is directional, usually demonstrates the right side measurements to be larger (Ruff and Jones, 1981; Buskirk et al., 1956; Chibber and Singh, 1972; Jolicoeur, 1963). Dermatoglyphic asymmetry is more variable, with the general finding that digital ridge counts are higher on the right while almar a-b counts are greater on the left and (Holt, 1954;Bener, 1979; Singh, 1968; Jantz, 1975; Jantz and Webb, 1980; Sorenson Jamison, 1987). i: MATERIALS AND METHODS The original sample, on which this study was based, was composed of 162 males and 180 females, at least twenty years of age, living in five north slope Alaskan communities. Complete descriptions of the sample and findings pertaining to the individual dermatoglyphic and anthro ometric investigations have been reporte elsewhere (e.g., Jamison, 1978; Meier, 1978). Since both types of data were not available for all individuals, the sample for the present study was reduced to 142 males and 176 females. Furthermore, over the years of data collection, bilateral anthropometric variables dro ped out of the measurement schedule. hus, both right and left side anthropometric data were available for only the villages of Wainwright (arm length. wrist breadth, and hand breadth) and Point Hope (hand length). These much smaller samples are utilized in studying asymmetry, as well as in the determination of correlations between left side dermatoglyphics and anthropometrics. Digital dermatoglyphic analysis was performed by RJM (Meier, 1978) and almar analysis by CSJ. It should be ointedpout that the palmar prints had un Ipergone previous examination (Murad, 1975), but for the present study, they were completely reanalysed to provide data comparable to our previous study. The breakdown of individuals by sex and village can be seen in Table 1. The present investigation does not differentiate results by village because such an analysis would have sharply reduced the already restricted sample size. Justification for combining the x !i! TABLE I Iiiupiat Sample by Sex and Village Village __ Wainwright Point Hope Anaktuvuk Pass Kaktovik Barrow Males 42 28 16 2 54 142 Females ____-____ 41 48 22 4 61 176 Total ~~ 83 76 38 6 115 ____ 318 villages into a single sample is based on several considerations. First, they all fall within a common Inupiat gene pool in which there is genealogical evidence of intermarriage between residents of different villages. Second, all the villages exist under similar environmental conditions, including comparable histories of culture contact and acculturation. Third, and based on the foregoing, the aim of this study is t o investigate underlying processes of growth and development in the broader Inupiat population and thereby to avoid the problems, such as drift, associated with the smaller, individual village samples. The anthropometric and dermatoglyphic variables considered in this study are listed in Table 2. In the earlier Easter Islander study we partialled out age, stature, and weight before correlating the dermatoglyphic and anthropometric variables. For the present study, age and stature were significantly ( P < 0.05) associated with a number of dermatoglyphic variables, therefore necessitating their continued control through partial correlation. Weight, however, was not highly correlated with dermatoglyphics in the earlier study nor in this one. Since we did not have weight data for all of the Inu iat samples, we did not control for its possib e effect. P RESULTS Partial correlations between dermatoglyphic and anthropometric variables in the male Inupiat sample are presented in Table 3. These are the results achieved after controlling for the effects of age and stature. Those correlations having a two-tailed significance of <0.05 are indicated with an asterisk (*). It can be seen that out of a total of 90 correlations, 12 are significant. This number is substantially higher than chance ex ectation in multiple comparisons. !he most striking finding is the association of arm length and the dermatoglyphic 105 DERMATOGLYPHICS AND HAND ANTHROPOMETRICS TABLE 2. Variables Examinwd in, this Study, Right and Left Side Measured Except Where Noted Anthropometric --.__.______ Digital dermatoglyphic Palmer dermatoglyphic ~ _ _ _ . - Total ridge count Total ulnar count Total radial count Middle finger radial count Middle finger ulnar count Digital pattern intensity a-b count atd angle Axial index Palmar pattern intensity . Arm length' Wrist breadth' Hand breadth' Hand lengthZ Hand breadth/Length index2 ,'Bilateral measurements available only for Wainwright. 2Bilateral measuremenk available only for Point Hope. TABLE 3. Partial Correlations of Anthropometric and Dermatoglyphic Variables for Males, after Controlling for the Effects of Age and Stature' Anthropometric variables -Dermatoglyphic ~ _ _ _ _ _ _variables _Digital Tot. ridEe count I Tot. ulnar count Tot. radial count Mid-fing. ulnar count Mid-fing. radial count Pattern intensity Palmar a-b count atd angle Axial index Palmar pat. intensity Arm length Wrist breadth Hand breadth Hand length Hand Br/L% index -0.41* 0.05 0.09 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.09 -0.02 0.07 -0.19 -0.01 0.02 0.10 -0.37* 0.10 0.27 0.08 0.03 0.05 0.04 -0.21 -0.01 0.09 0.03 0.07 -0.02 0.05 L R -0.43* 0.06 -0.41* -0.08 -0.29 0.05 L R L R -0.31* 0.08 -0.24 0.08 -0.17 0.06 0.05 0.09 -0.09 0.09 -0.38* 0.10 L R L R L R -0.26 0.02 0.22 -0.09 0.12 0.02 -0.05 -0.02 0.26 0.14 0.18 0.14 0.13 0.12 -0.34 0.03 0.09 0.02 0.1 7 0.21* 0.10 -0.08 0.00 0.18* Hand L R L R L R L R 0.40* 0.00 -0.01 0.10 0.29 0.14 0.00 -0.15 0.12 0.15 0.49* 0.20* -0.09 0.14 0.05 0.01 -0.01 __ 0.15 _. 0.01 ._ 0.25* 0.07 Kight side, N= 118; left side, N = 28. "Cannot calculate for left hand because bilateral measurements not taken on same suhjects * P <0.05 variables-but only on the left side. 411 of the significant associations, and most of the others as well, are negatively correlated with arm length. This finding suggests that longer arms are associated with lower counts as well as lower dermatoglyphic complexity-the latter defined by pattern intensity. It is interesting to note that such a relationship does not hold for the right arm, where none of the correlations even approaches _ _ ificance. he next maior finding of interest is that most of the significant correlations are on the left hand. None of the right hand digital siY variables correlated highly with the anthropometric measures, although on the palm, the situation is reversed, with the right hand exhibiting the majority of the significant relationships. Partial correlations for females can be seen in Table 4. Here, the most striking results are the digital dermatogly hic associations with the right hand brea&Men h index. For females, the side differential t at was so apparent for the males does not show up-indeed for this sex, there is a right side advantage, although admittedly, not a very substantial one. Bt 106 C.S. JAMISON ET AL T A B L E 4. Partial Correlations of Anthropometric and Dermatoglyphic Variables f o r Females, after Controlling for the Effects of Age and Stature' Anthrooometric variables Dermatoglvohic variables Digital Tot. ridge count Tot. ulnar count Tot. radial count Mid-fing. ulnar count Mid-fing. radial count Pattern intensity Hand L R L R L R L R I, R L H, Palmar a-b count atd angle Axial index Palmar pat. intensity L R L R L R L R Arm length Wrist breadth Hand breadth Hand length 0.07 0.01 -0.16 - 0.01 --0.29 0.01 -0.33" -0.02 0.04 -0.08 0.16 0.04 -0.22 0.06 -0.21 0.10 --0.04 0.04 --0.24 0.14 -0.Z -0.04 -0.12 0.13 -0.14 0.13 -0.01 -0.08 0.04 - 0.08 -0.0i -0.05 0.03 -0.04 -0.09 0.27 0.15 -0.12 0.00 -032 -0.00 -0.32 -0.03 0.23 0.11 -0.22 -0.04 0.19 0.06 0.03 -0.09 0.29 0.15 -0.40" -0.05 0.13 -0.06 0.20 0.08 0.14 0.01 -0.18 0.04 0.10 0.16" 0.06 0.09 -0.11 -0.02 -0.07 0.32 0.07 -0.10 --0.00 0.01 -0.02 0.11 -0.01 -0.05 0.16% Hand Br/Lg index2 -0.17% 0.10 --0.19" __ -0.01 -0.20" -0.19% 0.06 0.05 0.09 _. -0.09 'Right side, N = 156 left side, N = 28. 'Cannot calculate for left hand because bilateral measurements not taken on same subjects. * P <0.05. The relationship between the asymmetry of the anthropometric and dermatoglyphic variables proved a difficult problem t o address. It is a simple enough matter to determine whether there is significant directional asymmetry expressed within a single variable, but then it is another issue to establish whether a relationship exists between the asymmetry of two different types of variables. We first examined the directional asymmetry expressed in the individual variables. Table 5 illustrates the results of the paired t-tests for each of the dermatoglyphic and anthropometric variables. It is clear that, for both sexes, a significant amount of directional asymmetry is evident for most of the variables: for males, 8 of the 14 t-tests indicated asymmetry at better than the 5%level, while for females, 10 were significant. Since the differences were calculated as right minus left, it can be seen that most of the anthropometric measures were larger on the right side (the sole exception being hand length). The dermatoglyphic variables were considerably less consistent, and for the palmar variables, at least, the left side typically exhibited the higher value. We then decided to see whether there was a relationship between the directional asymmetry of the two types of data by subjecting the right minus left difference for each variable to a correlation analysis. Although we did find some significant results, they are not easily interpretable, and a table of their results is not included. Briefly, there was no predictable relationship between the direction of the original variables and the significance or direction (i.e., positive or negative) of the partial correlation. It can be stated, however, that for males, most of the significant relationships occurred with the variable of wrist breadth difference, which was highly associated with almost all the digital dermatoglyphic variables. For females, all the anthropometric difference variables (except that for arm length) correlated significantly with at least one of the palmar differ- 107 DERMATOGLYPHICS AND HAND ANTHROPOMETRICS TABLE 5. Results of Pairwise t-Tests on Bilateral Variables R Dermatoglyphic (males = 128; females = 169) Digital Total ulnar rount 28.1 Total radial count 65.4 3.1 Mid-fing. U1. count Mid-fing. rad count 11.7 Tot. ridge count 69.5 Pat. intensity 6.8 Palmar 32.8 a-b count atd angle 41.7 Axial index 0.19 1.3 Pat. intens. Males L Females L t R 22.9 63.8 3.2 12.0 66.8 6.6 3.61. 1.4 -0.4 -0.7 2.81. 2.2* 25.7 62.0 2.5 11.9 65.6 6.7 26.2 56.7 4.2 61.6 6.6 -0.4 5.71. -3.4t 2.1* 4.lt 0.6 34.6 41.9 0.18 1.5 --4.8f -0.4 3.01. -2.72t 32.4 42.4 0.23 1.4 35.1 43.6 0.21 1.4 -8.4t -2.81. 3.11 0.4 71.4 6.2 8.6 19.4 0.6 0.4 6.31. -6.0t 67.5 5.6 8.0 17.9 67.2 5.5 7.8 18.4 11.1 t Anthropnmptrir' (males = 3.5; females = 38) Arm length Wrist breadth Hand breadth Hand length 71.4 6.2 8.8 19.0 1.4 3.6t 5.61. -7.11. 'Measured in centimeters (cm) * P< 0.05 t P < 0.01. thus suggest that for the Inupiat hand, in contrast to the Easter Islander hand, longer, wider appendages appear to be associated with lower digital ridge counts and pattern intensities, but higher palmar counts and pattern intensities. These results, however, are congruent with those of Rothhammer et al. (1982) who found a-b count to be positively correlated with hand size measurements. (They did not investigate digital variables). Our findings regarding the positive relationship between atd angle and anthropometric variables also corroborate their results. The com arison of the results of these three studies eaves more questions than answers. The investigations were not directly comparable in the sense that there was not a great deal of overlap in the variables considered, and there were different treatments afforded the variables of sex, stature, weight, age, and side of the body. Therefore, the expectation of congruence of results might be unwarranted. However, a significant implication that should not be overlooked, is the possibility that the findings of the three studies are valid expressions of population differences in developDISCUSSION mental rate. The most immediate implication of the Differencesin the rate of prenatal developresults from this study is that they differ ment have been firmly established between considerably from those of the Easter Is- the two sides of the brain (Chi et al., 1977; lander investigation. Our present findings Thatcher et al., 1987) and there is evidence ence variables, but only the hand length difference correlated with any of the digital difference variables. With the hope of a clearer interpretation, we therefore decided to look at correlations of the absolute differences between right and left sides for the two types of variables. Furthermore, since examination of the distribution of the absolute difference variables revealed distinctly non-normal distributions, partial correlation (which assumes normal distribution of the variables) could no longer be used. Therefore, the nonparametric Spearman Correlation was utilized. The results were, admittedly, not very exciting. Out of a possible 40 correlations, only three for each sex, less than the number expected by chance, were found to be significant. Therefore, on the basis of these findings, asymmetry does not appear to be implicated in the corresponding development of anthropometric and dermatoglyphic variables. However, the small sample size for the asymmetry analysis suggests that a more conservative approach might be that no conclusion can be drawn from these results. P 108 C.S. JAMISON ET AL that the two sides of the body develop at ciation of Physical Anthropologists, San Didifferent rates as well (Siniarska and Sarna, ego, April 5-9, 1989. 1980; Corballis and Morgan, 1978; MittLITERATURE CITED woch, 1978). Therefore, it would appear to be quite reasonable to assume variability in Bener A (1979) Sex differences and bilateral asymmetry in dermatoglyphic pattern elements on the fingertips. developmental rates among opulations, Ann. Hum. Genet. 42333-342. and there is, in fact, some evi ence that it Buskirk ER, Andersen KL, and Brozek J (1956) Unilatdoes exist (Polednak, 1986). Among populaeral activity and bone and muscle development in the tions, there might be variation not only in forearm. Res. Q. 27:127-131. absolute rate of development, but also differ- Chi JG, Dooling EC, and Gilles FH (1977)Gyral development of the human brain. Ann. Neurol. 1236-93. ences in the relative rate of development of SR, and Singh I (1970) Asymmetry in muscle the two sides of the body, and even differ- Chibber weight and one-sided dominance in the human lower ences in the rate of the development of differlimbs. J Anat. I06:553-556. ent systems. Corballis MC, and Morgan MJ (1978) On the biologica! basis of human laterality: Evidence for a maturational The major implication of the comparison of left-right gradient. Behav. Brain Sci. 2:261-336. these studies isthat more research needs to H (1929) The topographic history of the volar be d o n e u s i n g both anthropometric mea- Cummins ads (Walking pads; Tastballen) in the human emsurements and digital and palmar dermatoryo. Contributions to Embryology. No. 113. Carnegie gly hic variables, on both sides of the body, Inst. Wash. 20:102-126. wit large samples, comparing a number of Frisancho AR (1978) Nutritional influences on human growth and maturation. Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. different populations. 21:17P191. The asymmetry findin s of the present Hale AR (1949) Breadth of epidermal ridges in the study, based on a drastical y reduced sample human fetus and its relation to the growth of the hand size, are particularly difficult to evaluate. and foot. Anat. Rec. 105:763-776. We did find a great deal of directional asym- Hale AR (1952) Morphogenesis of volar skin in the human fetus. Am. J . Anat. 91:147-173. metry, but the Spearman correlations invesSB (1954)Genetics ofdermalrid es bilateral asymtigating the relationship between anthropo- Holt metry in finger ridge counts. Ann. gugen. 18:211-231. metric and dermatoglyphic asymmetry in Jamison PL (1978) Anthropometric variation. In PL terms of absolute Right minus Left differJamison, SL Zegura, and FA Milan (eds.): Eskimos of ences, failed to show anythin of signifiNorthwestern Alaska: A Biological Perspective. Stroudsburg, P A Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, pp. cance. At this point, we cannot e sure that 40-78. this is a valid finding, or a result that oc- Jantz RL (1975) Population variation in asymmetry and curred because of our small sample size. A diversity from finger to finger for digital ridge counts. study based on a much larger sample is Am. J . Phys. Anthropol. 42215-224. Jantz RL, and Webb RS (1980)Dermatoglyphic asymmeclearly necessitated. try as a measure of canalization. Ann. Hum. Biol. The hypotheses that require testing in 7:489-493. future investigations of this sort include (1) Jolicoeur P ( 19631Bilateral symmetry and asymmetry in are there differences in developmental timlimb bones of Martes americana and man. Rev. Can, ing among populations that result in differBiol. 22:409-432. ential expressions of the relationship be- Lowrey GH (1986) Growth and Development of Children. 8th Ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers. tween anthropometric and dermatoglyphic RJ (1978) Dermatoglyphic variation. In PL Jamivariables?, and (2) are these differentials Meier son, SL Zegura, and FA Milan (eds.): Eskimos of ex ressed in contrasting ways for the two Northwestern Alaska: A Biological Perspective. sites of the body? Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchison, and Ross, pp. d" E R 'i f ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We wish to acknowledge the contribution of Stephen L. Zegura to the data collection hase of this study. 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