close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Kinetics Studies on Effect of Recycled Water on Flotation of Copper Tailings from Benambra Mines Victoria.

код для вставкиСкачать
Kinetics Studies on Effect of Recycled
Water on Flotation of Copper Tailings
from Benambra Mines, Victoria
N.P. Haran*, E.R. Boyapati, C. Boontanjai and
C. Swaminathan
Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering,
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, City Campus
GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, AUSTRALIA
Batch rougher flotation study was conducted on copper tailings from Benambra to
compare flotation kinetics at optimised condition, using Melbourne, mine, dewnised
and recycled waters. The results showed an enhanced copper grade and recovery
when deionised water was used as compared to when Melbourne, mine or recycled
waters were used, the greaterflotation rate was due to the near absence of dissolved
organic and inorganic species. Fresh mine water gave better copper grade and
recovery and an enhanced flotation rate as compared to Melbourne water.
Improved flotation kinetics in first recycling of Melbourne and deionised waters
were observed. Three recycles of mine water in the flotation process indicated a
steady-state rate for copper tailings. This was not valid for Melbourne and
deionised waters where flotation was inhibited successively by three water-recycles.
Organic species such as thio-phosphates and carbamates released from residual
reagents in water, and inorganic speciesfrom the tailing sample that dissolves, are
responsiblefor altering water quality and hence the flotation kinetics.
* Author for correspondence.
197
N. P. Harm, E.R. Boyapati, C. Boontanjai and C. Swaminathan
Introduction
Several factors have led to increasing use of recycled water in the mineral processing
industries. Some of these may be inadequate availability of water, social pressures
and government legislation to ensure environmental protection, higher costs of
production and rransportation of fresh water, and cost of wastewater treatment before
discharge. Canadian Mineral Processors and CANMET have, in a detailed survey of
over sixty ore-processing mills, surnmarised the status of water recycling practice
and some of the problems involved [1-31. The ratios of recycled water to fresh water
vary from 50 to 75%. Joe [4] discussed the problems and results on mill water
recycling in Canadian Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb-Zn, gold and uranium mills. Serious problems
were encountered in multistage circuits for selective flotation. The need for a greater
understanding of the influence of recycled water on the kinetics of chalcopyrite
flotation has been highlighted in several recent publications [5-71. The possible
impact of water quality on flotation is a recurring theme [8-131. Yang [14] fmt
recognised the need for recycling of water in flotation and has suggested an
improved technique for tailing treatment incorporating water softening. Sea water
flotation at Tea& Mines Ltd in Vancouver for copper recovery from iron ore has
been discussed by Haig et al. [15]. The flotation behaviour and rates were found to
be the same as with process water. On the contrary, Rao and Finch [16] observed
inhibition of flotation in terms of selectivity,recovery and flotation rate of mpper by
the use of recycled water. Flotation studies at the Isa pyrochlore processing plant at
Niobec, Quebec, incorporates recycled water into their treatment methods [17].
Preliminary flotation experiments by Rao et al. [181 showed conflicting results when
using recycled water. However, finally it was confirmed that Kidd Creek recycled
water was not detrimental, and in copper flotation it enhanced the depression of
pyrite. Dissolved thio salts and calcium ions in water were cited as the reason for
such behaviour [19]. Flotation of Pb-Zn ores in a Romanian plant showed pooxvr
lead recovery after 20 recycles of water [20]. The present study follows the
preliminary work reported in several publications [14-20] with conflicting results on
flotation kinetics influenced by recycled water.
198
Kinetics studies on effect of recycled water on flotation of copper tailingsfrom Benambra
This paper describes a laboratory flotation study on the effect of recycled water
on copper-tailing from Benambra. The description of the concentrator is given
elsewhere [21-231. The main objectives of this work were optimisation of flotation
parameters to get improved overall copper recovery from tailings, and to analyse the
characteristicsof water from different sources on copper flotation kinetics. Reasons
for such flotation behaviour are hypothesised based on dissolved ionic species in
water, and remedial measures for water quality are suggested.
Experimental Details
1. Choice of Experimental Sample
Preliminary study on mineral characteristics of different copper mines in Australia
showed that Benambra and Woodlawn samples were relatively simple for processing.
(s)- soluble
RW' - Woodlawn ROM sample C Component
L 0.1.- Loss on ignition
-
pprn parts per r n i l l i
ppb -partperbinon
199
N.P.Haran. E.R. Boyapati, C. Boontanjai and C. Swaminathan
Table 2. Mineralogy of as-received copper samples fromBenambra and Woodlawn:
Order of abundance ( I is highest and 8 is least in abundance).
I
Minerals
I Benambratailings I Benambra ROM I Woodlawn ROM i
Arsenopyrite
5
--
-_
Metapammite, quartz rich
_-
2
1
Seriate and white mica flakes
__
3
4
_-
__-
5
White mica schiit and phyllie
Qua-
- Barite fragments
Carbonate Chlorite lithic fragments
__
I
7
8
Chemical analysis (Table l), and mineralogy of tailings and ROM samples from
Benambra, and ROM sample from Woodlawn (Table 2) indicated that Benambra
samples were simpler than Woodlawn samples. Woodlawn samples could possibly
pose additional problem of talc flotation. Other reasons for selecting Benambra
tailings for this investigation were the interest shown by Denehurst Pty Ltd to ueat
copper-tailing dumps in the Benambra concentator zinc circuit at a later stage for
additional copper recovery, the possibility of applying results to the treatment of
Indian flotation tailings, the proximity of Benambra mines for securing samples and
water. Storage of samples was an important consideration to avoid oxidation, feed
samples were stored in a freezer during the entire period of the experimental work.
200
Kinetics studies on effect of recycled water on flotation of copper tailingsfrom Benambra
2. Occurrence of Chalcopyrite
la)Benambram'linP- sample
Mineralogical studies (Plate 1) revealed approximately half of the chalcopyrite
present occurring as liberated grains (average particle size, & = 50 pn). The
remainder occurs as partially liberated intergrowths with pyrite and less commonly
with sphalerite, or as unliberated intergrowths within pyrite, sphalerite (generally as
fine exsolution blebs) and carbonate. Intergrowth with pyrite accounts for the
majority of the sample. Any copper in solid solution with pyrite is present at levels
too low to be detected.
lb)Benambra run-of-mine sample
Mineralogical studies (Plate 2) indicated the chalcopyrite present occurring as
liberated grains (& up to 2 mm) and free of included phases. Chalcopyrite (fine
grained, up to 50 pn) forms interstitial to euhedral pyrite forms and infill fractures
in pyrite. It occurs as large fragments down to sub-micron dimensions as an
exsolved phase when in association with sphalerite and minor galena. Further it is
in complex association with sphalerite and pyrite and a minor occurrence in
association with gangue carbonatesand silicates.
Jc) Woodlawn run-of-mine o am^le
Mineralogical studies (Plate 3) showed the chalcopyrite present occurring as
liberated grains (Lup to 1.5 mm) and free of included phases, except for sphalerite
and pyrite that are present in some grains (inclusions ranged in size from 50-500 p
m). In association with pyrite, chalcopyrite is usually interstitial to well-formed
pyrite cubic sections and infill fractures in pyrite. It occurs as large fragments down
to sub-micron dimensions as an exsolved phase when in association with sphalerite
and minor galena. Further it is in complex association with sphalerite and pyrite,
and a minor occurrence in association with gangue Carbonates and silicates.
201
N. P. Haran, E.R. Boyapati, C.Boontanjai and C.Swarninathan
h c . PPL x 500 Chalcopyrite (softer than Pyrite) associated with Pyrite.
Plate 1 : Microphotograph:
( W e : I IVI = 25 riaonrJ
Mineralogical Studies on Benambra copper tailing sample.
(Sea&: I mm = 25 niaar)
lnc. PPL x 500 Pyrite. Chalcopyrite, Spbaldte. (Note the fine scale exolution of chalcopyritein sphalerite).
Plate 2 :
Microphotograph: Mineralogical Studies on Benambra ROM copper sample.
(scab: I U r I S r k n n r )
Inc. PPL x 100 Pyrite. Chalcopyrite, Sphalerite and Galena. ( Note chalcopyrite infilling fractures in Pyrite)
Plate 3 : Microphotograph: Mineralogical Studies on Woodlawn ROM copper sample.
202
Kinetics studies on effect of recycled water on flotation of copper tailings from Benambra
3. Flotation Feed Material
Copper tailings from Benambra (average particle size, d, = 50 pn) were used as
s d n g material for the batch flotation tests.
4. Water
Melbourne, Benambra, deionised and recycled waters were used for flotation
experiments. Melbourne water was the tap water, Benambra water was obtained from
Benambra tailing pond, deionised water was high-purity water produced in an ion
exchanger, and the recycled waters were obtained by collecting water by a suitable
dewatering technique after each stage of flotation. If the fresh water is Melbourne tap
water, then the recycled water (1) will be the water collected after stage (1) flotation
with fresh water. Stage (2) flotation was carried out by using recycle water (l),and
so on. Typical analysis of fresh Melbourne and Benambra water is given in Table 3.
Table 3. Typical analysis of Melbourne and Benambra mine water
I
Parameter’
M
Parameter *
M
Totalresidue
42
Sodium
4.7
Colour (Pt-Co)
12
Turbidity (NTU)
1.5
Potassium
I
~
I
0.7
I
I
Copper
I
<0.05
3.0
PH
7.07.5
Calaum
2.2
Lead
< 0.002
Magnesium
1.3
Sulfate
1.5
0.14
I
0.3
I
c0.06
I
Parameter
M
Mercury
c o.oO01
Total Alk (CaCO,)
9.6
I
Chloride
6.5
anc
I
1100
~0.05
I
I
I 0.02 I Specificconduct.** I
I Si (Moreactive) I 6.4 I Hardness (CaCO,) I
Manganese
11.55
49
I
12.5
0.12
Nitrate (N)
0.15
Aluminium
0.11
Fluoride
0.9
c o.oO03
Cadmium
I
I
I 2800 I
1
1
I
I
I
T.O:C
Iron
B
Arsenic
c 0.001
Chromium
M. Melbourne water (Sihran) 1994-95
B. Benambra return water May 1994.
T. 0. C. - Total Organic Content
** p siemengcm @ 200 C
I
1
I
~0.004
Alk - Alkali
values in ppm
203
N.P. Haran, E.R. Boyapati, C. Boontanjai and C. Swaminathan
5. Reagents
Aeroxanthate-343(KAX - Potassium Amy1 Xanthate) and 350 (SIPX - Sodium IsoPropyl Xanthate), Dow 2-6(SIPX) and Reagent4037 (a mixture of di-isobutyl dithiophosphate and alkyl-alkyl thionocarbamate) as copper collectors, NazSiO, and
Na2S& as gangue depressants, lime and HCl as pH regulators, and pine oil and
methyl isobutyl wbinol as frothers were employed for batch flotation tests. Reagent
R4037 (0.1%) as collector and lime were employed at optimum conditions.
6. Laboratory Batch Flotation
Denver Sub-A flotation cell of capacity 250 g was used for the batch experiments.
Unless otherwise stated, these experiments were carried out at a flotation impeller
speed of 1300 rpm, pH of 9.5, pulp density of 22% w/w solids during flotation, total
conditioning time of 8 minutes for collectors, total flotation time of 9 minutes, and
four stages of collector additions.
A variable quantity of copper mineral collector depending upon the particular test
was added and pulps conditioned for 2 minutes. The froth was removed manually,
scraping the full length of the cell at constant depth every 10 seconds. Four
concentrates were collected after addition of the collector and conditioning at 2, 4,
6 and 9 minutes. The pulp volume was maintained at a constant level to yield a
constant froth depth.
Initial tests were conducted to determine the characteristics of the sample and
flotation behaviour. They included tests on frother type and quantity, gangue
depressant types and quantity, zinc depressant types and quantity, slime removal by
attrition scrubbing, settling-cum-flotation tests, regrinding-cum-flotation tests, and
flotation reproducibility tests. No frother, gangue or zinc depressants, slime removal
or regrinding of tailing sample was necessary. The repeatability of flotation tests
showed 93-9596 of the confidence limit with sampling, chemical analysis and the
variation in batch flotation tests and feed material contributing to the error.
204
Kinetics studies on effectof recycled water onflotation of copper tailingsfrom Benambra
Subsequently, a series of flotation tests were performed on Benambra copper
tailing samples, with the objective of optimising different parameters such as
flotation feed size and pulp density, collector type and quantity, pulp pH, number of
stages for the collector, conhtioning and flotation time, depressants, and frothers.
These tests were performed using Melbourne water. Finally the flotation tests were
conducted at optimised conditions using Melbourne, Benambra, deionised and
recycled water. Three recycles of each water type were made for the study of the
flotation kinetics of chalcopyritetailings. Samples before each recycle were collected
to study water quality.
1. Assaying and Sizing
All sizing and assays were by conventional methods.
Atomic absorption
spectrophotometry was used for copper assays, and scanning electron microscopy
and simple optical microscopy were employed for selectivity and liberation studies.
Water quality data were obtained from Melbourne Water and Denehurst R y Ltd.
Results and Discussions
1. Preliminary tests to optimise flotation parameters
The optimum flotation tests were those that gave best results in terms of copper
grade and recovery along with flotation rate. At optimum flotation conditions, pulp
pH was W n e (9.3, machine impeller speed 1300 rpm, R-4037 (0.04 kg/t) as
copper collector. The flotation tests with water from other sources and with recycled
waters were performed under identical conditions with these optimised flotation
parameten (see Figs. 1 and 2).
2. Recycled process water and flotation kinetics
Flotation rate data is represented as log (fraction remaining) versus time curves. This
allows easy graphical determination of the rate constants according to Equation (1)
following, assuming first-order flotation behaviour and two components in the feed
[24,26]:
205
N.P.Haran, E.R. Boyapati, C. Boontanjai and C. Swaminathan
where 'a' is the proportion of slow floating species: K, and Kfare slow and fast rate
constants respectively in sec-'; t = time in sec.
At K,= 0, the expression reduces to:
where R-/100
is fraction in feed exhibiting a rate constant K and (1- R-/lOO)
is
the non-floatable portion in feed.
3. Effect of water quality on copper tailing flotation
Flotation tests were carried out by employing deionised, Melbourne and Benambra
waters. The effect of water quality on the flotation behaviour was quite significant,
namely the purer the water, the higher was the floatability (Kr values in Table 4).
Higher copper grade and recovery were obtained using deionised water, whereas
mine water inhibited flotation to some extent, with Melbourne water being the least
effective (seeFigs. 1 and 2). Residual reagent levels in mine water (see Table 5 ) and
the pH could be the factors giving an enhanced copper grade and recovery with mine
water as compared to Melbourne water.
Table 4. Kinetic datafor copper flotation using water fromdifferent sources.
-
-
-
BW Benambra Water, DW Deionised Water, YW Melbourne Water,
& K, - Slow and Fast Rate Constants respectively, in loJ sec"
206
Kinetics studies on effectof recycled water onf7otation of copper tailingsfrom Benambra
+Mim water
tMine water
-A-
0.55
0.65
0.75
0.85
Cumulative Cu gnde k
0.95
G r a d r h m v e n curvesfor
chalcopwite floration using fresh water
Figure 2 Recoven. time graphs
chalcopynreflofafion using fresh water
I
.
Ty
2po
400
Flotahon time in seconds
0
igure 1
Deionized water
0-
tRecycled mine water 2
0.55
0.65
0.75
0.85
Cumulative Cu grade %
0.95
Figure 3 Gradehecoven. curves for chalcopynre
flotation using recycled mine warer
-A-
Recycled deionized water 2
Figure 4 Copperflomion rare
dofafor deionized water recycling
r
Rotation time in seconds
-2.5 --
I
1
It~ e c h e dmine water 21
1
-3 -w-h + e c ~ mine water
Figure 5
3J
i
1
Copperfloration rare dour
for mine water recycling
-3 . + F m h
Melboume water
.
-t Recycled Melbourne water 1 ’
-A- Recycled Melbourne water 2
-35 *Recycled
Melbourne water
3.Figure 6 Copperflotarion rare &fa
for Melbourne water recycling
207
N.P.Haran, E.R. Boyapati, C. Boontanjai and C. Swaminathan
Table 5. Quality of waterfrom different sources; the chemical contents.
Bonambra
2.29
423.0
3.82
9.39
1.55
1.488
2.712
0.200
3.26
493.8
1.383
4.81
3.22
1.042
0.819
9.521
31.3
389.8
4.21
2.72
2.81
1.01
0.418
26.23
76.56
324.8
7.07
2.7
2.57
0.895
0.787
24.73
0.129
0.975
0.110
0.09
N.D
0.044
0.052
0.020
4.608
37.06
0.397
4.94
N.D
0.73
0.484
13.79
11.7
87.37
0.697
3.71
0.622
0.91
1.474
14.67
16.65
150.7
0.164
4.24
1.73
0.92
1.802
15.98
(FmW
BoMmbra
-
( R O C Y C I ~1)
Benambra
-
( k y c l l t d 2)
BeMmbra
-
(ROCYCW
3)
Delonised
(Fnrh)
Iklonlsed
-
(ROCydd 1)
Deioniaed
-
(Rqc1.d 2)
Delonimd
-
( W 4 . d 3)
TP- Thiophosphate
-
Cat6 Carbamate
All measurements in ppm
Fresh Melbourne, mine and deionised waters gave slow flotation rate constants
(increasing in this order), indicating the behaviour in the final stages of flotation
(Table 4). The higher fast and slow rate constants for deionised water indicates
better flotation behaviour than with water h m the other two sources. Melbourne
water, though initially indicating a faster flotation rate than mine water, slowed
down considerably after some time and could not attain the maximum copper
recovery of that achieved by mine water (Fig. 2 and Table 4). This may be due to
208
Kinetics studies on efjcect of recycled water on flotation of copper tailingsfrom Benambra
residual reagent in mine water that gave higher copper recovery. The first recycling
(Figs. 4 and 6) of Melbourne and deionised waters in the flotation pmess generally
improved the kinetics (Table 4; see Kfvalues) probably because of fresh residual
flotation reagents. Behaviour of this recycled water (1) in Table 5 was similar to that
observed with fresh mine water. A slight improvement in copper grade (Fig. 3) after
first mine water recycling could be due to residual reagents (see Table 5) and the
water pH.
Water from each source was recycled three times (Figs. 4 to 6). Steady-state
flotation rate for copper tailings (Figure 5 and Table 4) could be obtained by three
recycles of mine water. This was not valid for Melbourne and deionised waters where
the flotation was inhibited successively by the three water-recycles. It is likely that
thio-phosphates and carbamate (Table 5) released from residual reagents and Ca2',
M e and Fe2' released from the sample is responsible for altering the water quality.
Thio salts present in mine water probably maintain the water quality (Table 3).
Conclusions
Deionised water showed superior flotation characteristics in terms of copper
grade and recovery, thus promising enhanced rates as compared to Melbourne
and mine waters. Melbourne water after initially faster flotation kinetics slowed
down considerably, and could not match the maximum copper recovery achieved
by mine water. Residual reagents in mine water may be the reason.
The first recycling of Melbourne and deionised waters generally improved the
flotation kinetics probably because of fresh residual flotation reagents. This was
also observed with fresh mine water that contained the residual flotation reagents.
Mine water recycles indicated a steady-stateflotation rate for copper tailings after
three water-recycles. Flotation was inhibited successively by three water-recycles
of Melbourne and deionised water. Thio salts may be maintaining water quality.
209
N.P.Haran, E.R. Boyapati, C. Boontanjai and C. Swamiwthan
0
Speciesresponsible for the change in water quality are dissolved Ca2', M e , Fe2'
which were present due to water hardness and gangue minerals. Organic species
such as thio-phosphatesand carbamates from residual reagents in water may also
be affecting water quality.
0
Consistent water quality in the flotation of copper tailing could be obtained by
conwl to pH = 9.5 by using lime. However, tailings from Benambra could not
give a very high-grade copper concentrate by use of water from any source
because of its mineralogy and process complexity.
Acknowledgments
The fust author is on study leave from the Indian Bureau of Mines and wishes to
thank Assoc. Prof. John Ball and staff of the Dept of Chemical & Metallurgical
Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology for provision of laboratory
facilities; also Amdel Laboratories, Adelaide, and Mr. S.W.McKnight, Ballarat
University, for analytical help, and Denehurst Pty Ltd for provision of samples and
other assistance.
References
1. Bailey. RP. 1970. Case of damation of m i n d processing water, CoMdicln Mining. 91(6). 87-92
2 Dautzmbetg, H.,Kowal A., Kowal,J. and Deiml W. 1984. Decomposition of xrnrhates in flota?ion
S O ~ U ~ ~ OIn:
U , ReageJlts in Mineral Industry,JOIES, MJ. and Oblm R., (eds.). IMM, London, 47-51.
3. Pidcett, DE. and Joe. E.G. 1974. Water ncycliug urpniaoe m Canadian mills. SME Tmr,AIME,
256,230-235.
4. Joe, E.G. 1984. Water and solution recyciiug practice m the Canadian mineral in-,
In M i n d
Recessing and E m a i v e Mupllurgy. Jones, MJ. and Oblatt R.(eds)IMM, London, 137-146.
5. Ritcy, G.M.
1989.
Tailings managment, pmblans and solutions in mining indusey. Process
Metallurgists, Elsevier. NewYorlc, 913-943.
6. Lynch. A.J. 1984. Ibe tcclmobgy of flotation. Rinciples of mineral flotation
- Ihe Wark Symposium,
Jones, MI€and Woodcodc, J.T., (eds.). AIMM Series No. 40,232253.
7. Sastry, K.V.S. and Fuemcnau, M.C. 1989. Challenges m Minaal Rwessing, SUE Inc., Littleton, USA,
767-769.
8. Shackdeton. T.A. 1992. The dects of recycled water on flotation, CIM 94zh Annual General Meeting,
M ~ n a a lCanada.
,
284-299.
210
Kinetics studies on effectof recycled water on floration of copper tailingsfrom Benambra
9. Dowling, E.C., Klimpel, R.R and Aplan, F.F. 1985. Model discrimination in flotation of porphyry
wpperore, Minerals and Metallurgical Processing, 2(8), 87-101.
10. Mori, S.,Okamoto. H, Ham, T. and Aso. K 1985. Kinetic studies of fluorite flotation, Proceedings of
15th International Mineral Processing Congress, Cairn, Australia,154-162.
11. Fosserberg. KSE.,Jonsson, H.R., and Palsson, B.I. 1985. Full scale test of process water reuse in a
complex sulfide ore circuit, Flotation ofSuljk2 Minerals, Elsevier, New Yo&, 197-217.
12. Taggart, A.F. 1945. Handbook of Mineral Dressing. Wiley Handbook Series, 1285.
13. Marcotte, EJ. 1992. Recycled pmess water at Shebandowan mill, CIM 94rh Annlclrl General Meeting,
Montreal, Canada, 253-268.
14. Yang, D.C. 1979. Flotation m Sysrems with Conuolled Dispersion Canier, Somasundaran. P. and
Arbiter, N. (&.),American Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, New Yo&, 295-308.
15. Haig-Smillie, L.D.1973. Sea water flotation, Report on T e d Mines Lki., 266-281.
16. Rao, SR. and Finch. J.A. 1989. A review of water reuse in flotation,Minerals Eng., 2(1), 99-119.
17. Gehr, R.J.A., Mokhtari. F.B., Rao. SR. and Finch, J.A. 1989. Water treatment and flotation study an
recycled water from pymchlore -sing
plant, Proceedings of International Symposium on
Processing of Complex Ores, Halifax. Canada, 279-289.
18. Liu, L., Rao. S.R. and Finch, J.A. 1993. Laboratory study of &eu of recycled water on flotation of
Cu/zn sulfide ore, Minerals Engineering, 6(11), 1183-1190.
19. Rao,S.R.,Gehr, R,Finch, J.A. and Biss,R. 1989. Water m e n t and flotation d y on recycled water
from mineral pnxzssing plant, Proceedings of 12th Symposium on Waste WaferTreatment, Canada, 99119.
20. Illie. P. and Tutsek. P. 1980. Flotation of PbZn o m with total water recycling. Proceedings of the 12th
International Mineral Processing Congress, Brazil, 121-127.
21. Anon., 1994. Benambra Mine Joint Venture, Australian General Mining Year Book,Vol2, p. 118.
22. Anon., 1994b. Denehurst Limited, Jobson's Mining Year Book 1993-94, Riddell Information Service
Pty Ltd,Canberra,P.76.
23. Dowd, PJ. 1993. Copper-Zinc ore mining and treatment by the Benambra Mine Joint Ventme. Victoria,
A u s I W , 2(1), 548-549.
24. Lynch,AJ..Johnson, N.W.. Manlapig. EV. and "home, C.G. 1981. Mathanatid model for flotation,
In: Mineral & C a l Flotation Circuits: Their Simuiarion & Control, Elsevier, NewYork, 57-%.
25. Cam, M., and Del Fa, C. 1977. Roblem of plnfication and recycling of the residual waters m the
flotation of complex minerals with sulphides,barite and fluorite, Proceedings of the 12th Internarional
Mineral Processing Congress, Brazil, 31-64.
26. Nagaraj, D.R., Wang, S.S.and Fraaaroli. D.R 1984. Flotation of copper sulfide and
new
and existing sulfurcontainingcollecton, 13th CMMI Congress - Metallurgy, 49 - 57.
Submitted 14 May 19%; Accepted after revision: 30 September 1996.
211
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
721 Кб
Теги
recycled, water, effect, victoria, flotation, benambra, tailings, mine, kinetics, coppel, studies
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа