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Dermatoglyphics in Jews.

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DERMATOGLYPHICS1 I N JEWS
HAROLD CUMMINS AND CHAR.LES MIDLO
Department of Anatomy, t h e Tulane University of Louisiana
IRTTRODUCTION
The study here recounted was projected with the aim to
dctermine whether there exist in the Jews any racially characteristic features of the palmar and plantar epidermal-ridge
configurations. A summary of the results was presented
before the American Association of Anatomists, April, 1926
While an account of racial characteristics necessarily demands a comparative treatment, it is not the purpose of this
paper to present as the basis of comparison a detailed survey
of the racial studies ihus far recorded. It has been found
desirable t o limit the comprehensive comparisons to European-Americans, of which population an adequate material
is on record (Cummins and Midlo, ’26 b ) ; sources for
further racial comparisons are noted in the text. The
chief considerations prescribing the stated limitation are presented in the two paragraphs following, and in addition there
may be mentioned the obviously desirable end of reducing
elaborate tabular matter to a minimum.
With the data now on record, the numbers of individuals
representing a race (with certain exceptions especially in
apical finger patterns) are altogether too small for determination of the actual values of racial differences. Pending
the collection of much larger numbers than are now available,
racial studies may well be confined to the existence and direction of variation, without undue emphasis upon numerical
‘The term ‘dermatoglpphics’ has been proposed by the present writers (’26)
f o r collective designation of the palmar and plantar epidermal ridge configurations, as well as the name of the science devoted t o their study.
91
92
HAROLD CUMMINS A N D CHARLES M I D LO
values which indicate only the trend of variation and do not
ser1.e as a reliable index of quantitatire differences. I n drawing comparisons it is, of course, necessary that numbers be
used to express occurrences of rarious features, but it must
be understood that such numbers are at best only approximations to the values which may be obtained from future studies
of larger assemblages of individuals. A partial check of the
natural variation exhibited by small samples of a population
is supplied by separate listings of four random series of
European-Americans, 100 individuals in each series. This
separation of the control material has served to advantage
in the study now reported.
In the comparison of races, where the results of several o r
many workers are to be collated, the element of personal
variation in interpretation should be recognized. At present
there is almost no means of identifying such error specifically
or of correcting for it. It is well, therefore, that the comparisons here principally emphasized are based upon a body of
European-American material interpreted by ourselves.
Favored by the accumulation of large series of impressions
from various peoples and by the relatively early established
means of recording their patt,ern types by symbols, apical
patterns of the fingers have been subjected to more extensive
study than the configurations of the palm and sole. Bonnevie
( ’24) has assembled a number of racial series of apical patterns published by other workers for comparison with her
own Norwegian material. Since she finds “the total numerical occurrence of each pattern-type to be characteristic of
each race investigated,” a guide is provided in the search f o r
distinctive characteristics in Jews. Galton ( ’92) directed his
attention to the question of dermatoglpphic comparisons in
the English, Welsh, Jews, and negroes, confining the study t o
apical patterns of the fingers. His discussion of the results,
embodied as Chapter XI1 in the well-known “Finger Print>s,”
represents the only contribution known to the writers in
which the Jews figure in racial comparisons of dermatoglyphics.
DERMATOGLYPHICS I N JEWS
93
With the later development of methods f o r the descriptive
formulation of the configurations of the palm and sole, means
was furnished for comparative studies of these regions as
well. Wilder is t o be credited not only with the introduction
of methods of formulated descriptioii, but also for their progressive improvement to a state in which they now serve as
the current vehicle of expression among those who are concerned with dermatoglypliics. Making use of this requisite,
a medium of concise description, several investigators have
turned t o the subject of racial characteristics of the palm and
sole; sufficient work has been done to show that here, too,
reliance may be placed upon palmar main lines and both
palmar and plantar patterns as criteria of racial distiiiction
(compare Wilder, ’22). Accordingly, there is ground for an
inquiry concerning racial variatioii in these features in the
Jews, and there exists an accumulation of published material
drawn from other races for comparison. As is to be expected,
horn-ever, the numbers of individuals utilized for the study of
the palm and sole are Iny no means so large as those which
furnish data on apical finger patterns.
Previous studies (of palms and soles) have shown “quite
definitely that a rather small number of individuals (certainly fewer than one hundred) could be relied upon to fnrnisli fairly reliable results”-Wilder
( ’22). Thus, while the
200 individuals collected f o r the present study are by no
means sufficient to resolve stable quantitative values, they
provide a working basis for the desired general comparisons,
Our material is derived from Jews who are now resident
in New Orleans and from families of undetermined migratory
history. The absence of racial admixture naturally cannot
be asserted, although it is self-evident that the racial group
is relatively homogeneous, owing to the intimate cohesion of
race with a religion which disfavors marriage with individuals of other faiths (Goyim). Family members have been
rigidly excluded from the collection, with the iiitent of avoiding possible statistical distortions through the introduction of
familial dermaboglyyhic peculiarities. The collection com-
94
HAROLD CUMMINS AND CHARLES MIDLO
prises 100 males and 100 females; while the data f o r each sex
are presented separately, no attention has been directed to
possible sexual distinctions.
For each individual a set of impressions was made by the
usual printers’-ink process, and each set was assigned an
accession number to identify the registry of the subject. The
impressions include the apical finger patterns, printed separately by rolling, palms, and (in males only) soles-thus including in all 2000 apical patterns, 400 palms, and 200 soles.
Except f o r the thenar pattern of the sole, which was not included in the impressions, the prints of each individual are
complete and clearly legible throughout. Rolled impressions
of the palm and sole, supplemented by ‘dab’ impressions
of their marginal areas, have facilitated the observation of
extralimital features. The features compared embrace
palmar main lines, palmar patterns, apical finger patterns,
the series of four distal plantar patterns, and the plantar
hypothenar pattern.
Methods of formulation follow Wilder except in some
minor modifications (Cummins and Midlo, ’26 b). Proximal
triradii (lower deltas) of the sole have not been taken into
account in the comparisons, but their presence is indicated
by the usual signs in the plantar formula.
Through the courtesy of the authorities of the Young Men’s
Hebrew Association and Young Women’s Hebrew Association, permission was granted to use the facilities of these
organizations f o r acc,ess to subjects for printing. We desire
to express our gratitude for this privilege and f o r the ready
assent and cooperation of the individuals who served as subjects. T;17e are indebted also t o Rabbi Max Heller, of New
Orleans, whose introductions furthered materially the progress of the work.
PALMAR MAIN LIKES
The material represented by the main-line formulae assembled in table 1is to be analyzed f o r several features, first
DERMATOGLYPHICS IN JEWS
95
among them the frequencies with which each line terminates
in the positions denoted by numerical symbols of the formulae.
Data referring to this aspect of the analysis are arrayed in
table 2.
It is doubtful (compare Wilder, '22, p. 155) that such figures as we have in table 2 can indicate definitely particular
trends of racial variation, unless the equivalent termillations
are of notably different occurrence or, in the case of small
differences, the collections are large enough to be relied upon
for stable values. The terminations of lines A, B, and C
will he passed with bare mention of the features wherein
variables occur; line D is due more extended attention. I n
view of the almost uniform findings in Jews and EuropeanAmericans, it is thought unnecessary to review the published
racial comparisons wherein differences between EuropeanL4merica~isand other populations are presented. F o r these
details reference should be made particularly to Hasebe,
table on pages 25 and 26; Wilder, '22, table 15 b; Keith,
table 2.
We consider line A to he of questioiiable comparative value,
owing to the frequent opportunities (in tracing the line) for
its dioersion from higher to lower positions by ridge irregularities along the radial border of the hypothenar eminence
and in the hollow of the palm. For this reason, and because
of the variations displayed by four series of EuropeaiiAmericans ( 100 iiidividuals in each-Cummins and Midlo,
table S), no significance is attached to the different average
occurrences of positions 3 and 5 in Jews and EuropeaiiAmericans.
Line €3 shows such closely corresponding occurrences of
its termillations in Jews and European-Americans that the
two racial groups appear to be identical with respect t o this
Seature.
Certain points of possihly significant variation are introduced by line C. Position 7 is of reduced Occurrence in Jews,
and 9 is higher. These terminations are correlated with
pattern occurrrences (fourth and third interdigital patterns,
H h l t O L D CUMMIKS A K D C H A R L E S MIDLO
TABLE la
Palrnar Main Line Formuk
LOO Males
~
No
-
RIGHT
300
301
302
303
304
11.9.7.3.C
II. 9. 7. 5". C h
Ild.9.7.5"d.C
10.9.6.5.C
9.7. 5".5'CCh
7.5:5515. c
10.9.7.3. Pch
ir . 9 . 7 . 5 .Ch
10.9.6.5. c
11. 9.7. 5'. C
10.10.6.5.
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
3 18
319
320
321
322
323
LEFT
c
7d.9.5".5. c
iid,9.7.55 cCh
a. 7.5'1.5. ?
7.5.5.5. c
I I d . 9.7.5. CCh
11.9.7.5.P
c
9.9.5".5.
11.9.7. 5. Ch
11. 11.9.5.Ch
10.9.6.5 c
9. x .545'.c
10.9.6.5. C
c
9.7.513. c
10. X.6.4.
324
325
11.9.7.5:
326
II. 9.7.s.c
327
9.0.5".5.Ch
II. 9. 7. S,.CCh
II. 9. 7. 5'. cb
328
329
330
331
c
332
9.9.5".5.C
II. 9.7.5'. CCh
11. 1 0 . 8 . 5 " . C C h
333
7.9.SR.5'.C
334
335
336
337
338
II. 9.7.5:cch
II. 9 . 7 . 5
339
340
34 1
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
-
RlGtiT
NO
LEFT
_
.
9d 7. 5". 5'.
c
c
II. 9 . 7 . I .
II . x . 7 . 5'. c
7. 5*.5".5.Ch
11. 1 0 . 8 . 5 . C
II.9. 7 . 5".C
II. 9 . 7 5 ' . C C h
I f . 9.7. 5.c
7. 5". 5".3. c
II. x. 7. 5:
11.9.7.5. CCh
11. 9 . 7 . 5 .
9. 7.5".5: CCh
7.5".5#5.C
c
c
Ild
9.7.3.C
II. 9.7.5'. Ch
350
351
ll.9.7.5'.C
10. 9.6.5'.CCh
9.0.5".4.CCh
7. 5".5''.5.Ch
7. 9.5". I.P C h
9. 7.5".5 .Ch
9.7.5Y3.C
9.x. 5". 5.
9 9.5r5.c
7. 9.5,; 3 c
[Id. 9.7.5" CCh
9 7.5".3.?
I O d . X . 6 . 5 .Ch
7.9.5".5.CCh
10.9.6.4.CCh
7 .5". 5'. 5.
10.9.6.5.Ch
7.9.7.5.C"
9.7.5-.4.c
9. x. 5: 5'1 Ch
7. x. 5'. 5. Ch
9.x.5.3.c
7 5".5.3.C
9.9.5".5 CCh
10.X.6d.5 Ch
9.0.5".5.
Ch
II . 9.7. 5'.
l l . X . 7 5'.C
9.7.5".1 c
ll.X.7.5. Ch
II. 9 . 7 . 5 , C C h
9.7.5'.4.C
lld.X.7.5 C h
9.7.5".3.C
352
353
c
c
c*
7.7.5".5.c
7.5".5".I. C h
II.X.7.5.
c
9.7.5:5. C"
11. 9 . 7 . 5 ' C
11. X.7.5'.
c
9.X.5':2 CCh
7. x. 7.5'.c
7.5". 5'.3.
c
II.X.7.5'.C
1P.X .7.4. Ch
IO.X.7.5. c
9.0.5" 2 . C
7. 5 " . S"5'.c
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
3 75
376
377
378
379
3 a0
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
368
389
390
39 1
3 92
393
394
395
396
397
39 a
399
__
9.
x .5".5 . c
13. II . 9 . 7 . CC
9.7.5"s'.?
10.9.5".5.C
10.7
II. 9.7.5'.C
6.5.c
ll.9.7.5".Ch
Ild. II. 9 . 5 1 C h
7. 5".9.5d.C
I 0 . X . 6.3.
?
10. X . 6.3.
c
9 . 7 .5".5.Ch
Ild. 9 . 7.5:
c
7.5". T.5.CCh
7.5". 5". 5. c
II.9 . 7. 5
11. 9 . 7. 5'. c
cch
9.7.5".
4.Ch
II. 9. 7. 5'. Ch
c
11.9. 7. 115:
9.7.5: 4 . c
7.5". 54 5'.CCh
11. 9.7. 5. c
II - 9 . 7. 5'. CCh
7. 5".5".3.C
I0.X. 6.5'. c
7 .5".5'! 5. c
10.9.6.5:ch
11.7 7 . 5 .
9 d . 9.5".5.
c
9 .9.5#.5'C
9 . 7 . 5 ' ! 5:.c
7.5". 5". I CCh
l l . X . 7 . 5 ' CCh
11.9.7. II. CCh
11.10.8.5'. C h
II. 10.6.5'. c
I I . 9 . 7 . 5 . Ch
11.9.7 5".CCh
9. 7 . 5".5. Ch
11.9.7.5. c
11. x . 7 . 5. c
9.7 . 5 * . 3 . c
I I . 9 . 7 . 5". c
10.9 . 6 . 5'. ch
I I . 9 . 7. 5'. c
II. 9.7.5.c
12.X .7.6d.ch
I I . 9 . 7 . 5': Ch
I I . 9 . 7 5".Ch
7 . 5".5'.3.c
II . x . 7.5". Ch
9 . x . 5".4.C
9.9.5*5.
Ch
9.X.5".4.C
10.9. 6 . 4 . C
lod.9 6 .5'. Ch
l l d . 3 . 7. 5". C"
x. 9.5'. 54.c
9. X . 5 ' . 3 . C
9. 7.5". 3.
9 . x . 5". I . Ch
7.9.5".5.C
7. 5".5: 3 .
7.9.5".4.C
10. X . 6 . 5 ' . CCh
11.9.7.5. c
9.7. 5".5.Ch
9. 7. 5* 5'. c
c
c
I I x.7.5: c
9.0.5".5.CCh
9r' 9 . 5 "5'. c
10.7.6.3.?
c*
9.7.5".5.
x. 9 . 5 . 3 c
10. x.5". 5'.C
5 " . 5".5".3.C
9.5".5. ch
8. 6 . 5 " . 3 . C
9 . x .5". 5 .
1 0 . 9 . 6 . 5 . CCh
I I . x.7.5.c
7 . 5". 5".I . c"
II X . 7 . 4 . C C h
Ild. 9.7.5".CCh
9d.
I1d.X .7.5'.Ch
II. 9 . 7 . 5 . c
ch
10. 7.6.3.
II. 9.7.S.CCh
9 . 7 . 5".5. C h
9.7.5"4.C
9d.X.5"3. c
9 . 9.5O.r.C
9 . 9.5".5'. c
II. 9 . 7 . S . C h
II. 9 . 7 . 3 . c
10.9.7.5.c
II. 9 . 7.5'.Ch
11. 9 7.T.Ch
9 . X.5".5'.Ch
97
DERMATOGLYPHICS IN JEWS
__
___
Ch
515
516
517
518
519
520
52 I
522
9.7 . 5'.
7 9.7. 5 .
9. 7. 5'. 5 .
1 1 . 9. 7 . 5 .
7.9 5'. 4.
11.9.7.5'.
I1 II 8.5.
II. 9. 7. 3.
1I.X 7. 5 .
9. 9. 6. 3.
11.9 7. 5.
II. 9. 7. 5'.
523
7. 5". 5'. I.
c
525
52 6
I0.X.6.5 C
II. x . 7. 5. Ch
II. 9. 7. 5'.
9 x. 5". 3. c
10.9 6.5 . C
11'. 9 7.5"". ch
513
5I 4
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
5 40
54 I
542
543
544
545
546
11.
Ch
c
c
c
c
Ch
c
Ch
Ch
c
c
c
1 I . X 9 . 5 ' . CCh
7 . 5". 5'.4 .
I I . 9 . 7 . 5'. Ch
II. 9.7. 5'. Ch
10 9 . 6 . 3 C '
I I 9. 7. 5 . c
9. 7. 5". 4 . Ch
9. 7. s". 4 . CCh
I I . 9 . 7 5'. Ch
9.7.5"3. c
I I . 9'. 7 . 5.
II. x. 7. 5'. Ch
11. 7 . 7. 5. C h
7. 6 . 5 . I Ch
II. 9 7. b . C h
c
c
1 1 . 0 . 7. 5'.
c
c
547
548
lo.x. 7 . 3
5 49
9. 7.5". 5.
550
55 I
552
553
554
9. 7 5". 3.
9. 7 5".5. c
9. x. 5".5.c
11. 7. 7 3. c
11. 9 . 7. 5 .
II.X.7.5. c
9 9 5 / 3 c
II. 10.8. 5'. Ch
I I . 10. 0 5'. c
555
No.
-
RIGHT
NO.
51 I
512
nu
la
-
Palmi
-
I I . 9 7. 5". C h
c
c'
c
9.7 5". 5'. ch
7. 7. 5'. 5 . C h
7. 5". 5: 3 . c
9 x.5":.
c
7. 9 5'. I . Ch
II. 9 . 7 . 5'. c
7. 9.5"5.Ch
9.x.5'(3. c
l l . X . 7 . 4. ch
9 0 . 5 " . 4 . Ch
11.9. 7 5 . c
7 x 5" 5. C h
7.5'5.1. c
9. 7. 5".5 . CCh
II. x . 7 5 . Ch
II. 9 7 5' c h
9 x.513 c
9.x.51.5 c
1 1 7 0 7.si! Ch
11. 9. 7. 5'. Ch
7.5"5 3 c
9. 7. 5".5. CCh
11.9.7 5'. Ch
10.9 6..
3. c
1096 4 . C
8 . 6 5". I . Ch
7.5" 5".2 . c Ch
l O . X . 7 . 5 . Ch
10 X . 6 . 3 .
C
c
II x. 7. 2 .
11. 0. 7. 5'. Ch
l l . X . 7 . 3 . Ch
7?9.5?I . Ch
9 9.5".3.
II. X . 7 . 5 '
c
c
8 6.51 3 .
C
I I 9.7.
5" CCh
9. 7 5' 3. c
7. 5"5? 3 .
9. 7. 5'. 3 c
l O . X . 7 . 3 .c
10.7. 6.3. C
c
9.7.5.c
9.x.g5. c
11.
556
557
558
559
9.x.sl5.
c
7.5".5?5 . c
11.9 7.5' Ch
10.9.6.5'. ch
3 7.5: 5. c
560
56 I
10.9 6 5. C
11.9.7. 5'.
11.0. 7. 5'. Ch
-
c
10.9.6
5.C
563
56 4
565
566
567
568
569
570
57 I
572
573
574
57 5
576
577
578
57 9
580
50 I
582
583
584
585
586
587
589
59 I
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
600
60 I
RIGHT
II. 9.7. 5 .
LEFT
c
I I . 3. 7. 5"" Ch
II. x. 7. 5. c
1 1 . 9 . 7. 5 . C h
117 0. 7 5'". Ch
11.9.7.4. c
II. 10.8. 5".
c
8.6.5".
9.7.3 .
It.
Ch
l l . 9 . 7 4. c
9 x . 5 " . 5 , Ch
9 . x . 5 c 3 . CCh
II. x.7. 5. c
II. 9. 7. 5. c
II. 9 7. 5'. C C h
11.9.7.5. Ch
II 9 . 7 . 5 .
11.9.7. 5. Ch
I t . II. 9. 5'. C h
11. 9. 7.5
: CCh
11. 9.7. 5". Ch
II. 10.8.5. CCh
c
9 . 9 5".2. Ch
I I . X . 7 . 3.
c
c
c
11. 9. 7. 5 .
5'. C h
II. x.7. 5. c
612
613
61 4
615
-
c
9. 7. 515'. CChC'
7.5'15".
CCh
9 : s 5'5. c
9.9.5'.5.
Ch
II. 9.7. 5': Ch
I I . 9. 7. 5'. Ch
I 0 . X 7.5'. C h
I I . 7. 7. 5 . CCh
10.9.6. 2. Ch
9.7.5'3.c
c
Ch
II. 7. 7 . 3 . c
7.5".5?4 C h C h
I I . 9.7.3.
c
c
605
610
61 I
It. 9.7. 3. c
11.0.7.5'. C h
9 . 7. 5". 4 . c
9. 7. 5". I. c
9.0.5" 2. Ch
1
0 X.6.5.
7. x. 5'. 3 . CCh
9 . 7.5". 5 .
9.9.5" 3 . Ch
7 6 5#.5. C
II. 9. 7. 3 . c
9. 7. 5'. I. c
II. 7. 7 5. C h
9.7.5..3.
II. 9.7 5d". c
II. 9.7.5 c
604
609
Ch
9.X . Y . 3 .
I I . 7.7. 5.
602
603
608
11.9.7. I .
7.5".5".5". C h
9.7.5". 3.
9.7. 54 3. Ch
II. 7 . 7 . 5 .
7.s.515.c
9.0.5" 5'. CCh
7 5". 5: 5. c
II. 9. 7.5"'. Ch
60 6
607
-c
II 9 . 7 . 5 .
1 1 . 9 . 7 . 5". C h
9 x. 5'. 4 . CCh
Ch
11. 9. 7.
c
II. x . 7 . 5.
ll.ll.9.5.
7.10.8.5.
I t . 9. 7. 5". Ch
II. 9.7. 5'. C h
10 9 7 . 5 .
9.9.5'!5. C h
10 9. 6d 5. C"
10.9 6 .5'. Ch
A N C R I C A N JOURNAL O F P H Y S I C A L ANTLIIZOPOLUGB, POL. X, N O .
c
c
c
1
c
9.x.5: I .
II. x. 7.5.
Ch
9. 7. 5".3.
11.9.7.5. c
1 1 . 9 . 7 . 5 .c
c
7 5":5" 5 . Ch
9 0.5".5.CChC
9.9.
5".3.c
9.945f5"".C h
II. x. 7. 5 . CCh
9 9.5'5'. Ch
9.0 . 5 13. C
II x . 7 . 5 . Ch
7".9 7 . 3 .
9.x . 5 5 .
10.9. 7. 5"
c
Ch
Ch
9:x. 5".5'.c h
9 9 5u.5.
7.5" 5'. I. C h
c
9 9.5"5.Ch
9.7.5: I . C h
98
HABOLL) CUMXINS AKD CHARLES MIDLO
TABLE
2
Terminations of the four p a l m w main lines, the percentde occurrences stated
separately for the male and femele series and f o r their average-compared
with the percentile occurrences in 400 European-Americans
JEWS
:UROPEAN-AMERICAFS
Line A
Line B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
11
.4.5
1.0
13.5
7.0
72.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
3
4
...
5
6
45.0
12.0
39.5
1.6
2.0
7
8
9
0
Line C
5
6
7
9
10
11
X
0
Line D
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
X
Female
Average
6.0
2.5
20.5
6.5
64.5
5.2
1.7
17.0
6.7
68.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
3.1
4.6
21.8
...
...
0.2
0.1
44.7
...
...
...
...
11.0
0.5
15.5
46.0
2.5
1.5
20.5
2.5
0.5
16.0
1.0
27.0
14.0
39.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
41.5
7.5
46.5
3.0
1.5
43.2
9.7
43.0
2.2
1.7
...
...
7.5
2.5
16.5
43.0
2.5
1.5
21.0
5.5
9.2
1.5
16.0
12.0
1.5
29.5
10.0
47.0
...
...
44.5
2.5
1.5
20.7
4.0
0.2
14.0
1.2
28.2
12.0
43.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
8.6
61.6
0.1
...
10.5
40.2
3.6
0.2
0.2
9.5
5.3
29.2
35.5
3.5
0.2
14.5
2.1
...
13.5
5.8
28.0
11.1
41.3
0.1
...
99
DERMATOGLYPHICS I N JEWS
respectively) , and the figures should be inspected in company
with the appropriate sections of table 8. Sccording to the
average incidences, the X and 0 conditions of line C are
increased in Jews. However, we have taken occasion t o question the validity of the European-American average, on
grounds of possibly unlike interpretations by Wilder and ourselves. Comparing the incidences of X and 0 in the Jews
('20.7 per cent and 4 per cent, respectively) with the incidences
established in 200 male European-Americans (15.5 per cent
and 4.2 per cent) interpreted by the present writers, the disproportionate occurrence in Jews is a little reduced. Whether
TABLE 3
Percentile ocrurrcnces of ltnt--D t w m z n a t i o w as 91 ottped anto the tliree modal
types-300 J m s compared both wcth the entare collectaon of 400 Europt-anAmericans and with the 200 males alone (see text j u s t folloztring
f o r explanatzon of tkas st-paratton)
ETJROPEAN-AMERICANS
JEWS
TYPE
~
Male
7
9
11
18.5
41 .O
40.5
I
Female
Average
13.5
39.5
16.0
40.2
4'7.0
43.7
~
m
19.3
39.1
41.3
200 males
~ alone ~
16.5
34.0
44.5
the persistent difference is due recognition as a distinction
is perhaps open t o question. The feature is inherently difficult to standardize in interpretation, even in the work of one
observer, and the compared collections are relatively small.
Line D should be especially emphasized, f o r its course is
believed to signify the essential character of the distal palmar
area, that is, the general direction of ridges apart from the
purely local conditions of patterns. Means of grouping the
line-D terminations have been already suggested (Cummins
and Midlo) whereby personal inequalities of interpretation
are largely absorbed. The terminations are resolved into
three groups, denominated 7 , 9, and 11, each group being
typified by the regional t>erminatioiinoted in its number, but
~
100
HAROLD
cunmms
AND CHARLES
MIDLO
including as well the closely related terminations (7 includes
X, 5, 7 , 8 ; 9 includes 9, 10; 11 includes 11, 12, 13). Table 3
shows tlie result of applying this grouping to the line-D
terminations.
It will be noted that table 3 carries two sets of EuropeanAmerican data for comparison. The first column of Euro~ean-~4merican
figures is derived from the eiitire assemblage
of material previously considered by ourselves (loc. cit.,
table 12). Attention was directed in the text of the paper
to tlie need for discriminating between the two terminations
of line I) in those cases where a dual termination is manifest
by such formulation as 7'" or 711. It m-as stated that the more
radial termination is the significant one (from the standpoint
TABLE 4
Twmzleutwns of ltne D, a s groaped into the three modal t y p e s , slaowing the
percmtila uccurrcwes tn right and l e f t k a n d s separately-200 Jews compared
wtth 200 male European-Animicans
JEWS
EUROPEAh--AXERTCANS
TYPE
R
7
9
11
I
Male
15.0
32.0
53.0
I
Female
L
R
22.0
50.0
28.0
59.0
61.0
10.0
I
I
ATerage
L
R
17.0
50.0
33.0
12.5
30.5
57.0
I
L
19.5
50.0
30.5
I
R
12.0
30.5
57.5
I
L
21 .o
47.5
31.5
of indicating general ridge direction), the one to be selected
when assorting terminations. For the reason that we were
uncertain of Wilder's records with respect t o terminations of
the variety in question, the 200 males, interpreted as suggested above, received more especial emphasis. The data derived from them (loc. cit., table 14) are accordingly added to
our present table 3 as of probably greater comparative weight
with regard t o this particular feature than are the general
averages for European-Americans. In neither case is there
an indication of notable variation from the average in Jews.
As a matter of fact, there is a remarkable likeness in the
results, particularly erideiit when the Jews are compared with
the 200 male E~ropean-~4mericans
which were analyzed by
equivalent standards.
DERMATOGLYPHICS I N J E W S
101
Touching upon the bimanual distribution of line-D terminations, wherein racial differences might possibly be displayed,
reference should be made to table 4. The figures evidence
that there is no racial distinction to be revealed by bimanual
comparisons.
Now, leaving the terminations of the individual main lines
for their combinations in complete formulae, the data presented i n table 1 may be first analyzed by the customary
method. This consists in determination of tlie incidences of
certain characteristic o r typical formulae, namely, 7.5.5.-,
9.7.5.-, and 11.9.7.- (following Wilder, '22, pp. 163-165).
Table 5 presents this result, which, viewed without referenee
TABLE 5
Percentde incidmcss of t h e three characteristic or typical formulae in 200 Jewscompared with 400 European-Americans
to our previously recorded data, may appear to indicate the
existence in Jews of a slight ascendancy of the higher formulae. Howerer, if the figures be compared with the separate
series of European-Americans rather Ihan with their averages, this apparent difference is outweighed by the incidences
detailed for the two series of males. It appears, therefore,
that no racial distinction is demonstrable by this comparison
of the main-line formulae.
Further means of comparing main-line formulae is provided by our suggested method of grouping, explained in
the earlier paper. By this method all formulae in the collection are considered; the product of its application in the Jews
is represented in table 6. It will be evident that there i s still
no demonstrably distinctive variant brought out by the corn-
102
HAROLD CZTMMINS A N D CHARLES MIDLO
parison. As in the case of line D alone, computation of right
and left hands separately reveals no racial variants.
PAIJMBR PATTERNS
The palmar pattern formulae are listed in table 7, which is
followed by statement of the percentile occurrences of individual patterns in table 8.
Apparently distinctive characteristics are introduced by
the palmar patterns. Excepting the fourth interdigital,
which in the total of its three varieties is represented equally
in Jews and European-Americans, all the patterns are more
abundant in Jews. Even the fourth interdigital presents a
notexorthy feature in the relative occurrences of its types,
TABLE
6
Percentzle divtrzbution of ihe complete main-lzne formulae, as grouped i n three
modal types, z l t 200 Jews-comparcd wzth 400 European-Amerecans
with 4t in the ascendancy rather than 4' as in EuropeanAmericans. This finding is in a sense an expression of a
primitive tendency otherwise manifest in increased numbers
of patterns. Briefly, it may be stated that the occurrence of
a pattern of the morphological series is a more primitive
condition than its absence (supplanted by an open field), and
that the 4t variety of the fourth interdigital pattern is more
primitive than either of the other types (Wilder, '25). As
table 8 illustrates, the differences in pattern incidences, indicating increased occurrences in Jews, range through 3.9 per
cent (hypothenar), 4.5 per cent (second interdigital), 6.1 per
cent (thenar plus first interdigital), and 10.2 per cent (third
interdigital). These differences are admittedly small numerically, yet their consistence, especially when supplemented by
DERMATOGLYPHICS IN J E W S
103
the findiugs concerning patterns elsewhere, leads to the conclusion that the pattern incidences are actually distinctive.
The hypothenar pattern may be significantly variable not
only in its total occurrence, but also in the representation of
its several types. Table 9 shows the distribution of its varieties in the Jews and in our 200 male European-Americans;
it will be noted that the Ha variety is reduced in Jews.
APICAL FINGER PATTERNS
The patterns of the digits present certain difficulties in
classification, owing to the occurrence of some transitional
varieties which may be questionably assigned to one group
rather than to another. We have followed the Arch-LoopWhorl classification of Galton. The figures for EuropeanAmerican apical patterns are obtained from the prints of 100
individuals identified as series I1 in the former paper. Following equivalent standards in the classification of this series
and the collection of Jews, it is believed that the comparative
figures are valid; it should be recognized, however, that there
exists a source of error in the identification of some pattern
varieties (particularly those which grade between typickl
loops and true whorls).
Total incidences of the three varieties of apical patterns
are first listed in table 10, accompanied by figures obtained
from 100 male European-Americans (our series 11). Considering the nature of the pattern varieties and the criteria
of their separation, the collection is too small by far €or the
determination of stable values. Nevertheless, the differences
between Jews and European-Americans are large enough that
they may be relied upon as indicators of the trend of racial
variation. It may be stated, therefore, that Jews differ from
European-Americans in the possession of more whorls and
less loops and arches. This finding is in agreement with
Galton’s statement that Jews have a larger proportion of
whorls and are deficient in arches and loops (as he compared
them with English, Welsh, and negroes) . Further comparisons of races may be scanned in Bonnevie’s table 5, keeping
104
HAROLD CUMMINS A K D C H A R L E S MIDLO
T A B L E 7a
NO
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
R
WT
Patmar Pattern Formulae.
No
-
HT
'T
3,4'
3 50
3.4
4
3
2'. 3.4'
3,3+4
3.3.4
3,3+4
3,3+4
3+4.4f
4
351
3 52
3.4
35 3
3
4
3
354
4'
355
3,4'
3.4. d
3+4,4: 4'
356
357
3.4
3,4'
3,4'
3.4.4'
3 +4
35 6
3,4*,3+4.d
360
3.4. d
4'
30 0
309
3
310
31 1
3',4', d
3,4, d
2',3,4'
3.4, d
312
313
314
315
3 16
317
316
31 9
320
321
322
323
100 Males
3
4
3
3
3,3+4
307
-
359
5-4
3
3.4'
3.4'
2',3,4'
3.4
3+4
4
(2tr.). 3,4'
3.4'
2'. 3.4'
3+4
3+4,4'
4
2f.3,4'
3
3+4,4'
3,3+4
361
362
363
364
365
366
3,3*4
3
2t,3,4f
4
367
3.3+4
2','3,4, d
3.4.4: 4'
368
3.4.4'
3*4,4. d
5+4
4
3
3',4',3*4
2'. (4'r)
3.4'
5-4
4: (4%)
3.4
3.41.34
3+4,4'
371
4'
4
372
3
373
3
374
375
376
577
378
379
380
361
4
3+4
3,4', d
4
4
3, (4%)
3.4, d
4'
4
3.4
3.3.4
3
3+4,4f
3,4'
3.4
324
325
3+4,4'
32 6
32 7
328
329
3
2'
330
331
332
(3d.3.4
Pr),3
2t, 3
3
3
2',3=4'
3.4, d
3.4'
369
370
3 +4
3.4'
31.4
4
4
3,4, d
3
3.4
3
4*
3
3
2', 3
3+4
4
3', 4'
.
3.4' (d-t'
3
3,4'
4
4t.4'
3+4
4
4
3.4
3.4
22. 3
333
3
3.4. d
334
3
335
3
336
2'. 4:4+
3+4,4*
4: 4'
:ztr).4 :4, d
337
3
4
387
3*3+4
338
339
3 +4.
3.4
3
4'
4
4'
4'
340
3
34 I
3
3.3-4
3*4
342
3
3
5+4
343
4
3 +4
388
389
390
39 1
392
393
394
395
3,4'
3.4.4'
3
3.4.4'
3,3 +4,l4fl
396
3.3+4
397
398
399
2'.3',4'
3-4,4'
344
4
345
3
346
3
347
3
3*4,4'
3t
34.8
3u9
4'
?1
1
-
382
383
584
385
386
-
3
3
4
3+d
314
3+4,4'
3+4
3 +4.4*
4'
3 t 4 , (4'7.)
3
3,3-4
3.3.4
3,4'
3,3+4
3
2',3,4'
Zt, 3, (4'r)
3,3-4
$.),(4'J,3*4
Wr), 3 , (4%)
3 +4,(4%
105
DERMATOGLYPHICS I N JEWS
TABLE 7 b
NO
51 I
51 2
513
514
515
516
Palmar Pat r n For1 ilae
NO
__
100
zrnales
HT
-T
3,Wd
3>3+4,4
(4'r)
5 62
3
4',4. d
2'. 3
4'
4
564
565
56E
567
3
2',S. 3+4,L
3 +4
3.3+4
2t. 4
3
3.4. (4'r
RIGHT
F T
3.3.4
3.4
3
2'. 4t
3
3
4
545
546
547
3 -4
548
3,3.4
3 , 4t
3,3 *4,4= 56 8
56P
3.4, d
3+4
57c
(3rL3.4
57 I
3-4
572
573
3.3.4
( 3 ~ ) .d
4 , 574
575
4
4'
576
3' 4
57 7
3.3+4
578
579
3.4
3-4
580
2'3+4,4' 58 I
(3r)
582
4
563
4'
584
3.3*4
585
3.3-4,(4bl 586
58 7
3.3.4
4
'589
4-4'
59I
3 +4
59 2
3-4
593
3.4
594
3 4 ,(49 595
3'4
596
597
3,4t
598
3
(3.)
600
60I
4
602
3.3.4
549
550
li'
4'
3-4.4'
4
4'
3+4,(4*rl
605
3
3.4, (4r) 606
607
4'
[2'r).3
'3r)
3.4f
3.4
3.3+4
3
560
3+4
3.3.4
3,3+4
3.4. (4;)
4
3
3
344.4'
3.3 * 4 ,(4'r
56 I
l3r)
3-4,4t
517
518
519
3 , 4 ,d
2',3,4'
3,4'
3
(2r),L3r),3+i
520
52 I
3.3.4
522
3.3*4,4'
4
3+4
523
525
526
527
528
529
530
53 I
532
533
534
535
536
537
3
3'
3
3-lb
3,3*4
2 ',3,4'
3,3+4
4
3,3+4
3
3,(45)
3./4'rl
4'
538
4'
539
540
3.3+4
541
542
543
544
55 I
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
-
4'
3
bd.(4r)
3+4,4'
4
3
3.4, Lb'
3,3+4
3-4
3.3*4
3
3
-
3,3+4
3
3*4
4'
4 : 4'
3-4.4t
3.4
3 -4
3+4.4, c
4'
3.4t
3.3+4,4
4'
3.3-4
3
3
3
3
',
2 3 ,(4[r)
3
(3r)
3,4t
3+4
4'
3+4,Wr
344.4'
4
3.3-4
4'
3 + 4 . (4:)
4'
Z'.3,3 *4
3.3-4
4
4
3.3-4
(3,)
3,3-4
3,14'r)
3.3 +4,(45
4'
3.3 *& .(41
34.4'
3.4
3.4.4'
4'
4
3.3.4
3 +4
3+4
3-4.(&:I
3,(4'r)
3.3+4
4
-
-
603
4
[2'r),3
604
3
3
2?.(3r),3*4
3.4
(2r13 3 4 . 4
314
3.4
3,4'
3+4,(4'r)
3.3+4
3'4
(3r)
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
-
3+4
5
3.4'
3.4'. d
Pd, 3,3-4
4
3.4', d
3 -4.4'
106
HAROLD CUMMINS AND CHARLES M I D L O
in mind the difficulties in pattern classification as a source of
error.
A survey of the digital distribution of pattern varieties
(table 11) shows that the incidences reported are not due to
the peculiarities of any single digit, but that the statements
of incidence apply in common t o all digits (naturally excepting instances of infrequently occurring varieties).
T.4BLE 8
Percentile occurrences o f palmar patterns in 200 Jews-compared
European-Americarw
with 300
JEWS
PATTERN
Male
Female
ThI
H
25.5
I1
I11
33.0
4
4’
4‘
4+4’+4
9.0
22.5
20.5 10.5
18.0
35.0
Ha
1
R
L
7.5
17.5
5.0
31.5
5.5
7.5
7.5
20.5
13.0
16.5
2.5
20.5
Hb
~
17.7
40.5
Hs
11.6
36.6
4.5
42.5
9.0
52.7
16.5
14.2
22.7
54.0
9.0
9.0
11.0
29.0
Hc
BUILOPEANAMERICANS
Bath hands,
bath sexes
I
1
1715
23.6
13.0
54.1
__ ___
Hw
HaHb Harrh Hcarp
fIaHc
_ _ _ _ _ _ ~ - _ _ ~ - -
Jea s . . . . . . . . . .
European-Americans
3 0
3.6
__
-~
____
4.9
5.4
4.9
1.2
1.8
0.6
0.6
....
-
Still another assortment of apical patterns is suggested by
Loth ( ’14), who presents a table giving, for his collection of
Poles, the combinations in which all digits bear whorls, four
digits with whorls and another with an ulnar loop, three
whorls and two ulnar loops, etc. These combinations in our
collection of Jews, together with the same features in 100
107
DERMATOGLYPHICS I N JEWS
male European-Americans (our series 11) a r e presented in
table 12. It will be noted that the combination embodying
five whorls is much more frequent in Jews. I n this connection, a remark by Wilder (’25) may be noted: “There is
some feeling that the presence of whorls upon all the h g e r s
is a racial characteristic of the Jewish race, although definite
statistics are not as yet available.”
TABLE 10
Apical finger patterns in ,800 Jews, indicated in percent&
w i t h 100 European-Americans
incidences-compared
LOOPS
WRORLS
dews, I 0 0 males. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jews, 100 females .............
Jew-s, both sexes ..............
European-Americans, 100 males
42.1
43.4
42.7
32.1
ARCHES
Radial
1Jlnrtr
Total
2.7
3.3
3.0
3.3
50.6
49.4
50.0
5Y.4
,53.3
52.7
53.0
62.7
4.6
3.9
4.2
5.9
TABLE 11
Showing t h e distribution among t h e five di.9it.r of tke total percentile occurrences
of apical patterns listed i n table 10
I
I
WHORLS
RADI.4LLOOPS
I
ULNARLOOPS
I
ARCHES
DIGIT
Jews
I
I1
I11
IV
V
10.5
10.1
5.1
11.0
5.9
E:A.
6.7
7.8
3.8
9.7
4.1
Jews
E.-A.
Jews
0.05
2.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
2.9
0.2
0.2
0.0
8.7
5.6
13.4
8.4
13.7
6.7
14.6
9.7
15.7
1.6
1.3
0.4
0.2
2.6
1.4
0.4
0.2
PLANTAR PATTERSS
The formulated plantar patterns in 100 male Jews are listed
in table 13. On account of prcjudke unfortunately existing,
we were able to secure sole prints from only a few of the
hundred females who were willing enough to furnish prints
of the hands. The t o l d number of sole prints of females was
so small that they have been ignored, thus limiting the plantar
108
H h I t O L D C C M M I N S A N D CHARLES MIDLO
study to males. Five configuration areas have been analyzed,
namely, hallucal, first, second, and third interdigitals, and
hypothenar. The data are arranged in tables 14 and 15.
The hallucal area is noteworthy for its reduced number of
A patterns, axid marked increase of B and W. Interdigital
areas display reductions of the open-field configurations with
iiicreased ll and W. The hypothenar area in Jews more frequently bears a true pattern, with reduced numbers of pattern vestiges and true open fields. It should be explained at
this point that the sole prints upon which the hypothenar
figures are based are complete, and that we can definitely
TABIAE 12
Showing the percentile occurrences of certazn combinutions of apical patterns.
T h e computatwn of percentages b based u p o n t h e total number of ha7tds
bearing the liste8 c o m b i w t w n s ( J e w s , 297; European-Americans, 1 3 8 ) 200 Jews compared with 100 Europeun-Americans
COYBINATIUNS
JEWS
EWHOPLAN-AMERICANS
All u
4U-lW
3U-2W
2u-3w
1U-4W
All W
14.1
15.i
15.8
14.4
19.1
20.5
24.6
18.8
12.2
19.8
lG.G
8.0
assert that a pattern is present, absent, or represented in the
rudimentary form of ridge convergences. Notations of this
configuration have been made in tables 13 and 15 with the
use of the following symbols : Hy, presence of a true hypothenar pattern in the characteristic position in the distofibular
area; H, presence of a pattern (identity with the hypothenar
is questioned) located in the midregion of the sole toward the
fibular border ;
presence of ridge convergences at the site
of Hy, but no true pattern;-, unquestioned absence of even
a rudimentary pattern.
+,
SCMMARY A S D DISCUSSION
The study here reported embraces a determination of the
dermatoglyphic characteristics in Jews, its objective being
109
DEKMATOGLYPHICS 1 N JEWS
Plar
No.
-
RIGHT
LEFT
300
W nuo d H=
301
B
302
303
304
305
30 6
307
308
309
310
31 I
312
313
3 14
31s
3 16
3 17
B
OWOd+
nwo d +
B
OUO d +
B
OWOd +
W flW0 d Hy
A nuo d +
W n W O d Hy
A OUU d d c
A no0 HyH
A
A
'A' O W 0 d HyH
WOWOdB ooo +
000 Hy
OWO
d Hy
WOWOd
B
-
OOO+
35 5
356
357
358
359
360
W'"nWU
36 1
W WOO d
w'"
0 nno.
w
w
A
362
UUO dd H y
363
OUO d Hy
w'"OUU dd Hy
364
w
BC'OUU ddHy
OUU ddHy
OUO d +
w
dd Hy
w 0uo d
A
O U U ddHy
+
O U O d Hy
w
w
320
B
nWW d d +
321
322
323
324
325
326
3 27
W"0WU
ddHy
W"OW0
A OUU
A OUO
dd+
dHy
A DUO d
A nU0d
W"OU0
d Hy
Hy
wOUOd+
000 Hy
+
W""nn0
328
W n W 0 d Hy
329
B
OUOd+
330
331
332
B
B
OW0 d Hy
A
nun
0 UOO
W flno
w
O U O d Hy
W'"nW0 d Hy
B nwod
+
d Hy
+
+
w
+
B"nwo
d H~
nwn d H~
B UUO d d B 000Hy
WWO dd Hy
w
LEFT
W"OU0 dd +
A
000Hy
W"UU0 dd H y
W
A
O U O d Hy
B
nnnHY
0 woo+
w nu0 d +
W nww dd HY
B
flu0 d
OW0 d
A
A nwo
w
w
A
O W 0 d Hy
W'"OW0
nWU dd-
wSmflWUdd
B
366
0 ouo +
5
367
368
369
3 70
WLPunnd tiy
A nu0 dHy
376
377
w 0uo
w OUO
d-H
d +
n U U ddHy
B ovo
d
-
OUO J H y H
w L p W W O dd Hy
-
A
389
39 0
W nno H~
34s
346
347
348
w
w
349
0
OW0 d+H
w onn
H~
w
O U O d Hy
W OU Od+
39 I
A
000
A
392
A
f l W 0 d Hy
A nwo
A
OUU ddHy
A
OUO d Hy
nWOd
+
WnWO
A
-
d
-H
OUOd+
flUO + Catcar
OOO-
d
+
OUU ddHyH
w
O l i o d Hy
w'"OV0 d +
W nno +
A OUOd +
0
OUU d +
393
394
395
w
&+ti
w
n o 0 Hy
O U O ~ +
A
d~ ~y
OUU J d H y
w OUO
w OW0
B
-
nno
d Hy
d
Hy
+
A OUO d Hy
w s m n ~J 0H,H
W'*nUU
dd +
A nu0 d Hy
w4uw0 dd +
B
w
A
OW0
A nwod+
0
o ~y
w OUO d - H
A WUO
A oUO
A null
dd H y
d
-
ddd Hy
OW0 d -
396
397
B
B
o
UWW ddd +
0 U O d Hy
198
A
YO0 d -
-
OUO d Hy
d tiy
OUOdDUO +
f l u 0 d Hy
OW0 d +
O
399
OUO d
A
A
A
OWOd+
B
A nwu
w nu0 d Hy
OUOdHy
flu0 d +
n U U dd Hy
OWU dd Fcy
A
+
OUUddHy
w
B
OUU d d H y
385
386
367
3 88
OUU dd
A
w OUO d
361
Anuod+
W"OO0 d +
A
A
w
-
ftUU d d +
OUU d d +
n W 0 d Hy
OUO d
A 000 HyH
A OUO d +
A O U O d Hy
w nuo d H~
A
A
A
OWOHy
HW U O O d H y H
383
w
d Hy
flW0 d Hy
A
W"nwu
A nuo
OUU ddHy
f l u 0 d Hy
OnOHyH
~
375
379
OUO d +
d +
A nwo
365
A
H~
0 wno +
0 flWOd+
w
B
B
0 0 0 Hy
w nnn
-
d +
383
384
H
w
'd n\VU J d H y
B nuo d H~
Hy
A
w
~
00OHy
WL'llOO Hy
OUO d Hy
w s m n W O d Hy
nuo d H~
371
3 72
373
374
375
OUOd+
Hy
382
B
flWOd+
A
A
A
000 Hy
OUO d +
OUO d Hy
A wrio d +
A OuO d H
A noo H ~ H
340
5 41
342
343
344
-
3 55
w nWW d d +
319
353
3 34
335
336
337
338
339
352
353
w nwn d d +
OUO d Hy
n W 0 d Hy
318
3 50
35 1
h' n W U dd Hy
0 on0 +
Hy
RIGHT
NO.
WSmnood H~
0 ow0 +
A OWOd +
w
uwn
d H~
OWU d d
-
B
B
w
OUO d ' +
nOOHy
ow0
J +
WOO0 -H
A
'd
WUO dd
+
OUO d Hy
\nl"nlJO d H y H
A Own
w WWO
d
Hy
dd+
WWO dd Hy
0
UWO d Hy
A OLIO
W nwo
d
+
d H~
110
HAROLD CUMMINS AND CHARLES MIDLO
the identification of any racial peculiarities which may distinguish the Jews from the mixed European-American popu'
lation. European-American data are derived from Wilder's
TABLE 14
Percentile occurrences o f particular pattern types and open fields in the four
distal plantar arcas-100 mule Jews compared with 400 European-Americans
CONFIGURATION
AREA
Hallucal ..........
Interdigital I . , ,
..
A
73
33.0
16.5
C
W
0
44.0
6.5
54.7
9.8
0.5
31.5
3.3
53.5
5.5
36.0
5.0
72.6
5.0
20.3
2.0
12.0
49.0
7.5
31.5
30.3
54.3
4.8
10.3
78.5
15.0
4.5
2.0
82.6
14.3
2.7
0.2
...
0
U
n
w
Interdigital 11. ....
0
U
n
w
Interdigital 111....
0
U
n
W
Jews ................
European-Americans
EUROPEAN-AMERICANS
JEWS
HS
+
-
R
54.0
41.0
36.0
41 .O
10.0
18.0
9.0
18.0
DERMATOGLYPHICS J N J E W S
111
It has been demonstrated repeatedly that racial dermatoglyphic variations do not occur in the form of anatomically
distinctive features which are consistently present in a race ;
rather, the entire range of variation is represented in every
race, and such racial distinctions as may be discerned appear
as differences in the statistical occurrences of these variables.
Since Galton writes that his “great expectations” of finding
racial characteristics in finger patterns “have been falsified, ”
it is doubtless true that his anticipation picturcd anatomically
peculiar configurations. Considering that racial variation is
expressed only in the manner in which it is, racial comparisons, and especially attempts to analyze racial affinities, must
be made with caution. Collections of racial material ordinarily are small, relative to the variations which are being
studied, and particularly should the possibility of personal
error in interpretation be recognized. We have minimized
the element of personal variations in interpretation through
chief dependence upon comparative material interpreted by
ourselves. The reported racial distinctions in J e w s are believed t o be valid, in the sense of demonstrating the existence
and direction of racial variation, although the stated numerical differences are obviously susceptible to fluctuation with
the addition of further material. It is possible, furthermore,
that the negative findings may be superseded in collections
large enough to justify reliance upon minor differences.
No variants of the palmar main lines have been found as
unequivocal racial distinctions of general ridge direc,tion over
the distal palmar area. It is true that two items of variation
have been noted, both associated with line C. Jn Jews there
is a reduced number of terminations of this line in position
7 and an increased number in position 9. These positions
connote interdigital patterns, the actual occurrences of which
verify the indication furnished in the main-line formula.
But such features are in reality adventitious elements of the
main-line formula, which pwposes to illustrate the general
courses of ridges, and not such strictly local features as
interdigital patterns.
112
H.4I;OLD CUMMIKS A44ND CHdRLES M I D L O
Racial distinctions exist in the occurreiices of patterns, and
the trend which characterizes the Jews is exemplified by all
the fifteen patterns studied (five palmar, apical patterns of
the five fingers, and five plantar). This trend may be interpreted as a primitireness in the configurations, expressed in
frequencies of patterns and in their types of construction.
The outstanding examples are briefly iioted below.
1. The thenar (plus first interdigital), hypothenar, and second and third interdigital patteriis of tlie palm are more
abundantly represented in Jews than in European-Americans.
2. While the fourth interdigital palmar pattern is of equal
occiirrence in Jews and European-Americans, the differential
incidences of its three types are suggestively dissimilar. The
most commonly represented variety in Jews is 4t, a more
primitive configuration than 4 or 4'. The palmar hypothenar
sliows a reduction of the H a variety in Jews, possibly of
the same significance as tlie condition of tlie patte-rn just
11ot ed.
3. Whorl patterns are represented on the fingers of Jews
in greater numbers than in European-Americans, their increase being distributed among the five digits. Hands bearing combination of five whorls are more commoii in Jews.
4, The hallucal pattern in Jews is more frequently of the
whorl type (W) than a distal loop ( A ) , reversing the relation
obtaining in European-Americans. The B type is considerably increased in Jews.
5. The three plantar interdigital areas show reduced numbers of open fields in Jews, with increase in configurations of
the V and n types.
6. Plantar hypothenar patteriis occur more commonly in
Jews than in European-Americans.
If the suggestions advanced by Bonnevie (p. 31) and Cummins ('26) are valid, the obserred racial distinctions in dermatoglyphics are to be referred to certain fetal variations
d i i c h fluctuate about racially characteristic modes. Cummins
concludes from a study of the dermatoglyphics in various
developmental defects that the alignment of ridges, and thus
DEBMATOGLYPHLICS I N J E W S
113
their mutual arrangements in particular eonfigurations, are
an accompaniment of tlie complex growth phenomena which
mold the forms of the hand, foot, and digits. Thns the
' Tastballen ' are responsible f o r the locally distinct configurations of the morpliological series, through the medium of the
growth forces resident in these elevations. Daring the period
of ridge differentiation, individual variations in the moundlike prominences, or in their subsidence prior to this critical
time, are accountahle f o r tlie production of the varied confignrations. Jews, theref ore, with their tendency to possess
larger numbers of patterns, and in some cases patterns approaching more primitive types, may be credited with a
greater retention of the typical mammalian Tastballen. Such
a retention may be manifest in the fetus by the measure of
their definitive development or perhaps by a less ready or
different mode of involution of the elevations.
L I T E R A T U R E CITED
BONXET'IE,
R. 1924 Studies on papillary patterns of human fingers. Jour.
Gmetics, XV.
CviwimNs, HARULD 2996
Epidrrmal ridge configurations i n developmental
defects, with particular reference to the ontogenetic factors which
condition ridge direction. Am. Jour. Anat., XXXVIII.
CUMMINS, HAROLD,AND CHARLESMIDM 1936 Palmar and plantar epidermal
ridge configurations (Derniatoglyphics) in European Amerieaiis. Am.
Jour. Phq-s. Anthrop., IX.
GALTON,FRANCIS
1892 Finger prints. London : Mncmillan.
HASEBE,
K. 1918 ~ b e das
r Hautleistensystem dcr Tola und P l a n t a der J a p a n e r
und -4ino. Arb. anat. Ixst. K. J a p ' ~ n .IJniv., Sendai, H. 1.
KEITH,H. H. 1924 Racial differences in the papillary linrs of t h e palm. Am.
Jour. Phys. Anthrop., VII.
LOTH, E. 1911 Anthropologische Untersuchungen iibcr das Hautleistensystem
der Polen. Zeitschr. f . Morpli. u. Anthrop., XXII.
WILDER,11. H. 1922 Racial differences in palm and sole configuration. Palm
and sole prints of Japanese and Chinese. Am. Jour. Phys. Anthrop., V.
1925 Palm and sole studies. VIIT. Oecurrcnce of primitive patterns (whorls). Biol. Bull., X L I X .
AMERICAN 3OURN.LL OF PHTSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, VOL. X, X O .
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