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Development of the bridge of the nose.

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE O F THE NOSE
MARCUS S. GOLDSTEIN
Division of Child Research, New Pork University College of Dentistry, New Pork
The characteristic nose of the infant exemplified by a
shallow root, flat bridge, and broad width between the alae
(relative to length from nasion to subnasale), is manifestly
in sharp contrast with the usual conditions in the adult, namely,
a much deeper root, comparatively high and narrow bridge,
and not only greater length but also relatively much narrower
width. An especially striking illustration of the development of the nose in profile from infancy to maturity is
given by Peter ( ’13). Quantitative accounts also are common
with reference to development of the nose in length (nasion
to subnasale) and width between the alae (Martin, ’28).
There is, however, astonishingly little in the literature, to my
knowledge, regarding a quantitative description of the development in depth of the root or height of the bridge, despite
the fact that not only do these characters manifest marked
differentiation during the period of growth of the individual
as already noted, but also in view of the marked variations in
this character among different groups of man.
It had also been my impression that the extent of vaulting
of the nasal bridge in man was a specifically human characteristic, but Dr. Adolph H. Schultz has been kind enough
to correct me in this misapprehension ( ’38). To quote him
directly, “It is persistently claimed that the high nasal bridge
of man is without parallel among other primates. This, however, is not true. I n all langurs, e.g., one finds a very high
nasal bridge.” He also cites a previous paper in which it
101
AYEEBICAN JOVPNAL OF PHYBXCAL ANTHBOWWOY, VOL. XXV, NO.
A P R I W U N E . 1988
1 AND SUPPLEMENT
102
MARCUS S. GOLDSTEIN
is pointed out that some gorillas have as high a nasal bridge
as many human beings ( '27, p. 46).
The first reference of which I am aware that gives any
data on the subject is by Blind (1890) who measured width
of the root (Breite der Wurzel) and elevation of the bridge
(Nasenerhebung : Wurzel, Mitte), on 100 newborn infants
and their mothers, as well as on fifty skulls of children. The
next contribution was by Sullivan ( '17) who examined material
collected by Prof. Franz Boas on Worcester children of 5
to 16 years of age, in 1890. In the words of Sullivan,
'
The shape of the nasal arch was recorded by means of a
stout lead wire bent across the bridge of the nose from the
inner canthus of one eye to that of the other. The crosssection thus obtained was then transferred to paper by tracing.
The transverse diameter of the cross-section of the bridge of
the nose was measured at points 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm. from the
apex.
I n adults, Steggerda et al. ('29) gives 'nose bridge height'
on 100 girl students of Smith College.
And that is all. To be sure, other writers have considered
quantitatively and in detail the phylogenetic and ontogenetic
development of the nose or its variations in different races of
man (e.g., Hovorka, 1893 ; Virchow, '12 ; Oolling, '15 ; Schultz,
'18, '27; Gregory, '29; Hooton, '31) but, as already noted,
this consideration has not included a metric description of
the vaulting of the nasal bridge.
MATERLQL A N D METHOD
The material consists of observations made on Hebrew males
of American birth, ranging in age between 3 and 21 years;
material was also available on a group of old men averaging
74 years of age, also Jewish but for the most part foreign
born.
The present method, suggested by Professor Boas as was
indeed the general problem, was essentially like that followed
in the Sullivan study. As in the latter, the 'shape of the nasal
arch' was recorded, this time, however, by the more accurate
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE O F T H E NOSE
103
means of a profile gauge (fig. l), an instrument made of
bakelite and, if I understand correctly, used by carpenters to
get impressions of the form of panel moldings.’ The impression of the nasal bridge in cross section was taken at the
level of the lower rims of the orbits (orbitale) and, as closely
as could be judged, at right angles to the inclination of the
profile of the bridge. This point in front seems just at the
end of or perhaps slightly below the lowest part of the bony
I
Fig.1 Illustration of profile gauge and method of taking nasal bridge
impression. Below are actual tracings of two typical cases, one a t 3 years,
the other a t 21 years; the 2, 6, 10, 15 and 20 mm. levels from the apex are
demarcated by lines, and the distance from one side of the cross section to the
other a t each of these levels was the ‘width’ measured.
nasal process of the bridge, although laterally contact was
definitely made with the bony substructure. Taking the
impression between the inner canthi was not feasible with thc
profile gauge.
* Stockton Profile Gauge Corporation, Lowell, Mass.
104
MARCUS 6. GOLDSTEIN
As in the Sullivan study, the cross section of the nasal
bridge obtained with the profile gauge was transferred to
millimeter graph paper by tracing and the transverse diameter
was measured (to the nearest millimeter) at 2, 6, 10, 15 and
20 mm. from the apex, respectively. This is illustrated in
figure 1 on two cases selected at random.
All impressions, tracings, measurements and calculations
were made by myself.
Concerning the accuracy of the method employed, at the
time of gathering the data it seemed to me that the error
involved as a result of technique was not significant when
the nasal bridge proper was considered. That is, the impression-tracing includes the maxillary regions adjacent to the
nasal bridge. This maxillary or ‘face’ reg;on (as distinguished from the nose proper), occurred at 15 or even occasionally at 10 mm. from the apex in the younger children.
Hence, the transverse diameters where the soft parts on
the maxilla (or even malars) were involved, generally at
15 and 20 mm. from the apex in the younger children, could
not be accurate. This factor was taken into account, as will
be noted in the tabular material, by segregating the data according to 1) definitely nasal bridge observations, and 2)
measurements involving the ‘face.’ The latter are given
as purely approximate figures, although, as will be seen
shortly, they apparently fit in with the general developmental
pattern in remarkably constant fashion. It is not unlikely
that some measurements on the ‘face’ were included in the
nasal bridge calculations, but it is doubted whether many
such c.ases have occurred or that the average dimensions
of the nose have been appreciably affected by this factor.
Another element of error should be mentioned, namely, a
slight pinching of the nose, especially, it seemed, near the
apex, while taking the impression wth the profile gauge. What
with the bony or hard cartilaginous structure underneath,
however, it seems to me this factor also has not had any
essential effect on the results.
105
DEVELOPMENT O F THE BRIDGE O F T H E NOSE
Withal, an attempt was made to check on personal error by
noting the difference of two recordings on the same individual.
In many cases I had not been satisfied for one reason or
another with the first recording and had taken a second
impression. These cases were now segregated, the first tracings were measured, and note was made of the deviation of
these latter measurements from the comparable figures obtained on the previous or second recording. The results are
indicated in table 1.
The mean differences between the two sets of impressions
(the deviation of the first from the second) a r e evidently
astonishingly slight on the nose proper, and, as expected, are
much higher (although not as markedly as was anticipated) on
TABLE 1
Deviations in two recordings of the nasal bridge in the same individuals
2 mm.
Number of eases
Mean (mm.)
0 +- 1 mm. (per cent)
(51)
+0.4
92
Level from a p c z
Nasal bridge
6mm.
10mm.
15 mm.
20mm.
(51)
+0.3
86
(50)
+0.6
82
(26)
+0.6
69
(19)
4 . 2
53
Face
15mm. 2 0 m m .
(21)
+1.7
19
(29)
4-1.2
28
the ‘face’ regions. The maximum and minimum differential
is plus 5 mm. and minus 4 mm. on the nose proper, but only
one case occurs in either of these limits. More pertinent,
it seems to me, is the high percentage of cases manifesting
a difference of 0 -e 1 mm. It is also of interest to note the
diminishing percentage of 0 2 1 mm., or an intimation of
greater susceptibility to error, the farther one proceeds
from the apex, but the error here too apparently cancels out
on the average.
I n view of the circumstances that one of the tracings was
considered not quite as accurate as was desirable to begin
with, the high degree of correspondence evident notwithstanding is remarkable. It would of course have been more desirable for another observer to have done the checking, and I
might add that a shifting of that laborious task would not
have been unwelcome, but such a procedure was not feasible.
AMERICAN JOURNAL O F PHYSICAL Ah’THROPOMOY, VOL. XXV. NO. 1 AND SUPPLEMENT
106
MARCUS S. QOLDSTEIN
There might have been, to be sure, a constant error in one
direction which would not perhaps be readily detected by
self-checking. I f this is so, however, the absolute figures
should be affected consistently; that is, increment or decrement from one age to the next would not be involved.
Finally, it is also recognized that the same anatomical points
were probably not measured at the various ages, both as a
result of forward growth and growth in length of the nose.
This factor, however, does not, I think, vitiate the results with
regard to changes in form nor the evidence of special activity
in development at particular ages.
MEAN DIMENSIONS
The mean widths of the nasal bridge at the level of orbitale
are given in table 2. The figures in parentheses refer to
measurements on the ‘face’; it is to be recalled that the recordings on the ‘face’ or contiguous maxillary and malar regions,
due to the intervening soft parts, were subject to substantial
error.
I n order to facilitate interpretation, the average widths of
table 2 have been used to reconstruct (five times enlarged)
the bridge of the nose at the level of orbitale (fig. 2). The
broken lines indicate the widths on the ‘face’ regions, except
between 17 and 21 years where alternate dash and straight
lines are used to distinguish one age from the next.
Several highly interesting phenomena are at once perceived.
First, the nasal bridge apparently diminishes in width at all
levels from the apex and in remarkably constant fashion, up
to 17 or 19 years of age. In this connection it may be noted
how the broken lines indicative of the ‘face’ regions adjacent
to the nasal bridge proper, follow precisely this developmental pattern. Second, the total absolute decrease is distinctly and progressively greater the farther from the apex.
Third, a slight increase in width occurs between 17 and 21
years; it is in old age, however, and at the 10- and 15-mm.
levels in particular, that a distinctly appreciable increase in
width is observed. The increment between 17 and 21 years
107
DEVELOPMENT O F THE BRIDGE OF THE NOSE
is statistically significant at the 2-mm. level only, and in the
old-age group it is statistically significant at the 10-mm. and
15-mm. levels (D/P.E.DIw.being 4 or more). Fourth, there
are periods of special activity in nasal bridge development ;
these evidently are at 3 to 5 years and 11 to 13 years, when
TABLE 2
Mean widths (mm.) of the nasal bridge, at level of orbitale, in males
Age
2 mm.
(yra.) No. Mean
6
mm.
L e a l from apes
10 mm.
20 mm.
15 mm.
No.
Yean
No.
Mean
No.
Mean
NO.
Mean
(37)
(43)
(65.1)
(48)
(49.0)
33.8
(36.1)
32.6
(46.3)
29.7
(39.2)
28.9
(37.2)
25.6
(35.3)
24.3
23.2
(36.0)
3
47
11.8
47
19.4
5
49
11.0
49
17.6
44
26.9
(3) (40.7)
48
24.2
7
50
10.7
50
17.2
50
23.5
9
50
10.6
50
16.8
50
22.7
11
50
10.5
50
16.0
50
21.3
13
45
9.8
45
15.0
45
19.6
15
50
9.8
50
14.3
50
18.2
39
(11)
32
(18)
45
(5)
34
(11)
50
17
50
9.5
50
14.1
50
17.8
49
(1)
50
19
50
10.0
50
14.2
50
17.6
21
i4
50
50
10.4
10.8
50
50
14.7
15.4
50
50
18.2
19.9
8
23.0
50
23.3
50
26.3
(44)
(56.3)
(48)
2
(49)
1
(41)
8
(29)
16
43
(6)
43
(7)
(55.7)
29.5
(52.2)
41.0
(47.5)
34.2
(48.6)
32.7
32.1
(46.8)
29.7
(50.4)
44
(6)
49
30.0
(39.0)
31.1
37
(13)
32.0
(46.0)
NOTE: Figures in brackets refer to measurements on ‘face,’ the parts adjacent
to the nasal bridge proper.
Each age period is the mid-point, that is, 3 years includa 2.5 to 3.5 gears,
and similarly for the other ages.
diminution in width appears to be general and especially
marked. The relatively sharp increase in width in old age
has already been remarked. Indeed, indirect evidence of
developmental acceleration would seem to be the increasing
proportion of cases between 7 and 15 years attaining a depth
of 15 and 20 mm. from the apex.
Fig. 2 A graphic representation of the nienn transverse development of the nasal bridge (five times enlarged) between
3 and 74 years. The broken lines indicate the ‘facial’ regionr adjacent to the nasa\ bridge proper, except between 17 and
74 years where the alternate solid and hroken lines nre used to distinguish one age from the next.
109
DEL’ELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE OF THE NOSE
Sullivan’s recordings, it will be recalled, were obtained at
the root between the inner canthi of the eyes. Yet his results
manifested exactly the same trend, namely, a diminution in
width of the nasal bridge with age which was likewise substantially greater in extent the farther from the apex.
The widths of the nasal bridge a t the several levels from
the apex differ of course in absolute dimensions, and the
course of development relative to initial size would seem to
be pertinent. Figure 3 considers this question, portraying the
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Fi g.3 The relative biannual decrement or increment in width of the nasal
bridge at the several levels from the apex. The broken line refers to the increment between 21 and 74 gears.
relative decrements and increments at each level from the
apex. The points previously cited are here reaffirmed, and
need not be repeated.
But what does all this mean? Is the bridge of the nose
really becoming narrower, a seemingly paradoxical condition
in the growth of any structure, or is the apparent narrowing
merely a reflection of outward growth? Sullivan felt that
“We can only interpret this smaller diameter to mean forward growth of the nose’’ (p. 408). To be sure, the depth of
ths nasal bridge is undeniably greater in the adult than in
the infant or child, as was demonstrated in the preceding.
110
MARCUS 6. GOLDSTEIN
The mode of development of the nasal bridge must occur, as
in other structures, by surface deposition of bone, including
additions at the suture lines, and remodelling by surface resorption. But in what manner to attain the seeming ‘forward
growth’? Pertaining to this question, Brash (’24, p. 40)
states,
I n the nasion region there is a great deal of surface growth,
with increasing areas of contact between the nasal bones and
the frontal processes of the maxillae on the one hand and the
frontal bone on the other, as well as between the nasals
themselves. This will account for the increase in the interorbital width and for a good deal of the forward and upward
movement of the nasal bones and the nasion.
I n experimental work on the pig by means of madder feeding (the madder having an a.Einity for bone, staining it red),
Brash further found that “The nasal, maxilla and premaxilla,
. . . . are growing only moderately on the surface, but additions are obvious along the line of the sutures joining them
and at the frontonasal suture” (p.43).
Keith and Campion (’22, p. 615), superimposing skulls 5
years and 25 years of age, respectively, by means of the
pituitary fossa which was considered to be relatively unaltered,
found similarly that “As regards the ascending process of
the maxilla-the process interpolated in the root of the nose,
between the lachrymal behind and the nasal bone in front, new
bone is laid down at all its margins.”
A highly interestng observation by Schultz (’18, p. 336)
also impinging on this question, is the following :
Without doubt the human nose is morphologically a progressive structure. It would seem, however, that the increase in
prominence of the nose occurs in a passive manner, as a consequence of the reduction of the dental arch. As the lips are
drawn backward by the decrease of the dental arch, the nose
maintains its original position plus projecting relatively more.
Hooton (’31,p. 189) maintains a similar view, that “The
peculiar form of the nose is thus the result in part of the
DEVELOPMENT OF THE B R I N E O F THE NOSE
111
regressiou of the jaws, and in part of a progressive development of the cartilages forming the soft parts.”
Gregory (’29) suggests further that
The form of the nose bridgs is . . . . conditioned by many
factors. The greater the volume of the brain in the fetus,
the sharper will be the bending of the brain upon itself, and
the further forward will be pushed the greater wings of the
sphenoid bone and the temporal region of the skull. All this
has a tendency to push the face forward, especially the lateral
angles of it, so that in extremely wide-headed forms the cheeks
often protrude and the outer corners of the eye-orbits are
far forward. This produces the Mongolian type of broad flat
face, often with a wide space between the orbits and a low
flat bridge and protruding eyes (p. 170).
He also considers that (p. 171), “Among other possible
factors affecting the shape of the nose is the extent of upward
growth of the frontal process of the superior maxillary bone.
An increase in size of this process would tend to elevate the
bridge of the nose.”
Thus, the phylogenetic explanation for the elevation of the
nasal bridge in man would seem to be, primarily, the reduction
or regression of the dental arch, with an increase in volume
of the brain and an increase in size of the ascending processes
of the maxillary bone contributing to the trend. Ontogentically, there would seem to be some surface deposition externally and absorption on the internal aspects of the nasal
bridge (roof of the nasal cavity), but most of the addition
apparently takes place at the suture lines, the obliqueness of the
angle of the nasal sutures, in part at least, probably accounting for the extent of elevation. The increase of muscle tonus
in the face of the adult as compared with in the infant or
child, perhaps also the increased masticatory functions, are
probably other forces contributing to the more sloping transverse contours of the face, including the nasal parts, in the
adult.
A few more words may not be amiss with regard to height
of the bridge concerning which the indirect evidence of the
112
MARCUS 6. GOLDSTEIN
present material, as already intimated, is very suggestive.
Turning to table 2 and noting the number of observations
at each level from the apex, we note that it is not until 7 years
of age that a depth of 15 mm. becomes even fairly common,
and it is only by 11 or 13 years that this depth is become
general. During this time, too, an increasing proportion of
individuals are manifesting for the first time a depth of
20 mm. from tlie apex of the nasal bridge ; and by 15 years this
depth has also become common, although it is of interest to
note that a relatively substantial number at 74 years have a
nasal bridge not reaching 20 mm. in depth. I n other words,
there has been a general ‘forward growth’ of the bridge between 3 and ll or 13 years to the extent of 5 mm., with an
additional 5 mm., or 10 111111. in all, by 15 or 17 years of age.
Another point of interest is the following. With diminution
in width of the nasal bridge indicative of outward growth,
as would seem to be the case from the foregoing, forward
growth would therefore appear to end about 17 years of age
when contraction in width apparently ends and expansion
begins.
It is also to be remembered that these results refer only
to the ethnic stock herein considered. There are probably
wide variations both in width of bridge at the various levels
from the apes as well as in height of the bridge, in various
groups even among the white race.
The data of the few sources dealing with the nasal bridge
are regrettably not strictly comparable with the present
material. As previously noted, Sullivan’s material had
reference to width of the nasal bridge at the level of the
inner canthi of the eyes. Steggerda et al. (’29) observed the
depth of the bridge, also at the latter level, and found this
to be 15.56 mm. in 100 girls. According to Blind (1890, calculated from his tabular matter), the mean ‘Erhebung der
Wurzel’ in 100 infants and their mothers was respectively
2.75 mm. (o 1.12) and 13.01 mm. (o 2.17), or an increase of
10.26 mm. in height at the root, which is strikingly similar
to the increase of 10 mm. i n height (from 10 mm. to 20 mm.)
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE OF THE XOSE
113
between 3 and 21 years in the present study, albeit at a quite
different level along the nasal bridge.
There is also a ‘Nasenbeine Erhebung’ of 6.51 mm. in fifty
skulls of children. Of particular interest is the 19.08 mm.
(o 1.6)elevation of the bridge in the ‘middle,’ in the mothers,
a figure also very much like the prevailing 20 mm. depth
noted in the adults of the present study. Mention may be made
TABLE
8
Variability in the width of the nasal bridge at level of orbitale and at several
levek from the apez (in millimeters)
Age
2 mm.
(yra.) Range 8.D.
6 mm.
Range 8.D.
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
74
15-26
15-26
13-21
13-21
12-19
12-19
11-19
11-17
11-17
11-19
11-21
9-16
9-16
8-13
7-13
8-13
7-12
6-13
6-12
7-12
7-14
7-14
1.7
1.2
1.3
1.1
1.3
1.2
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.5
1.5
2.4
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.8
2.3
Lsvel from upel:
10 mm.
Range S.D.
20-37
20-30
17-29
17-29
17-26
15-25
15-25
14-24
14-21
14-23
14-26
3.6
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.4
2.9
2.1
2.2
1.8
2.3
2.7
15 mm.
Range S.D.
28-(76)(9.6)
(27-75) (5.6)
24-41 3.8
23-36
3.0
22-38 3.5
19-33 3.3
18-33 3.2
17-34 3.3
19-30 2.8
16-30 3.1
18-38 4.0
20 mm.
Runge
8.D.
(42-86)
(36-87)
(38-81)
(32-75)
29-40
24-40
25-38
2241
22-40
20-47
2342
(10.7)
( 9.4)
(11.3)
(10.3)
( 8.7)
(11.1)
3.5
3.9
3.8
5.2
3.8
NOTE: Figures in brackets refer to measurements on ‘face,’ the park adjacent
to the nasal bridge proper.
that the mean width of the root in the mothers was 14.87mm.
(o 2.14), and in the skulls of the children, 6.42 mm.; what
the landmarks were is not clear although they were probably
the inner canthi of the eyes in the former.
VARIABILITY
The range and standard deviation for the diameters at each
level from the apes and at the several ages, are given in
table 3.
a s might have been expected as a result of larger dimensions, absolute variability is greater the farther from the
apex. Relatively, however, varability of the nasal bridge is
high at all levels from the apex. With respect to age, it is
114
MARCUS S. QOLDSTEIN
noted that the sigmas are comparatively high at 3 years; in
the old age group; and in the 21-year-old men at the 20-mm.
level.
MISCELLANP
It may be of some interest to note the extent of correlation
of the several widths from the apex, as well as, indeed, between
width of the bridge at the base (15-mm. level) and nose width
between the alae, also the former and maximum bizygomatic
width of the face. This is done in table 4. Since the difTABLE 4
Coflcients of correlation ( r ) of widths of the wal bridge at uahua levels from
apex, and between the width at 1.5 mm. from apex and nose width
between alae and muximum biaygomutw width, respectively,
in combined 19- and 81-year-old males
B and
6 mm
No.
r
P and
B and
10 mm
lbfiun.
100
100
100
0.8920.01
0.65k0.04
0.585~0.04
Sonun.
Nora width
andl6m4n.
93
97
Face width
and 16 mm.
98
0.30-CO.06 -0.02+_0.07 -4.02-CO.07
ferences between the 19- and 21-year-old boys in the several
characters considered were generally very slight, these two
groups were combined in order to attain a larger series for
the purpose of correlation.
The correlation of width at the apex (2-mm. level) with the
widths at the several other levels from the apex, is noted in
each case to be positive and less strong the farther from the
apex. This indeed is what might have been expected, contiguous structures or areas of the same structure naturally being
more likely to be positively and highly correlated both in
dimension and form, such correlation also diminishing in
intensity the less proximate the surfaces or structures from
each other.
Regarding the relationship between width of nose between
the alae and width of bridge at the 15-mm.level,2 it seems
there is practically no correlation whatever (r =-0.02). This
‘The 15-mm. level wa8 taken as the base in order to be sure that no ‘face’
measurementa were included, a p d b i l i t y in aome eaees at the 20-mm level.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE O F THE NOSE
115
was to me a rather unexpected result, in that on a priori
grounds it seemed a narrow bridge would tend to be associated
with a narrow nose between the alae. Likewise width of
the bridge does not appear to be in any way related to width
of the face as a whole.
An interesting point would be the determination whether
there was any relationship between height of the bridge of
the nose and the various characters considered above. Indeed,
it is to be hoped that the general problem will receive further
and more comprehensive treatment than was possible with the
present material. The comparative development in extent
and type of vaulting of the nasal bridge in anthropoids and
divergent stocks of man, and the specific problem of how
‘forward growth’ of the nasal bridge actually occurs, still
await investigation and elucidation.
SUMMARY
The problem was the development of the bridge of the nose
in the living, at the level of orbitale. Transverse impressions of the bridge were obtained by means of a profile gauge,
and the tracings of these were recorded. The widths were
measured on these tracings 2, 6, 10, 15, and 20 mm. from the
apex.
Observations were made on some 500 males between 3 and
21 years and on a group of fifty old men. The results were:
1. The nasal bridge diminishes in width at all levels from
the apex between 3 and 17 or 19 years of age.
2. The total absolute decrease is distinctly and progressively greater the farther from the apex.
3. A slight increase in width occurs between 17 and 21
years, but it is in old age that an appreciably greater width
of the bridge occurs.
4. Periods of special activity in nasal bridge development
are between 3 to 5 years and 11 to 13 years, when diminution in width is especially marked.
5. Indirect evidence points to general growth forward of
the bridge to the extent of 10 mm. between 3 and about 17
116
MARCUS 6. GOLDSTEIN
years, after which, indeed, the suggestion is that such forward development is generally ended.
6. Variability in width of the nasal bridge is absolutely
greater the farther from the apex; as regards age, it is
especially high at 3 years, during old age, and at the base
of the bridge in the 21-year-old group.
7. The width of the nasal bridge at the apex is only to a
slight extent associated with width at the base; there is virtually no correlation between width of the nasal bridge 15 mm.
from the apex and nasal width between the alae; likewise, there
is no apparent relationship between the former and maximum
face width.
An excellent and comprehensive monograph on the nose
entitled Post-Natal Development of the Human Outer Nose,
by Dr. Chas. B. Davenport (Proc. Am. Philos. SOC.,vol. 80,
no. 2, pp. 175-355, 1939), came to the writer’s attention after
the present paper was already at press. Although not strictly
comparable with the present data, a section dealing with depth
of root a t the level of the inner canthi of the eyes indicates similar trends with respect to periods and amount of
growth.
LITERATURE CITED
BLIND,H. 1890 Ueber Nasenbildung
bei Neugeborenen.
Inaug. Dissert.,
Miinchen.
BRASH,J. C. 1924 The growth of the jaws and palate. (In “The growth of
the jaws, normal and abnormal, in health and disease,” p. 23). Dental
Board United Kingdom, London.
GOLDSTEIN, M. 13. 1936 Changes in dimensions and form of the face and head
with age. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., XXII, 37.
(+OLLINO, J. 1915 Anthropologische Untersuchungen uber das Nasenskelett des
Menschen. 2. Morph. & Antlirop., XVII, 1.
GREGORY,
W. K. 1929 Our face from fish to man. N. Y.
HOOTON,
E. A. 1931 Up from the ape. N. Y.
HOVOBKA,
0. 1893 Die nussere Nase. Eine anatomisch-anthropologische Studie.
Wien.
KEITH,A., A N D 0. 0.CAMPION I%?? A contribution to the mechanism of growth
of the human face. Internat,. J. Orthod., VIII, 607.
M ~ T I NR.
, 1928 Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. 2nd ed., I, 549.
PETEB,K. 1913 Atlas der Entwicklung der Nase und des Gaumens beim
Menschen. Jena.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE OF THE NOSE
117
SCHULTZ,
A. H. 1918 Relatiou of the external nose to the bong nose and
nasal cartilagee iu Whites and Negroes. Am. J. Phya. Anthrop.,
I, 329.
1927 Studies on the growth of gorilla end of other higher primates
with special reference to a fetus of gorilla, preserved i n the Carnegie
Museum. Mem. Carneg. Mus. Pittsburgh, XI, 1.
1938 Personal communication.
STEOQI~F~DA,
M.,J. CRANEAND M.D. S m E 1929 One hundred measurements and
observations on one hundred Bmith College Students. Am. J. Phys.
Anthrop., VIII, 189.
SULLIVAN,
L. R. 1917 Qrowth of the nasal bridge in children. Am. Anthrop.,
X X , 406.
VIBCHOW,11. 1912 Die anthropologieche Untereuchung der Nase. Z. Ethnol.,
44 Jahrg., 289.
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