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Distribution of hereditary blood antigens among Indians in Middle America. V. In Nicaragua

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Distribution of Hereditary Blood Antigens
Among Indians in Middle America
V. IN NICARAGUA
G. ALBIN MATSON AND JANE SWANSON
Minneapolis W a r Memorial Blood Bank, Minneapolis, Minnesota
In Nicaragua, as also in some other
countries of Middle America, the aborigines, pure and mixed, still constitute the
predominating portion of the population.
Most of these may be called civilized, but
there are many uncivilized tribes, occupying various jungle areas, whose numbers
can only be estimated, and who retain
their primitive habits, little modified from
what they were before the Conquest.
On the eastern slope and the Atlantic
seaboard of Nicaragua, the Indian tribes
consist principally of the Miskito, the
Sumo, and the Rama, whereas the Pacific
area is occupied by the Subtiaba around
Le6n and the Chorotega farther north. The
Matagalpa are located in the inland highlands.
According to Adams (’57), the Nicaraguan population at the time of the Conquest was divided into two different kinds
of Indians; one, those living on the Pacific
Coast, oriented culturally toward the North,
and the other, living on the Atlantic Coast,
oriented toward the South. Adams (’57)
favored the conclusion that the Matagalpa
group also would be better classified with
the southern oriented groups, the Mosquitoan’ and Suman, rather than being set
aside as a distinct group.
The Chibcha language stock forms the
basis for the speech of the Miskito, Sumo,
Rama, and Matagalpa (Johnson, ’40). On
the other hand, the Chorotega and Subtiaba
are considered not to be of Chibchan origin
(Kidder 11, ’40), and though their language
stock is uncertain, Sapir (‘25, ’29) advances
the hypothesis that Subtiaba and the Chorotega are related to certain Hokan languages in California.
Conzemius (’32) suggests the probability
that the Miskito were originally a sub-tribe
of the Sumo. He derives the present day
Miskito from a mixture of Sumo and Negro
slaves captured from a Portuguese ship,
wrecked in 1641. Conceivably, borrowing
has occurred and languages are mixed,
due in part to extensive migratory movements in both pre-Hispanic and post-Hispanic times. It is likely, as Mason asserts
(‘40), that the Miskito-Sumo were late immigrants to this region a comparatively
short time before the Conquest. Lehmann
(‘20) considers these tribes as “contact-zone
mixed languages” with a considerable
Chibcha content.
Data derived from our blood group studies, excepting the Sumo, show that the
distribution of blood group antigens reveals
an appreciable amount of foreign genes
among all Nicaraguan Indians tested.
The Indians on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, from whom blood specimens were
procured, are the Chorotega (Choluteca)
of Santa Isabel, and the Subtiaba at Subtiaba, a barrio of Le6n. On the Atlantic
slope samples were obtained from the
Miskito residing in three communities on
the Rio COCOnear Waspam, i.e., Saupuka,
Bilwaskanna, and Ulwas; the Sumo, fewer
in number and more primitive than the
Miskito, residing at Carudurusban, and
Umbra; and the Rama at Rama Cay in the
Bluefields Lagoon. Less than 200 persons
remain in this latter tribe of whom only 38
could be contacted for bleeding. No specimens were procured from the Matagalpa
Indians.
As indicated above, the Indian language
of the Rama is Chibcha, but all the Rama
that we saw spoke English, showing the
influence of the English-speaking inhabitants around BIuefields and the IsIands off
its shores. These islanders are the so1 Earlier writers used the name. Mosquito for the
Indians now generally called Misklto.
545
546
G . ALBIN MATSON AND JANE SWANSON
In general, those Indian populations that
have had freer access to foreigners show
the presence of A and/or B genes, which
are generally absent among full-blood
American Indians, excepting, of course, the
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Blood specimens were procured from Blackfeet and related tribes which are
Indians in Nicaragua in much the same predominantly Group Al (Matson and
manner as had been followed in Mexico, Schrader, '33; Matson, '38). In Middle
Guatemala, and Honduras (Matson and America, however, it is fair to conclude
Swanson, '59, '61, '63b, '63c). A 5-8 cm3 that the higher the frequency of A1, A2
sample was obtained from the median and/or B genes in aboriginal populations,
basilic vein of each volunteer by means of the greater the amount of racial admixture.
a sterile Becton Dickensen vacutainer
M N S s system
tube needle assembly, each tube containing
The
MNSs
phenotypes
and chromosome
0.17 ml of a citric acid-dextrose solution
(13.9 gm citric acid and 50 gm dextrose frequencies in the MNSs system in Indians
dissolved in 1,000 ml distilled water). This in Nicaragua are shown on table 2.
In conformity with the distribution of
small amount (0.17 ml) of solution, though
not sufficient to prevent coagulation, appar- M and N in Indians generally, the freently helped preserve the integrity of the quency of the M gene is high and the N low
erythrocytes during handling and transit. in putatively full-blood Indians in Middle
The clotted specimens, transported to the America (Salazar-Mallen and Arteaga, '51;
Minneapolis War Memorial Blood Bank via Aguirre et al., '53). Notable exceptions ocAir Express in insulated and refrigerated cur, however, e.g., the Lacandon at Naji
shippers, arrived in excellent condition.
and LacanjA (0.4836) (Matson and SwanCells from the clots were suspended in son, '61 ), the Chinanteco in Veracruz
appropriate media and tested with suitable (0.5111), and the Zoque in Chiapas
antisera for the blood group antigens. (0.5323), Mexico (Matson and Swanson Hemolysates were prepared from selected unpublished report), and the Rama at
specimens for hemoglobin type determina- Rama Cay, Nicaragua (0.5000) (this retions, and the sera were frozen for later port), in which groups appear high frestudies of hereditary haptoglobins, trans- quencies for the N gene.
ferrins and Gm types, (Matson et al., '63).
It is noteworthy that 80.85% of the 103
Only the results of blood grouping tests are Sumo
in Nicaragua are homozygous MM
reported here.
and when the MN group is included,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
99.01% have the M antigen. The gene freThe results of the ABO blood grouping quency for M in this group is 0.8981. This
high value for the frequency of the M gene
tests are shown on table 1.
Adopting the premise that pure Indians in the Sumo, suggests a high degree of
in Central and South America belong com- racial purity, due, in all probability, to
pletely to group 0, then the purest of the their comparatively isolated location. It
Nicaraguan Indians shown on table 1 is the may also point to inbreeding and genetic
Sumo. It is important to note that this is drift in this relatively small population.
The incidence of the Ss phenotypes and
also the most isolated of the Nicaraguan
tribes. The 100% group 0 in this tribe gene frequencies in Indians of Nicaragua
is shown on table 3.
shows no evidence of foreign admixture.
It will be seen from table 3 that the freBased on the ABO tests, the tribe most
mixed is the Subtiaba in the little barrio of quency of the S gene is unusually high in
Subtiaba near Le6n. In this Indian muni- the Sumo (0.8350).
The distribution of the Ss antigens in
cipio the people speak Spanish and have
adopted Spanish customs, though they relation to the three genotypes MM, NN,
have resisted total assimilation. The Cho- MN and corresponding frequencies for the
rotega, Miskito, and Rama also show evi- four chromosomes, MS, Ms, NS, and Ns,
are shown on table 4.
dence of racial crossing.
called Creoles, descendents of Negroes and
mulattoes brought to the Atlantic mainland as slaves from Jamaica by the English
settlers in the eighteenth Century.
Rama Cay
Caurudrusban,
Umbra
Le6n
Rama
Sumo
Subtiaba
1
77
29
103
38
150
%
,::
97.37
90.00
92.21
%
25
86.21
103 100.00
37
135
71
NO.
o
2 6.90
0 0.00
0 0.00
12 8.00
4 5.19
NO. %
0 0.00
0 0.00
1 2.63
1 0.67
1 1.30
NO. %
AI
A2
--__--
2 6.90
0 0.00
0 0.00
2 1.33
1 1.30
NO. %
B
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
NO. %
AiB
Number and per cent of phenotypes
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
NO. 70
AzB
Rama Cay
Caurudrusban,
Umbra
Leon
Rama
Sumo
Subtiaba
103
29
37
150
77
Matson and Swanson ('60)
1
Number
tested
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Investigator
19
65.51
80.58
7
19
15
83
57
32
No.
58.00
53.25
%
11 29.74
87
41
No.
%
24.14
18.43
40.54
38.00
41.56
MN
N
4.00
5.20
%
1
3
0.99
10.35
0.7759
0.8981
0.5000
0.7700
0.7403
M
0.2241
0.1019
0.5000
0.2300
0.2597
N
Gene frequencies
Calculated
admixture
percent
18.90
0.00
3.55
13.73
10.64
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
S u m of
gene
frequencies
0.0351 0.0000 0.0351 0.9298
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000
11 29.73
6
4
No.
9
0.0000 0.0132 0.0000 0.9868
Number and per cent of phenotypes
M
PZ
0.0408 0.0035 0.0067 0.9490
indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published.
Saupuka, Bilwas,
Ulwas
1 This
Sta. Isabel
Miskito
Location
Chorotega
Population
M N Phenotypes and gene frequencies among Indians i n Nicaragua
TABLE 2
r
0.0263 0.0067 0.0065 0.9605
P1
Gene frequencies
-
1This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published.
Matson and
Swanson ('60)
Matson and
Swanson ('60)
Matson and
Swanson ('60)
Saupuka, Bilwas, Matson and
Ulwas
Swanson ('60)
Miskito
Matson and
Swanson ('60)
Investigator
Sta. Isabel
Location
Chorotega
Population
Distribution o f ABO blood groups i n Indians of Nicaragua - sub-groups o f "A" shown
TABLE 1
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Caurudrusban,
Umbra
Le6n
Sumo
Subtiaba
Matson and Swanson ('60)
29
103
37
150
77
14.29
%
5 17.24
71 68.95
6 16.22
28 18.67
11
No.
ss
%
15 51.72
30 29.11
15 40.54
91 60.67
34 44.16
No.
ss
%
1.94
9 31.04
2
16 43.25
31 20.66
32 41.56
No.
ss
ss
%
No.
ss
%
MM
No.
ss
%
No.
%
No.
%
MN
ss
ss
-No.
ss
%
NN
No. %
No.
%
No.
%
2 5.41
66 64.08 17 16.50
150
37
103
29
Miskito
Rama
Sumo
Subtiaba
3 10.34 10 34.48
6 16.22
28 18.67 51 34.00
77
Chorotega
5 13.51
6 20.69 1 3.45
4 13.79
0 0.00 4 3.88 13 12.61
3 8.11 3 8.11
2
2
6.90 1 3.45 1 3.45 1 3.45
1.94 1 0.99 0 0.00 0 0.00
7 18.92 1 2.70 4 10.81 6 16.22
8 5.33 0 0.00 40 26.67 17 11.33 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 4.00
NS
Ns
0.3210 0.4549 0.1100 0.1141
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
0.2280 0.2720 0.1369 0.3631
0.7413 0.1568 0.0937 0.0082
1.0000
0.4900 0.2800 0.0000 0.2300
1.0000
Sum of
gene
frequencies
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
S u m of
gene
frequencies
0.2872 0.4531 0.0764 0.1833
Ms
Chromosome frequencies
ss
ss
MS
- -~
ss
0.4310 0.5690
0.8350 0.1650
0.3649 0.6351
0.4900 0.5100
system in Indians o f Nicaragua
3 3.90 21 27.27 17 22.08 8 10.39 11 14.29 13 16.88 0 0.00 2 2.60 2 2.60
No.
zzt~
Number and per cent of phenotypes
Incidence of phenotypes and chromosome frequencies in the MN-Ss
TABLE 4
S
0.3636 0.6364
S
Gene frequencies
Nicaragua - using anti-9 and anti-s serums
Number and per cent of phenotypes
Of
This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published.
Population
1
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Rama Cay
Rama
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Saupuka, Bilwas,
Ulwas
Miskito
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Investigator
Sta. Isabel
Location
Chorotega
Population
Number
tested
Incidence of S-s phenotypes and gene frequencies in Indians
TABLE 3
549
BLOOD GROUPS O F NICARAGUAN INDIANS
The results on this table indicate that
there is a complete absence of the NS
chromosome in the 150 Miskito, the N gene
traveling with s, though in the Miskito the
Ns frequency is not as high (0.2300) as
among the two groups of Lacand6n
(0.4836) (Matson and Swanson, '61).
A point of further interest among the
Sumo is that the MS chromosome frequency is appreciably higher (0.7413) and
the Ns lower (0.0082) than in any other
American Indians tested.
Miltenberger (Mi"), and V e r w e y s t
( V w ) Antigens
Of the 397 Indians tested in Nicaragua,
no Miltenberger (Mi") or Venveyst (Vw )
antigens were found. This is an expected
observation, no Mi" antigen having been
found among American Indians, and only
one example of Vw. This was found
among 162 blood samples from the Kekchi
at Coban, Guatemala (Matson and Swanson, '61). The Mi(a+) phenotype is rare
also in Caucasians (one in 500), about half
of these being Vw+ and half Vw- (Hart
et al., '54).
The P s y s t e m
The incidence of antigens and gene frequencies in the P system among Indians in
Nicaragua are shown on table 5.
The values are spotty, but agree generally with those found among Indians in
Middle America (Wiener et al., '45; Tejada
et al.,'59, '61; Matson and Swanson, '59,
'61, '63a, '63b, '63c). It will be observed,
however, that gene frequency of PI for the
Sumo is low (0.3847). For comparison of
PI frequencies in some North American Indians, see Matson and Swanson, '63a,
table 6.
The RH-HR s y s t e m
The results of tests for the Rh and Hr
factors are shown on tables 6 and 7.
For these tests, five potent and specific
anti-sera were used, i.e., anti-C, anti-D,
anti-E, anti-c, and anti-e. Anti-e was used
only to determine the zygosity status of the
E factor. The relatively higher frequencies
of the Rh.(cDe) and/or rh(cde) chromosomes in the Miskito and Subtiaba suggests
appreciable foreign admixture in these
populations.
0
0
0
9
H
I(D
al
x
m
m
0
v!
0
8
a;
a
0
rl
)
El
x
I-
OD
10
I-
I-
m
0
?
d
sdd
$
n
?I
d
P
2
2
Sta. Isabel
Saupuka, Bilwas,
Ulwas
Rama Cay
Caurudrusban,
Umbra
Le6n
Chorotega
Miskito
Rama
Sumo
Subtiaba
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Matson and Swanson ('60) a
Investigator
29
103
38
150
77
Number
tested
0.00
Le6n
Subtiaba
1
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Caurudrusban,
Umbra
Sumo
29
R1
CDe
CdE
RY
Cde
I'
cDE
RZ
cdE
I"
Per cent of chromosome frequencies
0
2
0
0.00 1.94 0.00
1
0
0
2.63 0.00 0.00
0.0839 0.5368 0.0000 0.0000 0.1748 0.0000 0.2045
0.0252 0.7758 0.0000 0.0000 0.1010 0.0000 0.0980
0.0000 0.6316 0.0000 0.0000 0.3421 0,0000 0.0263
0.0196 0.5371 0.0000 0.0000 0.2371 0.0000 0.2062
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
Sum of
gene
frecDe" "cde quencies
Ra and/or r
0.0782 0.6036 0.0000 0.0000 0.2270 0.0000 0.0912
CDE
Rz
This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published.
Matson and Swanson ('60)
38
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Rama Cay
Rama
103
150
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Saupuka, Bilwas,
Ulwas
77
Number
tested
Miskito
Matson and Swanson ('60) 1
Investigator
Sta. Isabel
Location
Chorotega
Population
2
0
0
2.60 0.00 0.00
2
5
0
0
6.90 17.24 0.00 0.00
1
0.97
1
0
5
2.63 0.00 13.16
4
61
0
20
15
0
3.88 59.22 0.00 19.42 14.56 0.00
0
16
0
15
0.00 42.11 0.00 39.47
Per cent of chromosome frequencies for Rh-Hr blood groups calculated from data on table 6
TABLE 7
5
6.49
3
39
0
40
43
0
12
10
3
0
2.00 26.00 0.00 26.67 28.67 0.00 8.00 6.67 2.00 0.00
7
26
1
26
10
0
9.09 33.77 1.30 33.77 12.99 0.00
3
11
0
No. 0
3
5
0
% 0.00 10.34 37.93 0.00 10.34 17.24 0.00
No. 0
% 0.00
No. 0
% 0.00
%
No. 0
0.00
No. 0
%
Number and per cent of phenotypes
tested w i t h anti-C, anti-D, anti-E, anti-c and anti-e I
CCDEE CCDEe CCDee CcDEE CcDEe CcDee Ccddee ccDEE ccDEe ccDee ccddee
- samples
1 None of the following phenotypes was observed: CCddEE, CCddEe, CCddee, CcddEE, CcddEe, Ccddee, ccddEE, ccddEe.
ZThis indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published.
Location
Population
Distribution of Rh-Hr blood groups in Indians o f Nicaragua
TABLE 6
BLOOD GROUPS O F NICARAGUAN INDIANS
55 1
552
G . ALBIN MATSON AND JANE SWANSON
The 103 Sumo have a high incidence of
Rh, Rh, (CCDee) phenotype (table 6 ) and
correspondingly a high R' (CDe) chromosome frequency, (table 7). This suggests
a high degree of racial purity, but may
point also to inbreeding and genetic drift
in a small population.
In general, the Indians of Middle America appear to have a distribution of Rh-Hr
chromosomes similar to that observed
among other Amerinds (Brown et al., '58),
Landsteiner et al. ('42), Weiner et al.
('45), and they differ from whites in the
same respects, i.e., Indians but not whites
have a high frequency of R2(cDE), a low
frequency or absence of R"(cDe), and
r ( cde) and the presence of R"( CDE) chromosomes. A n exception to this general
statement occurs, however, in the Sumo
who show a low frequency (0.1010) of
R2(cDE).
The V antigen (ce")
Related to the Rh-Hr system is the V
antigen (DeNatale et al., '55). The notations for this antigen and its gene complex
are presently in a state of change. Recent
work indicates that the antigen called V is
likely a combination of ce' and the gene
complex is designated as rv(dces) or
R,"(Dce"), (Sanger et al., '60; Tippett et al.,
'61). Since the new notations are not generally employed, however, the commonly
used V designation is used for the purpose
of this paper.
The incidence of the V antigen in blood
of Indians in Nicaragua is shown on table
8. Other populations are shown for comparison.
Only a few studies have been reported
for the incidence of the V antigen in the
blood of Indians in Middle America (Matson and Swanson, '59, '61).
The V antigen appears only in a few
tribes in Middle America and in these the
incidence is low (see table 8). This is to
be expected since the gene V has been
traced only to the chromosome cDe and
cde, and these chromosomes have been
found to be rare indeed in American Indians. Furthermore, the frequency of the
V gene is high in Negroes, and almost
peculiar to them; therefore, its presence
among American Indians is strong evidence of Negro admixture.
8
.-M
-2
Y
Y
8
B
m
s
I4
.
Y
3
553
BLOOD GROUPS O F NICARAGUAN INDIANS
By using the V gene frequencies to cal- nin and Sneath, '53), western Europeans
culate the amount of Negro admixture, ac- have an incidence of about 8% of this
cording to Bernstein's formula ('31), where phenotype (Calendar and Race, '46).
the per cent of gene frequency in the InKelLCellano system
dian population is zero and in West African
Negroes 0.2254 (De Natale et al., '55), the
The Kell antigen was not found in
following percentage values for Negro ad- Nicaraguan Indians.
mixture in Nicaraguan Indians were deNo homozygous KK has been found
termined: Miskito 16.59% and Subtiaba, among American Indians and of ten heter15.5%. No V was found among the Cho- ozygous Kk found among 874 Indians of
rotega, Rama or Sumo. The results can be Mexico, two were brothers (Tzeltal), (Matconsidered as only the roughest estimate, son and Swanson, '59). The only others
since a bias is introduced by the small size showing Kk were in the Jicaque Indians of
of population samples, particularly in the Honduras. Of 194 Jicaque in Honduras,
Subtiaba.
seven (3.61%) were heterozygous Kell (Kk)
Lutheran system
(Matson and Swanson, '63).
The Kell gene is extremely rare among
No Lutheran, Lu(a+) phenotype was
found in 397 Indians in Nicaragua. This Indians, and when found, it is almost
agrees with findings among 592 Maya and surely indicative of foreign admixture.
non-Maya in Mexico (Matson and SwanLewis system
son, '59), in 664 Maya in Guatemala (Matson and Swanson, '63b), and in 399 InThe appearance of the Lea gene among
dians in Honduras (Matson and Swanson, Indians of Middle America whose blood has
'63c).
been tested with both anti-Le" and anti-Leb,
For the most part, Indian tribes in Mid- does not follow any discernible pattern
dle America lack the Lu" gene, being pre- with relation to foreign admixture. The
sumably homozygous Lub Lub. This agrees results of tests for the Lewis antigens in
with the findings of Chown and Lewis Nicaraguan Indians are shown as number
('53), who found no Lu" in 97 Blood In- and per cent of phenotypes on table 9.
dians in Alberta or among the Eskimos. Similar data for other peoples are shown
Lu" has been reported, however, by Pantin for comparison on table 10.
and Kallsen ('53) to the extent of 3.45%
The genetic mechanism of the Lewis
among 58 Dieguefio Indians in California. system is uncertain, and gene frequencies
In '52, Pantin and Junqueira observed cannot be calculated with confidence (Race
16.44% Lu(a+) in 73 Brazilian Indians. and Sanger, '62). Therefore, only the numAlthough the Lu" gene is rare in Asian ber and per cent of the Lewis phenotypes
Peoples (Lehmann and Cutbush, '52; Polu- are shown on tables 9 and 10. The
TABLE 10
Incidence of phenotypes of Lewis system in some peoples of the world - samples tested w i t h anti-Lea
and anti-Leb (Lewis groups) 1
English
Norwegian Lapps
Swedes
Danes
Greeks (Athens)
West African
Negroes
Chinese (New York)
Maori
Australian Whites
American Negroes
American Whites
1
Per cent of phenotypes
Investigator
Number
tested
Ikin et al., (in Mourant, '54)
Allison et al. ('52)
Grubb ('51)
Andresen ('48)
Dunsford, ( i n Mourant, '54)
Barnicot and Lawler ('53)
1166
90
1000
238
34
105
21.10
8.89
18.70
19.33
11.76
17.14
71.61
81.11
52.60
74.79
55.88
43.81
7.29
10.00
28.70
5.88
32.35
39.05
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
85
71
500
200
460
23.53
21.13
26.40
23.00
22.83
69.41
60.56
69.80
60.00
71.52
5.88
7.04
3.60
16.00
5.65
1.18
11.27
0.20
1.00
0.00
Population
Miller et al. ('51)
Simmons et al. ('51)
Simmons and Jakobowicz ( '51 )
Miller et al. ('51)
Miller et al. ('51)
Taken from Mourant, '54.
Le (a+b-) Le (a-b+) Le ( a - b ) Le (a+b+)
554
G. ALBIN MATSON AND JANE SWANSON
Le(a+b-) phenotype is present in small
amount among the Sumo, Miskito, and
Chorotega. It has been reported also
among the Jicaque and the Lenca in Honduras (Matson and Swanson, '63c), the
Cakchiquel, Mam, and Quiche of Guatemala (Matson and Swanson, '63b), and
the Tzeltal, Tzotzil, Chiapaneca, and
Zapoteca in Mexico (Matson and Swanson,
'59). Complete absence of Le(a+b-)
phenotype has been reported for all other
Indians tested in Middle America.
The low incidence of Le(a+b-) for
Indians compared to the higher Le( a+b-)
for Europeans, Chinese, Maori, and Negroes is outstanding.
The D u f f y system
Only anti-Fy" serum was available for
testing blood specimens procured from
Indians in Nicaragua. The results of these
tests are shown on table 11.
The incidence of Fy(a+) is low in the
Miskito (70% ); indeed, excepting the
Chinanteco in Veracruz, Mexico, with a
phenotype incidence of 68.89% for Fy(a+),
the Miskito have the lowest incidence observed thus far in Indians of Middle
America.
A low incidence of Fy(a+) could perhaps
be interpreted as an indicator of foreign
admixture in American Indians, since the
Fy" gene frequency is unusually high
among Indians (Matson et al.,'54; Pantin
and Kallsen, '53). (Matson and Swanson,
'51; Chown and Lewis, '53); Caucasians
have a low gene frequency for Fy", e.g.,
0.4074 reported for 205 English (Cutbush
and Mollison, '50), and 0.4344 for 300
Minnesota whites (Matson et al., '54).
Other populations in which a high gene
frequency of Fy" gene appears are; Norwegian Lapps 0.8189 (Allison et al., '52),
Chinese 0.9015 (MiUer et al., '51), AinuJapanese 0.8600 (Simmons et al., '53),
Koreans 0.9950 (Won et al., '58) and Asiatic Indians 0.7307 (Cutbush and Mollison,
'50).
Kidd system
All the Nicaraguan bloods were tested
with anti-Jk" serum only, and most of them
with both anti-Jk" and anti-Jkb sera. The
results of these tests are shown on tables
12 and 13.
If one compares the incidence of Jk( a+)
phenotype and the frequency of the corresponding gene, Jka, among Indians in
Nicaragua with those for Indians in Mexico
(Matson and Swanson, '59) and in Guatemala (Matson and Swanson, '61), for the
English (Race et al.,'51) and for American
whites (Allen et d.,'!51), (Rosenfield et al.,
'53), the differences between them are not
striking, On the other hand, a low gene
frequency of Jk" (0.3107) has been reported for Chinese in New York by Rosenfield et al.,'53.
Matson and Swanson (reported elsewhere) have observed a low frequency for
the Jk" gene among 54 Mixe Indians at
Zacatepec, Oaxaca, Mexico (0.2799) and
among 116 Mam of San Juan, Guatemala
(0.2572).
TABLE 11
Incidence of phenotypes i n the D u f f y system among Indians i n Nicaragua - samples tested with
anti-Fp serum only
Number and per cent
of phenotypes
Population
Location
Investigator
Number
tested
Chorotega
Sta. Isabel
Matson and Swanson ('60)
77
Miskito
Saupuka, Bilwas,
Ulwas
Matson and Swanson ('60)
150
Rama
Rama Cay
Matson and Swanson ('60)
37
Sumo
Caurudrusban,
Umbra
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Subtiaba
Le6n
Matson and Swanson ('60)
FY (a+)
No.
%
74
96.10
105 70.00
33
FY (a-)
No.
3
%
3.90
45 30.00
89.19
4
10.81
103
98 95.15
5
4.85
29
28 96.55
1
3.45
This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results
were published.
1
TABLE 12
Caurudrusban,
Umbra
Ledn
Sumo
Subtiaba
29
19
77
29
91
56
No.
65.52
74.76
78.38
60.67
72.73
%
10
26
8
59
21
No.
%
34.48
25.24
21.62
39.33
Ledn
Subtiaba
1 This
103
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Caurudrusban,
Umbra
Sumo
%
11.11
8.15
5 20.00
22 21.36
4
11
9 12.68
0.5872
0.5024
0.4650
0.6272
%
10 40.00
10 40.00
0.4000 0.6000
0.4806 0.5194
26 25.24
55 53.40
0.4444 0.5555
8 22.22
24 66.67
0.3259 0.6740
0.4226 0.5775
Gene frequencies
Jka
Jkb
58 42.96
20 28.17
NO.
Jk(a-b+)
66 48.89
42 59.15
No.
lo
No.
Jk(a+b+)
Number and per cent of phenotypes
Jk(a+b-)
indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published.
25
36
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Rama Cay
Rama
Matson and Swanson ('60)
135
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Saupuka, Bilwas,
Ulwas
71
2$:c
Miskito
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Investigator
Sta. Isabel
Location
Chorotega
Population
Jkb
0.5223
Incidence of antigens i n the Kidd system among Indians i n Nicaragua - samples tested with anti-Jka and anti-Jkb
TABLE 13
0.4128
0.4976
0.5350
0.3728
0.4777
Jka
Gene frequencies
tested with anti-jka only
27.27
Number and per cent
of phenotypes
Jk(a+)
Jk(a-)
- samples
'This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published.
Matson and Swanson ('60)
103
37
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Rama Cay
Rama
Matson and Swanson ('60)
150
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Saupuka, Bilwas,
Ulwas
77
Miskito
Matson and Swanson ('60)
Investigator
Sta. Isabel
Location
Chorotega
Population
Number
tested
Incidence o f phenotypes and gene frequencies in the Kidd system among Indians in Nicaragua
u1
UI
cn
m
z"
PI
2
0
0
*
3*
kl
0
m
td
T1C
0
tl
0
0
r
m
556
G . ALBIN MATSON A N D J A N E S W A N S O N
The Diego (Di")Antigen
The phenotype incidence and the gene
frequencies of the Diego antigen in Indians
of Nicaragua are shown on table 14.
A look at the table reveals appreciable
variation in the incidence of Diego in Nicaraguan Indians. The gene frequency
ranges from 0.00 for 37 Rama to 0.1044
for 29 Subtiaba.
The Di" antigen is present among the
American Indians (Junqueira et al., '56;
Layrisse and Arends, '56) Chinese, Japanese (Layrisse and Arends, '56a) and Koreans (Won et al., '60); whereas it is absent
among Polynesians, Australian aboriginese,
Papauans, New Briton natives (Simmons,
'57) Eskimos, (Lewis et al., '56) and Caucasians, (Levine et al., '56).
Wright (WP) and Berrens
Be" antigens
No Wright (Wr") was found in Indians
of Nicaragua. The finding of Wr" in American Indians is unusual, and if present, is
indicative of racial crossing. It has not
been found in the Indians examined in
Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, except
in four of 138 Lenca, all four being related.
Wright (Wr") is also of rare occurrence in
Caucasians (Holman, '53), having been
found only in 24 of 31,522 English (Cleghorn, '60).
No Berrens (Be") antigen was found in
Nicaraguan Indians. This antigen is of
rare occurrence having been found only
once, (Davidson et al., '53).
SUMMARY
!3
.r(
Y
0
s
1. Phenotype incidence and gene frequencies of blood groups among the Chorotega, Subtiaba, Mikito, Sumo and Rama
Indians in Nicaragua have been determined; the results of tests being shown on
appropriate tables and discussed.
2. The ABO tests suggest racial admixture in the Subtiaba, Chorotega, Miskito
and Rama tribes whereas the Sumo, testing 100% group 0, show no crossing.
3. The frequency of the M gene is high
and the N low in Nicaraguan Indians, except for the Rama in which tribe the N
gene is relatively high for Amerinds. It is
noteworthy that 80.85% of the Sumo
specimens tested, are homozygous MM, the
frequency of the M gene in this tribe be-
BLOOD GROUPS OF NICARAGUAN INDIANS
ing 0.8981. This suggests a high degree of
racial purity in the Sumo. There is a complete lack of the NS chromosome in the
Miskito, the N gene traveling with s. In the
Sumo the MS chromosome is higher and
the Ns lower than in any other American
Indians tested.
4. No Miltenberger (Mil) and no Verweyst (Vw) antigen was observed in Nicaraguan Indians.
5. Miskito and Subtiaba Indians possessed R"( cDe) and/or r( cde) chromosomes in sufficiently high frequency to indicate appreciable foreign admixture.
The 103 Sumo have a high R(CDe)
chromosome frequency suggesting a high
degree of racial purity, inbreeding and
genetic drift.
6. By applying Berstein's formula ('31)
to the V(ce*) results to calculate the degree of Negro admixture in Nicaraguan
Indians a very rough estimate was arrived
a t showing 16.59% in the Miskito and
15.5% in the Subtiaba. No V was found
among the Chorotega, Rama or Sumo.
7. No Lutheran (Lu") antigen was
found in the blood of 397 Indians tested
in Nicaragua.
8. The Kell antigen was not found in
Nicaraguan Indians.
9. The Le(a+b-) phenotype is present
in small amounts among the Sumo, Miskito
and Chorotega. It is absent in the Rama
and Subtiaba specimens (both small
tribes).
10. The Fy" gene frequency is low in the
Miskito, in fact only one lower has been
found in Amerinds, i.e., in the Chinanteco
of Ahitlan, Veracruz, Mexico.
11. There is no striking difference in
the incidence of Kidd (Jka) antigen between Nicaraguan Indians and other
Amerinds in Middle America, excepting the
lower incidence among the Mixe i n
Oaxaca, Mexico and the Mam in Guatemala. In general, the distribution of Jk"
in Amerinds is similar to that reported for
Caucasians.
12. The gene frequency for the Diego
(Di") antigen ranges in Indians of Nicaragua from 0.00 for 37 Rama to 0.1044 for
29 Subtiaba.
13. No Wright (Wr") and no Berrens
(Be") antigen was encountered in Nicaraguan Indian blood specimens.
557
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was largely supported by research grant N.S.F.-G-9064, National Science Foundation for which grateful acknowledgment is made.
Our gratitude is acknowledged to the
State Department of the United States and
personnel of the United States Embassy in
Nicaragua.
We express thanks to many willing individuals in Nicaragua who contributed in
many ways toward the success of this project. Among these must be mentioned:
Seiior Albert0 Arguello Vidaurre, Ministro de Gobernacion por la Ley, Managua,
D. N.; Lic. don Eudoro Solis, Secretario del
Instituto Indigenista Nacional, Managua,
D. N.; Dr. Rodrigo Quesada, Vice-Ministro
de Salubridad, Managua, D. N.; Professor
Sergio Villagra, Director del Proyecto Piloto
de Educacion Fundamental del Rio Coco,
Waspam; Dr. Jose Antonio Cantbn, Director Centro de Salud y Medico del Proyecto Piloto, Waspam; and Sefior General e
Ingeniero, Don Alfonso Valle, Le6n.
Our thanks go also to the several governors of Departments, local health officers,
and presidentes municipales who gave generously of their time and influence toward
the procurement of donors of the blood
specimens.
For technical assistance in typing blood
specimens we are grateful to Mrs. Helen
Arndt, M. T. (A.S.C.P.), Minneapolis War
Memorial Blood Bank.
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