DISCERNMENT O F HUMAN RACES BY BLOOD P A l l TI C U LA R L Y O F R U S S I A K S FBOM JEWS’ E. 0. MAI-OILOFF Leningrad, Russia RACIAL TRAITS The problem of the origin of races has always interested the most advanced minds, naturally giring birth t o many different theories. The existing theories about races are dependent on generalities about them, as well as on the subjective opinions of authors on the historical mission of each particular nation. From the scientific point of view, the question of racial entity may be formulated thus : I s there such a thing as an unchangeable race, and, if so, what are its physical and mental peculiarities? However, it is urgent first to answer the question: Are there, in general, unchangeable races? For instance, Franz Miiller declares : “Races are nonsenses, a pure charlatanry.” Jehring writesZ: “Substitute nations in their cradles, and Semites will ’grow out of Aryans, and out of Aryans-Semites. ” The doctrine of the unchangeableness of races is dependent 011 the theory of races. There are four such theories: 1. The linguistical theory, which determines races by their language and by their culture. 2. The anthropological theory, which bases its data on somatic features (form of skull and face, color of eyes and hair, statnre, etc.). 3. The biological theory, which regards races from the point of view of natural selection, that is, from dependence ‘The report was made February 19, 1926, in the Anthropological Society in Leningrad. Vorgeschichte der Judoeuropaer, 1894. 11 12 E. 0. M A N O I L O F F on environment aiid on the inborn nature of races. According to this theory, races are the product of their environment, acting through the unequal accom&odations of the indiriduals. 4. The sociological theory, which considers races as a social formation, i.e., as a product of social organization in its historical development. Of all these theories, the anthropological is the only one which is grounded on the unchangeableness of races. Antliropology, as mentioned above, is chiefly engrossed with external features-with the form of the skull and of the skeleton, the color of the skin, the color of the hair, the color of the eyes, the general aspect of the hair, the height of the body of the individual in relation to build and to units of stature. And yet, many quite objective investigators, as, f o r instance, Ripley, insist on the constancy of the physical features of races, especially of the form of the skull. Nevertheless, the following circumstance proves the inconsistency of the anthropological theory, especially as far as concerns the skull. Many years ago, a common grave was opened in the Paris cemetery, which, it was unanimously supposed, contained the remains of soldiers belonging to the allied armies which besieged Paris in 1814. A renowned anthropologist took the measures of the skulls and defined some of them as belonging t o Aryans, some others to Finns, Bashkirs, Kalmyks, and other nationalities. However, it was discovered later on that this place was the burial-ground of Paris women, victims of the cholera in 1837.3 So easy is it, also, to make a mistake when trying to determine the race peculiarities of nations long extinct, f o r instance, by means of pictures of individuals see11 on ancient Egyptian monuments. At present we may say it is impossible to establish the cultural properties of a given race according to the size of the skull. Skulls of the same size belong to the most different nationalities with the most different civilizations. Pasmanik, Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. XIII. DISCERNMENT OF HUMAN RACES BY BLOOD 13 PHYSIOLOGICAL A N D CHEMICAL D I F F E R E N C E S O F RACES Contemporary anthropology devotes itself not only to the aforementioned study, but equally to physiology, and thus has found that differences in anatomical deviations of one race from another impart corresponding hereditary differences in function, siich as racial differences in muscular strength, nervous activity, and longevity. These questions are principally studied and elaborated by a new independent discipline-the science of constitution. On the problem of constitution is riveted just now the center of universal interest; it teaches us that all these positive and negative qualities are transmitted by heredity. For this discipline some chemical blood reactions have a particular interest; these may be hereditarily transmitted, but may just as well be a b ~ e n t . Interest ~ in the study of chemical blood reaction in man, both as individuals and as races, has been aroused principally by the prominent action exercised by blood agglutination in the life of man, especially in his struggle against pathogenic microbes. Instead of agglutination of bacteria, hemo-agglutination can serve now as the object of a parallel investigation, namely, the agglutination of erythrocytes, that glue together under the action of a foreign serum. It is well known that, relatively to man, it has been established long ago that the blood corpuscles belonging t o one man often glue together with the serum of another. Landsteiner5 has shown that mankind can be divided into four groups on the basis of hemo-agglutination. Landsteiner 's studies have brought about investigations of whole masses of people of different countries. Such broad investigations have been performed by Hirschfeld on captive soldiers in S a l ~ n i k iby , ~ Veszetezki in Prag,' by Moss in America,* by Dungern in Germai~y.~ 'Dungern u. Hirschfeld. Zeitsehrift f u r Immunitltsforsehung, Bd. IX, 1911. ' Zentralbl. Bakter., XXVIT, 1901. Immunitatsf., 1911. 'i Biochem. Z., CVII, 1911. * Fol. Seriol., 1920. 'Z. Immunitatsf. IV, 1909; VI, 1910; VIII, 1911. ' Z. 14 E. 0. M A N O I L O F F Dr. M. Awdeewa and Dr. M. Grinzewitchl0 report, in a very careful work, the results of their investigations in the Moscow population. They found that of 1600 persons, 6.5 per cent belonged t o the first group; 38.5 per cent, to the second; 23 per cent, to the third, and 33 per cent, t o tlie fourth. Like investigations have been made by Rubashkine and Wagnerll for the whole Russian population. Wishnewskyl2 has investigated the population of the Tchuvash province ; he has worked chiefly on Tchuvashes and Russians, namely with 951 Tchuvashes and 228 Russians. The author found that Russians of different provinces have a biochemical race indicator not lower than 1.2 in European Russia, whereas the Tchuvashes, w-itlr their characteristic blood indicator, have less than one (0.8), i.e., that they belong to populations having the quantitative predomination of the third group over the second.l3 G. Popovicin14 has investigated the biological structure of hlood in Roumania according to geographical position, and has found that the indices f o r isohemo-agglutinations of the population of Roumania are distributed unequally. He found that the Transylvania Romans differ from the primitive Roman population of ancient Roumania. The index of the Transylvania Romans is 2.15, whereas the index of the Romans from tlie ancient kingdom is 1.8. The author gives an explanation of this difference j he thinks that in the localities where there is a high index, the population has updergone crossing with different tribes that have immigrated from the East. S. Manuila15 has published the results of his investigation on eight tribes living in Roumania. The results obtained hy this author correspond t o the earlier indications of otlier authors. Mariuila found the index for Bulgarians "Results in Experimental Biology (Russian), vol. I, no. 3-4, On hereditary properties of blood, p. 352. l1 Wratschebnojc Delo, 1924-1925. R. Ae. Sci., U.R.S.S., 1935. Is Wishnewsky, Wratsehebnoje Delo, 1925, no. 6. l4 C. R. SOC. Hiol., XC, 1924. l5 C. R. SOC. Biol., XC, 1924. "C. N. Koltzoff, DISCERNMENT OF HUNAN BACES BY BLOOD 15 to be 2.3; for Hungarians, 1.6; for Jews, 1.6. The index for Saxons living in Roumania is 3.4; they emigrated t o Roumania from the Rheiii province in the fourteenth century, and their index is higher than the index of Germans from Germany, and is therefore placed between that of the English and that of the French. Kirohara SchinhilGhas found, on the ground of his investigations, that the biochemical index of the Japanese varies between 1.5 and 1.8. He found the index f o r Koreans to be 0.89, 1.00, and 0.41, from which he draws the conclusion that the nearer the approach to the South, the nearer the Korean index approaches to the Japanese. On the ground of his observations on the heredity of specific blood-group structures, the author concludes that, judging from a group of children, it is possible to determine the blood group of each parent. The same can be said about determining the father’s group by the mother’s and child’s groups. And, inversely, the mother’s group may be determined by knowledge of the father’s and the child’s. S n attempt has been made lately to clear up the mechanism of the isohemo-agglutination in man. Thus, L. Hadjopulos and I.. Renegalos Barbon17 have proved that the isohemoagglutination aiid hemolyzation lie in the stroma of the red blood corpusclcs. MY OWN INVESTIGATIONS After these communications of a preliminary character, I come to my own investigations. There is no doubt whatever that all races without exception have undergone aiid undergo new crossiiigs with one another. But the problem of races, i n relation t o the influence of crossing, is being cleared up only as we become acquainted with the law of Mendel; aiid it is easy t o prove that all the crossings of populatioiis have been subjected to this law. For me it is absolutely clear that, by analogy to the presence of liormoneslRcharacterizing this “ Z . klin. Med., XCIX, June 4, 1924. l’ The nature of human isohemo-agglutinogens. Med., 1924. ’* See my work in Munch. med. Woch., 1924. h o e . Soe. Experim. Biol. & 16 E. 0. MAATOILOFF o r that sex, there must be something correspondingly specific of race in the blood of different races of mankind. This specific substance gives the seal of the given race and serves to distinguish one race from another. And if this be right, the unknown substance existing in the blood must be discovered in some way o r other. After long searching, I have chanced to discover a reaction giving an answer to the abovementioned analogy. I admit the impossibility of certifying that the reaction which I propose gives 100 per cent accuracy, but this is quite natural, for we are occupied here with complex biological phenomena, brought about by the crossing of races, f o r which reason there are evidently people with vaguely expressed race qualities. Considering the fact that, on account of many circumstances, the Jewish race has, in comparison with the Russian, much less mixture of blood, 1 have chosen, on the one hand, the Jewish race and, on the other, the Russian. Jews as well as Russians, but especially the last, have been questioned about the origin of their ancestors, and only those Russians taken into consideration who had at least three truly Russian ancestors, both from paternal and from maternal sides, leaving aside the question of religion. Blood %-astaken from the cubital vein and, if possible, the reaction undertaken the same day. I n this way, from the year 1922 up to September 1, 1925, I have investigated 2000 people, 800 of m7hom were Jews and 1120 Russians. By the end of 1923, I could distinguish, with the help of reagents, Jewish blood from Eussian in 88.6 per cent of the cases tested. Wishing t o rerify my test and especially to exhibit this result at the VI I I Conference of Russian Therapeutists,lg I addressed myself to some persons with the request to obtain Jewish and Russian blood answering to the aforenamed conditions; at the same time I expressly begged them to mark the test-tubes o n l y with numbers, without either family names o r designation of nation. Many persons answered my request, for which I express my sincere gratitude. Materials were sent to me: lnMiineli. med. Woch., 1925, no. 51. DISCERXMENT O F HUMAN RACES BY BLOOD 17 1. From the clinic of Prof. P. S. Medowikoff by his adjunct, Dr. s. M. Kogan, from whom I received 81 numbered test-tubes with blood, namely, 37 from Jewish children and 44 from Russian. Of these I determined correctly 75 ( 9 1 per cent) and incorrectly only 6. 2. Dr. Rachel Liwschitz, assistant in the Physiotherapeutic Institute, obtained for me 28 numbered test-tubes with blood, 16 containing Jewish blood and 1 2 Russian blood. I determined correctly all cases (100 per cent). 3. From the chief physician of the German Red Cross Hospital, Doctor Kastians, I received 29 test-tubes (the blood was taken by Doctor Schiele) ; of these I determined correctly in 25 cases (86.2 per cent) and incorrectly only in 4. 4. From Dr. A. I. Shingarewa I received 10 test-tubes, 5 from Jews and 5 from Russians; I gave correct answers in 7 cases (70 per cent), incorrect ones in only 3. 5 . From Dr. V. I. Popow, assistant in the clinic of Professor Oppel, 28 test-tubes were received, 14 of which came from Jews, and 14 from Russians; I answered right in 26 cases (92.8 per cent) and made a mistake only in 2. 6. I received from Adjunct Dr. A. E. Solowtzowa 18 testtubes; answered correctly t o all (100 per cent). 7. I obtained from Dr. J. F. Feokritowa 8 numbered testtubes, 4 with Jewish blood and 4 with Russian. I gave right answers in all cases (100 per cent). Thus I have irivestigated for my report 202 test-tubes and answered correctly to 187, i.e., in 91.7 per cent, and o d y to 15 incorrectly. TECHNICAL PROCEDURE For these reactions the following reagents are needed : 1st reagent-1 per cent alcoholic solution of methyl-blue (Grubler ) . 2nd reagent-1 per cent alcoholic solution of cresyl-violet (Griibler) . 3rd reagent-$ of 1per cent solution of silver nitrate. 4th r e a g e n t 4 0 per cent solution of hydrochloric acid. AMERICAN JOUFCNAL OF PRYSICAG ANTHROPOLOQP, VOL. X, NO, 1 18 E. 0. MAKOILOFF 5th reagent-1 per cent aqueous solution of potassium permanganate, freshly prepared. The reaction proceeds in the following way: Add to 3 cc. of unheated emulsion of red blood corpuscles ( 3 to 5 per cent) o r directly t o the coagulum of blood three to four times as much (in volume) sodium chloride (physiological solution) and mix with a glass stick so as to obtain a rather thick emulsion. Then add 1drop of the hrst reagent, shake; 5 drops of second reagent, shake again; 3 drops of third reagent, shake; 1 drop of fourth reagent, and, lastly, 3 to 5 drops of the fifth reagent. The result will be correct if the fluid with Jewish blood proves to be paler than that with Russian blood. In Jewish blood the color cresyl-violet must disappear entirely or almost so, and the blue or blue-green shade alone remain; in Russian blood the cresyl-violet color will partly remain insoluble, and we see generally a blue-red coloring. It is useful to note that if some investigators work with a 3 per cent emulsion and others with 3 per cent, the coloring will naturally be different, but one thing is sure-the coloring- of Jewish blood will be paler than that of Russian. I deem it urgent to remark that clear (exact) results depend exclusively on good colors. The most important are methyl-blue and cresyl-violet, which show the difference between Jewish and Russian blood. I advise, previously, to standardize the reagents themselves, chiefly methyl-blue and cresyl-violet. Such colorizers must be chosen which possess the necessary degree of oxidation. If the selection of colors be successful, the cresyl-violet will dissolve completely in Jewish blood, whereas in Russian blood it dissolves only partly, but never completely. In order to obtain a good difference, it may be necessary with certain colors to add not one, but two or three drops of the fourth reagent (hydrochloric acid). The same concerns also the fifth reagent, where it may be needful to add not three, but from five to eight, and sometimes even more, drops of potassium permanganate. The last solution must always be freshly prepared-fifteen t o twenty minutes before the DISCERNMENT O F HUMAN RACES BY BLOOD 19 beginning of the test. The test-tubes must be strictly of the same size and always absolutely clean. If you wish to decolorize Russian blood and to compare it with Jewish, you must add t o the Russian test-tuhe as much of the fourth reagent and twice as much of the fifth reagent (in drops) as M-as used formerly. This means that the oxidizing process goes on more swiftly in the Jewish blood than in the Russian, or, so to say, the oxidizing process goes on more slowly in the Russian blood than in the Jewish. DISCUSSION I have mentioned above that my accounting concerns principally Jewish and Russian blood, and first of all, GreatRussian. Most naturally, I investigated also other nations ; by the way, Germans, Chinese, Xsthonians, Finns, Poles, A4rmenians,and others. This gave me the impression that other nations could be discerned in the same way. Unfortunately, the lack of material makes it impossible for me to speak about this 1vit.h certainty, as I speak of the Jewish and the Russian races. Further, I have investigated the blood of people born of mixed marriages, namely, in six cases, the father was Russian, the mother Polish; in two cases, the father was Russian, the mother Jewish; in eight cases, the father was Russian,,the mother Finnish ;in twenty-three cases, the father was Russian, the mother German; in two cases, the father was Russian, the mother Tartar; in two cases, the father mas Russian, the mother Armenian. On the grouiid of this restricted material, I can only remark that in mixed marriages, in cases in which the children had a Russian father and a Jewish or Polish mother, in such Russians the oxidizing process is stronger than in purely Russian ones and the reagent can give a false answer. I n cases in which the father was Russian and the mother German, Finnish or Tartar, the oxidizing process goes on more slowly, wherefore the reaction differs little from the purely Russian. 20 E. 0. MANOILOFF It is clear that this material is too insignificant to allow me to affirm anything positive, but I hope that in the future I shall find means to verify these observations on more material. The proposed reaction can have a certain medieolegal importance if it relates to the problem of determining the parentage of a child, born of a Russian mother and a Jewish father. So, for instance, a physician brought me three testtubes with blood, two of which contained the blood of grownup people, the third, a child’s, requesting me to determine, by the blood, to whom the child belonged. The test-tubes bore the numbers 1, 2, and 3. Immediately, in the presence of tlie physician, I investigated first no. 1, then no. 2, and determined that no. 1belonged to a Jew. This made a strong impression on the physician, and he admitted that my definition was right. After that I investigated the child’s blood (no. 3 ) , then placed the test-tube with this blood between the test-tubes no. 1 and no. 2, letting the light of an electric lamp (50 o r 100 candles) run through i t ; thus I demonstrated that the child’s blood stood nearer to no. 1 (i.e., to the Jewish blood) ; on this ground, I affirmed that the child’s father must be a Jew, and not a Russian. The physician was greatly pleased with my investigation and related t o me that the whole thing referred to the following fact: A Jew, married t o a Russian, had begun, after the birth of the child, to suspect his wife of having committed adultery with a Russian. The physician added that my definition was near t o truth, as all legal investigations pointed to the same, so that the husband’s suspicions proved quite unfounded. Dr. S. M. Kogan, from tlie pediatric clinic of Professor Medowikoff, submitted my race reaction to a trial, and had 90 per cent correct results. This author made in this case most interesting tests. To one group of children he injected subcutaneously adrenalin immediately after the blood had been taken; to another group he injected pilokarpin. After a lapse of two, four, six, and thirty-six hours, he took some more blood. It happened that in Jewish children who were injected with adrenalin, there resulted, six hours after in- DISCERNMENT O F HUMAN RACES BY BLOOD 21 jection, the same coloring as in true Russian. Only after a lapse of thirty-six hours, race reaction gave again the correct ailswer. The test with pilokarpin in Jewish blood test-tubes gave the right answer, even a more intensive one than before the injection. On the ground of his investigations, Dr. s. M. Iiogan comes to the conclusion that Jews have a more vegetative and Russians a more sympathetic disposition.20 CHEhlISM O F THE REACTION JVe cannot say much about the chemism of the race reaction itself, principally for the reason that the chemical part played by cresyl-violet is unkonwn to us. Its structure has as yet not been made known publicly in literature, but it seems that the colorizer belongs to the set of thiosones or oxasones. Methyl-blue and cresyl-violet oxidize with more difficulty than dahlia. The oxidizing process here is undoubted, but only in the presence of sediment of chloric silver, which, by adsorption, can eliminate bodies and substances from the emulsion. Cresyl-violet disappears because it oxidizes. Silver nitrate oxidizes, too. I have chosen such colorizers which possess just the necessary degree of oxidation. DEDU'CTIONS On the ground of all that I have mentioned above, the following conclusions may be drawn : 1. The determination of different races by blood, with the help of reagents-in our cases to distinguish Jewish blood from Russian (Great-Russian)-gives the correct result in 91.7 per cent of the cases tested. 2. The oxidizing process is produced in Jewish blood more quickly than in Russian. 3. Tn medicolegal investigations this reaction may give certain indications. 4. I n mixed marriages reaction on our material gives indications of the influence exercised on one race by another. *'Report made during the session of the First Russian Pediatric Congress, June 3, 1925, in Leningrad.