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ENDOR Spectroscopy Ч A Promising Technique for Investigating the Structure of Organic Radicals.

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Volume 23
Number 3
March 1984
Pages 173-252
International Edition in English
ENDOR Spectroscopy- A Promising Technique
for Investigating the Structure of Organic Radicals
By Harry Kurreck*, Burkhard Kirste, and Wolfgang Lubitz
The name “ENDOR’ has been known since biblical times and denotes a small town close
to the Sea of Galilee (ca. 1000 B.C., 1 Sam. 28: 7 fr). The acronym “ENDOR’ (Electron Nuclear Double Resonance) characterizes the extension of electron spin resonance to electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy, a method that has opened up new dimensions
for the investigation of complicated paramagnetic molecules. Only ENDOR spectroscopy,
which has achieved technical perfection in the last decade, overcomes the resolution limitations of EPR spectroscopy, thus allowing interesting applications in the field of biochemistry. ENDOR investigations of the primary process of photosynthesis, of the mode of action
of derivatives of vitamin E and K, and of the mechanism of the enzymatic catalysis of flavoenzymes in biological redox-chains have opened up new vistas. ENDOR and its extension to the triple resonance experiment TRIPLE offer, for example, the potential for a precise determination of hyperfine coupling constants, including their signs, which are frequently especially interesting. In addition to protons, a multitude of magnetic nuclei can be
studied by ENDOR, such as e.g. 2H, I3C, and I4N. The ENDOR technique is not restricted
to monoradicals, but can also be applied to polyradicals in spin states of higher multiplicities (triplet, quartet, or quintet state). The experimental data accessible from ENDOR yield
information about spin and charge density distributions, and about the geometries of radicals and their internal dynamics; they also provide an excellent test for the accuracy of
quantum mechanical calculations.
1. IntroductionWhy Electron Nuclear Double and Triple
The chemistry of “free radicals” began in 1900 with
Gomberg’s classical studies on the generation and chemical detection of the triphenylmethyl radical. The first electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiment by Zu-
Prof. Dr. H. Kurreck, Dr. B. Kirste, Dr. W. Lubitz [‘I
Institut fur Organische Chemie der Freien UniversitBt Berlin
Takustrasse 3, D-1000 Berlin 33
Present address: Department of Physics, University of California, La Jolla, CA 92093 (USA)
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
ooisky in 1945[’] can be considered a milestone in the exploration of paramagnetic systems. Nowadays EPR spectroscopy has established itself as the most versatile method
for investigating paramagnetic molecules. Applications extend from solid state physics, via studies of structure and
dynamics of molecules, to investigations of paramagnetic
intermediates in biological systems.
Due to this widespread use, the chemist should already
be acquainted with the physical principles of EPR spectroscopy, the more so since the principles of magnetic resonance reveal a close relationship between EPR and the
more familiar NMR spectroscopy. Similarly to NMR spectroscopy, where nuclear spin transitions between different
nuclear Zeeman levels are induced, in EPR spectroscopy
0 Verlag Chemie GmbH, 0-6940 Weinheim, 1984
0570-0833/84/0303-0173 0$02.50/0
electron spin transitions between different electron Zeeman levels are stimulated. The observables in an EPR experiment are the electronic g-value, the line shape-and
probably most interesting for the chemist-the hyperfine
structure, from which the hyperfine interaction parameters
can be extracted. By analogy to NMR spectroscopy where
local structural information can be obtained from the spinspin coupling of nuclei in different molecular positions, in
EPR spectroscopy the scalar and the dipolar doupling of
the unpaired electron (or of unpaired electrons) with magnetic nuclei lead to splitting of the electronic Zeeman levels into hyperfine sublevels and thus to additional EPR
transitions. In contrast to NMR spectroscopy, where the
spin-spin coupling is usually restricted to nuclei in small
fragments of the molecule, delocalization of the unpaired
electron in an organic n radical over a larger n system results in its coupling with all magnetic nuclei, producing an
(integral) multispin ensemble. Even in the case of a comparatively simple organic doublet radical like triphenylmethy1 with one set of three equivalent protons and two sets
each of six equivalent protons, this gives rise to a thicket of
(theoretically expected) 4 x 7 x 7 = 196 lines. This high density of spectral lines is undoubtedly the greatest handicap
of EPR spectroscopy, which makes it of limited utility in
investigations of larger organic radicals because of its insufficient resolving power.
One possible way of improving the resolving power of a
spectroscopic technique is offered by double resonance
methods in which the sample is simultaneously irradiated
with two resonant fields. In NMR spectroscopy different
versions of such double resonance techniques are wellknown. Provided the double resonance method is based on
a change of level populations, e.g. in the INDOR technique, there exists a certain relationship between extended
NMR techniques and the ENDOR experiment, which
shall be described in detail in this article.
The Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR)
technique was first applied by Feher in 1956 to solids[*]and
some time later by Hyde and Maki to organic radicals in
solution[31.This method overcomes the limited resolution
of EPR spectroscopy by introducing additional selection
rules. Furthermore, by detecting the NMR transitions in
the microwave range, the sensitivity is enhanced by several
orders of magnitude relative to pure NMR spectroscopy of
In particular, the drastically improved resolving power
compared to EPR spectroscopy makes ENDOR spectroscopy highly attractive for organic chemists and biochemists. Comparison of the EPR and ENDOR spectra of the
bis(biphenylylene)allyl radical illustrates this (cf. Fig. 1).
Whereas only ca. 400 of the theoretically expected
5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 2 = 1250 lines can be resolved in the EPR
spectrum, the ‘H-ENDOR spectrum exhibits all five possible line-pairs-one for each set of equivalent protons. The
hyperfine coupling (HFC) constants can be extracted without difficulty and usually unambiguously without need for
computer simulations. A computer simulation of the EPR
spectrum with the HFC constants taken from ENDOR
then yields the multiplicities. Unequivocal assignments of
the HFC constants to individual molecular positions can
be achieved by selective isotopic labeling.
I .
. .
. . . . .
Fig. I.a) EPR spectrum (in CCL, 2Y3 K) and b) ENDOR spectrum (in mineral oil, 330 K) of the his(hiphenylylene)allyl radical. The following points
should he noted: that there is a drastic decrease in the number of lines in the
double resonance experiment (compare ENDOR/EPR); that different conditions (temperature, viscosity of the solvent) are often necessary to obtain
optimum EPR and ENDOR spectra: and that the positions of the ENDOR
signals-corresponding to the ENDOR resonance condition (eq. (3))-depend on the relative magnitude of the HFC constants with respect to the free
nuclear frequency (v14);cf. [27].
The extension of ENDOR to electron-nuclear-nuclear
triple resonance spectroscopy “TRIPLE” (also termed
“double ENDOR”‘]) offers a further increase in resolution and sensitivity151and allows determination of the (relative) signs of coupling
2. Physical Principles, Instrumentation
Excellent accounts of the theory of electron nuclear
multiple resonance may be found in a series of authoritative review articles and monographs[’]. In the following,
the ENDOR experiment will be described in a simple phenomenological manner.
2.1. ENDOR
In the ENDOR experiment nuclear spin transitions in
paramagnetic molecules are induced by means of a suitable radio frequency (RF) field and are detected by a
change in the EPR signal intensity. Figure 2 shows the energy level diagram (“four level scheme”) for the simplest
case of a radical with one unpaired electron (S= 1/2) and
one magnetic nucleus ( I = l/2), e.g. a proton. The interaction of the electronic and nuclear spin moments with the
external magnetic field gives rise to a splitting into two
times two levels (Zeeman splitting), the position of which
is influenced further by the hyperfine interaction between
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
Equation (2) can be written in a general way as the “ENDOR resonance condition”:
4 M
Fig. 2. Energy level diagram and “four-level scheme” for the hyperfine interaction of one unpaired electron (S = 1/2) with one proton (or another nucleus with I = l / 2 ) . The solid arrows symbolize the EPR and NMR transitions induced by radiation, respectively, and the broken arrows the relaxation transitions. The bottom scheme should makes plain the “spin acrobatics” in the double resonance experiment).
electron and nucleus. The four levels are denoted by the
signs of the magnetic spin quantum numbers, and the energies of the levels are given in frequency units. The solid arrows symbolize the radiation-induced electron and nuclear
spin transitions, whereas the dashed arrows characterize
the radiationless electron spin (We),nuclear spin (W,) and
cross-relaxation processes ( W,, and Wx2).In the last-mentioned process, simultaneous electron- and nuclear-spin relaxation transitions take place (cf. Section 3). With the selection rules AMs= k 1, AMl=O, the two possible EPR
transitions (0
c+ @, @ c+ @) arise at the frequencies
and with the selection rules AMl = k 1, AMs = 0, the two
NMR transitions arise at the frequencies
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
For a monoradical with Ms= f 1/2, two signals appear in
the ENDOR spectrum for each nucleus or set of equivalent nuclei, respectively, either centered about the free nuclear frequency v,,, separated by the HFC constant a (when
Id21 < v,, holds), or equally spaced about a/2, separated
by 2vn (when Id21 > v, holds).
In the ENDOR experiment, an EPR transition (v,) is
first irradiated continuously with an intensity high enough
that the (spin-lattice) relaxation can no longer compete
successfully with the induced rater8]:The populations of
the two levels are almost equalized, the transition is partially “saturated”, and the thermal Boltzmann equilibrium
distribution is perturbed.
If, additionally, an NMR transition (vkl) is also irradiated with high intensity, the total transition raters1
@ ++ @ is increased, and level @ is depopulated more efficiently; the relaxation pathway is closed via a We(@ c-,@)
and a W,, (@ ct @) process or via a Wx2(0
c+ 0)
The desaturation of the EPR transition thus achieved gives
rise to an increase in the EPR signal intensity which is recorded as the ENDOR effect. Although the ENDOR effect
amounts to only a few percent of the EPR signal intensity,
even under the most favorable conditions, there is a sensitivity increase of ca. lo5 relative to that of NMR spectroscopy, resulting from the detection of the NMR transitions
in the microwave frequency range (so-called “quantum
It can be shown that the magnitude of the ENDOR effect depends critically upon the relative magnitudes of the
rates We, W,,, Wx,,
and Wx2.Neglecting W, processes, optimum ENDOR signals are obtained when We and W,, are
comparable. Since these rates depend differently upon the
so-called rotational correlation time zR (a measure of the
Brownian rotational diffusion of molecules in solution)[91,
an adjustment of the relaxation rates can often be achieved
by temperature variation. This can be understood in terms
of the Debye-Einstein equation, which provides a connection between the effective molecular volume ( Vetr results
from the average radius of a molecule considered as a
sphere), the viscosity 77 of the solvent, and the temperature :
v,,, kT
With decreasing temperature and increasing viscosity, We
becomes smaller and W,, larger. The desired ratio W,,/
We= 1 can usually be attained through temperature/viscosity optimization of the solution. Since for protons W,, is
normally much smaller than We,optimum ENDOR signals
in solvents of low viscosity such as toluene, tetrahydrofu175
ran (THF) or 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) are obtained
near the respective freezing points of the solutions.
In summary, fulfillment of the following conditions are
necessary for a successful ENDOR experiment:
a) EPR
- (a) An EPR transition and
d) General-TRIPLE
(b) an NMR transition have to be saturated; the required microwave and radio frequency powers increase with increasing relaxation rates[’’].
- (c) The relaxation rates We and W, have to be of comparable magnitude, or cross-relaxation processes
must be effective.
- (d) Finally, it should be emphasized that the quality of
the sample (concentration, absence of oxygen) is of
crucial importance.
The simplification of the spectra achievable by ENDOR
will be illustrated using the hyperfine energy level diagram
of the p-benzosemiquinone radical anion or, more generally, a radical with one unpaired electron and four equivalent protons (cf. Fig. 3). Whereas the EPR spectrum consists of a quintet of signals with binomial intensity distribution (1 :4 :6 :4 :l), the ENDOR spectrum exhibits only
two signals. Generally speaking, in EPR spectroscopy the
number of signals increases multiplicatively with the number of nonequivalent nuclei, whereas in the ENDOR experiment the increase is only additive. In a monoradical,
each set of equivalent magnetic nuclei gives rise to just one
ENDOR line-pair, irrespective of the number of nuclei per
Figure 4 shows, among others, the EPR and ENDOR
spectra of the phenalenyl radical, which contains one set
of three and a set of six equivalent protons. Correspondingly, the EPR spectrum consists of 4 x 7 = 28 signals and
the ENDOR spectrum only of four signals. A more complicated example demonstrating the resolution enhancement of ENDOR more convincingly has already been
shown in Figure 1.
Fig. 3. Energy level diagram of a hyperfine-coupled spin system consisting of
one unpaired electron (S= 1/2) and four equivalent nuclei (1=1/2).
22 MH;
c) Special-TRIPLE
e) ENDOR- induced EPR
Fig. 4. Spectra of the phenalenyl radical (in mineral oil, 300 K), obtained by
application of the magnetic resonance techniques EPR, ENDOR, special
TRIPLE, general TRIPLE, and ENDOR-induced EPR (EIE): ENDOR increases the resolution relative to EPR; special TRIPLE resonance extends
the range of applicability (temperature, solvent); general TRIPLE resonance
yields the signs of the HFC constants; and ENDOR-induced EPR enables
the spectra of different radical species in a sample to be recorded selectively.
Whereas the multiplicity, i.e. the number of equivalent
nuclei belonging to each set, is reflected in the intensity
distribution of a resolved EPR spectrum, this information
is lost in an ENDOR spectrum. The reason for this is easily understood, since the ENDOR signal intensity is essentially determined by the individual relaxation properties of
the particular nuclei in the respective molecular positions.
A systematic decrease of the ENDOR signal intensities is
found for small hyperfine couplings“’]. Thus the assignment of individual ENDOR signals to particular molecular
positions is more difficult. Moreover, the high-frequency
component of an ENDOR line-pair is often more intense
than the low-frequency one at the same RF power. This socalled “hyperfine-enhancement effect”[’*] becomes more
pronounced as the frequency difference between the two
components increases. For example, in Figure 1 the highfrequency ENDOR signal (at ca. 33 MHz) is much more
intense than the respective low-frequency one and, furthermore, this signal of the single central proton is of the same
intensity as the ENDOR lines belonging to the sets of four
equivalent protons in the fluorenylidene moieties. The
number of equivalent nuclei belonging to a particular HFC
constant can be determined by computer simulation of a
sufficiently resolved EPR spectrum with the coupling conAngew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
stants obtained from ENDOR. The unequivocal assignment to particular molecular positions is performed by
specific isotopic labeling; however, this usually requires
considerable preparative effort. Figure 5 illustrates the unequivocal assignment of ENDOR signals by this method
using several m-terphenyl radical anions[13].The arrows in
the figure indicate the positions of resonance lines in the
’H-ENDOR spectrum that disappear upon deuteration.
180 K, DME
In the special TRIPLE experiment the sample is irradiated with two RF fields in addition to the “saturating”
microwave radiation. By generating side bands around the
free nuclear frequency, one RF field is swept to higher, the
other to lower, frequencies and thus both NMR transitions
of each set of equivalent nuclei are always “hit’+ simultaneously. Figure 4c shows that each hyperfine coupling gives
rise to just one special TRIPLE signal, which appears separated from the origin of the NMR frequency axis
(vNMR=O)by the frequency la/21. The advantages offered
by the special TRIPLE version compared to ENDOR
are :
- (a) Enhancement of sensitivity (improved signal-to-
noise ratio).
- (b) Improved resolution, as can be shown experimen-
tally and the~retically[~.~“].
- (c) Under favorable experimental conditions (induced
rate of nuclear spins 4 We 4 W,), the signal intensities reflect the ratio of numbers of equivalent nuclei
per set-as in NMR of diamagnetic compoundsbecause the desaturation of EPR transitions is not
primarily determined by the nuclear spin relaxation
rate W,,, in contrast to ENDOR.
- (d) This fact (c) also leads to a significantly smaller
temperature dependence of the special TRIPLE signal intensity, so that e.g. biological systems can be
investigated under (physiological) conditions which
do not lend themselves to a measurable ENDOR effect.
The special TRIPLE experiment can be applied in the
same way, even to those hyperfine-coupled nuclei for
which Id21 > v, is valid (see Section 2.1), since “negative”
frequencies are reflected at the origin. For several reasons
(second-order frequency shifts, high relaxation rates W,,),
however, in this situation special TRIPLE usually offers
no advantage relative to ENDOR experiments.
20 2 2 MHz
Fig. 5. ‘H- and 2H-ENDOR spectra of m-terphenyl radical anions. In the
spectra of the selectively 5’- or 4,4”-deuterated compounds the respective line
pair (marked by arrows) disappears, thus allowing an unequivocal assignment
of the corresponding HFC constants to these positions in the molecule (131.
2.2. Special TRIPLE Resonance
In Section 2.1 it was demonstrated (Figure 2) that the
ENDOR effect can be interpreted as arising from a “short
circuit” of a nuclear spin transition. Clearly, this effect
should be enhanced substantially if both relaxation “resistances” W,, and W,,, could be short-circuited simultaneously by means of an additional NMR frequency15a1.
experimental realization of TRIPLE resonance experiments on organic radicals in solution was first achieved by
Mobius, Biehl, Dinse, and Pluto-a group which has played
a leading role in the development of ENDOR spectroscopy-in 1974 (special TRIPLE)[5b1and 1975 (general TRIPLE)[~].
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
2.3. General TRIPLE Resonance
Besides pure n conjugation, the different mechanisms of
spin density transfer (such as n-n,and n-o spin polarization or hyperconjugation) can give rise to positive as well
as negative spin densities at the nucleus, and thus via hyperfine coupling to HFC constants with positive or negative
signs, respectively. It is therefore of great interest to be
able to determine both the signs of HFC constants and
their magnitudes. The general TRIPLE technique offers
the potential of a simple, elegant and unambiguous
method for the determination of the relative signs of HFC
constants. In contrast, the applicability of other methods
for determination of signs is limited, e.g. wide-line NMR
spectroscopy (NMR measurement of the Fermi contact
shift) of organic radicals[’41or EPR spectroscopy in liquid
crystals (direction of the hyperfine shift on passing from
the isotropic to the nematic phase)[l5].
In contrast to special TRIPLE, NMR transitions of dqferent sets of nuclei of the same kind or of different kinds
are saturated simultaneously in the general TRIPLE experiment. In practice, one EPR component is saturated, and an
NMR transition is “pumped” with the first (unmodulated)
NMR frequency. The whole range of NMR resonances is
scanned with the second (modulated) R F field. The additional pumping frequency gives rise to characteristic intensity changes of the signals compared to those of the ENDOR spectrum, and allows the determination of the relative signs of the HFC constants (see Fig. 4d). If, for example, the high-frequency component of the smaller coupling
of the phenalenyl radical is pumped (marked by an arrow
in Fig. 4d, top), the intensity of the respective low-frequency
signal increases because this corresponds to a special TRIPLE experiment. On the other hand, the high-frequency
component of the large coupling is enhanced, and the lowfrequency component on the other side-with respect to
the free proton frequency vH-decreases in intensity. This
phenomenon allows it to be concluded that the two HFC
constants have opposite signs. If the corresponding experiment is performed with the pumping frequency set on the
low-frequency ENDOR line of the small coupling, these
intensity relations are reversed (Fig. 4d (bottom)). This
analysis of general TRIPLE spectra is only valid, however,
if the gyromagnetic ratios of the nuclei under consideration have the same sign.
In a heteronuclear general TRIPLE experiment bethese intensity
tween, e.g., ’H and 29Si”61or ‘H and ‘SNL171,
rules have to be reversed. Since this method deals with the
determination of relative signs, an interpretation of this effect requires at least an eight-level scheme with two different nuclei ( I = 112; a l +a2). Figure 6 shows such diagrams
for equal (left diagram) or opposite signs (right) of the two
HFC constants. In both cases v; denotes the pumping
frequency, and v i and v: the monitoring frequencies. An
increase in intensity is to be expected if the pumping and
monitoring frequencies belong to different Ms manifolds.
A closer inspection of Figure 6 reveals that only in this situation can a “relaxation loop” be formed which consists
exclusively of We processes and short-circuited W , processes; hence, no “bottleneck” W , is involved. If pumping
and monitoring frequencies are irradiated in the same M ,
manifold, however, the relaxation loop can only be closed
by including W, processes; the signal intensity is then even
smaller than in a n ENDOR experiment (“bypass”). Large
TRIPLE effects occur if We> W,, i.e. outside the optimum
ENDOR range ( W e = W,). If the signs of the two HFC
constants are the same (in Figure 6 left, positive), both lowfrequency components v; and v; belong to the same Ms
manifold. The right-hand diagram in Figure 6 describes,
e.g., the TRIPLE experiment on the phenalenyl radical depicted in Figure 4: The HFC constants have opposite
signs, and consequently the two low-frequency NMR transitions belong to different Ms manifolds. In this case, the
ENDOR signal is enhanced if pumping and monitoring
frequencies are situated on the same side of vH.
In addition to determination of signs, a n increase in resolution can occasionally be achieved using the general
TRIPLE technique, provided two HFC constants have
similar absolute values but opposite signs: The pumping
frequency enhances the signal of one set of nuclei but
weakens that of the other, thus giving rise to a small shift
in the resonance position of the superposed signals. A shift
in the opposite direction is achieved by appropriate
If, + ->
It, - +>
I+.+ +>
I-,-+ >
> O >a,
Fig. 6. Energy level diagrams for the hyperfine interaction of one unpaired
electron (S= 112) with two different protons (or two other nuclei with I = 1/2)
for clarification of the general TRIPLE effect. The HFC constants in the
left diagram have the same (positive) signs and in the right one, opposite
signs: v i denotes the NMR pumping frequency, and v j and v: the NMR
scan frequencies. Left: A closed relaxation loop between the two hyperfine
levels of the pumped EPR transition I -, - - > -1 +, - - > consisting exclusively of We and short-circuited W,, processes can only occur if v: is irradiated. Right: For a , >O>a, such a relaxation loop-again symbolized by
the sinuous line-exists only if v , is irradiated.
switching of the pumping f r e q ~ e n c y “ ~ ]Coincident
ENDOR signals of HFC constants with opposite signs and
equal number of nuclei can be recognized since these lines
d o not “react” on the TRIPLE effect when the pumping
frequency is changed to another NMR transition, i.e. their
intensity remains unaltered.
2.4. ENDOR-Induced Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
In the chemistry of organic free radicals, it happens occasionally that more than one radical is formed at the same
time. Whereas the EPR spectrum of such a mixture-especially when the g-values are similar-often consists of a superposition of the contributing spectra which is difficult to
analyze, the individual EPR spectra can be recorded separately using the interesting variant “ENDOR-induced
E P R ’ (EIE), provided separate signals for the different radicals appear in the ENDOR
The EIE experiment is illustrated in Figure 4 for the phenalenyl radical: While the NMR frequency is positioned at an ENDOR line (Fig. 4b), the external magnetic field is swept
over the range of EPR absorptions, and gives rise to the
ENDOR-induced EPR spectrum of phenalenyl depicted in
Figure 4e, which, for experimental reasons, has the appearance of an absorption spectrum. The following example
serves to illustrate how the EIE technique allows individual species to be selectively studied in a mixture of different radicals: We recently had to decide[’8b1whether the
ENDOR spectrum of a partially deuterated phenalenyl
radical (Fig. 7) could be assigned to a species with H atoms
in positions 1 and 2, or whether the solution consisted of a
mixture of species with only one H atom in position 1 or 2
(the intensities of the ENDOR signals were ignored). The
EIE spectrum gave the unequivocal answer: Depending on
the setting of the NMR pumping frequency (@ or @), different EIE spectra (@ and 0)
were obtained. The solution
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
H (Dl
3. Further Nuclei Accessible to ENDOR
(ENDOR of Nuclei other than Protons)[251
Until 1970, ENDOR spectroscopy in solution was applied exclusively to study the protons within the radicals,
which are particularly suited for this technique: The mag-
@ Bird
@ pumped
25 MHz
Fig. 7. ENDOR (top) and ENDOR-induced EPR spectra (bottom) of phenalenyl radicals with the same degree of deuteration but different distribution of
the isotopes: The EIE spectrum @ obtained with the NMR pumping frequency set on the high-frequency ENDOR component of the small coupling
arises from radicals with the hydrogen atom in position 2; analogously the
EIE experiment @ indicates the presence of phenalenyl radicals with a hydrogen atom in position 1. Furthermore, it can be deduced from the relative
intensities of the ENDOR signals that the concentration of the [2-’H] species
is larger than that of the []-‘HI species (cf. [18b]).
therefore consisted of a mixture of phenalenyl radicals in
which eight of the nine possible positions are always deuterated, with the H atom in either position 1 or 2.
It is worth mentioning that the signal intensity can be increased significantly by using the version “TRIPLE-induced EPR’1”91.In principle, such a selection experiment
is also possible using a general TRIPLE experiment. If an
ENDOR spectrum exhibits signals from different radicals,
of course, only those ENDOR components “react” to the
additional pumping frequency which belong to the same
level scheme, i.e. to the same radical, as the pumped component.
2.5. Instrumentation and Sample Preparation
Figure 8 shows the block diagram of the spectrometer
used in the authors’ laboratory. The spectrometer is capable of recording EPR, ENDOR, ENDOR-induced EPR, as
well as special and general TRIPLE resonance spectra.
The components of the commercial EPR spectrometer
(Bruker ER 220 D) are enclosed by the broken lines. The
basic features of the broad-band NMR channel have been
described previously[7c~7‘~201.
Sample preparation using the various methods of generating radicals by chemical, electrolytic, and photolytic
means is accomplished essentially according to the relevant methods used in EPR spectroscopy1231.
Only a limited
number of solvents are suitable for ENDOR spectroscopy;
however, those solvents which form a glass on cooling (toluene, ethanol, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran) have proved particularly useful, because the high viscosity thus achievable
frequently allows the condition We W , to be adjusted.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
Fig. 8. Block diagram of an ENDOR/TRIPLE spectrometer. The dashed line
encloses the EPR spectrometer. For very elaborate EPR measurements (sensitivity, resolution), the ENDOR cavity should be replaced by an EPR cavity.
The different modes of operation require the following connections, denoted
by 1-6: ENDOR: 1, 5 closed; 2, 3, 4, 6 open. General TRIPLE: 1, 2, 6
closed; 3, 4, 5 open. Special TRIPLE: 3, 4, 5 closed; 1, 2, 6 open. The MW
and RF fields are generated by means of a Bruker ENDOR cavity (ER 200
ENB) of TMllotype with internal NMR coil, which may have different numbers of turns, and is fixed to a double-walled quartz Dewar. 12.5 kHz field
modulation is used for recording the EPR spectra in the field sweep method
(Hall probe stabilization). The EPR signals are plotted on the recorder of the
Bruker console after phase-sensitive rectification and amplification (lock-in
1). For recording ENDOR spectra, the spectrometer is adjusted to the absorption maximum of the selected EPR line by means of a field frequency
lock (Bruker ER 033), and the field modulation is switched off. The frequency generator I (hp 8660 C) generates the 10 kHz frequency-modulated
NMR frequency. This is amplified (EN1 A SOO), passed through the NMR
coil in the cavity, and dissipated in a 50 load (Bird 8201) after its power
has been measured (Bird Wattmeter 43). The change in the EPR absorption
of the sample caused by the NMR transitions undergoes phase-sensitive rectification, is amplified (lock-in 2, Ithaco 393) and stored in a spectrum accumulator (Nicolet 1170). The channel advance of the CAT is synchronized
with the change in the oscillator frequency (I) via a clock. The ENDOR signals in the first derivative mode can be plotted versus the NMR frequency on
an x,y recorder (hp 7004 B). For performing general TRIPLE experiments,
the unmodulated NMR frequency of an ENDOR signal is also irradiated
(see Section 2.3). This frequency is generated by oscillator 11 (hp 675 A) and
added to the first (swept, frequency-modulated) NMR frequency using a
combiner (EN1 PM 12-2). In the special TRIPLE experiment the double balanced mixer (Industrial Electronics SRA-3H) produces two frequency-modulated side bands at vII (from oscillator II)+vi (from oscillator I). Provided
the carrier frequency vIIcorresponds to the Larmor frequency of one type of
nuclei in the radical, the high- and the low-frequency ENDOR transitions for
all HFC constants of these nuclei are always irradiated simultaneously; this
procedure can even be used if la/21> v,,, with the only proviso that the range
v I ~ v I(la/21=vn)
should be avoided (see Section 2.2). The temperature of
the sample is usually adjusted by means of a flow of nitrogen gas (e.g. temperature control unit Bruker Vl-IOOO), hut a helium cryostat may be used instead [21]. Slotted cavities allow light irradiation of the sample in situ [7f,
22a, b]. Computerized ENDOR spectrometers are also available; the computer is used, inter alia, to control the field position, the scan oscillator, and
the RF power, in addition to data acquisition, and handling and storage of
the spectra [7f, 22~1.
netic moment of the hydrogen nucleus is relatively large,
and therefore the resonant frequency vH of the free proton
(the “free proton frequency”) is situated in an experimentally easily accessible range (13-15 MHz, in the field
range of an X-band EPR spectrometer); the TI-IS spin polarization mechanism which is operative through the C-H
IS bond gives rise to pure s spin density in the proximity of
the protons and thus to a comparatively small hyperfine
anisotropy ; relatively small RF powers are consequently
sufficient to saturate the NMR transitions. It was of great
interest both for theoretical and applied ENDOR spectroscopy to extend this method to further nuclei such as ’H,
I3C, 14315N,
and I9F for example, the hyperfine coupling of
a I3C nucleus within the 71 system is expected to be much
more sensitive toward changes in the geometry than those
of peripheral protons. Finally, all nuclei in the 71 skeleton
not connected to protons are “blind” for purposes of ‘HENDOR spectroscopy.
ers (> 200 W) are required, in particular, simultaneously.
However, nowadays substantial technological improvements allow ENDOR spectroscopy to be performed on a
whole series of “non-proton” nuclei (cf. Table 1).
Figure 9 shows the multinuclear EPR and ENDOR
spectra of a perdeuterated-except for the proton at the pcarbon atom-and 90% p- I3C labeled bis(biphenyly1ene)allyl radical. Comparison of the EPR spectra in Figures 9
and 1 reveals a drastic decrease in spectral resolution,
caused firstly by the smaller gyromagnetic ratio of deuterium (116th that of a proton), secondly by its larger spin
quantum number (ID=1, ZH = 1/2), and thirdly by enlarged line widths arising from the l3C hyperfine anisotropy. The ENDOR spectrum, optimized for three different
kinds of nuclei, however, is completely resolved. The ’HENDOR lines are centered about the free deuterium frequency vD(ld21 <vD), whereas the ‘H- and I3C-ENDOR
signals are equally spaced at about half the respective
HFC constant, separated by twice the free nuclear fre~
> v“).
quency v, or V U (Id21
Table 1. Properties of magnetic nuclei from which ENDOR-in-solution signals have been obtained so far, see text (’H-and ”N-ENDOR spectroscopy
were only possible with isotopically enriched radicals.)
Free nuclear
frequency [MHz]
(Bo=328.8 mT)
1 /2
1 /2
1 /2
moment p,
(in ~d
- 0.9949
2 7 ~ 1
150 ENDOR-amplitude
However, “non-proton” ENDOR spectroscopy faces far
greater experimental difficulties than ‘H-ENDOR spectroscopy. Thus, magnetic nuclei occurring in low natural
abundance such as ’H, I3C, and I5N require isotopic labeling[261.The generally smaller magnetic moment and the
lower free nuclear frequency of nuclei other than protons
can cause experimental problems (as long as Id21 < v,).
Large TI spin populations at magnetic nuclei, e.g. at I3C
atoms located in the skeleton of aromatic rings, give rise to
large hyperfine anisotropies and in the case of heteroatoms
(nitrogen, oxygen, halogens) often to large g-value anisotropies. These quantities strongly influence the nuclearand electron-spin relaxation rates[7d1.In addition, the experimental difficulties of the ENDOR technique increase
considerably if high microwave ( > 100 mW) and RF pow180
20 LO
60 Bi[(mTl:,t]
Fig. 9. Multinuclear a) EPR and b) ENDOR spectra (in mineral oil, 360 K) of
the selectively deuteraked and ”C-labeled bis(biphenyly1ene)allyl radical.
The arrow in the EPR spectrum denotes the field setting for the ENDOR experiment. Note that the experimental conditions were not changed to record
the ENDOR spectrum. On the bottom left is plotted the dependence of the
signal amplitudes of the high-frequency ‘H-ENDOR signals of the p- and
a,y-labeled compounds, respectively, on the microwave power. On the bottom right, the signal amplitude of the high-frequency ”C-ENDOR lines of
these radicals is shown as a function of the radio frequency power. In both
cases the a,y-”C labeled compound requires higher powers to achieve an optimum ENDOR effect because of the larger hyperfine anisotropy (cf. 1271).
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
Carbon (”C)
The 13C isotope, which is particularly interesting for the
organic chemist, will be discussed first. The I3C nucleus in
the S-position of the bis(biphenyly1ene)allyl radical behaves typically in terms of the optimum ENDOR effect,
i.e. somewhat higher microwave and RF powers are required compared to those used for the ‘H-ENDOR spectrum of the unlabeled compound (Fig. 9). The a- and y-positions of this molecule exhibit much larger spin populations than the B-position. As expected, I3C-ENDOR spectroscopy requires markedly larger powers and the use of
higher temperatures because of the larger hyperfine anisotropy at these positions. Figure 9 (bottom left) shows the
dependence of the ENDOR signal amplitudes of the highfrequency proton lines of the two differently labeled molecules on the microwave power; whereas on the bottom
right the intensities of the high-frequency I3C-ENDOR signals are depicted as a function of the RF power[271.
Another instructive example is offered by the I3C-ENDOR investigation of I3C-labeled galvinoxyls (“Coppinger’s radical”)[281.Whereas the unsubstituted, selectively
deuterated and I3C-labeled galvinoxyl radical again exhibits the typical ENDOR behavior, i.e. I3C-ENDOR requires higher temperatures and larger microwave and RF
powers compared to ‘H- and 2H-ENDOR, the result obtained for the tert-butyl substituted and I3C-labeled galvinoxyl radical was completely unexpected (cf. Fig. 10): The
optimum I3C-ENDOR intensities are obtained at comparatively low temperatures and powers. Moreover, the lowfrequency I3C-ENDOR signal can even be detected in the
unlabeled molecule, i.e. in natural abundance (1.1%). This
signal is also shown in Figure 10 (middle, right). (The highfrequency component, which is certainly more intense because of the “hyperfine enhancement”, coincides accidentally with a ’H-ENDOR signal.) Clearly this basically different relaxation behavior of the two I3Cnuclei means that
the tert-butylgalvinoxyl radical, in contrast to many other
substituted compounds of this type, no longer behaves like
a “genuine” galvinoxyl radical with a completely delocalized n system comprising two equivalent aryl rings. Owing
to the different twist angles of the rings it has to be described as an equilibrating substituted phenoxyl radical.
This interpretation is confirmed by the investigation of
radical I3C-labeled at
the carbonyl carbon which also exhibits such unusual I3CENDOR behavior[291.A natural abundance I3C-ENDOR
signal was observed in this radical for the first time. HMOMcLachlan and INDO calculations yielded a very low pzspin population at the carbonyl C atom. The I3C hyperfine
anisotropy is therefore extremely small in this system, and
could be confirmed experimentally by ENDOR investigations in liquid crystals (see Section 4). The I3C hyperfine
coupling results almost exclusively from 71-0 spin polarization, and the relaxation properties of the I3C nucleus correspond to those of the protons, in full agreement with the
experimental observation[301.
The successful detection of a nuclear resonance of 13C
in natural abundance by ENDOR spectroscopy testifies
convincingly the increase in sensitivity relative to NMR,
achievable through quantum transformation. Recently it
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
.... .... I 1
, I “i .... ....i‘”“ ....-.
12 1/,a,3C 16 MHz
C , H , , ~ C N
10 12 14 16 18 MHz
Fig. 10. ‘H-, *H-, and ‘’C-ENDOR spectra of galvinoxyls. The formulas at
the top illustrate that introduction of a bulky substituent converts the galvinoxyl with equivalent aryl rings and a completely delocalized 71 system into an
equilibrating phenoxyl radical with difl‘erentlytwisted aryl rings. Galvinoxyl
exhibits typical I3CC-ENDOR
behavior (bottom left), whereas in the tert-butyl
compound ”C-ENDOR signals are also obtained at lower temperatures
(200 K) or in solvents of high viscosity (smectic phase of a liquid crystal). It
is especially noteworthy that the fert-butylgalvinoxyl exhibits “C-ENDOR
resonances even in unlabeled radicals, i.e. in natural abundance: see the signal at 5 MHz in the ENDOR spectrum at 200 K (middle right) (cf. [281).
was shown that whole sets of I3C HFC constants could be
determined by I3C-ENDOR experiments on unlabeled
radicals, provided these are extensively de~terated‘~’’.
In ENDOR investigations of I3C-labeled radicals with a
large p,-spin population, and hence large hyperfine anisotropy, pronounced intensity differences of the I3C-ENDOR line pairs are frequently observed, and it depends on
the setting of the external magnetic field in the EPR spectrum whether the high- or the low-frequency ENDOR
component is more intense. This effect cannot be accounted for solely in terms of the “hyperfine enhancement” mentioned in Section 2.1, but rather has to be ascribed to so-called “cross-relaxation processes”. As can be
seen from Figure 2, electron- and nuclear-spin can flip simultaneously. The transition I + - > U I - > (flip, flop)
is denoted W,,, whereas W,, symbolizes the process
> ++I - - > (flop, flop). Evidently the condition
We= W,, for optimum ENDOR signals is no longer valid
when W, processes are efficient ( W , > Wn), since a closed
“relaxation loop” arises from saturation of one NMR transition. Cross-relaxation processes are of importance, espe-
cially at elevated temperatures and large hyperfine aniso-
Wx2 process dominates in this system, arising from the
large I3C hyperfine anisotropy.
P4l >V”
((ow frequency) I + + >
1 rnT
(2 H )
Since the first successful I4N-ENDOR experiment by
Leniart et al. in 1970[351,14N-ENDOR spectroscopy has
found growing interest especially in applications to biological systems (cf. also Section 7). The “ENDOR behavior”
of a I4N nucleus within a 71 system is comparable to that of
the I3C isotope in a similar environment; the additional
quadrupole relaxation of ‘“N with Z I =~1 can,
in general,
be neglected[7d1since the anisotropic hyperfine interaction
provides the main contribution to the relaxation (possible
quadrupole effects can be recognized by comparison with
15N-labeled molecules, since this isotope has no quadrupole moment ( I E=s1/2)).
Two particularly interesting N-ENDOR investigations
will be mentioned here. The first, a study of the “GoldSchmidt radical” (N,N-diphenyl-N’-picrylhydrazyl)by
NMR, EPR, ENDOR, and TRIPLE techniques allowed four
different dynamic processes to be distinguished on the NMR
and ENDOR time scales (denoted by a-d in 1). The kinetic data were determined by ‘H-ENDOR and ’H-NMR
spectroscopy after ”N-ENDOR and TRIPLE experiments, among others, enabled the complete determination
of the HFC constants and their signs[’71.
(high frequency)
Fig. 11. EPR and ENDOR spectra of the ”C labeled and perdeuterated triphenylmethyl radical. The large ‘’C hyperfine anisotropy gives rise to a dominant W,, process, so that a closed relaxation loop without inclusion of W,,
is obtained with the low-field setting in the EPR spectrum @, whereas the
NMR transition W,, is avoided with the high-field setting @. A closer examination of the two “four-level schemes” reveals that in experiment @, the
low-frequency, and in @ t h e high-frequency ENDOR component is more intense (cf. [33]). This behavior is independent of the sign of the HFC constant.
Interestingly, cross-relaxation processes of nuclei with
large hyperfine anisotropies, occurring, e.g., in 13C-enriched molecules, can also be detected through nuclei (e.g.
protons) in these molecules which do not normally exhibit
cross-relaxation effects because of their low anisotropy.
This transfer arises because the unpaired electron in organic radicals couples with all magnetic nuclei to give a
multispin ensemble. It should be mentioned that investigations of this type-similar to the general TRIPLE effectallow determination of the relative signs of HFC constants.
For more detailed explanations, the reader is referred to
the original literature[’8b,341.
The second, I4N-ENDOR study of the pyrazine radical
anion deserves special attention, because here it was
shown for the first time that liquid ammonia is well suited
for the generation of stable radical anions and for EPR/
ENDOR spectroscopy (very good signal-to-noise ratio and
efficient TRIPLE and cross-relaxation effects allowing determination of the relative signs of I4N- and ‘H-HFC constant~)[~“.
Alkali Metal Ions
As is well known, in reactions involving organic ions the
influence of the “counterion” on the yield and stereoAngew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
chemistry of the products plays an important role. For this
reason, knowledge of type and structure of ion pairs is of
considerable interest-also for preparative chemistry. For
investigations of radical ion pairs, ENDOR spectroscopy
has proven especially valuable, because not only the "organic" anionic moiety but also the counterion thus become
accessible to direct observation. Lubitz et al. were able to
detect 7Li-, 23Na-, 85*87Rb-,and '33Cs-ENDOR signals in
the metal ketyls of flu~renone[~~"l
(cf. Fig. 12). The example
of the Na ketyl demonstrates how well the heteronuclear
TRIPLE resonance effect
a proton line is
pumped, and the 23Na-ENDORsignals react too! Interestingly, the sign of the sodium HFC constant changes on
cooling the solution from ca. 230 K to 170 K. Clearly the
structure of the ion pair shows a pronounced dependence
on the nature and temperature of the solvent. When contact ion pairs are formed, the spin density changes within
the fluorenone ketyl radical and at the metal itself could be
correlated with properties of the counterion, and conclusions about the structure of the ion pairs were drawn from
INDO calculations.
39K-ENDOR signals can only be detected in chelate
complexes with large spin density at potassium because of
the very small magnetic moment of 39K(see Table 1). Figure 12 shows the 39K-ENDOR line pair of 1,2-dimesitoylbenzenepota~siurn'~~"~.
"Rb-ENDOR signals were observed for the first time in a similar complex[36c1.
200 K
Fluorine ( I 9 F ) , Phosphorus (3' P), Silicon ("Si), Tin
("7,"9Sn), Boron (","B), Aluminum ("A& and fiallium
Figure 13 represents a small "spectral atlas" of ENDOR
signals of nuclei other than protons, not dealt with hitherto. The I9F-ENDOR effect was first mentioned by Allenand discussed later in detail by Lubitz
doerfer and h4aki1371
et al.[381.In collaboration with Haas et al.[391,we identified
the CF3S-substituted pyrrolyl radical shown in Figure 13
(top left) by 14N- and I9F-ENDOR spectroscopy. 31P-ENDOR spectroscopy was first reported by Stegmann et
al.[401.With Dimroth et al.[7d,4'1we detected 31P-ENDOR
signals in a radical generated when 2,4,6-triphenylphosphabenzene was allowed to react with 2,4,6-triphenylphenoxyl (Fig. 13, top right). Whereas the "P signals can
be identified unambiguously (line separation 2 V,lp), the nature of the radical formed is still unknown. In collaboration with Stegmann et al.[243421
we obtained '03Tl- and 205TlENDOR signals for the first time from a complex of an osemiquinone and a diorganothallium(II1) compound (Fig.
13, bottom left). In cooperation with Bock et al.[l6], 29SiENDOR signals in organosilicon radicals with natural isotopic abundance were detected for the first time (Fig. 13,
bottom right). With West we obtained not only 29Si- but
also I3C-ENDOR resonances of four- and five-membered
cyclosilanes with natural isotopic abundance1431.The re-
226 K
?' L,
16 MHz
3 MHz
Fig. 12. Alkali metal- and 'H-ENDOR-spectra of fluorenone metal ketyls; for the "K-ENDOR experiment 1,2-dimesitoylbenzenepotassium was employed. The general TRIPLE spectra of the fluorenone sodium ketyl clearly show that the HFC constant of the "Na cation
changes sign on cooling from 226 K to 172 K (cf. [36a,b]).
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
sults yielded information about the particularly interesting
bonding properties of these systems.
The progress of ENDOR spectroscopy is also revealed
in its continuing extension to novel magnetic nuclei. Thus,
Stegmann et al.144irecently reported successful Il7Sn- and
119Sn-ENDOR experiments on o-benzosemiquinones with
triphenyltin(1v) counterions. Kaim and Lubitz observed
log-, 11B145a1-,
and 27A1145b1-ENDOR
signals for the first
time in diazaarene radical anions with the corresponding
trialkylmetal species coordinated to the nitrogen atoms.
In a theoretical study of the ENDOR sensitivity of various magnetic nuclei published in 198117d1,predictions
were made about the chances of obtaining ENDOR signals
of further, very interesting nuclei such as "0, 33S, and
16 MHz
2I 2
3 IL
3 8IM H z
' :5.0
"" 1" li" 1""
35 MHz
Fig. 13. ENDOR spectra with signals from various nuclei other than protons (see text). Measuring conditions a) I9F: in mineral oil, 330 K; h) "P: in toluene with
2,4,6-triphenylphenoxyl,225 K ; c) 203~205T1:
in tetrahydrofuran, 260 K; d) 29SI:in dichloromethane, 235 K.
Angew. Chem. I n f . Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
3’,37Clwhich exhibit usually large quadrupole couplings. It
was estimated that ” 0 - and 33S-ENDOR spectroscopy in
solution, which is also biologically relevant, will presumably only be feasible with a few molecules of particularly
suitable structure.
4. ENDOR Spectroscopy in
Liquid-Crystalline Solutions
The ENDOR experiments in isotropic fluid solution described so far yield-besides the free nuclear frequencies-only isotropic HFC constants. To obtain more detailed information about spin density distributions and
radical geometries, knowledge of the anisotropic hyperfine
interactions is often desirable. Although spectroscopy in
disordered solids such as powders or glasses can, in principle, afford anisotropic data, the information obtained is
rather limited because of the drastic decrease in resolution[&]. On the other hand, all isotropic and anisotropic
data are generally accessible from single crystal studies
where paramagnetic “guest molecules” are incorporated in
sufficient dilution into diamagnetic “host crystals”. Nevertheless, apart from the considerable time involved in
growing single crystals and their spectroscopic examination, diamagnetically diluted single crystals can be prepared only for a few paramagnetic systems. The use of liquid crystals as solvents combines the advantages of spectroscopy in solution (high resolution) and in single crystals
(anisotropic interactions are not averaged out). Liquid
crystals are suitable as anisotropic solvents because their
long-range order is conferred to solute
Nematic phases have found extensive applications in NMR[481
and in EPR spectroscopy[”] since they can readily be aligned macroscopically by a magnetic field of about
0.2 T[491.Smectic A phases cannot be aligned directly by a
magnetic field, but can in a few cases be aligned indirectly
by slow cooling of a precursor nematic phase. “Freezing”
the preferential direction then permits investigation of angular dependences[’01.Figure 14 shows schematically the
nematic and the smectic A phase of the liquid crystal 4cyano-4’-octylbiphenyl (8CB). That smectic A phases are
well suited for ‘H- and *H-ENDOR investigations was
shown for the first time using Coppinger’s
The partial alignment of solute radicals in liquid-crystalline phases, which can be described by an ordering mat r i ~ [ ~results
~ l , in a shift Aa of the measured hyperfine coupling constants due to an anisotropic c ~ n t r i b u t i o n ~For
the simplest case of axial symmetry about an axis z, the relation is
Here U,, is the order parameter, which can have a value
between -0.5 and 1 (O,,= 1 corresponds to complete
alignment), and A:, the axial component of the dipolar
hyperfine interaction. Depending on what additional information is available, the experimental data allow conclusions to be made about the degree of ordering, the preferred direction of alignment, or the anisotropic hyperfine interaction. Measurements in liquid crystals can also serve to
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
Fig. 14. Schematic representation of different liquid-crystalline phases of 4cyano-4’-octylbiphenyl (8CB).
lift accidental equivalences of HFC constants, as the ENDOR spectra of the 2-methylphenalenyl radical demonstrate (Fig. 15). In the isotropic phase (top spectrum) the
methyl and the small ring-proton HFC constants have coincidently almost the same value. On passing to the smectic
A phase (bottom spectrum), however, a marked splitting is
observed since the anisotropic shifts act in opposite directions. The splitting which is observable in the region of the
large-ring proton HFC constant is due to an additional alignment of the molecules caused by the methyl substit~ent[~*].
2L MHz
Fig. 15. ENDOR spectra of the 2-methylphenalenyl radical in the liquid crystal 8CB. Whereas the isotropic HFC constants of the methyl protons and the
protons in positions 5 , s are (coincidently) almost equivalent, a marked splitting of the resonance signals appears on passing from the isotropic to the
smectic phase (cf. [52]).
In liquid-crystalline solutions the quadrupole interaction of nuclei with spin I2 1 (’HI ’‘N) becomes significant.
Similarly to NMR spectroscopy, but in contrast to EPR
spectroscopy, this interaction gives rise to splittings of ENDOR lines in oriented samples (or in solid solutions).
Dinse, Mobius et al.[531detected such quadrupole splittings
in I4N-ENDOR lines for the first time in nitroxide radicals
in “Licristal Nematic Phase IV”. According to the simplified relation (6)
(I=1, neglecting the asymmetry parameter), the quadrupole splittings 6, depend on the degree of ordering, the
orientation of the bond axes, and the quadrupole coupling
constant e’qxxQ/h[191.Figure 16 shows ENDOR spectra of
the benzil semidione radical anion (unlabeled as well as
deuterated in the para-positions) in the liquid crystal
8CB’”I. In the ’H-ENDOR spectrum the quadrupole splittings in the smectic phase can be clearly recognized (spectrum center right, 6, = 160 kHz). It may be concluded from
the magnitude of this splitting that the C-D bond axes are
oriented approximately parallel to the director of the liquid crystal, which is only possible if the molecule has a
trans-configuration. Furthermore, Figure 16 illustrates the
strong dependence of the observed hyperfine and quadrupole splittings upon the angle y between the director of the
smectic phase and the magnetic field. Two measurements
in a smectic A phase with the sample not rotated
(Z(OO)=a+Aa) and rotated by 90” (Z(9O0)=a-;Aa) allow the determination of the isotropic HFC constants and
the anisotropic shift Aa under the same experimental con-
ditions. On the other hand, the use of nematic phases requires a measurement of the isotropic HFC constants for
comparison, either at a higher temperature in the same solvent or in another solvent, which may of course give rise to
Quadrupole splittings of ’H-ENDOR lines were observed for the first time in a deuterated phenalenyl radi~ a l ~ ’and
~ ] , investigations of substituted phenalenyls allowed a determination of the quadrupole coupling constant (e2qcDQ/h = 174k 10 kHz, asymmetry parameter
17 = 0.08 -t 0.04)[”].The results available from *H-ENDOR
investigations of radicals and ’H-NMR measurements of
diamagnetic molecules[ss1show little variation with the ’Hquadrupole coupling constants of C-D bonds. The observed quadrupole splittings consequently allow conclusions to be made about radical structures, as has already
been discussed for benzil semidione. As another example it
should be mentioned that an estimate of the twist angles in
the triphenylmethyl radical (ca. 30”) was thus possible[561.
ENDOR investigations of nuclei other than protons (see
Section 3) in liquid crystals are subject to severe restrictions because of the high viscosity of nematic, and even
more so of smectic, phases. However, I3C-ENDOR signals
of high intensity can be obtained in those cases where the
l3C-hyperfine anisotropy is exceptionally small, such as in
the galvinoxyl and phenoxyl radicals mentioned previously[281 (see Fig. 10). On the other hand, the high viscosity of
liquid crystals can sometimes be used to “freeze out” dynamic processes. Thus, in Coppinger’s radical a splitting of
the ring proton signals, which are normally coalesced in
solvents of low viscosity by the rapid rotation of the phenyl groups[”], could be resolved. Another problem is
caused by the low solubility of radical ions in liquid crystals. However, it was recently
that a sufficient
concentration of radicals can be achieved in some cases if
the alkali metal counterion is complexed by a crown ether
or if lipophilic quaternary ammonium counterions are
used (cf. also Fig. 16).
5. ENDOR Spectroscopy of
Organic Multispin Systems
69’160 kHz
Fig. 16. ENDOR spectra of the benzil semidione radical anion in the liquid
crystal 8CB. In the smectic phase, no reorientation of the molecules takes
place when the sample tube is rotated in the magnetic field-the angular dependence of the resonance positions can be studied, as in single crystals. The
selectively deuterated compound shows a pronounced quadrupole splitting
(cf. [54]).
If a molecule contains more than one unpaired electron,
additional magnetic phenomena arise due to scalar exchange
interaction and dipolar-electron interaction. The example of
molecules with two unpaired electrons will make it clear
that the strength of these interactions allows a reasonable
classification into “double-doublet radicals”, “diradicals”,
and “real triplet systems”. A diradical is a species whose
spectrum in isotropic fluid solution differs from that of the
corresponding m o n o r a d i ~ a l [ ~
~ ] . diradicals are distinguished from double-doublet radicals, on the one hand, and
real triplet molecules, on the other. In the last mentioned,
the strong dipolar coupling causes such a large contribution to the electron spin-relaxation that no EPR spectrum
can be detected in fluid solution[581.If the exchange interaction is large compared to the hyperfine interaction
(IJI% la]),rigorous coupling of the unpaired electrons with
the spin states S = 1, S= 3/2, S = 2, etc. has to be taken into
consideration. The simple “four-level scheme” of a doubAngew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
let radical has to be replaced by the more complicated energy level diagrams shown in Figure 17. The number of
EPR hyperfine components increases since the unpaired
electrons are formally delocalized over the whole molecule
and couple with all magnetic nuclei. Since the total spectral width remains the same, the spectral line density is increased and the resolution decreased relative to that of the
corresponding monoradical (cf. Fig. 19). Here the increased resolution achieved by ENDOR spectroscopy is
particularly advantageous. The first successful 'H-ENDOR investigation of diradicals (e.g. p-phenylenebisgalv-
inoxyl) in solution appeared in 197S601.According to the
ENDOR resonance condition [eq. (3)], three ENDOR lines
are expected for each set of equivalent nuclei in a diradical
with S= 1 (IJI. lal) and Ms= rt 1, Of6']. It was found that
the ENDOR lines of such a diradical, consisting of two
equivalent monoradical moieties, appear at the same positions as those of the monoradical. However, the ENDOR
signals display a marked line broadening and different
temperature and saturation behavior because of relaxation
processes caused by the dipolar electron interaction. The
line expected at the free proton frequency, resulting from
5 =2
vn+3 / i
Fig. 17. Energy level diagrams for organic multispin systems in triplet, quartet, and quintet states for the interpretation of the
ENDOR spectra reproduced in Figures 18 and 19. Note that the arrows belonging to the EPR transitions I - 1 > ++ 10> and
10> I + 1 > in the diagram of the diradical have the same length (energetically degenerate), see text.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
NMR transitions in the Ms = 0 manifold, could not be observed. Consequently, the presence of a triplet state cannot
easily be established by ENDOR spectroscopic studies in
solution, but could be achieved by '3C-labeling[62].Figure
18 depicts the EPR and ENDOR spectra of the first (doublet) and second (triplet) oxidation steps of the isotopically
labeled p-phenylenebisgalvinoxyl. As expected (cf. Section
3), only 'H- and 'H-ENDOR signals are obtained for the
first oxidation step at the lower temperature (210 K),
whereas the I3C-ENDOR line pair can only be detected at
elevated temperature (250 K) and higher RF power. The
pronounced splittings of the signals from the m-protons
can be accounted for in terms of a sterically induced nonequivalence of these protons. The investigation of the second oxidation step shows unambiguously that the spectra
have to be assigned to a diradical in the triplet state (S= 1)
with IJI % lal: (a) The EPR spectrum consists of a 1 :2 :1 triplet of nonets; hence, each of the two unpaired electrons
couples with all (eight) m-protons and with both I3C nuclei. (b) Only mono- and diradicals without a I3C-label or
diradicals with two I3C nuclei can absorb in the center of
the EPR spectrum. If the external magnetic field is set at
the center of the spectrum and I3C-ENDOR signals are observed, then these must arise from doubly I3C-labeled molecules, i.e. diradicals.
Recently, it was shown that ENDOR investigations of
unsymmetrical diradicals are also possible[631.For example, if a nitroxide and a galvinoxyl moiety are linked together, the different g-values and HFC constants of the radical moieties have to be taken into consideration. The interpretation of the EPR and ENDOR spectra of such
"mixed" diradicals is difficult, especially in the intermediate case IJI =*lal. A detailed analysis allows the determination of the sign of the exchange integral J631.
The relaxation processes caused by the dipolar electron
interaction give rise not only to line broadening but also to
00 K (monoradical)
250 K
1 mT
Fig. 18. EPR and ENDOR spectra of the first (monoradical, top and center)
and second oxidation step (diradical, bottom) of an isotopically labeled galvinol (cf. (621). The arrows denote the respective field settings in the ENDOR
experiment. The appearance of the "C-ENDOR signals in the bottom right
spectrum establishes the presence of a triplet state (cf. text).
an increase in the electron spin relaxation rate We, and
thus to a decrease of the ENDOR effect (see Section 2.1).
Fluid-solution ENDOR investigations are therefore restricted to diradicals with comparatively small dipolar couplings (zero-field splitting parameter D I100 MHz). Measurements in glassy matrices, however, offer an alternative.
Here, the dipolar electron interaction is no longer averaged out by Brownian molecular motion but gives'rise to a
splitting of the EPR transitions I-l,M,> ++ IO,M,> and
IO,M, > Il,M, >[641 which are degenerate in isotropic
fluid solution. Incidentally, this degeneracy is responsible
for the failure to observe ENDOR lines at the free nuclear
frequencies in isotropic fluid solution since both transitions are pumped equally strongly, thus leaving the thermal nuclear spin polarization in the Ms = 0 manifold undisturbed (cf. also Fig. 17). In glassy matrices, however,
this third ENDOR component can be detected: In general,
an intense sharp signal is found at the free proton frequency, and an ENDOR line at the free I3C frequency could
even be observed in natural isotopic
Moreover, one more, hyperfine shifted ENDOR line, whose position depends on the selection of the pumped EPR component, can be detected for each set of equivalent nuclei.
This permits evaluation of the magnitude of the respective
hyperfine component together with its sign relative to that
of the zero-field splitting parameteP"]. Recently, even investigations of photoexcited triplet states (e.g. of naphtha]ene) were successfully carried out in this way[*'].
The example of a triply' I3C-labeled trisgalvinoxyl
shauld demonstrate that ' H - and I3C-ENDOR spectra can
also be observed in triradical~[~'].
According to the ENDOR resonance condition, ,four ENDOR signals are expected for each set of equivalent nuclei in a quartet state
molecule with S = 3/2, resulting from NMR transitions in
the manifolds Ms = k 1/2 or & 312 (cf. also Fig. 17). In accordance with theoretical considerations[651,the ENDOR
signals belonging to the manifolds Ms = -t 1/2 or
Ms = k 312 exhibit different relaxation and saturation behavior. According to the results available so far, threefold
symmetry of a quartet state molecule is a prerequisite for a
successful ENDOR experiment in fluid solution. If the
mutual relations of the individual spin carriers are different (exchange interaction, dipolar coupling), mixed states
are formed instead of pure quartet states, which clearly has
a crucial influence on the relaxation properties.
Depending on the oxidation state, a molecule with four
galvinol moieties can form doublet, triplet, quartet, and
quintet states under particular geometrical conditions. A
tetraradical with tetrahedral symmetry should offer two decisive advantages: The exchange interaction is the same
between all pairs of spin carriers, hence the formation of a
thermally populated quintet state can be assumed; and the
zero-field splitting is equal to zero1681.These predictions
were fully confirmed by the ENDOR investigation of a
successively oxidized tetrahedral tetragalvinol, as shown in
Figure 19. It can be seen that the resolution of the EPR
spectra deteriorates progressively from the doublet to the
quintet states (Fig. 19, left), whereas the ENDOR spectra
(Fig, 19, right) exhibit all signals expected from the ENDOR resonance condition (eq. (3) with S = 1/2 to 2), apart
from lines at the free-proton frequency (cf. also Fig. 17).
Angrw. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
first oxidation
third oxidation
in toluene
v v
fourth oxidation
18 MHz
Fig. 19. EPR and ENDOR spectra of the four oxidation steps of a tetragalvinol. Note the deteriorating resolution of the
EPR signals with increasing multiplicity, whereas the expected ENDOR signals (marked by triangles) are completely resolved (cf. [68]).
As a matter of fact, only samples from the first and the
fourth oxidation steps can be obtained in pure form,
whereas the diradical step also contains mono- and triradicals, and the triradical step di- and tetraradicals. The ability of ENDOR spectroscopy to select one species out of a
mixture of different paramagnetic molecules can be seen
here for the diradical (Fig. 19).
further cooling. The rotation of the tolyl groups is now
slow compared to the ENDOR time scale, hence the non-
6. Intramolecular Dynamic Processes
ENDOR spectroscopy not only yields information about
static molecular properties but may also provide an insight
into molecular dynamics, in a similar way to NMR or EPR
s p e c t r o ~ c o p y [ ~ ”Dynamic
. ~ ~ ~ . processes such as hindered
rotation of molecular fragments, ring inversions, pyramidal atomic inversions, intramolecular electron transfer,
ion-pair interconversions, or torsional oscillations can affect the widths and positions of resonance lines, provided
the lifetime of the individual species is of the same order
of magnitude as the time scale of the method. The time
scale of ENDOR spectroscopy (10-9-10-4 s) corresponds to that of EPR, whereas NMR spectroscopy of diamagnetic molecules is a “slower” method (10-5-10-’ s).
As a typical example, Figure 20 shows the temperature dependence of the high-frequency ENDOR signal of the ortho-protons of the 4,4”-dimethyl-rn-terphenylradical anAt high temperatures these protons are spectroscopically equivalent due to rapid rotation of the tolyl groups.
With decreasing temperature the signal broadens and
splits into two separate signals below the coalescence temperature (157 K), each of which and becomes narrower on
Angew. Chem. lnt. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
16 18MHz
Fig. 20. ENDOR part spectra of the 4,4”-dimethyl-rn-terphenyl
radical anion
at different temperatures (coalescence temperature 157 K) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. The activation energy and the frequency factor can be taken
from the Arrhenius plot (bottom) (cf. 1131).
equivalence of the ortho-protons in these groups (twist
angle ca. 50”) becomes apparent.
Intramolecular dynamic processes can usually be described as jump processes between two to four distinct species. This implies that the time taken for the jump itself is
much less than the mean lifetime of a given species. The
determination of rate constants by line-shape analyses is
largely analogous to the methods used in dynamic NMR
spectroscopy[701.Line widths or peak separations can be
used for the
The additional line broadening
caused by the dynamic effect is (approximately) obtained
by comparison with a reference signal of the same sample
which does not show this effect. The activation energy E,
of the dynamic process can be determined from the temperature dependence of the rate constant using the Arrhenius equation (Ink= -E,/RT+lnAo; cf. Fig. 20), and the
activation enthalpy and entropy are obtained using Eyring’s theory (see [721). In the following, a few applications
are mentioned.
ENDOR spectroscopy was used to investigate the hindered rotation of alkyl side chains in the radical anions of
vitamin K1 and ubi~emiquinone[’~~,
as well as of the phenyl
groups in ~ i l o l e [ ~and
~ ” ]terphenyl radical anion^['^.^^] and
in N,N-diphenyl-N’-picrylhydrazyl(see Section 3)[l71. In
the case of phenylnaphthalene radical anions, a distinction
between two types of dynamic processes was possible,
namely hindered rotation and ion-pair formation[751.The
hindered rotation of the aroxyl groups in galvinoxyls has
been the subject of extensive investigation^[^',^^^,^^], and
the mechanism could be largely clarified by systematic variation of the substituents at the central carbon atom and by
I3C-labeling experiments (see Section 3). The internal dynamics in tetraaryl- and in bis(biphenyly1ene)allyl radicals
have also been investigated[273771.
A dynamic process observed in triphenylmethyl derivatives was interpreted as an
interconversion of left- and right-handed propeller conform a t i o n ~ [ ~The
~ ] . effect of intramolecular cation exchange
on ENDOR intensities has been investigated in 2,5-di-tertbutyl-p-benzosemiquinone ion pairs[791.A series of papers
has dealt with the measurement of temperature dependences of p-proton HFC constants, from which the height of
the potential barrier of the hindered rotation was evaluated[”]. As this short survey shows, ENDOR spectroscopy
alone or in combination with EPR allows the elucidation
of the mechanisms of different kinds of intramolecular dynamic processes as well as the determination of kinetic
data and activation parameters or potential barriers.
groups; occasionally ENDOR resonances of protons in
other groups and even of nuclei other than protons could
also be obtained[”]. Up to now most attention has been
paid to paramagnetic derivatives of photosynthetic pigment~[’~],
cobalamins[851,hemo- and myoglobins, and other metalloproteins~s’b~82~861.
Undoubtedly ENDOR studies of biological materials
would be highly interesting under physiological conditions, i.e. at ambient temperature in aqueous media. According to theory[7d1,however, ENDOR investigations of
transition metal complexes such as iron-, cobalt-, or copper-containing proteins and coenzymes in solution are not
possible because of the very unfavorable relaxation properties of these systems. The ENDOR study of metal-free proteins also becomes difficult if the effective molecular volumes are large-because the rotation in solution is no
longer fast enough to average out g- and hyperfine-anisotropies. For example, a rotational correlation time of 30 ns
can be estimated for molecular weights of ca. 100000[871.
As a consequence, only dipolar hyperfine components
smaller than 5 MHz are averaged out. Broad and hardly
detectable signals similar to powder-type ENDOR spectra
are therefore obtained for nuclei with larger anisotropy,
even in solution.
Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls play a central
role as photopigments in all photosynthetic organisms. As
is well known, the photosynthesis consists of a light-induced charge separation, giving rise to the formation of
radical cations of primary donors and radical anions of acceptor molecules. ENDOR spectroscopy appears to be a
promising method for the identification and structural
characterization of these paramagnetic species occurring
in the “reaction centers”[s81.
R = Phytyl
7. ENDOR Spectroscopy of Biological Systems
Following current developments in many spectroscopic
disciplines, ENDOR spectroscopy, too, is increasingly employed to solve biological problems. However, until now
ENDOR investigations of biological materials were almost
exclusively performed at low temperatures (2-100 K) in
powder-like solids; suitable single crystals are rarely accessible[”]. It could nevertheless be shown that interesting
structural information can be extracted even from polycrystalline samples by means of ENDOR spectroscopy.
This is especially true for protons in freely rotating methyl
Since (bacterio-)chlorophylls and pheophytins participate in the primary step, an investigation of the pigments
appeared first to be necessary. As an example, the ‘H-ENDOR spectrum of the radical cation of bacteriochlorophyll a is reproduced in Figure 21 (bottom), from
which eleven ‘H-HFC constants can be extracted. The corresponding I4N-ENDOR spectrum yielded all four I4NHFC constants. Recently ENDOR/TRIPLE studies of the
in situ light-induced radical cation of the primary donor
P” in the “reaction centers” of several photosynthetic
Angew. Chem. I n f . Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
bacteria were performed in aqueous solution at 25 0C[89*901.
In Figure 21 (top) such an ENDOR spectrum of Pf,?
(Rp. sphaeroides R-26) is depicted. From this “genuine”
solution spectrum, seven isotropic ‘H-HFC constants
could be extracted and were assigned to certain positions
in bacteriochlorophyll a by comparison with data from selectively deuterated reaction centers from biosynthetically
labeled bacteria. This investigation made a contribution to
the contested question of the formation of a “supermolecule>7[901(“special pair”
In fact, the one-electron steps give rise to
flavin radicals which can be studied by EPR and ENDOR
Recently, high-resolution ENDORITRIPLE spectra of
several model compounds, namely the radical cations of
isoalloxazine derivatives, were obtained in solution for the
first time. Complete sets of the ‘H- and I4N-HFC constants, including their signs, could be determined and assignments made by selective de~teration[~~l.
Figure 22
shows the ‘H-, ’H-, and I4N-ENDOR spectra of the radical cations of several lumiflavins.
V Y . ’Y
CF3COOH / toluene
23 MHz
Fig. 21. a) ‘H-ENDOR-in-solution spectrum of “reaction centers” from the
bacterium Rp. sphaeroides R-26 irradiated in situ in the ENDOR cavity; the
radical cation P&$ is observed (TRIS buffer, pH =7.5, lauryl (dimethylamine oxide)). b) ‘H-ENDOR spectrum of the radical cation of bacteriochlorophyll a isolated from Rp. sphaeroides R-26; generation of the radical cation
BCHl a’: in CHIC12/CH30H by oxidation with iodine (cf. [89,901).
Das et al.[731reported ENDOR-in-solution investigations
of the paramagnetic forms of several biologically important quinones such as ubiquinone and vitamins K3, K1, E.
Four ‘H-HFC constants could be determined in electrolytically generated ubi~emiquinone-lO[~~~.
Since ubiquinone acts as an electron carrier in many’life processes, a
comparison with in situ ENDOR spectra of the radical in
biological material would be appropriate. However, the
solid-solution ENDOR spectrum of ubisemiquinone obtained by Okamura et al.I9’] from iron-free reaction centers
of the bacterium Rp. sphaeroides R-26 has not yet been
completely analyzed. We were able to determine spin density distributions in radical cations of model compounds of
the vitamin E series and observed interesting dynamic effects in ENDOR studies in collaboration with Sutcl@e et
In the spirit of the introductory remarks to this section,
the authors’ group has engaged in ENDOR investigations
of flavins and flavoenzymes for about two years. These enzymes, as redox catalysts, function as mediators between
one- and two-electron transfer steps (more accurately, two
one-electron transfer steps) in biological electron-flow
processes, e.g. between the NAD/NADH and the ubiquiAngew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
260 K
CF3COOD/[ D81 toluene
‘ I
Fig. 22. ENDOR spectra of lumiflavin radical cations. Besides signals from
‘Hand 14N, 2H-ENDOR signals of selectively deuterated molecules appear
in the spectra. The arrows indicate the resonance positions of ‘H-ENDOR
lines that disappeared upon deuteration (cf. [95]).
Although lumiflavin is considered to be a suitable model
system in flavin biochemistry, it is always a challenge to
apply the spectroscopic techniques to genuine native, biological material. Since roughly the end of the nineteen-sixties, interesting ENDOR investigations of flavoenzymes in
solid matrices have been published, especially by Hyde
and EhrenbergLg4];
these allowed, in part, definite conclusions to be drawn about the nature of the bond between
the prosthetic groups and apoproteins. Recently we have
been able to perform detailed ENDOR experiments in
solid matrices, making use of a substantially improved
spectrometer[961. Warburg’s “old yellow enzyme”, a
NADPH dehydrogenase that can be isolated from brewer’s
yeast, was i n ~ e s t i g a t e d ~In~ ~collaboration
with Kroneck et
al.[961we studied a methanol oxidase from Candida boidinii
and an enzyme/pseudosubstrate interaction. Finally, with
Miiller[961we investigated several flavodoxins (from Azotobacter vinelandii and Megasphaera elsdenii). For example,
Figure 23 shows the EPR, ENDOR, and special TRIPLE
spectra of NADPH dehydrogenase, whose radical was
generated by irradiation in the presence of ethylenediami191
netetraacetic acid (EDTA) as electron donor. In accord
with previous investigationsc84a1
the radical species could
be identified as the radical anion of “flavin mononucleotide” (FMN) by comparison with the authentic model
compound. Investigations of the line width as well as the
dependence of the line shape of the solid-solution ENDOR spectra of flavoenzymes on the external field setting
yielded information about the geometry of the isoalloxazine ring system and about the intramolecular mobility of
the prosthetic group in the “pocket” of the apoprotein.
However, ENDOR investigations of flavoenzyme radicals
in fluid aqueous solution have not yet been successful.
Coenzyme FMN
Special-TR IPLE
Fig. 23. ENDOR and special TRIPLE spectra of the radical in “old yellow
enzyme” (NADPH dehydrogenase from brewer’s yeast) generated by irradiation in the presence of an electron donor (20 miw TRIS buffer, pH 9.0,lO mM
EDTA, 80 min irradiation). A comparison with the spectra of the FMN radical anion (below) allows identification of the degree of protonation in the
prosthetic group (cf. 1961).
8. Limitations and Outlook
This review indicates that the double resonance method
ENDOR with its extensions to TRIPLE is, for many applications, far superior to conventional EPR spectroscopy. In
particular, the following points should be emphasized: its
high resolving power, its potential as an elegant method of
determining the relative signs of coupling constants, its
ability to identify different kinds of nuclei and to study
their properties individually, the possibility of selecting
different species in fluid solution or differently oriented
molecules in solid matrices, and finally its ability to determine the spin state, i.e. the multiplicity of organic polyradicals. It has to be borne in mind, however, that applications of the ENDOR technique have so far b e p limited.
Because of their unfavorable relaxation properties, organic
radicals with large g-value anisotropies, and/or nuclei
with large hyperfine anisotropies or quadrupole couplings,
as well as polyradicals with large dipolar electron interactions give rise to scarcely detectable ENDOR effects in solution.
Although the list of references in this article is by no
means exhaustive, it is clear that to date less than a dozen
research groups have been intensively engaged in ENDOR-in-solution spectroscopy. Not even the development
of commercial computer-controlled instruments could
change the fact that ENDOR spectroscopy is not a routine
method. Successful work still requires long-standing experience; the more so if samples more complicated than
“standard” (phenalenyl, galvinoxyl) requiring careful optimization of sample preparation and of spectrometer settings are to be studied. Nevertheless, the ENDOR technique will be used more frequently since it is an indispensable aid to solving difficult structural analysis problems in
paramagnetic molecules.
As far as the further development of conventional (continuous wave) ENDOR spectrometers is concerned, an improvement of the ENDOR cavity using the NMR coil-the
centerpiece of the spectrometer-appears to be particularly desirable in our opinion.
Whereas pulsed NMR spectrometers have found widespread use, only very recently have pulsed EPR spectrometers become commercially availablei9’! It should be mentioned that spin-echo ENDOR experiments on single crystals have already been performed successfully[981.In this
double resonance technique, an RF pulse is applied at a
particular time in the electron spin-echo pulse sequence,
and a plot of echo intensity versus radio frequency then
yields the ENDOR spectrum[991.The spin-echo technique
might extend the range of applicability of the ENDOR
method substantially, since its dependence on a critical
balance of the RF and microwave powers and the various
relaxation rates has been
It should also be
possible to perform spin-echo ENDOR experiments in solution, but the short relaxation times and the high powers
thus required give rise to experimental difficulties. Finally,
it should be noted that the use of flow systems should also
allow ENDOR investigations of short-lived radicals. In
this context, an increase in sensitivity using spin polarization techniques (“CIDEP-enhanced ENDOR’) in the photolytic in situ generation of radicals might be helpfu1[22b~1001.
However, these novel techniques still demand
extensive development efforts and require a more sophisticated experimental set-up. The chances that these highly
interesting variants will become routine methods in chemical laboratories in the foreseeable future are therefore even
lower than that of conventional ENDOR spectroscopy.
H . K . is grateful to his friends and colleagues from the
realms of physics for awakening his-however, not always
untroubled (!)-love of ENDOR spectroscopy and for keeping it alive through their readiness to help. In particular, Dr.
R . Biehl, Dr. K . P. Dinse, Prof. Dr. K . Mobius, Dr. M . Plato, as well as Dr. F. Lendzian and Dr. C. Winscom should be
mentioned. Rcknowledgement is also made to the members
of our group mentioned in the respective references and to
Mrs. E. Brinkhaus and Mrs. J. Kriiger for their collaboration. B. K . gratefully acknowledges a Liebig Stipendium
from the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie. H . K . thanks the
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie for financial support. W. L . thanks the
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for many years of finanAngew. Chem. lnt. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
cia1 support (SFB 161, “Hyperfine Interactions”) and the
Max Kade Foundation (New York)for a research fellowship.
Finally, we would like to thank Prof. Dr. R . D . Allendoerfer
for reading the manuscript.
Received: May 3, 1983;
revised: December 8, 1983 [A 486 IE]
German version: Angew. Cfiem. 96 (1984) 171
Translated by Dr. B. Kirste, Berlin
[I] E. Zavoisky, J. Pfiys. (Moscow) 9 (1945) 245. Unfortunately, as in nuclear resonance, different acronyms are used synonymously for electron spin resonance (EPR: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, and
ESR: Electron Spin Resonance). Here we prefer the designation EPR
which is finding increasing usage since it includes - in contrast to ESR
- both the contribution from the orbital magnetism and from the spin
[2] G. Feher, Pfiys. Reu. 103 (1956) 834.
131 J. S. Hyde, A. H. Maki, J. Cfiem. Phys. 40 (1964) 3117.
[4] R. J. Cook, D. H. Whiffen, Proc. Pfiys. SOC.London 84 (1964) 845.
151 a) J. H. Freed, J. Cfiem.Pfiys. 50 (1969) 2271; b) K. P. Dinse, R. Biehl,
K. Mobius, ibid. 61 (1974) 4335.
[6] R. Biehl, M. Plato, K. Mobius, J. Chem. Phys. 63 (1975) 3515.
[7] a) A. Carrington, A. D. McLachlan: Introduction f o Magnetic Resonance, Harper and Row, New York 1969; b) L. Kevan, L. D. Kispert:
Electron Spin Double Resonance Spectroscopy, Wiley, New York 1976;
c) K. Mobius, R. Biehl, J. H. Freed, and N. M. Atherton, in M. M.
Dorio, J. H. Freed: Multiple Electron Resonance Spectroscopy, Plenum,
New York 1979; d) M. Plato, W. Lubitz, K. Mobius, J. Pfiys. Chem. 85
(1981) 1202; e) K. Mobius, W. Frohling, F. Lendzian, W. Lubitz, M.
Plato, C. J. Winscom, ibid. 86 (1982) 4491; 9 K. Mobius, M. Plato, W.
Lubitz, Pfiys. Rep. 87 (1982) 171; g) A. Schweiger, Struct. Bonding (Berlin) 51 (1982).
[8] The term “rate” (induced rate, relaxation rate) denotes the number of
spin flips per unit time, by analogy to “radioactive decay rate”.
191 The relaxation rates W, and W. are, in general, determined by the spinrotational interaction and the modulation of the dipolar hyperfine interaction, respectively: K R = B / r Rand WFND=A.rR. The constant
B a z ( g , , - g , ) 2 depends on the g-value anisotropy, whereas A a TrA”
contains the magnitude of the hyperfine anisotropy.
[lo] The saturation conditions are as follows: o,=y: TIeT2,B: Z 1 and
u. = y ; T I ,T2.B: Z 1, where o,,6. are the saturation parameters, ye, yn
the magnetogyric ratios, TI., T I ,the longitudinal and Tz0 T2, the transversal relaxation times, and Be, B , the (effective) field strengths; the
subscripts e and n refer to the electron and the nucleus, respectively.
Cf. J. H. Freed in L. T. Muus, P. W. Atkins: Electron Spin Relaxation in
Liquids, Plenum, New York 1972.
[ I l l R. D. Allendoerfer, A. H. Maki, J . Magn. Reson. 3 (1970) 396.
(121 S. Geschwind in A. J. Freeman, R. B. Frankel: Hyperfine Interactions,
Academic Press, New York 1967, p. 225.
[13] P. Melzer, H. Kurreck, W. Kieslich, Cfiem. Ber. 115 (1982) 3597.
1141 H. M. McConnell, D. B. Chesnut, J. Cfiem. Phys. 28 (1958) 107; K. H.
Hausser, H. Brunner, J. C. Jochims, Mol. Pfiys. 10 (1966) 253; R. W.
Kreilick, Adu. Magn. Reson. 6 (1973) 141; R. Biehl, K. P. Dinse, K.
Mobius, M. Plato, H. Kurreck, U. Mennenga, Tetrahedron 29 (1973)
[15] H. R. Falle, G . R. Luckhurst, J. Magn. Reson. 3 (1970) 161.
[16] H. Bock, B. Hierholzer, H. Kurreck, W. Lubitz, Angew. Cfiem.95 (1983)
817; Angew. Cfiem. Inf. Ed. Engl. 22 (1983) 787; Angew. Cfiem. Suppl.
1983, 1088.
[17] R. Biehl, K. Mobius, S. E. OConnor, R. I. Walter, H. Zimmermann, J .
Pfiys. Cfiem.83 (1979) 3449.
[lS] a) J. S. Hyde, J. Chem. Pfiys. 43 (1965) 1806; b) C. Hass, B. Kirste, H.
Kurreck, G . Schlomp, J . A m . Cfiem. Soc. 105 (1983) 7375.
1191 R. Biehl, W. Lubitz, K. Mobius, M. Plato, J. Cfiem. Phys. 66 (1977)
[20] H. J. Fey, H. Kurreck, W. Lubitz, Tetrahedron 35 (1979) 905.
[21] B. Kirste, H. van Willigen, Cfiem.Phys. Lett. 92 (1982) 339.
[22] a) F. Lendzian, thesis, Freie Universitat Berlin 1982; b) W. Mohl, thesis, Freie Universitat Berlin 1983; c) B. Kirste, H. van Willigen, J. Pfiys.
Chem. 86 (1982) 2743.
[23] The solvents have to be purified carefully, dried (e.g. over liquid Na/K
alloy) and freed of oxygen. Sample preparation is best performed at the
recipient of a high-vacuum line; residual oxygen can be removed by
several freeze-pump-thaw cycles. Good ENDOR spectra can only be
obtained if the radical concentration is kept low enough ( z
to avoid “Heisenberg exchange”, but, of course, there is a lower
limit to the concentration determined by the signal-to-noise. To exclude “chemical exchange”, the diamagnetic precursor should be transformed into the paramagnetic state as completely as possible. To attain
an optimum concentration of radicals, sample cells with side arms
which allow dilution or concentration of the solution by distillation of
Angew. Cfiem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) 173-194
solvent under high vacuum have proved suitable‘241.Finally it should
be mentioned that whereas solvents with high dielectric constants are
often desirable for the study of radical ions (solubility, stabilization),
they frequently cause severe dielectric losses in the ENDOR cavity.
Small sample volumes have therefore to be put up with. Thus, radicals
in concentrated sulfuric acid can only he investigated in capillaries.
1241 W. Lubitz, Hahilitationsschrift, Freie Universitat Berlin 1982.
[251 The term “ENDOR of nuclei other than protons” cannot be replaced
by “heteronuclear ENDOR’, since chemists do not denote isotopes
such as 2H or ”C as “heteroatoms”.
[26] In ENDOR spectroscopy the Fourier transform (FT)technique, which
is commonly used in NMR spectroscopy today, cannot be employed
(broadband RF irradiation in the order of kW).
I271 B. Kirste, H. Kurreck, W. Lubitz, H. Zimmermann, J. Am. Cfiem. Soc.
102 (1980) 817.
[28] B. Kirste, W. Harrer, H. Kurreck, K. Schubert, H. Bauer, W. Gierke, J.
A m . Cfiem. SOC.103 (1981) 6280.
1291 W. Luhitz, W. Broser, B. Kirste, H. Kurreck, K. Schuhert, Z . Naturforsch. A33 (1978) 1072.
[30] With UV spectroscopy, which is “fast” compared to EPR spectroscopy,
this difference between resonance and tautomerism can also be detected: Whereas many differently substituted galvinoxyls show very
similar UV spectra, that of tert-butyl-galvinoxyl is rather similar in
band shape and intensity to the UV spectrum of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl.
[31] B. Kirste, M. Sordo, H. Kurreck, unpublished.
[32] N. M. Atherton, B. Day, Cfiem. Pfiy.~.
Left. 15 (1972) 428; Mol. Pfiys. 2 7
(1974) 145.
[33] H. J. Fey, W. Lubitz, H. Zimmermann, M. Plato, K. Mobius, R. Biehl,
2. Naturforscfi.A33 (1978) 514.
[34] W. Lubitz, T. Nyronen, J. Magn. Reson. 41 (1980) 17.
I351 D. S. Leniart, J. C. Vedrine, J . S . Hyde, Cfiem. Phys. Lett. 6 (1970)
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3402; b) W. Luhitz, R. Biehl, K. Mobius, J. Mag. Reson. 27(1977) 411;
c) H. van Willigen, M. Plato, R. Biehl, K. P. Dinse, K. Mobius, Mol.
Pfiys. 26 (1973) 793; E. van der Drift, A. J . Dammers, J. Smidt, M. Plato, K. Mobius, J. Magn. Reson. 40 (1980) 551; N. M. Atherton, B. Day,
J . Cfiem. SOC.Farad. Trans. 2, 69 (1973) 1801.
[37] R. D. Allendoerfer, A. H. Maki, J. Am. Chem. Soe. 91 (1969) 1088.
[38] W. Lubitz, K. P. Dinse, K. Mobkus, R. Biehl, Cfiem. Phys. 8 (1975)
[39] M. R. C. Gerstenberger, A. Haas, B. Kirste, C. Kriiger, H. Kurreck,
Cfiem. Ber. 115 (1982) 2540.
[40] H. B. Stegmann, K. Scheffler, G . Bauer, R. Grimm, S . Hieke, D. Stiirner, Pfiospfiorus4 (1974) 165; H. B. Stegmann, H. Miiller, K. B. Ulmschneider, K. Scheffler, Cfiem. Ber. 112 (1979) 2444.
[41] W. Lubitz, K. Dimroth, unpublished; W. Lubitz, thesis, Freie Universitat Berlin (1977).
(421 W. Lubitz, H. B. Stegmann, unpublished.
[43] B. Kirste, H. Kurreck, R. West, unpublished.
[44j H. B. Stegmann, K. Scheffler, U. Weber, P. Schuler, J . Magn. Reson. 54
(1983) 521.
[45] a) W. Kaim, W. Liihitz, Angew. Cfiern.95 (1983) 915; Angew. Cfiem.I n f .
Ed. Engl. 22 (1983) 892; Angew. Chem. Suppl. 1983, 1209; b) W. Lubitz,
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