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Organic Electrochemistry. Series Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry Vol. 8; Series editors A. J. Bard M. Stratmann. Edited by Hans J

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Books
Chemogenomics in Drug Discovery
Methods and Principles in Medicinal
Chemistry, Vol. 22.
Edited by Hugo
Kubinyi and Gerhard
Mller. Wiley-VCH,
Weinheim 2004.
462 pp., hardcover
E 149.00.—ISBN
3-527-30987-X
The pharmaceutical and biotechnology
industries have made substantial investments in novel research technologies
during the past decade. As a result of
this commitment, large amounts of
data describing available chemical compounds and potential drug targets have
become available. For example, efforts
in combinatorial chemistry and highthroughput screening have resulted in
large compound libraries and their associated chemical data, while genomics
projects have mapped entire genomes
through the application of modern techniques in molecular biology and bioinformatics. However, the expectations
of the industry, in the form of significantly increased productivity, have not
been fulfilled. Rather, the annual numbers of new chemical entities brought
to the market have declined in the
post-genomic era. An insufficient understanding of the correlations between
“chemical space” and “target space”
can be seen as partly responsible for
the apparent failure to achieve faster
transformation of data into knowledge
that is relevant for the drug-discovery
process.
Chemogenomics in Drug Discovery
aims at providing a definition of chemogenomics—most broadly defined as the
2832
study of biological systems through the
use of small chemical compounds—
that is relevant for investigators working
in the early stages of drug discovery.
More specifically, the book emphasizes
the chemistry-related aspects of chemogenomics, aspects that the editors
believe have been somewhat neglected,
and which may help to link potential targets with their ligands on a large scale.
The book presents the relevant concepts
of chemogenomics, together with a collection of illustrative examples where
these concepts are applied to the systematic search for novel drug candidates
and targets.
The book consists of 15 chapters
contributed by research groups in pharmaceutical companies and academia.
In the first of three sections, general
aspects such as privileged structures,
target-family-directed master keys, and
drug discovery resulting from sideeffects are presented, as well as an indepth discussion of the role of chemical
genetics in drug discovery. Also found
here is a thorough overview of methods
aimed at the description and systematic
comparison of binding sites of proteins.
The second section of the book presents a number of examples where chemogenomics tools are applied for the
large-scale study of selected pharmaceutically relevant target families.
Here, the roles of molecular informatics,
chemical kinomics, and proteochemometrics for the discovery of targets and
lead compounds are discussed, and
applications to specific target families
(e.g., G-protein-coupled receptors) are
presented. In addition, three chapters
are specifically dedicated to the study
of kinases, ion channels, and phosphodiesterases.
The third section concentrates on
the design of chemical libraries for
high-throughput or virtual screening.
Two contributions present computational approaches for identifying compounds that are likely to have druglike
or leadlike physicochemical properties,
or to be specific for a certain target
family, and topics such as hard and soft
filters, prediction of physicochemical
and ADMET properties, fuzzy pharmacophore models, and binary classifiers
are covered in detail. Finally, two chapters are dedicated to synthetic
approaches for generating combinato-
2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
www.angewandte.org
rial libraries around natural bioactive
core structures.
The contributions in Chemogenomics in Drug Discovery are of very high
quality and are clearly presented—this
impression is only slightly marred by a
missing figure caption. The book is
equipped with a thorough and comprehensive subject index, but lacks a list of
abbreviations, which would have
served the book well. All chapters
have a high scientific value, and collectively they contribute a great deal to
the understanding of how chemogenomics and scaled-up medicinal chemistry
can support the early stages of drug discovery. Therefore, this work is highly
relevant for everyone with an interest
in modern drug development, and especially for readers in the pharmaceutical
industry.
Ulf Brjesson
Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
University of Marburg (Germany)
Organic Electrochemistry
Series: Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, Vol. 8; Series
editors: A. J. Bard,
M. Stratmann.
Edited by Hans J.
Schfer. Wiley-VCH,
Weinheim 2004.
653 pp., hardcover
E 349.00.—ISBN
3-527-30400-2
Editing an encyclopedia has always
been an epoch-making task, and has
been undertaken only by intellectual
heroes (an outstanding example is the
Encyclopédie published by D. Diderot
and J. dAlembert between 1751 and
1775). Perhaps that is the reason for
the appearance nowadays of many
“handbooks”, including those on specific areas of chemistry. Encyclopedias
in this area are comparatively rare, and
since the publication of the EncyclopeAngew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 2832 – 2833
Angewandte
Chemie
dia of the Electrochemistry of the Elements, edited by A. J. Bard, there has
been no new work for a long time. However, the Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, edited by A. J. Bard and M. Stratmann, two well-known experts in the
field, which recently began to appear
in stages as a series of single volumes,
is a new attempt at an encyclopedic coverage. The editors aim to collect
together, in 11 volumes, the present
state of knowledge in electrochemistry.
In this eighth volume, H. J. Schfer,
as volume editor, covers the subject of
organic electrochemistry, which is often
neglected in universities, but is of growing interest to the chemical industry in
many niche applications. Corresponding
to the enormously broad scope of
organic chemistry, the volume must
deal with many different groups of compounds and types of reactions, and
accordingly the editor has relied on the
help of 13 authors from many different
backgrounds.
Three general surveys precede the
discussion of the various types of reactions and compound classes. The first is
a systematic overview of experimental
methods for studying electroorganic
reactions, contributed by B. Speiser,
who is well-known in both electrochemical and organic chemical circles through
his many publications on the mechanisms of electroorganic reactions, and
on the application of numerical simulation methods for interpreting data
from electrochemical measurements.
The article explains the classification of
methods and addresses questions about
the nomenclature of reactions. The presentation is concise, but nevertheless
gives rather detailed descriptions, usually with references to the literature
and to other volumes of the encyclopedia. The second article in this general
part is also concise, and bridges the
gap between laboratory studies and
industrial applications. The author, J.
Jrissen, deals with practical aspects of
preparative electrochemistry, ranging
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 2832 – 2833
from the components of an electrolytic
cell to the design of modern industrial
cells. Basic concepts are introduced
briefly. The third article of this general
introduction compares chemical and
electrochemical methods of organic syntheses, and also serves as an introduction to the following 11 chapters. Drawing on his extensive experience in this
field, the author dismisses common prejudices against electrochemical methods,
and gives a clear explanation of their
advantages, and also their limitations.
In the next two chapters, cathodic
and anodic electrochemical reactions
of hydrocarbons are reviewed comprehensively by Heinze and by Schfer.
That is followed by two chapters that
deal in turn with the oxidation and
reduction of oxygen-containing compounds, the first by Matsumura, and
the second by Kashimura and Ishifune.
The presence of halogen atoms in a molecule confers special properties under
reducing or oxidizing conditions, and in
the next chapter Peters discusses mechanistic and synthetic aspects arising
from such properties. Jouikov and Simonet then describe the corresponding situation for sulfur compounds. Moeller
deals with preparative aspects of the
electrochemistry of nitrogen compounds, but here, after only a few
pages on amides and amines, the focus
of attention turns to natural products
throughout the rest of the chapter. As
the author rightly remarks in his first
sentence, a better and more appropriate
title for the chapter would have been
“Electrochemistry of Amines and
Amides”. Little approaches the subject
with a different aim in mind, that of
electrosynthesizing natural products,
fine chemicals, and pharmaceuticals,
and discusses a selection of electroorganic methods for synthesizing target
compounds. Moinet presents a very systematic treatment of the electrochemistry of heterocycles; he classifies anodic
and cathodic processes, with and without cyclization, according to the cou-
www.angewandte.org
pling or functionalization reactions that
are possible. Fuchigami, Nonaka, and
Schfer discuss questions of selectivity
in electroorganic reactions, with regard
to the different types of selectivity, and
the differences between the behavior
of anodic and cathodic processes. The
reactions of acids or bases that are generated at the counterelectrode are often
dismissed as unimportant, but these too
can be used for synthetic purposes, and
Nielsen contributes a highly topical
review of this aspect. The chapter by
Torii is appropriately long, to do justice
to an important topic: indirect electrochemical syntheses, in which a required
oxidizing or reducing agent is generated
electrochemically, and after reaction
with the substrate is regenerated electrochemically. Such methods of synthesis often present a viable alternative
when the direct electrochemical process
turns out to be unsatisfactory. The last
chapter, by Heinze, deals with electrically conducting polymers. In accordance with the aims of the book and the
series, the discussion is limited to the
mechanistic aspects of the electropolymerization process and the redox behavior of the polymer.
This very carefully produced volume
is completed by a comprehensive index.
The volume is most likely to be bought
by libraries, where it will be used in conjunction with other volumes of the
series. However, as a stand-alone work,
it has to compete with the book Organic
Electrochemistry (Eds: H. Lund, O.
Hammerich; Marcel Dekker, New
York, 2001). Since the two are similar
in size and up-to-dateness, it would be
difficult to choose between them.
Rudolf Holze
Institt fr Chemie
Technische Universitt Chemnitz
(Germany)
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200485244
2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
2833
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