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Principles of Chemical Separations with Environmental Applications. By Richard D. Noble and Patricia A. Terry

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Angewandte
Books
Chemie
Protecting Groups
By Philip J. Kocieński. Georg Thieme
Verlag, Stuttgart
2004. 679 pp.,
hardcover
E 129.00.—ISBN
3–13–137003–3
Protecting Groups, by Philip J. Kocieński, is one of those books about which
one can say that, if it had not already
existed, it would have been necessary
to write it. In it, the author discusses protecting group techniques for the six most
important functional groups in biomolecules: hydroxy, carbonyl, carboxyl,
amino, thiol, and phosphate groups. An
introductory chapter outlines, briefly
and precisely, the need for protecting
groups in modern synthetic chemistry,
and the conditions for using them effectively. The chapter also describes the
most important reactions for removing
protecting groups and the mechanisms
of such reactions, and lists some important review articles and monographs on
the subject.
The following chapters contain a systematic treatment of protecting group
techniques for the functional groups
mentioned above. All the important variants of the methods for introducing and
removing a protecting group are described with the help of examples,
including details of the most important
reaction conditions, and references to
the original literature. Much emphasis
is placed on the desire for “orthogonality” in the procedures, which means
the ability to carry out protecting
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 183 – 185
group operations on a particular functional group without affecting other protecting functions in the molecule. Each
chapter ends with references to important review articles on the topic discussed. The author ends the book in an
unusual and original way by describing
some unexpected reactions that can
occur when a protecting group is
detached from a complex molecule,
and inviting the reader to consider possible mechanisms for such reactions. This
chapter emphasizes that although
orthogonal protecting group strategies
have undergone increasing refinement
in the last 50 years, there is still a need
for further developments in this direction, and even well-established methods
can sometimes give surprising results.
How is this book different from
other monographs on the subject? Its
most important characteristics are the
clear and systematic way in which the
different aspects are presented, the
exemplary selection and critique of the
relevant literature, the discussion of
reaction mechanisms, and the explanations of the various methods with the
help of real examples, including details
of the reaction conditions. This multifaceted quality makes it difficult to categorize the work as a textbook, monograph,
or handbook, as it has the advantage of
combining characteristics of all three.
It is outstandingly suitable as a student
textbook to accompany a lecture
course, but can also serve as a reference
source to provide valuable ideas to help
the experimentalist in developing protecting group strategies. Many of the
examples described involve the use of
several different protecting groups, and
provide excellent demonstrations of
the importance of orthogonality. These
descriptions are especially valuable for
applications to synthesis, as they enable
one to compare ones immediate synthetic problem with the examples described, as an aid to choosing the most
promising variant of the procedure.
As this is the third edition of the
book, it is natural to ask what is new in
it, and whether it is worth buying this
revised version. The book has been
enlarged by adding chapters on protecting group methods for thiols and phosphates, and some of the application
examples that were in the previous editions have been replaced by more upwww.angewandte.org
to-date ones. The number of reaction
schemes has been more than doubled
compared with the 1994 edition, while
keeping the previous clear presentation
and convenience of use. Last but not
least, the use of color in the formula
schemes makes it easy to quickly grasp
the essentials of a protecting group
problem, especially for complex molecules. Therefore, I can recommend without hesitation that one should buy this
new edition.
Christian Vogel
Institut fr Chemie
Universitt Rostock (Germany)
Principles of Chemical Separations
with Environmental Applications
By Richard D. Noble
and Patricia A. Terry.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004.
320 pp., hardcover
E 80.00.—ISBN
0–581–81152-X
Long before the earliest successful syntheses started the triumphal march of
chemistry, scientists of old sought to
understand the structure of the material
world by carefully breaking it down into
its constituents. Today, separation is still
one of the basic procedures of chemistry,
which is widely used both in studying
nature and in environmental protection,
and is an essential part of many technological processes. In view of the importance of the subject and its long tradition, it is remarkable that up to now
there has been no comprehensive work
that deals with the fundamentals of the
various separation methods, compares
them, and describes their applications.
Richard Noble and Patricia Terry have
now remedied that gap with this work,
which covers chemical separation pro-
2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
183
Books
cesses from the standpoint of the chemical engineer and the applied scientist.
The book is the latest volume in a
series devoted to “unit operations”. In
their introduction, the authors explain
that separation processes are essential
for the cleaning up and protection of
the environment, and they give a historical survey of developments in the protection of the atmosphere and water systems and in the desulfurization of fuels.
That introduction is followed by a discussion about the mechanisms of separation, and about equilibria and kinetics
in different media, with an emphasis on
the role of molecular properties. Then
the reader learns about the fundamentals of the quantitative description of
separation processes, and about mass
balance considerations and material
transfer. The authors present and discuss phase-equilibrium diagrams for systems of two and of three components,
and show how they can be treated mathematically. The Wilson method and the
UNIQUAC program enable one to
determine the Freundlich and Langmuir
adsorption isotherms. The following
chapters are concerned with detailed
aspects of distillation, extraction,
absorption, gas stripping, adsorption,
and ion exchange. For each topic, an
explanation of the principles, including
diagrams showing processes and reactors, is followed by appropriate equations and examples of actual procedures
and their special characteristics. The
main emphasis is on aqueous systems.
In the mathematical treatment of the
processes, the authors link the theory
directly to clear and easily understandable schematic diagrams, in a didactically
very effective way. They also provide
exercise problems as examples, which
are arranged under systematic and informative headings, together with detailed
solutions; these complement the information in the text with insights into
actual practice, and should help the
reader to apply the knowledge. For
example, the section on adsorption not
only discusses the factors that are important in designing a process, but also gives
a calculation using the “scale-up”
method and compares it with the result
obtained from a kinetic approach. Similarly, the discussion of ion-exchange
processes includes, as a practical exam-
184
ple, a description of a column for removing Cu2+ ions from an industrial effluent.
The final chapter is concerned with
membranes for separation. These open
up very promising possibilities. The
wide variety of types of membranes
that are available offers the prospect of
tailored solutions to separation problems for different water situations. The
chapter discusses engineering aspects
of membrane processes, and describes
methods for calculating the important
variables involved in the separation of
materials.
The appendix contains much useful
information, including examples of calculations of important dimensionless
characteristics, material transfer coefficients, impulse response analysis, and
finite difference methods, as well as references to the literature sources used.
The original structure of the individual chapters, with an apt reference or
quotation at the beginning of each one
(on topics that range from the Rolling
Stones to Erasmus), the precise definition of learning objectives, the expert
information, the calculations of practical
examples, the pithy memory-aid
phrases, the questions, and the exercise
problems, will appeal to many students.
However, the relevance to environmental matters that is mentioned in the title
only emerges clearly in a few cases. It is
regrettable that, as in previous volumes
of the series, only work published in
English is covered, whereas research
and development in the rest of the
world is not reported or even mentioned. Otherwise, this refreshing textbook is very effective and nicely produced.
In summary, the book can be thoroughly recommended for students of
chemical engineering and the environmental sciences.
Fritz H. Frimmel
Lehrstuhl fr Wasserchemie
Engler-Bunte-Institut
Universitt Karlsruhe (Germany)
DOI: 10.1002/anie.200485210
2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
www.angewandte.org
Nucleic Acids
By Shawn Doonan.
Royal Society of
Chemistry, Cambridge 2004.
185 pp., softcover
£ 14.95.—ISBN
0–85404–481–7
Nucleic Acids is an undergraduate textbook aimed at chemistry students seeking a concise introduction to the field.
The text comprises five chapters covering the structure of nucleic acids, their
biological roles, and the fundamentals
of translation and transcription. In particular, Chapter 5 describes modern
methods for the analysis and manipulation of DNA, and provides a very good
introduction to recent advances in
DNA technology, including the techniques of cloning, DNA amplification,
DNA fingerprinting, and bioinformatics.
The book encourages an independent approach to learning, in which
each chapter contains a list of learning
objectives, several worked examples,
and a concluding summary of key
points. Each chapter also contains a set
of problems (with answers), and for further reading there is a carefully chosen
set of references to seminal papers in
the subject. I particularly enjoyed one
of the worked problems, which provides
a step-by-step guide to downloading the
structure of a DNA duplex, determined
by X-ray diffraction, from the Protein
Data Bank, and displaying and manipulating the structure by using a molecular
graphics program. In Chapter 5, a similar worked example in bioinformatics
allows the reader to deduce the function
of an unknown protein on the basis of
amino acid sequence alignment. Examples such as these are an excellent introduction to using databases.
The chemistry and biology of nucleic
acids has a rich and exciting history, and
this is clearly conveyed to the reader
through a series of text boxes that
describe the key discoveries in the field
during its 130-year history. I am sure
that even readers familiar with the subject will glean some new information
from these sections. The book is written
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 183 – 185
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