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Dermatoglyphics of the nganasans and the forest entsy from the Taimir Peninsula.

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AMERICAN JOURNALOFPHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 55:111- 120(1981)
Dermatoglyphics of the Nganasans and the Forest Entsy From
the Taimir, Peninsula
O.K. GALAKTIONOV, V.M. EFIMOV, T.V. GOLTSOVA, AND S.V. LEMZA
Institute of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Academy of
Medical Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Novosibirsk, 630091 U.S.S.R.
KEY WORDS
Dermatoglyphics, Nganasans, Forest Entsy, Mongoloids
ABSTRACT
Dermatoglyphic data on 17 traits (digital arches, ulnar loops,
whorls, patterns on the hypothenar and thenar/I, 11,111, and IV interdigital areas,
main line C absence and its incompleteness, mean digital ridge-count, a-b, b-c,
and c-d ridge-counts, atd angle, pattern intensity index, and main line index)
are presented in this paper for 194 males and 224 females from the Taimir
Peninsula. Also presented is a population analysis of the Taimir aborigines based
on quantitative traits, and comparisons of this population with some Siberian
and North American populations.
The Nganasans and the Forest Entsy are the
most ancient aboriginal groups in North Siberia (Zolotareva, 1974). Their culture and ethnohistory have been described by Dolgikh
(1952; 1962) and Simchenko (1976). Although
the Nganasans have pronounced Mongoloid
features, some investigators (Zolotareva, 1962)
find it difficult to classify them as a definite
anthropological complex.
At present, the Nganasan population numbers 843. Up to the late 1920s this people nomadized over the vast area of the Taimir tundra, from the Enisei River in the west to the
Khatanga River in the east. Areas to the west
and northwest were occupied by the Tundra
Entsy, and to the southwest by the Forest
Entsy. The present-day Nganasans are descendants of two Nganasan tribes: the Avam
and Vadeev. The Avam Nganasans live at UstAvam and Volochanka, the Vadeev Nganasans at Novaja (Fig. 1). The first cultural contacts of the Taimir aborigines with the Russians seem to have begun in the early
seventeenth century, but until the late 1960s
the Nganasans were a breeding isolate except
for traditional marriages with the neighboring
Entsy, who had likewise undergone no Russian admixture.
The Forest Entsy are now partially assimilated by the Tundra Entsy and the Nentsy
(Dolgikh, 1962). There are presently about
100-200 Forest Entsy, but it is difficult to
make an accurate estimate because of their
0002-9483/81/5501-0111$03.00
0 1981 ALAN R. LISS, INC.
assimilation. Most have settled at Potapovo.
It should be noted that anthropologically the
Entsy are closer to the Nganasans than to the
Enisei Nentsy (Zolotareva, 1974).
Owing to their bilineal kin exogamy, the
Entsy and the Nganasans never had consanguineous marriages (first cousins, uncleniece). The mean inbreeding coefficient in the
Nganasans is 0.0022, with some variation
from subpopulation to subpopulation (UstAvam: 0.0015; Volochanka: 0.0026; Novaja:
0.0027).
, There have been some other studies on the
Nganasans dealing with cell and serum blood
systems, isozymes (Sukernik et al., 1977a,
1978), analysis of intrapopulation variability
(Sukernik et al., 1977b1, family blood group
analysis (Karaphet and Sukernik, 1978), genetic demography (Goltsova and Sukernik,
1979), consanguineous marriages, inbreeding
and its effects (Goltsova, in press), and digital,
palmar, and sole dermatoglyphics (Galaktionov, 1979; Galaktionov, i n press).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Finger and palmar prints were obtained
from 1974-1976 from 296 Avam Nganasans
(139 males, 157 females), 57 Vadeev Nganasans (29 males, 28 females), and 65 Forest
Entsy (26 males, 39 females) from Potapovo.
Received April 29,1980 accepted September 23, 1980
112
O.K. GALAKTIONOV, V.M. EFIMOV, T.V. GOLTSOVA AND S.V.LEMZA
6
80'
72
72
@
f08 '
%'
Fig. 1. Map of settlements of the Nganasans and the Forest Entsy.
The sample size is about 50% (Table 1)of the
total population.
Hand impressions were made using printer's
ink, art paper, and a special device devised by
Antonuk (1973, 1975a). Patterns were classified according to Cummins and Midlo (1961).
The atd angle was measured in individuals
over 16 years of age (Penrose, 1968) using the
most peripheral triradius a and d and the most
distal triradius t.
Ridge-counts were made by a standard
method; in a computation, we included neither
the triradius nor the last ridge-forming a pattern core (Penrose, 1968; Naffah, 1977). The
side that gave the largest ridge-count was used
in cases of whorl patterns. Individuals with
digital and palmar traumas were excluded
from analysis. However, when it was difficult
to estimate the ridge-count on digits, we reestablished it by a method similar to that of
Smith (1969),based on correlation coefficients
of homologous digits. The same was done in
the absence of triradius c on the palms.
TABLE 1 . The dermatoglyphics sample from the
Taimir aborigines
Groups
Nganasans
Ust-Avam
Volochanka
Novaja
Total
Forest Entay
Potapovo
Total Nganasans and
Forest Entsy
Males
Females
Total
61
78
29
82
75
28
143
153
57
168
185
353
26
39
65
194
224
418
113
DERMATOGLYPHICS OF THE TAIMIR ABORIGINES
The total ridge-count (TRC) and the pattern
intensity index (PII) were used in intra- and
interpopulation analysis. We consider the
Nganasans and the Forest Entsy as two distinct populations and the villages as subpopulations. Significance was estimated by Student's t test. The statistical analysis was done
on a BSMS computer.
RESULTS
Digital patterns and ridge-counts
Frequency distributions of fingerprint patterns are presented separately for villages and
sexes in Table 2. Whorls are more often found
on digit IV of both sexes. The Nganasan males
have the highest percentage of whorls a t UstAvam (73.6) and the lowest one a t Volochanka
(55.5). Females are less variable in this trait
than are males, and only the Entsy females
have a slightly lower percentage of whorls
(56.0).
The ridge-count (RC)is larger on digits I and
IV. Sex differences are significant for I and IV,
and once only for V (PcO.05, P<0.02). Bilateral differences are significant for I in Volochanka females (P<O.Ol).
Villages with a high frequency of whorls are
characterized by a large RC, explaining why
Ust-Avam males have the highest total ridgecount (183.59) and Entsy females the lowest
(148.48).
Pattern intensity indtx and mail line index
The Taimir aborigines show a very high PII,
ranging from 15.50-17.38.' It should be noted
that the Ust-Avam males have the maximum
PI1 (17.38) and TRC (183.59). Sex differences
are significant for Ust-Avam only (P<0.05)
(Table 3).
Here and below the comparisons are presented on the world seale.
TABLE 2 . Digital pattern frequencies and m a n ricige counts among the Nganasans and the Forest Entsy
Males
Populationa
andvillages
Ridge count
W
UL
RL
67.2
77.0
70.5
93.4
49.2
31.2
19.7
27.9
6.6
50.8
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.0
0.0
70.5
82.0
77.1
91.8
57.4
29.5
14.7
19.7
8.2
42.6
73.6
LI
L I1
L 111
LIV
LV
RI
R I1
R 111
R IV
RV
Females
Ridge count
A
Mean
S.D.
W
UL
RL
A
Mean
S.D.
1.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
20.58t
16.94
19.20
20.31
15.02**
5.16
5.83
4.71
3.76
4.13
64.6
65.8
61.0
79.3
34.2
31.7
30.5
36.6
19.5
63.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.7
3.7
2.4
1.2
2.4
17.27t
15.97
17.66
19.24
12.87**
6.36
5.07
4.72
5.27
5.39
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.3
1.6
0.0
0.0
22.01t
17.99
18.23
19.40
13.92*
3.61
5.89
4.88
3.14
4.15
63.4
73.2
58.5
80.5
46.3
34.2
19.5
39.0
18.3
51.2
0.0
2.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.4
4.9
2.4
1.2
2.4
17.95t
16,44
17.02
19.12
12.24*
6.30
5.47
4.69
3.82
5.09
25.1
0.3
1.0
183.59
36.74
62.7
34.4
0.2
2.7
165.79
35.72
51.3
48.7
60.3
75.6
24.4
48.7
39.7
39.7
24.4
74.4
0.0
7.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
0.0
0.0
1.3
17.77**
14.36
16.41
17.91
12.50
6.14
5.75
4.64
4.43
4.18
53.3
42.7
30.7
37.3
14.7
57.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
0.0
2.7
4.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
15.55**,tt
15.49
16.52
18.85
13.08
5.27
5.51
5.09
4.70
4.56
59.0
62.8
57.7
80.8
34.6
38.5
23.1
39.7
19.2
64.1
0.0
2.5
5.1
1.3
0.0
0.0
19.32
15.17
15.91
16.82*
12.05
6.22
6.15
4.89
4.63
4.37
62.7
58.7
49.3
36.0
34.7
36.0
50.7
16.0
61.3
0.0
2.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.6
2.6
0.0
0.0
2.7
17.91tt
16.04
16.25
18.43*
12.32
5.36
5.18
4.41
4.30
4.93
1.4
158.21
37.46
59.6
38.1
0.8
1.5
Nganasans
Ust-Avam
LI
L I1
L 111
~~
L IV
LV
RI
~.
~
R I1
R 111
R IV
RV
Total
3.3
Volochanka
Total
55.5
41.2
9.0
1.3
0.0
1.3
1.9
64.0
61.3
84.0
42.7
84.0
160.43
38.18
(Table 2 continued.)
114
O.K. GALAKTIONOV, V.M. EFIMOV, T.V. GOLTSOVA AND S.V. LEMZA
TABLE 2. Digital pattern frequencies and mean ridge counts among the N g a m a n s and the Forest Entsy (continued)
Males
Populations
andvillages
Ridge count
Females
Ridge count
W
UL
RL
A
Mean
S.D.
W
UL
RL
A
Mean
S.D.
Novaja
LI
LII
L 111
L N
LV
51.7
58.6
72.4
82.8
27.6
44.8
24.1
24.1
13.8
72.4
0.0
10.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.5
6.9
3.5
3.4
0.0
19.24
14.08
17.85
20.30
14.83
6.02
7.53
6.98
6.30
5.37
64.3
67.9
82.1
85.7
50.0
35.7
21.4
17.9
14.3
50.0
0.0
3.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
17.07
14.75
17.71
19.93
13.50
5.24
5.08
3.81
4.16
3.65
RI
R I1
R 111
R N
RV
55.2
55.2
65.5
79.3
41.4
41.4
31.0
31.0
17.2
55.2
0.0
10.3
0.0
21.31**
15.40
15.90
18.07
13.35
5.94
6.83
6.07
6.42
5.56
57.1
78.6
71.4
82.1
42.9
42.9
21.4
28.6
17.9
57.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.4
0.0
17.39**
16.36
16.96
18.89
12.79
5.12
4.71
4.96
4.89
3.84
Total
59.0
35.5
2.1
3.4
170.33
53.97
68.2
30.7
0.4
0.7
165.36
33.91
Nganasans: Total
62.7
34.4
1.3
1.6
169.52
40.70
62.3
35.3
0.5
1.9
163.55
36.67
Forest Entay
Potapovo
LI
LII
L III
L N
LV
61.5
65.4
65.4
69.2
34.6
34.6
23.1
30.8
30.8
61.5
0.0
7.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.9
3.8
3.8
0.0
3.9
17.31
16.77
16.73
20.12
13.15
6.24
5.77
6.93
7.19
5.72
48.7
57.9
53.9
76.9
23.1
46.2
34.2
46.1
23.1
74.4
2.6
2.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.5
5.3
0.0
0.0
2.5
16.41
13.00
15.23
17.69
11.56
4.84
5.20
4.48
4.65
5.09
76.9
73.1
65.4
88.5
38.5
19.2
19.2
26.9
11.5
53.8
0.0
7.7
7.7
0.0
3.9
3.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.8
17.96
17.77
17.31
19.46*
11.89
6.57
6.08
6.50
7.37
4.92
59.0
69.2
56.4
84.6
30.8
35.9
23.1
43.6
15.4
64.1
2.5
5.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.6
2.6
0.0
0.0
5.1
18.46
15.33
14.46
16.05*
10.29
4.87
5.43
4.87
4.66
4.76
Total
63.8
31.2
2.7
2.3
168.46
51.69
56.0
40.6
1.3
2.1
148.48
40.57
Ngan-s
and
Forest Entay:
Total
62.8
34.0
1.5
1.7
169.38
43.16
61.2
36.2
0.6
1.9
160.93
37.48
RI
R I1
R 111
R N
RV
0.0
0.0
0.0
* P c 0.05
Significant difference
between sex-:
** P < 0.02
Bilateral significant
t P < 0.002
diffeerence:
tt P < 0.01
L - left hand, R - right hand, W - whorl, UL - ulnar loop, RL - radial loop, A arch.
-
The most usual main-line terminations in
the Nganasans and Forest Entsy are 3(3 + 4)
for line A and 9(9 + 10) for line D. The mainline index (MLI) varies from 7.14 to 8.69. Sex
differences for the Nganasans from Volochanka (P<0.02)are significant.
Loops constitute about 50% of patterns on
the hypothenar area of both sexes. The same
is true for Th/I. Here, the predominant pattern
type is Lr/Lc.Patterns on areas I11 and IV are
presented mainly in terms of loops formed as
a result of terminations of the main C and D
palmar lines in areas 9 and 7.However, loops
Palmar patterns and line C absence
are found more often on I11 of the right hand
In their palmar pattern frequencies the and on IV of the left hand. Sex and bilateral
Nganasans and Forest Entsy have much in differences are not significant.
common: a low percentage on the thenar/I, 11,
The absence of a main line C(0) is infreand IV interdigital areas, and a high percent- quent, as is an incompleteness of X,x. These
age of patterns on the I11 area (Table 4).
are usually observed on the left hand.
115
DERMATOGLYPHICS OF THE TAIMIR ABORIGINES
TABLE 3 . Mean main line indices and pattern intensity indices in both h a d among the Taimir
aborigines
Males
Females
Main-line index
Pattern intensity
index
Main-line index
Pattern intensity
index
Groups
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
Nganasans
Ust-Avam
Volochanka
Novaja
8.56
8.69**
8.25
1.85
1.29
1.50
17.38*
15.50
15.78
2.74
3.19
3.44
8.68
8.14**
7.54
1.61
1.52
1.60
16.W
15.96
16.82
3.18
3.07
2.88
Total:
Forest Entay
Potapovo
8.57
1.55
16.23
3.20
8.29
1.61
16.19
3.11
8.12
1.64
16.39
3.22
7.66
1.71
15.50
3.25
Nganasans and
Forest Entay: Total
8.51
1.57
16.26
3.18
8.17
1.64
16.07
3.12
Significant difference between sexes: '
P < 0.05; **P< 0.02.
TABLE 4 . Percent palmar pattern frequencies and freguencies of absent C lines among the
Nganasans and the Forest Entsy
Hypothenar
Groups
L
R
I1
TWI
L
R
L
R
L
Absent C
line
Iv
I11
R
L
R
L
R
Males
Nganasans
Ust-Avm
Volochanka
Novaja
Forest Entsy
Potapovo
18.0 16.4 14.8 1.6
23.1 24.4 30.8 6.4
24.1 24.1 17.2 3.5
1.6
1.3
6.9
23.1 23.1 15.4 3.9
0.0
6.6 23.0 65.6 62.3 19.7 13.1 14.8
10.3 42.3 75.6 55.1 25.6 12.8 3.9
10.4 34.5 79.3 48.3 20.7 20.7 6.9
7.7
46.2 61.5 57.7 46.2
11.5
11.5
61.0 58.5 34.2 20.7
58.7 70.7 40.0
9.3
57.1 50.0 35.7 25.0
9.8
6.7
14.3
Females
Nganasans
Ust-Avam
Volochanka
Novaja
Forest Entay
Potapovo
18.3 23.2
8.5 4.9
30.7 14.7 24.0 8.0
39.3 39.3 14.3 3.6
3.7
0.0
0.0
0.0 22.0
4.0 29.3
7.1 28.6
28.2
0.0
5.1 12.8 41.0 61.5
38.5
7.7
2.6
a-b, b-c, c-d ridge-counts and atd angle
values
The largest ridge-count is between the a and
b triradii (Table 5). Although bilateral differences are not significant, both males and females have a higher ridge-count on the leR
hand than on the right; the same was found
in other populations (Bhanu and Malhotra,
1967; Gladkova, 1968; Antonuk, 1975b; Flick-
46.2
25.6
18.0
inger and Yarbrough, 1976; Crawford, 1976).
To solve this problem, some investigators have
estimated the a-b distance. They have drawn
the conclusion that the a-b distance is larger
on the left hand than on the right one (Cummins et al., 1931; Gladkova, 1968).
The mean b-c ridge-count in the Ust-Avam
Nganasans (46.39 for males and 46.71 for females) is slightly lower than it is a t the other
villages. Generally, the mean b-c ridge-count
116
O.K.GALAKTIONOV, V.M. EFIMOV, T.V. GOLTSOVA AND S.V. LEMZA
TABLE 5. Mean a-b, b-c, and c-d ridge counts and mean maximal atd angles among the Taimir
aborigines
a-b
L
Groups
b4
R
L+R
L
S.D.
Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean
R
L+R
Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean
S.D.
Males
Nganasans
Ust-Avam
Volochanka
Novaja
Total
Forest Entsy
Potapovo
Nganasans
Ust-Avam
Volochanka
Novaja
Total
Forest Entsy
Potapovo
39.68 5.03 38.21 5.17 77.88 9.51 22.82 7.09 23.57 6.36 46.39 12.48
39.23 4.11 38.16 4.74 77.39 7.97 24.51 6.12 24.98 5.94 49.49 10.65
39.55 5.39 36.71 5.47 76.26 10.22 25.54 6.47 24.11 5.82 49.64 11.17
48.39 11.47
77.37 8.76
39.23 5.31 37.46 5.09 76.69 10.14 24.65 5.96 24.88 5.54 49.53 10.45
Females
40.82 6.85 38.76 5.80 79.04 11.73 23.66 5.79 23.04 6.82 46.71 11.90
39.77 4.73 37.81 4.57 77.58 8.24 26.56 6.20 26.22 5.80 52.77 11.00
37.96 4.22 36.36 5.11 74.32 8.48 27.23 6.81 25.28 7.37 52.51 13.11
77.73 10.05
50.05 12.06
40.49 4.09 39.18 5.25 79.67
8.70
26.71 6.71 26.34
angle aid
C-d
L
Groups
R
7.34 53.04 12.95
L+R
Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean
S.D.
L
Mean
R
S.D.
Mean S.D.
L+R
Mean
S.D.
Nganasans
Ust-Avam
Volochanka
Novaja
Total
Forest Entsy
Potapovo
34.93 6.68 34.89 6.44 69.82 11.55 42.65 10.34
37.29 5.20 37.95 6.55 75.24 10.82 40.69 4.72
35.68 5.12 36.82 6.49 72.50 9.91 40.40 3.39
72.80 11.16
44.14 9.22 86.78** 18.35
7.82
40.80 4.59 81.49
6.93
40.44 4.25 80.84
83.30 12.81
34.16 7.91 35.06 7.32 69.22 14.21 39.51
5.08
39.96 3.26
Nganasans
Ust-Avam
Volochanka
Novaja
Total
Forest Entsy
Potapovo
36.23 6.81 36.79 6.10 73.02 12.22 40.94
36.71 8.59 36.76 7.42 73.46 14.73 41.96
33.82 6.76 35.49 7.11 69.31 12.60 42.71
72.64 13.36
7.07
3.59
8.75
40.16 4.84 80.32** 10.70
41.46 5.22 83.44
7.40
43.43 5.39 86.14 13.03
82.47 10.09
34.18 7.77 36.01 9.13 70.19 16.08 41.28
4.27
42.76 4.47
79.47*
84.05*
7.87
7.31
Significant difference between sexes of same group: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.02.
is greater in females than in males, although
these differences are not significant. The mean
c-d ridge-count ranges from 69.22-75.24. The
atd angle varies from 79.74 at Potapovo to
86.78 at Ust-Avam. Sex differences are significant (P<0.02, PC0.05).
The mean and standard deviation of the
quantitative traits, both for villages and sexes
separately, as given in Table 6, shows sex differences in the traits.
It is reasonable to take two of seven quan-
titative traits for the intra- and interpopulation analysis, i.e., TRC and PII. These traits
have the high heritability and right-left correlations (Holt, 1968; Gindilis and Finogenova, 19761, and are usually used in similar
studies (Rothhammer et al., 1973; Nee1 et al.,
1974; Jantz, 1977). The results show significant TRC and PI1 intrapopulation differences
in the Nganasan males (P<0.005), and interpopulation differences in females (P<0.025)
(Table 6).
DERMATOGLYPHICS OF THE TAIMIR ABORIGINES
117
TABLE 6. Intra- and interpopulation analysis of the Nganasans and the Forest Entsy in total
ridge count and PII.
~~
Males
Sum of squares
(ss)
TRc
PII
Between Nganasan
villages
Within Nganasan
villages
Total
Between populations
Within populations
Total
Number of
degrees of freedom
(do
Mean squares
(MS)
22,072.34
2
11,036.17
276,263.16
165
1.674.32
278,480.59
167
25.33
347,758.57
347,783.90
1
192
193
25.33
1,811.24
Between Nganasan
villages
Within Nganasan
villages
Total
128.11
2
64.06
1,594.87
165
9.67
1,722.98
167
Between populations
Within populations
Total
0.58
1,989.90
1,990.48
1
192
193
0.58
10.36
F
6.59**
0.01
6.63**
0.06
Females
Sum of squares
(SS)
Number of
degrees of freedom
(do
Mean squares
(MS)
F
-
TRc
p~~
Between Nganasan
villages
Within Nganasan
villages
Total
Between populations
Within populations
Total
Between Nganasan
villages
Within Nganasan
villages
Total
Between populations
Within populations
Total
1233.25
2
616.63
246,150.59
182
1.352.48
247,383.84
184
7,513.01
312,958.51
320,273.52
1
222
223
7,513.01
1,409.72
2
7.55
1,768.33
1,783.42
182
184
9.72
15.34
2,201.28
2,216.62
1
222
223
15.34
9.92
15.09
0.46
5.19+
0.78
1.55
Significant differences are: *P < 0.025; **P < 0.005.
DISCUSSION
We have presented the dermatoglyphic patterns of the Nganasans and the Forest Entsy.
It is of considerable interest to compare these
groups with some North Siberian and Chukot
populations. A t present there are data on qual-
itative digital and palmar traits in the Vagilski Mansy, the Khanty from the Vakh River,
the Enisei Nentsy, the Yakut, the Evenk, and
the Chukchi. The percentage of whorls varies
from 37.8 (in the Vagilski Mansy) to 54.5 (in
the Enisei Nentsy); the pattern frequency on
the hypothenar area from 20.0 (in the Yakut)
118
O.K. GALAKTIONOV, V.M. EFIMOV, T.V.GOLTSOVA AND S.V. LEMZA
to 32.9 (in the Khanty) and on Th/I from 4.9
(in the Chukchi) to 21.7 (in the Evenk); the
frequency on interdigital area I1 varies from
0.8 (in the Chukchi) to 6.6 (in the Evenk); on
area I11 from 18.8 (in the Chukchi) to 39.6 (in
the Khanty), and on area IV from 28.3 (in the
Evenk) to 63.9(in the Chukchi). The main-line
C absence ranges from 3.0 (in the Yakut) to
11.9(in the Chukchi) (Gladkova and Hit, 1968;
Tausik, 1974;Tausik and Richkov, 1977).The
Nganasans and the Forest Entsy have the
highest frequency of whorls (62.5 and 59.1,
respectively). The Chukchi are a t the extremes
in frequency in their palmar traits among Siberian populations; the Taimir aborigines
have intermediate pattern frequency on TWI
and I1 and IV interdigital areas maximum frequency on 111, and rather low frequency on the
hypothenar areas.
There are but few data on quantitative traits
in the populations reported. PI1 varies from
13.2 to 15.2 in all of the above populations
except the Yakut. The Nganasans and the Forest Entsy have the highest values of PII. Data
on TRC and MLI are practically absent, with
the exception of the TRC for the West Evenk.
However, our populations appear to have the
highest TRC with respect to the frequency of
whorls.
Thus the Nganasans and the Forest Entsy
differ considerably in whorls, PI1 and, perhaps,
in TRC from the other populations cited here.
It is known that our populations are the most
ancient in the region under study (the first
wave of peopling). Until recently the Nganasans had preserved their traditional practices
and had little if any mixture with other groups
except the Entsy. One may suppose that this
fact explains the results of comparisons although we cannot exclude the effects of selection and gene drift in these small populations.
However, our conclusions are not final because
the Siberian and Chukot populations are represented by very small samples and there are
no data on their demographic structure.
Recently, investigators have shown a great
interest in the relationships of North Siberian
and American populations; therefore, it is reasonable to compare them. In terms of qualitative digital traits the Taimir aborigines resemble the East Greenland Eskimos (Gessain,
1959;Abel, 1933) and nonhybrid males from
Point Hope (Meier, 1978).The Eskimos from
the Saint Lawrence (Cummins and Midlo,
19311,North Alaska (Meier, 1978;Cummins,
1935),Baffin Land (Chamla, 19621,and West
Greenland (Cummins and Fabricius-Hansen,
19461,and North American Indians (Chamla,
1962;Flickinger and Yarbrough, 1976),differ
from the Taimir aborigines. The mean frequency of whorls is higher in the Taimir aborigines and varies from 55.5% to 73.6% and
lower in Eskimos (29.0-46.8%) and North
American Indians; in Apache and Navajo Indians it is 47.9-51.9%.
There are no considerable differences between all of the aforementioned Eskimos and
Taimir aborigines in qualitative palmar traits.
The Nganasans and the Forest Entsy are similar to the Angmagssalik (Ducros, 1979).The
mean total ridge count for males is 169.4 2
43.2 in the Taimir aborigines, and 169.6
43.7 in the Angmagssalik; for females it is
160.9 5 37.5 and 161.3 ? 36.2,respectively.
Thus our analysis has shown that the Taimir
aborigines are closer to the East Greenland
Eskimos in many dermatoglyphic traits.
We have presented the results of an analysis
of variance. The significant intrapopulation
variability of the Nganasan males in total
ridge count and PI1 has been demonstrated
(P<0.005). On the other hand, the females
have shown no intrapopulation differences. In
order to elucidate these facts let us examine
the intrinsic population structure. In the
Nganasans the strict bilineal exogamy prohibits a choice of mates within subpopulations,
and forces the males to take their wives from
adjacent subpopulations. As a result, males
have remained in their home villages while
females have migrated among subpopulations.
This appears to explain the inter-village variability in males and the smoothing of differences in females. In addition, it should be
noted that genetic analysis on blood group systems a t Ust-Avam and Volochanka has revealed inter-village differences in 4 (MNSs,
ABO, Kp, and P ) of 12 gene loci (Sukernik et
al., 1977a).
Analysis of pedigrees in the Ust-Avam males
with the high TRC and PI1 has shown that
most of them are relatives and have Entsy
ancestors in their pedigrees. Therefore, the
high total ridge count and PI1 at Ust-Avam are
explained, perhaps, by founder effect or by the
Tundra Entsy admixture or by both. However,
data on total ridge count in the Tundra Entsy
are absent.
Data on interpopulation analysis have
shown the lack of differences in PI1 for both
sexes, and for males the same lack of differences in the total ridge count, but significant
*
DERMATOGLYPHICS OF THE TAIMIR ABORIGINES
differences in the total ridge count for females
(P<0.025),which is confirmed both by the common ethnic origin of these groups and by their
traditional marriages not only between themselves but with the Tundra Entsy. We find it
difficult to give a stronger explanation because
of the lack of detailed information on demographic structure of the Forest and the Tundra
Entsy.
In conclusion, it should be said that the
structure of small populations, when considered in detail, is as a rule very complex. Therefore, the interpretation of data on dermatoglyphic traits, anthropometry, and genetic
markers is not possible without analyzing population dynamics, migration stream, sex and
age structure, genealogy, and patterns of marriage. Unfortunately, such observations are
not plentiful.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors express their gratitude to Dr.
T.D.Gladkova of the Moscow State University
for her valuable suggestions, and to Dr. S.A.
Antonuk of the Brest Pedagogical Institute for
methodologic advice. We are also thankful to
Prof. M.H. Crawford of the University of Kansas for displaying interest in our work.
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