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Dermatoglyphics of three Hungarian populations.

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Dermatoglyphics of Three Hungarian Populations
G Y U L A GYENIS
Znstitute of Anthropology, Eotuijs Lordnd U niv e r s ity , H-1088 B u d a p e s t ,
P u s k i n u . 3., H u n g a r y
KEY WORDS Dermatoglyphics . Total ridge count . Pattern
intensity . Hungarian populations.
ABSTRACT
The dermatoglyphics of 709 individuals from three Hungarian
populations living near each other but of different origin were analyzed. In dermatoglyphic traits the three populations present but slight differences from one
another.
Dermatoglyphics is a significant domain
of both anthropology and human genetics
as it supplies important data for information about genetic variation.
Little data exist on the dermatoglyphics
of Hungarian populations. Former examinations (Bonnevie, '29; Balogh, '35; Mali,,
'37, '39; Abel, '40; Feher, '56) treated
qualitative characters; data on quantitative
characters o i , more recent examinations
were published in two papers (Thoma,
'69; Osztovics et al., '71).
The present study investigates dermatoglyphic characters of three Hungarian
populations. The three villages (Kiskunlachiza, Pereg and Domsod), lie 40-50
km south of Budapest, on the left bank of
the Rackeve branch of the Danube,
The population of Kiskunlachaza, of
Cuman origin (Fenyes, 1851), survived the
Turkish rule of Hungary of the sixteenthseventeenth century contrary to adjacent
Pereg which was devastated at that time
and resettled only early in the eighteenth
century chiefly by Hungarians and also by
Slovaks. The inhabitants of Kiskunlachaza
belong to the Reformed Church, and those
of Pereg to the Catholic religion; thus up
to the early 1950's the inhabitants of the
two villages did not intermarry.
In 1950 the village Pereg was administratively united with Kiskunlachaza. At the
time of the 1970 census the population of
the united villages (under the common
name of Kiskunlachaza) was 8,259 persons.
AM. J. PHYS. ANTHROP., 42: 229-232.
Domsod, an ancient Hungarian settlement inhabited as early as the Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1241-42 (Kelemen,
'68), had 6,517 inhabitants at the time of
the 1970 census.
According to the registers, kept from the
second part of the eighteenth century, the
inhabitants of Kiskunlachaza and Domsod
used to marry persons from the nearby
Calvinist villages even in earlier times.
Pereg, on the other hand, is somewhat
"more inbred' since the population are
Catholics while the majority of people in
other villages of that part of the Danube
region belong to the Reformed religion. To
eliminate the effect, manifested in migration and inbreeding, of various degrees of
demographic changes following World War
I1 only individuals with at least three
grandparents of local origin were included
in the examination.
MATERIALS A N D METHODS
The prints were taken of elementaryschool pupils of the three villages in AprilMay, '68 and March-May, '69. The sample
consists of 114 boys and 100 girls of Kiskunlachaza, 121 boys and 102 girls of
Pereg, and 132 boys and 140 girls of
Domsod. Siblings as well as Gypsies were
not included in the samples.
Although additional dermatoglyphic variables were collected (Gyenis, '74) only pattern frequency, finger ridge counts and
pattern intensity of fingers are analyzed
here.
229
230
GYULA GYENIS
TABLE 1
Pattern percentage frequencies of the males
Digit
Kiskunlachiza
Pereg
Domsod
N = 114
N = 121
N = 132
Right
A
T
R
I
I1
111
N
3.5
7.9
8.8
1.8
2.6
-
-
V
5.3
0.9
-
u
50.9
17.5 22.9
0.9 64.8
0.9 31.5
- 74.6
w
A
45.6
46.5
24.6
65.8
22.8
2.5
5.0
6.6
2.5
1.7
T
W
A
-
43.0
17.3 24.8
0.8 62.8
1.7 37.1
- 77.6
54.5
47.9
27.3
58.7
20.7
3.8
9.1
3.0
5.8 8.3 5.8
3.3 0.8
0.8 1.7 0.8
0.8 53.7
15.7 48.0
3.3 72.7
- 57.0
0.8 76.1
39.7
32.2
19.9
42.2
20.6
5.0
2.5
R
U
-
Left
I
I1
I11
IV
v
Total
A
-
4.4
7.0
7.0
4.4
3.5
6.1
0.9
5.1
1.3
-
1.8 56.1 37.7
10.5 36.9 39.5
- 64.0 28.1
- 52.6 43.0
- 83.3 13.2
3.2
53.8
36.6
3.8
1.5
4.0
54.3
36.4
-
T
-
3.8
17.4
1.5
3.0
0.8
-
2.3 6.1 0.6
3.0 -
-
R
-
-
-
2.7
0.7
-
U
W
49.2 47.0
27.3 42.4
71.2 24.3
33.3 63.7
82.6 16.6
-
61.4
55.3
73.5
56.1
86.4
36.3
35.6
23.5
43.9
13.6
4.5
57.4
34.7
20.5
0.8
0.8
= Arches, T = Tented arches, R = Radial loops, U = Ulnar loops, W = Whorls.
TABLE 2
Pattern percentage frequencies of the females
Digit
Kiskunlachaza
Right
A
T
I
5.0 I1 12.0 7.0
111
5.0 -IV
1.0 -
v
-
-
Pereg
W
A
T
2.0 42.0
6.0 39.0
1.0 79.0
1.0 50.0
- 89.0
51.0
36.0
15.0
48.0
11.0
3.9
8.8
5.0
2.0
-
- 47.0
12.0 31.0
3.0 65.0
1.0 52.0
86.0
48.0
37.0
20.0
45.0
13.0
6.8 5.9 3.9 28.4
7.8 3.0 3.9
1.0 1.0
1.0 -
65.7
41.2
73.5
60.8
90.2
27.5
20.6
11.8
37.2
8.8
32.4
4.3
1.1
63.7
24.7
Left
I
I1
III
IV
v
Total
-
5.0
10.0
9.0
1.0
1.0
10.0
3.0
1.0
4.9
2.1
-
Domsod
N = 100
R
U
2.6
58.0
-
3.9
-
-
RESULTS
The data (tables 1 , 2 , 3 ) , show relatively
small differences in dermatoglyphic characters within and among the populations.
In pattern frequency only three significant differences are found, between the
right and left hands and/or between the
sexes, in each of the Kiskunlachaza
( p < 0.05) and Domsod ( p < 0.05 and
p < 0.01) populations; while in Pereg are
five such differences ( p < 0.05). No significant difference in pattern frequency
appears among the populations with the
males; on the other hand, Pereg females
differ significantly from both Kiskunlachaza and the Domsod ones on the second
digit of the left hand (both p < 0.01) and
N = 102
R
U
W
1.0 60.8 34.3
25.5 29.4 32.4
1.0 79.4 13.7
1.0 50.0 47.0
- 86.3 13.7
6.2
N = 140
A
3.6
8.6
6.4
1.4
2.1
T
2.1
0.7
-
-
3.6 11.4 5.0
9.3 1.4
2.1 0.7 4.9
0.9
R
0.7
12.9
1.4
1.4
-
U
W
48.6 47.1
37.1 39.3
76.5 15.0
45.0 52.2
83.6 14.3
- 62.9
13.6 36.5
3.6 64.3
1.4 59.3
0.7 89.3
3.6
60.3
33.5
33.5
21.4
37.2
9.3
30.3
on the first digit on both the right and
left hands (both p < 0.05) from the Kiskunlachaza ones (Gyenis, '74).
The lowest values of the ridge count
(table 3 ) occur in the Pereg population,
and a significant difference is to be found
between the males and females only in
Pereg ( p < 0.05). Among the three populations there is no significant difference
either with the males or with the females
(Gyenis, '74).
Pattern intensity was examined as suggested in Penrose's Memorandum ('68) by
counting the triradii. The value of pattern
intensity is 13.17 with Kiskunlachaza
and Domsod boys alike and 13.25 with the
Pereg ones. Also among the girls the values
23 1
DERMATOGLYPHICS IN HUNGARIAN POPULATIONS
TABLE 3
Data of the finger ridge counts
KiskunlachPza
Digit
N
Males
114
RCF
Females
100
RCF
Pereg
Males
121
RCF
Females
102
RCF
Domsod
Males
132
RCF
Females
140
RCr
~
~~~
Right
I
I1
111
IV
V
17.90
12.61
11.74
16.75
13.40
17.89
10.98
11.85
15.89
12.45
18.56
11.55
11.48
16.07
13.29
16.55
10.57
11.47
15.44
12.49
18.90
11.78
12.24
15.87
13.53
17.19
11.34
11.94
16.06
12.53
16.21
11.40
12.69
16.68
13.94
15.72
10.09
11.18
15.53
11.96
15.74
10.46
11.92
16.25
13.28
14.49
10.33
10.55
15.54
12.18
16.80
12.03
12.11
16.61
13.33
14.81
10.61
11.64
16.18
12.36
143.63
53.21
4.98
133.68
52.28
5.23
138.78
46.83
4.26
129.67
47.21
4.67
143.18
41.58
3.62
134.10
46.72
3.95
Left
I
I1
111
IV
V
TRC
SD
SE
of KiskunlachPza (12.75) and Domsod
(12.53) are closer to one another than to
Pereg (12.04). Also in this character there
are a greater number of significant differences between the two hands and between
the sexes in the Pereg population (p < 0.01
and p < 0.05) than in the other two
( p < 0.01). However, among the populations there is no significant difference with
either the boys or the girls (Gyenis, ’74).
DISCUSSION
Of the three populations examined the
Kiskunlachaza one of Cuman and the
Domsod one of Hungarian origin correspond better with each other in dermatoglyphic characters than with the Pereg population of Hungarian-Slovak origin. This
can be ascribed to the following causes.
Kiskunlachiza and Domsod are nearly
contemporaneous, ancient settlements.
There are written documents about Domsod as early as 1231, i.e., from the time
before the Mongol invasion of Hungary.
At about that time the Cuman came into
the country fleeing before the Mongols
(Molnar et al., ’ 6 7 ) , and one of their
groups settled i n Kiskunlachaza. The similar anthropological composition of the
Cuman and Hungarians is also reflected
by the examinations conducted in presentday Hungarian populations (Bartucz, undated; Kelemen, ’68; Henkey, ’73). The
two populations are not isolated, and thus
amalgamation with surrounding populations could even increase their similarity.
At the end of the seventeenth century,
when the Turkish rule was subverted, the
village Pereg was destroyed. Its resettlement with Hungarians from other parts of
the country, and with Slovaks, took place
at the middle of the eighteenth century.
Because this population is “younger” than
the other two and composed of different
elements a greater number of significant
differences appears here than in the other
two populations. Although dermatoglyphic
and other characters (e.g. middle phalangeal hair: Gyenis, ’72) there are only
minor differences among the three populations, Kiskunlachiza and Domsod are,
in general, closer to each other than to
Pereg. Within the three populations discussed here, the frequency of the whorls,
the ridge counts and the pattern intensity
in the digits are higher than with the
Szeged population examined by Thoma
(’68) and with the Budapest samples examined by Osztovics et al. (’71), but the
values remain within the range of the
Europids.
LITERATURE CITED
Abel, W. 1940 Die Erbanlagen der Papillarmuster. In: Handbuch der Erbbiologie des
Menschen. G. Just. Springer, Berlin, 407440.
232
GYULA GYENIS
Balogh, B. 1935 Az ujjak Mrlecrendszere oroklestani szempontbol. Term. tud. Kozl., 67: 111120.
Bartucz, L. undated. A Magyar Ember. Budapest.
Bonnevie, K. 1929 Was lehrt die Embryologie
der Papillarmuster uber ihre Bedeutung als
Rassen- und Familiencharacter? 1-11, Embryonale Fingerform und Papillarmustertypen. Z. f .
indukt. Abst. u . Vererbungslehre, 50: 219-274.
Feher, M. 1956 In: Szaktrtoi bizonyitas a szarmazasmegallapitasi es gyermektartasi perekben
Die Begutachtung in den Abstammungs-feststellungs- und Unterhaltsprozessen. M. Feher, I.
Farkas. (With German summary), Budapest.
Gyenis, G. 1972 Recent data to the occurrence
of middle phalangeal hair in Hungarian populations. In: Advances in the Biology of Human
Populations. I. Toro, J. Szabadi, J. Nemeskeri
and 0. G. Eiben, eds. Budapest.
Gyenis, G. 1974 Hautleistensystemuntersuchungen bei drei ungarischen populationen. Humanbiologia Budapestensis, 1: 1-125.
Henkey, G. 1973 Dunapataj nepes&gknek etnikai embertani vizsgalata Die etnisch-antro-
pologische Untersuchung der Population von
Dunapataj. (With German summary), Anthrop.
Kozl., 17: 97-116.
Kelemen, A. 1968 Domstid, egy kozponti fekvesu kozseg nepessegenek embertani helye Doms,od, position anthropologique d’une population
central? de l a Hongrie. (With French summary), Anthrop. Kozl., 12: 125-160.
Malan, M. 1937 Tenyerlenyomat vizsgalatok
Handabdruck-untersuchungen. (With German
summary). Mat. Term. tud. brt., 56: 1-31.
Malan, M.
1939 Papillaris mintak vizsgalata
hazai anyagon Untersuchung der Papillarmuster an ungarlandischen Material. (With
German summary). Mat. Term. tud. brt., 56:
1-31.
Molnar, E., E. Pamlenyi and G. Szekely 1967
A magyar nep tortenete 1-11. Budapest.
Osztovics, M., E. Czeizel, D. Revesz, and G.
Tusnady 1971 Dermatoglyphic data in a
sample of the population of Budapest. Acta
Paed. Acad. Sci. Hung., 12: 183-198.
Thoma, A. 1969 Total finger ridge-count in a
Hungarian population sample. Human Biology,
41: 213-217.
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