close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Fundamental Investigation of Microwave Pretreatment on the Flotation of Massive Ilmenite Ores.

код для вставкиСкачать
Dev. Chem. Eng. Mineral Process., 8(1/2), pp.167-182. 2000.
Fundamental Investigation of Microwave
Pretreatment on the Flotation of Massive
Ilmenite Ores
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson"
School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Birmingham,
Birmingham B1.5 2 l T UK
Microwave energy was used as a novel method to modifi massive ilmenite suface
properties and improve ilmenite flotation. Studies concentrated on an investigation
into the effect of microwave radiation pre-treatment on the flotation behaviour of a
massive ilmenite ore sample fiom Norway. Experimental programmes were cam'ed
out in both Hallimond-tube and Denver-cellflotation devices.
The experimental results indicate that the flotabiliv of massive ilmenite was
greatly improved afier microwave-induced thermal pretreatment. In comparison with
conventional flotation, at the same optimised flotation conditions, massive ilmenite
subjected to microwave heat treatments floated well in both the roughing and
cleaning stages. Ilmenite recoveries were greatly increased over non-treated samples.
The major factors affecting ilmenite microwave-pretreatmentflotation are microwave
power level and irradiation time.
The investigation into the suface zeta potential indicates that microwave
irradiation enhanced the adsorption of oleate ions in the Helmholtz layer of the
ilmenite particles and resulted in ilmenite suface charge being more negative.
Improved ilmeniteflotation recovery was observed afier microwave pretreatment,
Keywords: Massive ilmenite ore; microwave pre-treatment; froth flotation; suface
zeta potential.
*Authorfor correspondence.
167
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson
Introduction
Ilmenite (FeTi03) is the most common and important titanium mineral source and is
widely distributed in many parts of the world. Since 1950, froth flotation has been
utilised to process amenable ilmenite ores [l].However, ilmenite often displays a
relatively poor flotability compared with associated minerals such as magnetite and
rutile. Typically a flotation recovery of less than 80% was reported in most of the
published papers [2,3].A series of studies have been carried out to improve ilmenite
recovery, including surface modification of ilmenite, reverse flotation, hot flotation
and agglomeration flotation.
Hot flotation, in which the ilmenite pulp was heated to a temperature of 95"C, was
reported to be uneconomic [4]since as the pulp temperature rises, the quantity of
collector addition must also be increased.
Reverse flotation methods were applied to a massive ilmenite from Sambalpur [2].
Reverse flotation resulted in the. gangue minerals being removed with the froth
products, while ilmenite was depressed as sediment in the flotation vessel. In the first
stage in this process, gangue minerals were floated in alkaline conditions; calcium
ions were used to support the flotation of silicates. At the second stage, ilmenite was
floated with a combination of cationic and anionic collectors (oleic acid and lauryl
trimethyl ammonium bromide) at pH value of 3. A maximum TiO, enrichment of
44.1% and a recovery of 72.4% were obtained.
Agglomeration flotation is a process by which the recovery of ultrafine particles
can be improved. Runolinna [13 introduced agglomeration technology into ilmenite
flotation by adding 1600-200013 fuel oil per ton of ilmenite ore; this reduced the
negative effect of slimes on ilmenite flotation. The recovery of ilmenite increased to
88% from 74%.
Aeration into ilmenite pulp was suggested as an effective method to improve
ilmenite recovery. A pulp containing log of purified ilmenite sample and loml
distilled water was aerated in a fritted glass filter with compressed, cleaned air for 40
minutes. The subsequent flotation recovery of ilmenite was greatly improved. The
flotation recovery of ilmenite increased from 50% to 90% [5].
168
Microwave Pretreatmentfor Flotation of Massive Ilmenite Ores
In weakly acidic or weakly alkaline aqueous solutions, for a relatively
unweathered massive ilmenite, ferrous ions are the major surface active sites. Fe"
ions and their hydroxyl complex compounds Fe(oH)i-" dominate ilmenite surface
characteristics and interact with oleate ions. It has been suggested that the oxidation
of ferrous ions on ilmenite surfaces to produce femc ions resulted in an improvement
of ilmenite flotation recovery [6].
In h s paper, the pre-treatment by microwave radiation is used as a novel method
to m o w ilmenite surface properties prior to flotation and to improve ilmenite
recovery. The microwave energy can selectively heat run-of-mine massive ilmenite
and speeds-up the ferrous-ferric oxidation of ilmenite surfaces.
Material and Methods
The materials used for flotation tests were a high-grade massive ilmenite sample and
a relatively unweathered massive ilmenite ore sample from Norway. The high grade
massive ilmenite sample (42.8% TiO,, 32.1% FeO, 3.21% MgO) was concentrated
from the run-of-mine deposit using a Boxmag Rapid Type IR1.45 laboratory inducedroll separator. The particle size range of the purified sample was -210pm to +45pm.
The run-of-mine massive ilmenite ore sample contained about 20% TiO, and 2%
magnetite. Ilmenite represented the dominant opaque oxide mineral in the form of
granular aggregates or clusters of grains. Hemitite and ilmenite formed a complete
solid solution series. Magnetite was commonly present as components of granular
ilmenite aggregates. The main gangue minerals were feldspar and quartz. Small
amounts of olivine, brown mica and sulphides were also observed in this sample. At
the Tellnes plant (Norway), the magnetite was separated using low intensity magnetic
separation. The nonmagnetic products were deslimed and classified, and the fine
fraction was concentrated using froth flotation and high intensity magnetic separation.
The initial flotation tests for the purified ilmenite sample in this study were carried
out in a 20Oml Hallimond tube. The results are presented in Figures 1 to 5. The
flotation tests for the massive ilmenite ore sample were carried out in a 1-litre Denver
169
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson
flotation cell. A representatively sampled 250g massive ilmenite ore sample was used
in each batch flotation test. The results are presented in Tables 1 to 3.
Microwave pre-treatment of the ilmenite sample was carried out in a Deltawave
650W 2.45GHz microwave oven and a Panasonic ProII 2600, 2.45GHz microwave
oven. TiO, assay was carried out in a Model 6300 Visible Range Spectrophotometer.
Results and Discussion
I Flotation Behavwur of Massive llmenite
Figure 1 presents the flotation behaviour of ilmenite and quartz as a function of pulp
pH. The results show that massive ilmenite displayed a relatively poor flotability
across a wide pH range. The optimum pH values for ilmenite flotation were located at
pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7, and at about 2.5. There were two recovery peaks
observed on the h e n i t e flotation curves. The first peak was located at a pH value
between 5.5 and 7.0. The second recovery peak was located at the pH value of about
2.5. In this pH range, the floated massive ilmenite recovery was approximately 75%.
Ilmenite recoveries dropped between pH 2.6 and pH 5, decreasing from 75% to 40%.
When pH values were over 8, the recoveries also decreased rapidly. A possible reason
for this behaviour could be that there was strong competition between the oleate ions
fromthe collector and OH- ions present in the pulp on the ilmenite surface in the
alkaline aqueous solution. With the increase of alkalinity,most of the active sites on
the ilmenite surface should be occupied by OH' ions. Tests were also carried out on
associated minerals in the massive ilmenite. Quartz did not respond readily to
flotation under the conditions outlined ~ J J Figure 1. Although quartz recovery did
improve with increasing oleate concentration, the maximum value was only 43% at a
sodium oleate concentration of 8x lo4 M.
Figure 2 presents the effect of microwave radiation pre-treatment on the flotation
behaviour of feldspar as a function of pH value. The results indicate that the feldspar
displayed a poor flotability over a wide pH range, and microwave pre-treatment did
not influence feldspar flotation behaviour. After pre-treatment for 5 minutes at
Microwave Pretreatmentfor Flotation of Mawive Ilmenite Ores
2.45GHz and 460W, the recovery of feldspar was slmilar to that of untreated feldspar
over a wide pH range from pH 2.4 to 11.2.
100
U
90
U
C
80
70
a,
9!
zg
60
u
30
20
c
.
I
+Massiw
- 50
j &40
3
:
ilmenite
-x
-
Qu&
10
0
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9 1 0 1 1 1 2
PH
Figure 1. Theflotation behaviour of ilmenite and quartz, as ajinction ofpH.
(Concentration of sodium oleate: 3.28xlV M; microwave power: 0
40
-
w.
I
30.
L
+Untreated
feldspar
0
e
I? 2 0 .
P
-
U
+Treated
w
cp
0
felclspar
E 10 -
-
I
0,
I
171
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson
U
B
4)
.
UI
P -&
a
100
90
80
70
60
9! 4Y
+Treated
massiw
ilmenite
50
40
-z&
#’
=
-X
- Treated
g
u
m
30
20
U
cp
E
10
0
3
2
5
4
6
7
8
9 1 0 1 1 1 2
PH
Figure 3. Eflect of microwavepre-treatment on theflotation of ilmenite and quartz
as a function ofpH. (Microwave irradiation time: 5 minutes; microwavepower:
460W; Concentration of sodium oleate: 3 . 2 8 ~P
1 M)
-p 100
Q
r
80
Heat
treated
massive
ilmenite
N
-9
60
N
.-
l
40
3
20
U
- - + - Untreated
massive
ilmenite
El
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 1 0 1 1
PH
Figure 4. Eflect of microwave radiation on massive ilmeniteflotation behaviour as a
function ofpH value, using sodium oleate and diesel oil as collectors.
(Microwave irradiation time: 10 seconds; microwavepower: 2600w
172
Microwave Pretreatmentfor Flotation of Massive Ilmenite Ores
60
-
50
8
40
8
+Untreated
ilmenite
.
I
-1
a
8
3
30
+Treated
ilmenite
20
10
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
Dosage of Disel oil (microliter/l)
Figure 5. Effect of microwave radiation on massive ilmeniteflotation behaviour,
using only diesel oil as a collector.
(Microwave irradiation time: I0 seconds; microwave power: 2600 W)
Figure 3 presents the effect of microwave radiation pre-treatment on the flotation
behaviour of massive ilmenite and quartz as a function of pH value. Microwave pretreatment was carried out in a Deltawave 2.45 GHz microwave oven at 460W.
Microwave irradiation time was 5 minutes. The results indicate that, after microwave
radiation pre-treatment, the flotation behaviour of massive ilmenite was greatly
improved across a wide pH range. The maximum increase in massive ilmenite
recovery was about 30% at pH values ranging fiom 2.8 to 4.5. At the pulp pH values
from pH 5 to pH 7.5, 92% of the massive ilmenite floated. In a h h e aqueous
solutions, massive ilmenite flotation behaviour was improved slightly. Quartz treated
by microwave radiation did not respond readily to flotation under the same
conditions. Less than 30% quartz floated at pH values from 2 to 9.
In some ilmenite concentrates, the combination of fuel oil and sodium oleate was
usually used as a collector to improve ilmenite concentrate grade and to reduce the
dosage of sodium oleate [l]. The test results illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 show the
173
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson
effect of microwave radiation pre-treatment on the flotation recovery of massive
ilmenite using a combination of sodium oleate and diesel oil as a collector or using
only diesel oil as a collector. Microwave radation pre-treatment was carried out in a
Panasonic ProII, 2.45GHz microwave oven at 2600W. Ilmenite was irradiated for 10
seconds. The results show that, when using the combination of sodium oleate and
diesel oil as a collector, microwave irradiation treatment can also improve ilmenite
recovery across a wide pH range. From pH 3.5 to pH 6.5, ilmenite recovery was
increased by approximately 10%. However, when using only diesel oil as a collector,
ilmenite floated well, only a slight change in ilmenite recovery resulting from
microwave radiation pretreatment was observed.
Il Microwave he-Treatment FIotlrtion of Massive Ilmenite Ore
Tables 1 and 2 present the effect of microwave pre-treatment on the flotation of
massive ilmenite ore samples. The applied microwave power was 2600W. The heated
massive ore samples were cooled in air or quenched in water. The flotation was
carried out in a 1-litre Denver flotation cell for 18 minutes. The flotation flowsheet is
illustrated in Figure 6. The dosages of sodium oleate and sodium silicate were 1600
g/ton and 1400 g/ton respectively. The results show that microwave pre-treatment is
an effective method to improve the flotation recoveries of the massive ilmenite ore
sample. Under the same optimised operating conditions as conventional flotation,
massive ilmenite recoveries were sigdicantly increased with microwave pretreatment.
For the ilmenite ore sample quenched in water after irradiation for one minute, the
ilmenite recovery in the rough concentrate increased from 84.6%to 92.2%, and then
slightly increased to 92.7%with increasing microwave irradiation time. The probable
reason is that, after one minute of microwave irradiation pre-treatment and
subsequent quenching in water, the ilmenite ore sample reached the temperature
required for ihenite surface oxidation, and most of the ferrous ions on the ilmenite
surface were oxidised to femc ions.
174
Microwave Pretreatmentfor Floration of Massive Ilmenite Ores
Ilmenite ore sample
3 min I Sodium silicate 600g/ton
@H = 5)
10 min / Sodium oleate 600g/ton and frother
Rougher 1
3min Sodium silicate 400 g/ton
@H = 5)
5 min Sodium oleate 600 g/ton and frother
Rougher 2
6 min
6 min 3 min I Sodium silicate 400 g/ton
@H = 5)
5 min Sodium oleate 400 g/ton
Rough concentrate 1
Scavenger
Rough concentrate 2
Tailings
Figure 6. Theflotationflowsheetfor ilmenite ore sample.
Table 1. Theflotation results of massive ilmenite ore sample quenched in water.
Name of products
Rough Concentrate 1
Rough Concentrate 2
Tahg
Feed
Rough Concentrate 1
Rough Concentrate 2
Tailing
Feed
Rough Concentrate 1
Rough Concentrate 2
Tailing
Feed
Rough Concentrate 1
Rough Concentrate 2
Tailing
Feed
Microwave
irradiation
time (min)
0
1
2
3
Yield
(%I
Grade
(TiO, %)
Recovery
of TiO,
50.7
20.0
29.3
100.0
77.9
6.0
16.1
100.0
78.0
8.2
13.8
100.0
76.1
8.5
15.5
100.0
25.5
18.9
10.3
19.7
24.0
18.3
10.4
21.5
22.7
10.2
10.7
20.1
22.3
10.8
9.1
19.2
65.5
19.1
15.4
100.0
87.1
5.1
7.8
100.0
88.4
4.2
7.4
100.0
87.9
4.7
7.3
100.0
(%I
175
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson
For the ilmenite ore sample cooled in air, ilmenite recoveries also increased with
increasing microwave irrahation time. When the microwave irradiation time was one
minute, the ilmenite recovery in the rough concentrate was increased from 84.6% to
93.0%. After being irradiated for three minutes, the ilmenite recovery in the rough
concentrate reached 95.3%.
Table 2. Thepotation results of massive ilmenite ore sample cooled in air.
Name of
products
Rough Concentrate 1
Rough Concentrate 2
Tailing
Feed
Rough Concentrate 1
Rough Concentrate 2
Tailing
Feed
1 ~ o u g hConcentrate 1
Rough Concentrate 2
Tailing
Feed
Rough Concentrate 1
Rough Concentrate 2
Tailing
Feed
Microwave
Irradiation
time (min)
0
1
2min
3min
Yield
(%I
Grade
(TiO, %)
Recovery
of TiO,
50.7
20.0
29.3
100.0
66.0
18.6
15.5
100.0
70.3
16.9
12.8
100.0
8.5
9.6
11.9
100.0
25.5
18.9
10.3
19.7
24.2
11.7
8.8
19.5
20.8
11.5
9.3
17.8
23.6
8.2
8.1
20.7
65.5
19.1
15.4
100.0
81.9
11.1
7.0
100.0
82.4
10.9
6.7
100.0
91.4
3.9
4.7
100.0
III Effect of Microwave Pre-Treatment on the Subsequent Cleaning Flotation of
llmenite Ore
In mineral flotation, a cleaning operation is often necessary to improve the grade of
massive ilmenite concentrate. A series of flotation tests were designed to investigate
the effect of microwave pre-treatment on the cleaning of ilmenite ore. These were
carried out under the same flotation conditions optimised previously in this study.
The flotation results are presented in Table 3. Sample 1, which was pre-treated in a
microwave oven at 2600W for 3 minutes and cooled in air, was used for ilmenite
176
Microwave Pretreatmentfor Flotation of Massive Ilrnenite Ores
roughing flotation. The rough concentrate was further cleaned. Sample 2 was a nonmicrowave treated reference sample.
The results show that microwave radiation pre-treatment can improve both
ihnenite recovery and its concentrate grade. Ihnenite ore sample treated by
microwave radiation floated very ,well in both the roughmg and cleaning flotation
operations. After cleaning twice, the grade of ilmenite concentrate reached 30% TiO,,
and TiO, recovery in the concentrate was 74.8% with only 5.7% TiO, lost in the
tailings. However, the untreated ilmenite ore sample dqlayed poor flotation
behaviour in both roughmg and cleaning flotation operations. Most of the floated
h e n i t e was lost in the cleaning operation. TiO, recovery in the concentrate was only
39.8%. The concentrate grade was only 26.2 TiO,%, with 44.7% TiO, staying in the
middling, and 18.3% TiO, being lost in tailing.
Table 3. Eflect of microwavepre-treatment on the subsequent cleaning of massive
ilmenite ore.
Name of products
I
Sample 1
Sample 2
Concentrate
Middling 1
Middling 2
Tailing
Feed
Concentrate
Middling 1
Middhg 2
Tailing
Feed
Microwave
irradiation
time(min)
3
0
Yield
(%)
49.1
25.9
11.7
13.4
100.0
29.6
28.1
11.6
30.7
100.0
Grade
(TiO,%)
29.9
8.6
13.7
8.3
19.6
26.2
18.1
26.6
11.6
19.5
Recovery
of TiO,
74.8
11.4
8.1
5.7
100
39.8
26.1
15.8
18.3
100
177
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson
N Effect of Microwave Irradiation Treatment on Ilmenite Surface Zeta Potential
and Absorption of Sodium Oleate on nmenite Surface
The investigation into the surface zeta potential of ilmenite indicates that microwave
radiation treatment greatly affected the ilmenite surface charge and enhanced the
absorption of sodium oleate in the Helmholtz layer on ilmenite particle surfaces.
Hence this improved the ilmenite flotation recovery. Figures 7 and 8 present the
surface zeta potential of ilmenite in KC1 solutions and in sodium oleate solutions. For
the untreated massive ilmenite, the zero point of ilmenite surface zeta potential was at
pH 5.7. When KCI of 2x10” M was used as electrolyte, the lowest surface zeta
potential was about -8OmV.However, when using sodium oleate of 3 . 2 8 ~ 1 0M~ as
electrolyte, the surface zeta potential of ilmenite displayed a negative value over a
wide pH range fiom 3 to 11. The zero point of ilmenite surface zeta potential was
shifted to about pH 2.5. The surface zeta potential of ilmenite decreased about 100
mV.The addition of sodium oleate resulted in the ilmenite surface charge becoming
more negative.
40
20
g o
+Treated
I
massiw
nmnite
I
(D
2
8
4N
-20
4
+Untreated
massiw
nmnite
-60
&I
d
-80
B
-100
-120
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 1 0 1 1 1 2
PH
Figure 7. Eflect of microwave irradiation on the suvace zeta potential of ilmenite
particles in aqueous solution. (Electrolyte: KC1 of 2xlQ’ M)
178
Microwave Pretreatment for Flotation of Massive Ilmenite Ores
50
r
-E
0
1
-50
c)
9
'i
+Treated
Massiw
llmenite
-100
cp
c)
8
+Massiw
nmnite
-150
9)
0
f!a
-200
rA
-250
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 1 0 1 1 1 2
PH
Figure 8. Efiect of sodium oleate on the sur$ace zeta potential of ilmenite in aqueous
solution. (Electrolyte: sodium oleate of 3.28 XI@M).
For the ilmenite treated by microwave radiation, ilmenite surface zeta potential
dqlayed a more negative value in both KCl and sodium oleate solutions. After
exposure to microwave radiation for 3 minutes at 1300W and 2.45GHz, the surface
zeta potential decreased about 2OmV in aqueous KC1 (with a concentration of 2x l o 3
M),and decreased about 5OmV in sodium oleate solution (with a concentration of
3 . 2 8 ~ 1 M)
0 ~ across a wide range of pH. The zero point of ilmenite zeta potential was
shifted fiom pH 5.7 to pH 4.9.
At the interface between ilmenite and the aqueous solution, there is an electrical
double layer. After the ilmenite was treated by microwave radiation, the ilmenite
surface zeta potential became more negative. This means that microwave treatment
resulted in more negatively charged ions or polar groups entering the Helmholtz
layer. When KCl was used as electrolyte, the main-negative charge ions in the
aqueous solution were C l and OH-. The decrease of the zeta potential means that
more O H ions were specifically absorbed into the Helmholtz layer. When so&um
oleate was used as electrolyte, the main-negative charge ions in the aqueous solutions
I 79
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson
were OH and oleate ions; the zeta potential becoming more negative means that more
oleate ions or O H were specifically absorbed into the Helmholtz layer. Microwave
treatment enhanced the adsorption of oleate ions or O H ions onto the ilmenite
surface. In the optimised pH range of the ilmenite flotation system, the adsorption of
oleate ions was prior to that of O H ions on ilmenite Helmholtz layers. This alteration
of ilmenite surface zeta potential and the enhancement of sodium oleate absorption on
ilmenite Helmholtz layer are possibly due to ilmenite surface oxidation.
Ilmenite is a mineral of medium loss tangent. when subjected to microwave
radiation, ilmenite was dielectxically heated to a relatively high temperature (925°C).
At 650W and 2.45GHz, ilmenite temperature reached 114°C after one minute
microwave exposure, and reached 925OC after 10 minutes exposure. At 2600W and
2.45GHz, one minute of microwave irradiation resulted in the ilmenite temperature
rising from 25°C to 720°C. The temperature increase would result in oxidation of
ilmenite surfaces and subsequent phase changes as shown in Equations (1) and (2)
below. Part of the ilmenite was decomposed into mile and pseudobrookite. Some
new phases such as rutile (TiO,) and pseudobrookite (Fe,TiO,) were observed in the
ihenite samples heated by microwave energy. To from these new phases, ferrous
ions in ilmenite were oxidised to ferric ions in a relatively short time (one minute at
2600W and 2.45GHz)
1
3FeTi0, + - 0, + FeTi,O, + Fe,TiO,
2
1
2FeTi0, + - 0, + Fe,O,
2
+ 2Ti0,
...(1)
...
This conversion of ferrous ion to ferric ion resulted in an increase of the inner
potential ($M> of the ilmenite surface. The bonding ability of ferric ions with O H ions
or oleate ions was also greatly increased.
180
Microwave Pretreatment for Flotation of Massive Ilmenite Ores
Conclusions
Microwave pre-treatment is a novel, but effective, method for improving the flotation
recovery of massive ilmenite ore. Compared with conventional flotation, and under
the same optimised flotation conditions, the maximum increase of ilmenite recovery
in the roughing concentrate was about 24%. After microwave irradiation, ilmenite
also floated effectively in the subsequent flotation cleaning operation. A recovery of
74.8% ilmenite was reported from the concentrate containing 29.9% TiO,, whereas,
for the untreated ilmenite ore sample, the ilmenite recovery was only 39.8% in the
concentrate containing 26.2% Ti02.
The optimum flotation pH values were from 5 to 6 for the massive ilmenite ore
sample from Norway. There was no obvious effect of the ilmenite cooling method on
the flotation of ilmenite ore sample. The recovery of ilmenite cooled in air was
slightly higher than that of ilmenite quenched in water.
Microwave treatment time and microwave power level are important factors
affecting the flotation behaviour of ihenite ore sample. The ilmenite recovery was
increased with an increase in microwave exposure time and microwave power level.
When the irradiation time increased from 0 to 1 minute, ilmenite recovery after water
quenching was increased from 65.5% to 87.1% in the roughmg operation, and from
65.% to 81.9% under air cooling. An increase in radiation time to 3 minutes increased
the recovery to 89.7% in the former case, and to 91.4% in the latter. In the cleaning
operation carried out in a Denver cell, 3 minutes of radiation resulted in an increase in
recovery from 39.8% to 74.8%.
The study of ilmenite surface zeta potential and ilmenite phase changes indicates
that microwave radiation pre-treatment resulted in the surface oxidation of ilmenite in
a relatively short time, which enhanced the adsorption of oleate ions in ilmenite
Helmholtz layer, and therefore improves ilmenite flotation recovery.
181
X. Fan and N.A. Rowson
References
1.
Runolinna, U., and h e , R. 1960. Agglomeration flotation of ilmenite ore at
Otanmaki. Znt. Mineral Process. Congress,447-475.
2.
Behera, R.C.,and Mohanty, A.K. 1986. Beneficiation of massive ilmenite by
froth flotation. Znt. J. Mineral Process., 17, 131-142
3.
Song, Q., and Shirley, C.T. 1989. Flotation of ilmenite using benzyl arsonic
acid and acidified sodium silicate. Znt. J. Mineral Process., 26( 1-2), 111-12 1
4.
Liimatainen V., and Techn, L. 1977. Conditioning and flotation of ilmenite at
various pulp temperatures. Trans. Znst. Min. Metall. (Sect. C. Mineral Process.),
C160-161.
5.
Gutierrez, C. 1976. Influence of previous aeration in water or heating in air of
ilmenite on its flotation with oleic acid. Znt. J. Mineral Process., 3,247-256.
6.
Lazarenko, E.K, and Kurs, M.
1971.
Wyssaya Skola (Moscow) 2nd edn.
Russian text. 346
Received: 25 September 1998;Accepted after revision: 15 March 1999.
I82
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
601 Кб
Теги
pretreatment, microwave, investigation, massivy, flotation, ilmenite, ores, fundamentals
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа