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Disease and urbanization. Edited by E. J. Clegg and J. P. Garlick. Symposia of the society for the study of human biology vol. 20. Atlantic highlands N.J Humanities Press. 1980. VII + 171 pp. figures tables indices. $22

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BOOK REVIEWS
113
sents a review of studies that suggest a relatively larger environmental contribution to I&
variance than Jensen hypothesizes.
Flynn does not dismiss Jensen as “just another racist” but explains why Jensen needs to
be taken seriously. To Flynn, Jensen’s work offers a crucial test for the validity of social
science methodology. However, Flynn may
give the issue more importance than it deserves; not all anthropologists will agree that a
failure to account for differences in average I&
values between human groups would render
social science methodology invalid.
Other minor criticisms may be made. In discussing the racist’s ideology, Flynn says that
threat of “pollution of the genetic pool is irreplaceable in its rhetorical impact” (p. 6) but
does not analyze the reasons for its impact in
our society. Why does our descendants’ gene
pool concern us? We seem very little concerned
with other aspects of the well-being of future
generations - for example, availability of resources or chemical pollution. Secondly,
though Flynn, a political scientist, demonstrates his awareness of the ambiguity of the
terms “white race” and “black race,” he utilizes
Jensen’s categories as given.
Flynn acknowledges that an individual’s intelligence is to some extent inherited but he reviews studies suggesting that the genetic component of variance in a population’s I& may be
closer to 40% than to the 80% that Jensen suggests. Further, he shows that studies which
have the best built-in controls indicate relative
equality among groups, rather than the inequality that Jensen alleges. It is not possible
to summarize all of the material on which
Flynn reports; however, three findings were especially interesting to me:
1. Male “whites” and male “blacks” have a
higher variance for I& than their female counterparts. In the white group, this is associated
with a one-point average lower I& value for the
males but a greater number of males in the
very high IQ categories. In black samples,
higher male variance and slightly lower
average I& values are associated with a strik-
ingly smaller number of females than males in
the superior IQ category. Found in a number of
studies, this result suggested to Flynn that the
factors that lower black achievement on IQ
tests hit males harder - and it is unlikely that
a genetic factor could be sex-specific.
2. Though most whites whose IQ’s fall below
70 are not able to perform well on a battery of
tests geared to tell whether a person can cope
on his own, many black persons in the same
low I& category score adequately. One explanation may be that the low-IQwhites are truly
handicapped, but not the blacks; rather, at
some point in their development many of the
blacks experienced a stunting in their abstract
reasoning due to some environmental impediment, either physical or social.
2. Of particular interest as direct tests were
studies Flynn cited of I& tests of children born
to unmarried German mothers and black American servicemen. When matched with illegitimate occupation children of white fathers, no
I& gap was shown between the children,
although such a difference occurs in U.S.
studies. This result calls into question Jensen’s
hypotheisis that the U.S. I& gap has a heritable base.
Most physical anthropologists have been
through this material so often that it has lost
its potential to arouse their interest. We empathize with Flynn who wrote in his preface that
“the author stopped reading books on race and
IQ, with some pleasure, on January 1, 1980.”
Yet since Jensen’s arguments arouse latent
racism and require sophistication to tackle, his
books still have the power to do harm. Therefore, in spite of my disgust with the topic, I
teach a course that treats it in depth. This book
will be useful in the classroom and also may
provide the answer when yet another person
calls to ask, “Where does Jensen’s hypothesis
go wrong?”
DISEASE
AND URBANIZATION.
Edited by E. J.
Clegg, and J. P. Garlick. Symposia of the
Society for the Study of Human Biology Vol.
20. Atlantic Highlands, N.J: Humanities
Press. 1980. vii 171 pp., figures, tables, indices. $22.50 (cloth).
This book is a symposium volume, consisting of eleven papers of differing lengths. The
styles of the papers vary from general review
to synthesis to presentation of some unpublished analyses. Each chapter focuses on a
single disease or group of diseases, and
+
ROBERTA
HALL
Department of Anthropology
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon
114
BOOK REVIEWS
evaluates - with varying degrees of completeness - the ecological setting and associated factors. Diseases included are: dengue
hemorrhagic fever, malaria, gastroenteritis,
infectious disease and malnutrition, rabies,
“stress,” chronic lung disease, multiple
sclerosis, cancer, and coronary heart disease.
In the preface, the editors state, “In this
book we focus attention on selected aspects of
disease ecology, which can be resolved into a
series of ‘contrasts’: urbanlrural; temperateltropical, and affluentlpoor” (p. vii). They
further acknowledge that the title is not truly
appropriate, since in fact the book will primarily compare the urbanltemperatelaffluent complex with the ruralltropicallpoor. The first four
papers deal with the latter complex.
“Ecological Factors in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever” provides an interesting analytic
overview of that disease, which has been sharply increased in prevalence by urbanization. The
paper presents some unpublished information
and has adequate though somewhat old, references. “From Malaria Eradication to Malaria
Control,” the second paper, is a particular
disappointment to anthropologists familiar
with the biological complexities of malaria.
The paper attempts to describe the world-wide
situation, with only tantalizing references to
meaningful local variation. Brief mention is
made of the role that rapid urbanization is
playing in recent localized increases in malaria
morbidity and mortality, but the point is inadequately developed. Clear definition is provided for “eradication” but not for “control,”
leaving the reader to infer that a control program is merely a less adequately funded version of eradication. Although some data are
provided, there are no references, so that one
cannot easily use this paper as a resource.
“Ecology of Gastroenteritis,” in contrast, is a
detailed presentation of the situation in one
locale, Gambia, coupled with an excellent
discussion and set of references. This paper
provides a good introduction to the complexities of gastroenteritis, including comments on
the relationship to urbanization.
Of the chapters relating to the urbanltemperatelaffluent complex, several are of high
quality. “Urbanization and Stress” provides a
compact, specific synthesis of often confusing
material; in addition, it provides some indication of what is not known, and what the
major methodological problems are. In
“International and Urban-Rural Variation in
Cancer,”the author discusses world-wide variation initially in terms of accuracy of the data
and other confounding variables, and then
examines some marked rural-urban differences
and the probable etiologic factors accounting
for them. For example, lung cancer is more
prevalent in urban than rural areas in several
countries. Where this difference is most
marked, there is a corresponding difference in
tobacco use. Similarly, urban-rural differences
are often found in cancer of the esophagus,
although there is variation between countries
as to which areas have the higher rates. Where
patterns of alcohol consumption have also
been studied, esophageal cancer rates tend to
positively correlate with alcohol consumption.
“Affluence, Urbanization and Coronary
Heart Disease” similarly points to the complexity of the environmental associations of
coronary heart disease (CHD). In a heavily
urbanized country such as England, ruralurban differences in CHD rates are not great,
and mortality from CHD is now higher among
the lower classes than the upper-a change
from the situation 30 years ago. In less
developed countries such as Yugoslavia and
Puerto Rico, urban dwellers have greatly
increased CHD rates over rural dwellers.
Finally, it appears that urbanization in the
least developed countries is associated with
higher blood pressure - a risk factor for CHD.
The author concludes, “What emerges is the
notion of a threshold of economic development
below which CHD remains uncommon. Within
a country, the groups who have reached the
threshold more recently are at higher risk of
CHD. In affluent countries, there appears to
have been a process of adaptation” (p. 142).This
paper is a welcome change from the usual
discussion of risk factors, in that it places
CHD in a population biology context.
In sum, the quality of papers varies considerably, as in all edited volumes. The great
disappointment is the relative inattention to
the interaction between disease patterns and
rapid urbanization in the tropicallpoor
countries; if this reflects a lack of data and
ongoing research, some discussion of that
issue would be a useful addition. It is hard to
know the appropriate audience for this book.
For those already familiar with epidemiology,
there is only a little that is new. For those not
already familiar with the material, the coverage is frustratingly uneven, and in some cases
the references are nonexistent or minimal. For
those who have access to a library copy of this
volume, I can see little reason to purchase it.
CHERYL
RITENBAUGH
The University of Arizona,
Tucson, Arizona
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