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Dermatoglyphics of schizophrenics patients with Down's syndrome and mentally retarded males as compared with Australian Europeans using multivariate statistics.

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Dermatoglyphics of Schizophrenics, Patients with Down’s
Syndrome and Mentally Retarded Males as
Compared with Australian Europeans
using MuIti var iate Statistics
SARDOOL SINGH
School of H u m a n Genetics, T h e University of New South W a l e s ,
Kensington N.S.W. 2033
KEY WORDS Dermatoglyphics . Multivariate analysis . Schizophrenia . Down’s syndrome . Mental retardation.
ABSTRACT
Dermatoglyphics of schizophrenics, patients with Down’s syndrome and mentally retarded males were compared with those of normal Australian Europeans. A computer programme of multivariate analysis of fifteen
dermatoglyphic features was utilized. This analysis produces two significant
variates of each of the populations plotted in two-dimensional space. The distance, measured in arbitrary units, between any two populations was studied
for its significance. It was noticed that the patients with Down’s syndrome sepaarated significantly from the rest of the groups.
The importance of multivariate analysis in the study of dermatoglyphics in
comparing two or more populations is discussed.
The use of multivariate analysis becomes necessary when several measurements are to be utilized in distinguishing
two or more populations. Dermatoglyphic
data are of this type because ten or more
variables are always available. One or two
discriminant functions, plotted as graphs,
can show almost all available information
about the differences between any two
sampled groups by condensing information relating to a large number of variables. In this paper a multivariate analysis
based on Anderson (’58) is used to study
the divergence between normal Australian
Europeans, schizophrenic patients, patients
with Down’s syndrome and mentally retarded males.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
All populations studied were of European origin. A random sample of 500
males and 500 females was collected from
the districts of N.S.W. The quantitative
description of this sample has been presented by Singh (’67a). Eighty-nine male
and 83 female schizophrenics were collected from Callan Park Mental HosFital,
AM. J. PHYs. ANTHROP.,42: 237-240.
Sydney. These patients were certified long
term schizophrenics and have been hospitalized in “long stay wards” for upwards
of six months. Their ages varied from 20
to 60 years. They have been quantitatively
described in Singh (’67b). Ninety-four
male and 62 female patients with Down’s
syndrome, collected from various institutions for handicapped children in N.S.W.,
have been quantitatively reported in Singh
(’68) . In addition a sample of 53 mentally
retarded male patients was collected from
Peat and Milson Island Hospital in N.S.W.
This group does not include any mental
disorders due to known genetic causes viz.
Down’s syndrome or phenylketonuria. The
cause of their mental deficiency was undiagnosed. It was of interest to study their
dermatoglyphics because they were suffering from the same degree of mental dificiency as the patients with Down’s syndrome and in one study were used as
controls for Down’s syndrome (Singh, ’69).
Fifteen dermatoglyphic features of each
population are used: the ridge counts on
1 Present address: Kanematsu Memorial Institute
Sydney Hospital, MacQuarie Street, Sydney, N.S.W:
2000.
237
238
SARDOOL SINGH
ten fingers, the frequencies of ulnar loops,
radial loops and accidentals, and the triradius counts, and in addition the asymmetry, as defined by Singh ('68).
The data of the above populations were
available on punch cards. A multivariate
analysis based on Anderson ('58) was
used in the programme run on the CDC
3600 computer at the C.S.I.R.O. Division
of Computing Research, Canberra.
TABLE 2
Showing the linear combinatons o f observed
variates comprising significant discriminant
f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e comparison of
all groups'
RI
RII
RIII
RIV
RV
LI
LII
LIII
LIV
LV
Ulnar loops
Radial loops
Accidentals
Triradius counts
Asymmetry
RESULTS
Table 1 gives the canonical correlations
and their significance with chi-square
values and degrees of freedom. It will be
seen that the first and second correlations
are significant while the third and fourth
are not. Combinations of observed canonical variates comprising significant discriminant functions are shown in table 2.
From table 2 are calculated the co-ordinates (vectors), V, and V,, for plotting the
mean positions of each population - these
values are shown in table 3 ; the dispersion
of population centroids is shown in figure
1. The separation of all males from females
and of the patients with Down's syndrome
from the rest of the populations can be
seen.
In this figure the distance measured between any two populations represents the
generalized Mahalanobis D' statistic, the
significance of which can be tested with a n
F-ratio test calculated by the following
formula :
Coefficients of discriminant
functions
Variates
v1
vz
-0.11696
-0,14634
-0.11057
0.25383
0.04087
-0,11482
- 0.07693
- 0.38045
-0,30537
0.25669
-0.32012
0.15410
0.00703
0.08008
- 0.05632
-0,22435
-0.03127
0.03159
0.22703
- 0.22943
-0.31101
0.04705
- 0.07843
0.02413
-0,35300
-0.07575
0.08821
- 0.02311
0.28660
0.3368
1 The within group means and standard deviations
of the populations used are taken from Singh ('67a,
'67b, '68, '69).
TABLE 3
Canonical variates f o r group centroids
___.__
__-
Males
- Females
~~
-
Australian
European
Schizophrenic
Down's
Syndrome
Mentally
retarded
males
v1
vz
v1
~
vz
-0.160
- 1.245
-0.285
- 1.08
- 0.344
- 1.41
- 0.252
- 0.932
-0.984
-0.981
- 1.094 - 1.537
-0.228
-1.356
-
-
V P values have been scaled by the ratio of canonical
correlations after normalising the coefficients within
each vector.
Latent
roots
removed
Correlation
xz
D.F. 1
P
0
1
2
3
0.41332
0.23691
0.14606
0.12653
401.53
144.33
65.08
35.49
90
70
52
36
0.0001
0.001
N.S.
N.S.
+
with ( p l ) , ( N , Nz p - 1) degrees
of freedom, where N, is the number in the
irhpopulation and p is the number of characters used.
The results of this analysis are recorded
in table 4. It will be seen from this table
that normal Australian and schizophrenic
males differ significantly from patients
with Down's syndrome. Normal Australian
females are significantly different from
female patients with Down's syndrome, but
not from schizophrenic females.
-
TABLE 1
Canonical correlations, w i t h Bartlctt's chi-squared,
degrees o f f r e e d o m and their significance, and
numbers of latent roots removed, f o r Australian
Europeans, schizophrenics, patients w i t h Dozun's
syndrome and mentally retarded males
~
DISCUSSION
The degrees of freedom i n the above table are
given by the expression ( p - r ) x (q - r ) , where r is
the number of roots removed, p i s the number of group
variables and q is the number of measured variables.
1
Comparison of the dermatoglyphics of
abnormal populations with the controls
239
COMPARATIVE DERMATOGLYPHICS
-200
-1.50
“2
- 0.50
11
Ment.Retd.M.
0 *Schf.M.
M*
ODowns
Aust. M.
1
I
I
0
-0.50
I
I
-1.00
-1.50
I
-200
“1
Fig. 1 Scatter diagram of males ( M ) and females ( F ) of schizophrenics (Schf.), patients
with Down’s Syndrome (Downs), mentally retarded males (Ment. Retd. M.) and Australian
Europeans (Aust.).
using univariate statistics does reveal significant differences, although the differences are not conclusive. In a n earlier
study (Singh, ’67) schizophrenic males
showed significantly less arches and more
accidentals while the schizophrenic females showed significantly more whorls
and less ulnar loops as compared to their
respective controls. An interesting feature
of this analysis was the significantly high
incidence of accidentals on the third digit
of the left hand of the schizophrenic
males. Mentally retarded males when compared with patients with Down’s syndrome
showed significantly more whorls and
radial loops and less ulnar loops. The mean
total ridge count of the mentally retarded
males was also found to be significantly
greater from that of the Down’s syndrome
(Singh, ’69). The frequency of ulnar loops
in male Down’s syndrome patients was significantly greater on all fingers, with the
exception of fifth finger on both hands, as
compared to normal males.
In spite of the observed differences in
some parameters between the abnormal
populations and their controls, it cannot be
said with any certainty that these differences are biologically significant.
In a situation such as this where one is
confronted with many variates, about 5%
of them will show significant differences
merely by chance. Multivariate statistics,
however have a n advantage over the univariate statistics in that many varieties in
many populations can be utilized simultaneously and the resultant figures tested
for their significance.
In a preliminary analysis it was found
that whorls and arches contributed very
little to the discriminant functions and
hence have been omitted in the present
analysis. The contribution to the betweengroup variance made by a variate is proportional to the squares of the coefficients
of that variable in V, and V2. It will be seen
from table 2 that the main contribution to
TABLE 4
D? v a l u e s , F ratios a n d their significance
~
~~
-
.-
~~~
D2
F
Ni
NB
Significance
Between males
Australian and schizophrenic
Australian and mentally retarded
Australian and Down’s Syndrome
Schizophrenic and mentally retarded
Schizophrenic and Down’s Syndrome
Mentally retarded and Down’s Syndrome
0.07
0.03
0.81
0.01
0.61
0.77
0.35
0.09
4.17
0.02
1.73
1.57
14
14
14
14
14
14
575
537
578
128
169
131
N.S.
N.S.
p < 0.1%
N.S.
P
5%
N.S.
Between female s
Australian and schizophrenic
Australian and Down’s Syndrome
Schizophrenic and Down’s Syndrome
0.01
0.49
0.49
0.05
1.76
1.04
14
14
14
567
545
129
B e t w e e n sexes
Australian
Schizophrenic
Down’s Syndrome
0.08
0.24
0.31
1.31
0.64
0.70
14
14
14
984
158
140
-
~~~
~
~~~~~
~~~~~~~
~~
~
~~
~~
<
N.S.
p
<
5%
N.S.
N.S.
N.S.
N.S.
240
SARDOOL SINGH
V, comes from the ridge counts of the first
four fingers of the right hand and the first,
third, fourth and fifth fingers of the left
hand, and ulnar and radial loops. V, is
accounted for mainly by the right first,
fourth and fifth, the left first and fifth
fingers, and from total triradius counts, the
main contribution coming from the left
first and fifth fingers.
In figure 1 it can be seen that the values
of V2 for the groups under study separate
males from females, whereas the values of
V, show a good separation of patients with
Down’s syndrome from the rest of the
groups. It is worth noting that Down’s
syndrome, which is known to be the expression of a chromosomal abnormality,
gives rise to a dermatoglyphic difference
which is very evident in this study and that
mental retardation and schizophrenia, for
which no strong evidence of the causative
influence of genetic factors has yet been
found, do not differ significantly in dermatoglyphic discriminant measure from the
normal Australian European groups.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to thank Professor
R. J. Walsh, Professor of Human Genetics,
University of New South Wales, for helpful suggestions in writing this paper, Dr.
P. J. Claringbold and Mr. N. H. Westwood,
C.S.I.R.O. Divisions of Animal Genetics
and Computing Research, for statistical
advice and computer facilities.
LITERATURE CITED
Anderson, T. W. 1958 A n Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis. Wiley, New York,
Chapter 12.
Rao, C. R. 1952 Advanced Statistical Methods
in Biometric Research. Wiley, New York.
Singh, S. 1967a Quantitative analysis of finger
ridge counts in Australians of European ancestry. H u m a n Biol., 39: 368-373.
1967b Dermatoglyphics in schizophrenia. Acta Genet., Basel, 17: 348-356.
1968 A measure of asymmetry of
finger ridge counts. Acta Genet., Basel, 18:
599-605.
1969 Ph.D. Thesis, University of N.S.W.,
Kensington, N.S.W., Australia.
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