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Developmental aspects of craniofacial dysmorphology (birth defects Original articles series vol 15 No.

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T h e Quest for an I m a g e of Brain:
Computerized T o m o g r a p h y i n the Perspective
of Past a n d F u t u r e I m a g i n g Methods
By William H . Oldendorf
Raven Press, Neul York, 1980
167 pp, $1 9.50
D r Oldendorf, in a wonderfully clear and direct narrative,
describes the evolution of the techniques that "look" at the
brain in vivo. Starting with skull radiography, the essay
traces the evolution and refinement of shadow x-rays, air
studies, angiography, ultrasound, isotope scanning, computerized tomography, positron imaging, and the present
state of nuclear magnetic resonance. I t is an extraordinary
tale of modern science and its contribution to man. Furthermore, Oldendorf's account lays out technical descriptions, risks, benefits, and controversies in a readily understood, cheerful style that is a tribute to his own clear
thinking. Not the least of the admirable qualities of the
book is D r Oldendorf's generous description of the work
that brought Hounsfield and Cormack the 1979 Nobel
Prize in medicine. He never leaves the reader with even a
hint of what must have been his disappointment in not
having his own original conceptual contribution included in
the honor. Buy it. You'll like it.
Fred Plum, M D
Developmental Aspects o f Craniofacial
Dysmorphology (Birth Defects: Original
Articles Series, Vol 15, No. 8)
Edited by Michael Melnick and RonaldJorgenson
The National Foundation-March of Dimes, New York. 1979
120 pp, illustrated
This slim volume contains the proceedings of the First
Symposium on Craniofacial Dysmorphology, held in June,
1978. The presentation is fairly balanced but emphasizes
the mechanisms of facial malformation. The sequence of
papers leads from the basic to the complex, laying the
groundwork for current thinking in the area. A particularly
useful introductory paper by Melnick sets the framework,
philosophically and practically, for interpreting the remaining papers.
Scanning electron micrographs of cranial neural crest
migration in chick embryos in the paper by Steffek,
Muzuid, and Johnson are outstanding. A paper by Slavkin
presents work that has been going on in his laboratory for
several years regarding the role of the histocompatibility
complex in congenital craniofacial malformations in mice.
The histocompatibility complex is also the focus of a paper
by Bonner, the most difficult and highly specialized in the
volume but one that points to the direction of future research. Specifically, this paper hypothesizes that there are
histocompatibility antigens with immunoglobulin-like cell
surface molecules, collectively called cell surface polymorphisms, which control intercellular recognition, pattern formation, cell migration, and cytodifferentiation.
Rounding out the volume are two papers which present
applications of basic laboratory research to thinking in
clinical medicine. The first, by Johnson and Sulik, is concerned with the manner in which abnormal genetic and environmental influences cause alterations in normal developmental pathways. In the second, Riccardi proposes an
epigenetic model of the primary defect in neurofibromatosis and postulates a site for it.
This small volume is highly readable and can be recommended for those interested in craniofacial dysmorpholOgY.
Susan L. McMillan, PhD
Dii'ision of Child Development and Behatioral Pediatrics
University of Texas Medical Brunch
Galwston, T X 77550
The Cholinergic Synapse
(Progress in Brain Research, V o l 4 9 )
Edited by Stunisla?' Tucek
E lteilier.lNorth-Holland B iomedii.al Press, Awls terdam, 1 9 79
51 1 pp, illustrated, $92.75
The Cholinergic Synapse contains the proceedings of the International Conference on the Cholinergic Synapse held in
Linkovy, Czechoslovakia, in May, 1978. The book is of
high quality and well edited. Over 40 full-length articles
and 30 abstracts present the work of a number of experts in
the field and review important issues concerning the
anatomy, physiology, development, biochemistry, and pathology of cholinergic synapses. Literature reviews and
bibliographies are not comprehensive but include the
major papers in each area prior to and including 1978.
I recommend this book as a useful reference to workers
in the field. As it is expensive, it would be appropriately included in specialty and general libraries.
Stanton B . Elia.r, M D
Department of Neurology
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, T X 770.30
H e a d ache
By N. Y . Raskin and 0. Appenzeller
W . B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1980
244 pp, illustruted, $1 7.50
This relatively short monograph usefully reviews modern
concepts of the ubiquitous headache problem, giving chief
attention to migraine and its variants, tension headache,
cluster headache, and giant cell arteritis. Other varieties of
spontaneous head pain receive lesser mention, as does
brain tumor headache. Little discussion is directed toward
difficult to analyze o r refractory problems of pain such
as differentiation of atypical face pain from pain of dental
origin and trigeminal neuralgia. The issue of whether
temporomandibular joint disease causes headache, for
example, goes unmentioned. The large literature on
pathogenesis and treatment of migraine enjoys reasonably
detailed if somewhat uncritical attention, and leads the authors to conclude that abnormal serotonergic function in
some as yet incompletely understood manner underlies the
syndrome. The largely anecdotal literature on treatment is
dealt with sensibly and with proper recommendations for at
least starting treatment regimens for these chronic problems with the least harmful available drugs. Overall, the
volume is reasonable, well balanced, and interestingmost physicians will find the treatment section alone worth
the price of purchase.
Fred Plum, M D
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