DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE O F THE NOSE MARCUS S. GOLDSTEIN Division of Child Research, New Pork University College of Dentistry, New Pork The characteristic nose of the infant exemplified by a shallow root, flat bridge, and broad width between the alae (relative to length from nasion to subnasale), is manifestly in sharp contrast with the usual conditions in the adult, namely, a much deeper root, comparatively high and narrow bridge, and not only greater length but also relatively much narrower width. An especially striking illustration of the development of the nose in profile from infancy to maturity is given by Peter ( ’13). Quantitative accounts also are common with reference to development of the nose in length (nasion to subnasale) and width between the alae (Martin, ’28). There is, however, astonishingly little in the literature, to my knowledge, regarding a quantitative description of the development in depth of the root or height of the bridge, despite the fact that not only do these characters manifest marked differentiation during the period of growth of the individual as already noted, but also in view of the marked variations in this character among different groups of man. It had also been my impression that the extent of vaulting of the nasal bridge in man was a specifically human characteristic, but Dr. Adolph H. Schultz has been kind enough to correct me in this misapprehension ( ’38). To quote him directly, “It is persistently claimed that the high nasal bridge of man is without parallel among other primates. This, however, is not true. I n all langurs, e.g., one finds a very high nasal bridge.” He also cites a previous paper in which it 101 AYEEBICAN JOVPNAL OF PHYBXCAL ANTHBOWWOY, VOL. XXV, NO. A P R I W U N E . 1988 1 AND SUPPLEMENT 102 MARCUS S. GOLDSTEIN is pointed out that some gorillas have as high a nasal bridge as many human beings ( '27, p. 46). The first reference of which I am aware that gives any data on the subject is by Blind (1890) who measured width of the root (Breite der Wurzel) and elevation of the bridge (Nasenerhebung : Wurzel, Mitte), on 100 newborn infants and their mothers, as well as on fifty skulls of children. The next contribution was by Sullivan ( '17) who examined material collected by Prof. Franz Boas on Worcester children of 5 to 16 years of age, in 1890. In the words of Sullivan, ' The shape of the nasal arch was recorded by means of a stout lead wire bent across the bridge of the nose from the inner canthus of one eye to that of the other. The crosssection thus obtained was then transferred to paper by tracing. The transverse diameter of the cross-section of the bridge of the nose was measured at points 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm. from the apex. I n adults, Steggerda et al. ('29) gives 'nose bridge height' on 100 girl students of Smith College. And that is all. To be sure, other writers have considered quantitatively and in detail the phylogenetic and ontogenetic development of the nose or its variations in different races of man (e.g., Hovorka, 1893 ; Virchow, '12 ; Oolling, '15 ; Schultz, '18, '27; Gregory, '29; Hooton, '31) but, as already noted, this consideration has not included a metric description of the vaulting of the nasal bridge. MATERLQL A N D METHOD The material consists of observations made on Hebrew males of American birth, ranging in age between 3 and 21 years; material was also available on a group of old men averaging 74 years of age, also Jewish but for the most part foreign born. The present method, suggested by Professor Boas as was indeed the general problem, was essentially like that followed in the Sullivan study. As in the latter, the 'shape of the nasal arch' was recorded, this time, however, by the more accurate DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE O F T H E NOSE 103 means of a profile gauge (fig. l), an instrument made of bakelite and, if I understand correctly, used by carpenters to get impressions of the form of panel moldings.’ The impression of the nasal bridge in cross section was taken at the level of the lower rims of the orbits (orbitale) and, as closely as could be judged, at right angles to the inclination of the profile of the bridge. This point in front seems just at the end of or perhaps slightly below the lowest part of the bony I Fig.1 Illustration of profile gauge and method of taking nasal bridge impression. Below are actual tracings of two typical cases, one a t 3 years, the other a t 21 years; the 2, 6, 10, 15 and 20 mm. levels from the apex are demarcated by lines, and the distance from one side of the cross section to the other a t each of these levels was the ‘width’ measured. nasal process of the bridge, although laterally contact was definitely made with the bony substructure. Taking the impression between the inner canthi was not feasible with thc profile gauge. * Stockton Profile Gauge Corporation, Lowell, Mass. 104 MARCUS 6. GOLDSTEIN As in the Sullivan study, the cross section of the nasal bridge obtained with the profile gauge was transferred to millimeter graph paper by tracing and the transverse diameter was measured (to the nearest millimeter) at 2, 6, 10, 15 and 20 mm. from the apex, respectively. This is illustrated in figure 1 on two cases selected at random. All impressions, tracings, measurements and calculations were made by myself. Concerning the accuracy of the method employed, at the time of gathering the data it seemed to me that the error involved as a result of technique was not significant when the nasal bridge proper was considered. That is, the impression-tracing includes the maxillary regions adjacent to the nasal bridge. This maxillary or ‘face’ reg;on (as distinguished from the nose proper), occurred at 15 or even occasionally at 10 mm. from the apex in the younger children. Hence, the transverse diameters where the soft parts on the maxilla (or even malars) were involved, generally at 15 and 20 mm. from the apex in the younger children, could not be accurate. This factor was taken into account, as will be noted in the tabular material, by segregating the data according to 1) definitely nasal bridge observations, and 2) measurements involving the ‘face.’ The latter are given as purely approximate figures, although, as will be seen shortly, they apparently fit in with the general developmental pattern in remarkably constant fashion. It is not unlikely that some measurements on the ‘face’ were included in the nasal bridge calculations, but it is doubted whether many such c.ases have occurred or that the average dimensions of the nose have been appreciably affected by this factor. Another element of error should be mentioned, namely, a slight pinching of the nose, especially, it seemed, near the apex, while taking the impression wth the profile gauge. What with the bony or hard cartilaginous structure underneath, however, it seems to me this factor also has not had any essential effect on the results. 105 DEVELOPMENT O F THE BRIDGE O F T H E NOSE Withal, an attempt was made to check on personal error by noting the difference of two recordings on the same individual. In many cases I had not been satisfied for one reason or another with the first recording and had taken a second impression. These cases were now segregated, the first tracings were measured, and note was made of the deviation of these latter measurements from the comparable figures obtained on the previous or second recording. The results are indicated in table 1. The mean differences between the two sets of impressions (the deviation of the first from the second) a r e evidently astonishingly slight on the nose proper, and, as expected, are much higher (although not as markedly as was anticipated) on TABLE 1 Deviations in two recordings of the nasal bridge in the same individuals 2 mm. Number of eases Mean (mm.) 0 +- 1 mm. (per cent) (51) +0.4 92 Level from a p c z Nasal bridge 6mm. 10mm. 15 mm. 20mm. (51) +0.3 86 (50) +0.6 82 (26) +0.6 69 (19) 4 . 2 53 Face 15mm. 2 0 m m . (21) +1.7 19 (29) 4-1.2 28 the ‘face’ regions. The maximum and minimum differential is plus 5 mm. and minus 4 mm. on the nose proper, but only one case occurs in either of these limits. More pertinent, it seems to me, is the high percentage of cases manifesting a difference of 0 -e 1 mm. It is also of interest to note the diminishing percentage of 0 2 1 mm., or an intimation of greater susceptibility to error, the farther one proceeds from the apex, but the error here too apparently cancels out on the average. I n view of the circumstances that one of the tracings was considered not quite as accurate as was desirable to begin with, the high degree of correspondence evident notwithstanding is remarkable. It would of course have been more desirable for another observer to have done the checking, and I might add that a shifting of that laborious task would not have been unwelcome, but such a procedure was not feasible. AMERICAN JOURNAL O F PHYSICAL Ah’THROPOMOY, VOL. XXV. NO. 1 AND SUPPLEMENT 106 MARCUS S. QOLDSTEIN There might have been, to be sure, a constant error in one direction which would not perhaps be readily detected by self-checking. I f this is so, however, the absolute figures should be affected consistently; that is, increment or decrement from one age to the next would not be involved. Finally, it is also recognized that the same anatomical points were probably not measured at the various ages, both as a result of forward growth and growth in length of the nose. This factor, however, does not, I think, vitiate the results with regard to changes in form nor the evidence of special activity in development at particular ages. MEAN DIMENSIONS The mean widths of the nasal bridge at the level of orbitale are given in table 2. The figures in parentheses refer to measurements on the ‘face’; it is to be recalled that the recordings on the ‘face’ or contiguous maxillary and malar regions, due to the intervening soft parts, were subject to substantial error. I n order to facilitate interpretation, the average widths of table 2 have been used to reconstruct (five times enlarged) the bridge of the nose at the level of orbitale (fig. 2). The broken lines indicate the widths on the ‘face’ regions, except between 17 and 21 years where alternate dash and straight lines are used to distinguish one age from the next. Several highly interesting phenomena are at once perceived. First, the nasal bridge apparently diminishes in width at all levels from the apex and in remarkably constant fashion, up to 17 or 19 years of age. In this connection it may be noted how the broken lines indicative of the ‘face’ regions adjacent to the nasal bridge proper, follow precisely this developmental pattern. Second, the total absolute decrease is distinctly and progressively greater the farther from the apex. Third, a slight increase in width occurs between 17 and 21 years; it is in old age, however, and at the 10- and 15-mm. levels in particular, that a distinctly appreciable increase in width is observed. The increment between 17 and 21 years 107 DEVELOPMENT O F THE BRIDGE OF THE NOSE is statistically significant at the 2-mm. level only, and in the old-age group it is statistically significant at the 10-mm. and 15-mm. levels (D/P.E.DIw.being 4 or more). Fourth, there are periods of special activity in nasal bridge development ; these evidently are at 3 to 5 years and 11 to 13 years, when TABLE 2 Mean widths (mm.) of the nasal bridge, at level of orbitale, in males Age 2 mm. (yra.) No. Mean 6 mm. L e a l from apes 10 mm. 20 mm. 15 mm. No. Yean No. Mean No. Mean NO. Mean (37) (43) (65.1) (48) (49.0) 33.8 (36.1) 32.6 (46.3) 29.7 (39.2) 28.9 (37.2) 25.6 (35.3) 24.3 23.2 (36.0) 3 47 11.8 47 19.4 5 49 11.0 49 17.6 44 26.9 (3) (40.7) 48 24.2 7 50 10.7 50 17.2 50 23.5 9 50 10.6 50 16.8 50 22.7 11 50 10.5 50 16.0 50 21.3 13 45 9.8 45 15.0 45 19.6 15 50 9.8 50 14.3 50 18.2 39 (11) 32 (18) 45 (5) 34 (11) 50 17 50 9.5 50 14.1 50 17.8 49 (1) 50 19 50 10.0 50 14.2 50 17.6 21 i4 50 50 10.4 10.8 50 50 14.7 15.4 50 50 18.2 19.9 8 23.0 50 23.3 50 26.3 (44) (56.3) (48) 2 (49) 1 (41) 8 (29) 16 43 (6) 43 (7) (55.7) 29.5 (52.2) 41.0 (47.5) 34.2 (48.6) 32.7 32.1 (46.8) 29.7 (50.4) 44 (6) 49 30.0 (39.0) 31.1 37 (13) 32.0 (46.0) NOTE: Figures in brackets refer to measurements on ‘face,’ the parts adjacent to the nasal bridge proper. Each age period is the mid-point, that is, 3 years includa 2.5 to 3.5 gears, and similarly for the other ages. diminution in width appears to be general and especially marked. The relatively sharp increase in width in old age has already been remarked. Indeed, indirect evidence of developmental acceleration would seem to be the increasing proportion of cases between 7 and 15 years attaining a depth of 15 and 20 mm. from the apex. Fig. 2 A graphic representation of the nienn transverse development of the nasal bridge (five times enlarged) between 3 and 74 years. The broken lines indicate the ‘facial’ regionr adjacent to the nasa\ bridge proper, except between 17 and 74 years where the alternate solid and hroken lines nre used to distinguish one age from the next. 109 DEL’ELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE OF THE NOSE Sullivan’s recordings, it will be recalled, were obtained at the root between the inner canthi of the eyes. Yet his results manifested exactly the same trend, namely, a diminution in width of the nasal bridge with age which was likewise substantially greater in extent the farther from the apex. The widths of the nasal bridge a t the several levels from the apex differ of course in absolute dimensions, and the course of development relative to initial size would seem to be pertinent. Figure 3 considers this question, portraying the +[u-p4d A G € IIY YEHUE $ % - % i i l3$-41 I++;- PERCEnr I 40 - f 0 48 6 ~ /o- - LPVCL F ~ O MAPEX 20-e Fi g.3 The relative biannual decrement or increment in width of the nasal bridge at the several levels from the apex. The broken line refers to the increment between 21 and 74 gears. relative decrements and increments at each level from the apex. The points previously cited are here reaffirmed, and need not be repeated. But what does all this mean? Is the bridge of the nose really becoming narrower, a seemingly paradoxical condition in the growth of any structure, or is the apparent narrowing merely a reflection of outward growth? Sullivan felt that “We can only interpret this smaller diameter to mean forward growth of the nose’’ (p. 408). To be sure, the depth of ths nasal bridge is undeniably greater in the adult than in the infant or child, as was demonstrated in the preceding. 110 MARCUS 6. GOLDSTEIN The mode of development of the nasal bridge must occur, as in other structures, by surface deposition of bone, including additions at the suture lines, and remodelling by surface resorption. But in what manner to attain the seeming ‘forward growth’? Pertaining to this question, Brash (’24, p. 40) states, I n the nasion region there is a great deal of surface growth, with increasing areas of contact between the nasal bones and the frontal processes of the maxillae on the one hand and the frontal bone on the other, as well as between the nasals themselves. This will account for the increase in the interorbital width and for a good deal of the forward and upward movement of the nasal bones and the nasion. I n experimental work on the pig by means of madder feeding (the madder having an a.Einity for bone, staining it red), Brash further found that “The nasal, maxilla and premaxilla, . . . . are growing only moderately on the surface, but additions are obvious along the line of the sutures joining them and at the frontonasal suture” (p.43). Keith and Campion (’22, p. 615), superimposing skulls 5 years and 25 years of age, respectively, by means of the pituitary fossa which was considered to be relatively unaltered, found similarly that “As regards the ascending process of the maxilla-the process interpolated in the root of the nose, between the lachrymal behind and the nasal bone in front, new bone is laid down at all its margins.” A highly interestng observation by Schultz (’18, p. 336) also impinging on this question, is the following : Without doubt the human nose is morphologically a progressive structure. It would seem, however, that the increase in prominence of the nose occurs in a passive manner, as a consequence of the reduction of the dental arch. As the lips are drawn backward by the decrease of the dental arch, the nose maintains its original position plus projecting relatively more. Hooton (’31,p. 189) maintains a similar view, that “The peculiar form of the nose is thus the result in part of the DEVELOPMENT OF THE B R I N E O F THE NOSE 111 regressiou of the jaws, and in part of a progressive development of the cartilages forming the soft parts.” Gregory (’29) suggests further that The form of the nose bridgs is . . . . conditioned by many factors. The greater the volume of the brain in the fetus, the sharper will be the bending of the brain upon itself, and the further forward will be pushed the greater wings of the sphenoid bone and the temporal region of the skull. All this has a tendency to push the face forward, especially the lateral angles of it, so that in extremely wide-headed forms the cheeks often protrude and the outer corners of the eye-orbits are far forward. This produces the Mongolian type of broad flat face, often with a wide space between the orbits and a low flat bridge and protruding eyes (p. 170). He also considers that (p. 171), “Among other possible factors affecting the shape of the nose is the extent of upward growth of the frontal process of the superior maxillary bone. An increase in size of this process would tend to elevate the bridge of the nose.” Thus, the phylogenetic explanation for the elevation of the nasal bridge in man would seem to be, primarily, the reduction or regression of the dental arch, with an increase in volume of the brain and an increase in size of the ascending processes of the maxillary bone contributing to the trend. Ontogentically, there would seem to be some surface deposition externally and absorption on the internal aspects of the nasal bridge (roof of the nasal cavity), but most of the addition apparently takes place at the suture lines, the obliqueness of the angle of the nasal sutures, in part at least, probably accounting for the extent of elevation. The increase of muscle tonus in the face of the adult as compared with in the infant or child, perhaps also the increased masticatory functions, are probably other forces contributing to the more sloping transverse contours of the face, including the nasal parts, in the adult. A few more words may not be amiss with regard to height of the bridge concerning which the indirect evidence of the 112 MARCUS 6. GOLDSTEIN present material, as already intimated, is very suggestive. Turning to table 2 and noting the number of observations at each level from the apex, we note that it is not until 7 years of age that a depth of 15 mm. becomes even fairly common, and it is only by 11 or 13 years that this depth is become general. During this time, too, an increasing proportion of individuals are manifesting for the first time a depth of 20 mm. from tlie apex of the nasal bridge ; and by 15 years this depth has also become common, although it is of interest to note that a relatively substantial number at 74 years have a nasal bridge not reaching 20 mm. in depth. I n other words, there has been a general ‘forward growth’ of the bridge between 3 and ll or 13 years to the extent of 5 mm., with an additional 5 mm., or 10 111111. in all, by 15 or 17 years of age. Another point of interest is the following. With diminution in width of the nasal bridge indicative of outward growth, as would seem to be the case from the foregoing, forward growth would therefore appear to end about 17 years of age when contraction in width apparently ends and expansion begins. It is also to be remembered that these results refer only to the ethnic stock herein considered. There are probably wide variations both in width of bridge at the various levels from the apes as well as in height of the bridge, in various groups even among the white race. The data of the few sources dealing with the nasal bridge are regrettably not strictly comparable with the present material. As previously noted, Sullivan’s material had reference to width of the nasal bridge at the level of the inner canthi of the eyes. Steggerda et al. (’29) observed the depth of the bridge, also at the latter level, and found this to be 15.56 mm. in 100 girls. According to Blind (1890, calculated from his tabular matter), the mean ‘Erhebung der Wurzel’ in 100 infants and their mothers was respectively 2.75 mm. (o 1.12) and 13.01 mm. (o 2.17), or an increase of 10.26 mm. in height at the root, which is strikingly similar to the increase of 10 mm. i n height (from 10 mm. to 20 mm.) DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE OF THE XOSE 113 between 3 and 21 years in the present study, albeit at a quite different level along the nasal bridge. There is also a ‘Nasenbeine Erhebung’ of 6.51 mm. in fifty skulls of children. Of particular interest is the 19.08 mm. (o 1.6)elevation of the bridge in the ‘middle,’ in the mothers, a figure also very much like the prevailing 20 mm. depth noted in the adults of the present study. Mention may be made TABLE 8 Variability in the width of the nasal bridge at level of orbitale and at several levek from the apez (in millimeters) Age 2 mm. (yra.) Range 8.D. 6 mm. Range 8.D. 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 74 15-26 15-26 13-21 13-21 12-19 12-19 11-19 11-17 11-17 11-19 11-21 9-16 9-16 8-13 7-13 8-13 7-12 6-13 6-12 7-12 7-14 7-14 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.5 1.5 2.4 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.8 2.3 Lsvel from upel: 10 mm. Range S.D. 20-37 20-30 17-29 17-29 17-26 15-25 15-25 14-24 14-21 14-23 14-26 3.6 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.9 2.1 2.2 1.8 2.3 2.7 15 mm. Range S.D. 28-(76)(9.6) (27-75) (5.6) 24-41 3.8 23-36 3.0 22-38 3.5 19-33 3.3 18-33 3.2 17-34 3.3 19-30 2.8 16-30 3.1 18-38 4.0 20 mm. Runge 8.D. (42-86) (36-87) (38-81) (32-75) 29-40 24-40 25-38 2241 22-40 20-47 2342 (10.7) ( 9.4) (11.3) (10.3) ( 8.7) (11.1) 3.5 3.9 3.8 5.2 3.8 NOTE: Figures in brackets refer to measurements on ‘face,’ the park adjacent to the nasal bridge proper. that the mean width of the root in the mothers was 14.87mm. (o 2.14), and in the skulls of the children, 6.42 mm.; what the landmarks were is not clear although they were probably the inner canthi of the eyes in the former. VARIABILITY The range and standard deviation for the diameters at each level from the apes and at the several ages, are given in table 3. a s might have been expected as a result of larger dimensions, absolute variability is greater the farther from the apex. Relatively, however, varability of the nasal bridge is high at all levels from the apex. With respect to age, it is 114 MARCUS S. QOLDSTEIN noted that the sigmas are comparatively high at 3 years; in the old age group; and in the 21-year-old men at the 20-mm. level. MISCELLANP It may be of some interest to note the extent of correlation of the several widths from the apex, as well as, indeed, between width of the bridge at the base (15-mm. level) and nose width between the alae, also the former and maximum bizygomatic width of the face. This is done in table 4. Since the difTABLE 4 Coflcients of correlation ( r ) of widths of the wal bridge at uahua levels from apex, and between the width at 1.5 mm. from apex and nose width between alae and muximum biaygomutw width, respectively, in combined 19- and 81-year-old males B and 6 mm No. r P and B and 10 mm lbfiun. 100 100 100 0.8920.01 0.65k0.04 0.585~0.04 Sonun. Nora width andl6m4n. 93 97 Face width and 16 mm. 98 0.30-CO.06 -0.02+_0.07 -4.02-CO.07 ferences between the 19- and 21-year-old boys in the several characters considered were generally very slight, these two groups were combined in order to attain a larger series for the purpose of correlation. The correlation of width at the apex (2-mm. level) with the widths at the several other levels from the apex, is noted in each case to be positive and less strong the farther from the apex. This indeed is what might have been expected, contiguous structures or areas of the same structure naturally being more likely to be positively and highly correlated both in dimension and form, such correlation also diminishing in intensity the less proximate the surfaces or structures from each other. Regarding the relationship between width of nose between the alae and width of bridge at the 15-mm.level,2 it seems there is practically no correlation whatever (r =-0.02). This ‘The 15-mm. level wa8 taken as the base in order to be sure that no ‘face’ measurementa were included, a p d b i l i t y in aome eaees at the 20-mm level. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE O F THE NOSE 115 was to me a rather unexpected result, in that on a priori grounds it seemed a narrow bridge would tend to be associated with a narrow nose between the alae. Likewise width of the bridge does not appear to be in any way related to width of the face as a whole. An interesting point would be the determination whether there was any relationship between height of the bridge of the nose and the various characters considered above. Indeed, it is to be hoped that the general problem will receive further and more comprehensive treatment than was possible with the present material. The comparative development in extent and type of vaulting of the nasal bridge in anthropoids and divergent stocks of man, and the specific problem of how ‘forward growth’ of the nasal bridge actually occurs, still await investigation and elucidation. SUMMARY The problem was the development of the bridge of the nose in the living, at the level of orbitale. Transverse impressions of the bridge were obtained by means of a profile gauge, and the tracings of these were recorded. The widths were measured on these tracings 2, 6, 10, 15, and 20 mm. from the apex. Observations were made on some 500 males between 3 and 21 years and on a group of fifty old men. The results were: 1. The nasal bridge diminishes in width at all levels from the apex between 3 and 17 or 19 years of age. 2. The total absolute decrease is distinctly and progressively greater the farther from the apex. 3. A slight increase in width occurs between 17 and 21 years, but it is in old age that an appreciably greater width of the bridge occurs. 4. Periods of special activity in nasal bridge development are between 3 to 5 years and 11 to 13 years, when diminution in width is especially marked. 5. Indirect evidence points to general growth forward of the bridge to the extent of 10 mm. between 3 and about 17 116 MARCUS 6. GOLDSTEIN years, after which, indeed, the suggestion is that such forward development is generally ended. 6. Variability in width of the nasal bridge is absolutely greater the farther from the apex; as regards age, it is especially high at 3 years, during old age, and at the base of the bridge in the 21-year-old group. 7. The width of the nasal bridge at the apex is only to a slight extent associated with width at the base; there is virtually no correlation between width of the nasal bridge 15 mm. from the apex and nasal width between the alae; likewise, there is no apparent relationship between the former and maximum face width. An excellent and comprehensive monograph on the nose entitled Post-Natal Development of the Human Outer Nose, by Dr. Chas. B. Davenport (Proc. Am. Philos. SOC.,vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 175-355, 1939), came to the writer’s attention after the present paper was already at press. Although not strictly comparable with the present data, a section dealing with depth of root a t the level of the inner canthi of the eyes indicates similar trends with respect to periods and amount of growth. LITERATURE CITED BLIND,H. 1890 Ueber Nasenbildung bei Neugeborenen. Inaug. Dissert., Miinchen. BRASH,J. C. 1924 The growth of the jaws and palate. (In “The growth of the jaws, normal and abnormal, in health and disease,” p. 23). Dental Board United Kingdom, London. GOLDSTEIN, M. 13. 1936 Changes in dimensions and form of the face and head with age. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., XXII, 37. (+OLLINO, J. 1915 Anthropologische Untersuchungen uber das Nasenskelett des Menschen. 2. Morph. & Antlirop., XVII, 1. GREGORY, W. K. 1929 Our face from fish to man. N. Y. HOOTON, E. A. 1931 Up from the ape. N. Y. HOVOBKA, 0. 1893 Die nussere Nase. Eine anatomisch-anthropologische Studie. Wien. KEITH,A., A N D 0. 0.CAMPION I%?? A contribution to the mechanism of growth of the human face. Internat,. J. Orthod., VIII, 607. M ~ T I NR. , 1928 Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. 2nd ed., I, 549. PETEB,K. 1913 Atlas der Entwicklung der Nase und des Gaumens beim Menschen. Jena. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRIDGE OF THE NOSE 117 SCHULTZ, A. H. 1918 Relatiou of the external nose to the bong nose and nasal cartilagee iu Whites and Negroes. Am. J. Phya. Anthrop., I, 329. 1927 Studies on the growth of gorilla end of other higher primates with special reference to a fetus of gorilla, preserved i n the Carnegie Museum. Mem. Carneg. Mus. Pittsburgh, XI, 1. 1938 Personal communication. STEOQI~F~DA, M.,J. CRANEAND M.D. S m E 1929 One hundred measurements and observations on one hundred Bmith College Students. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., VIII, 189. SULLIVAN, L. R. 1917 Qrowth of the nasal bridge in children. Am. Anthrop., X X , 406. VIBCHOW,11. 1912 Die anthropologieche Untereuchung der Nase. Z. Ethnol., 44 Jahrg., 289.