Distribution of hereditary blood antigens among Indians in Middle America. V. In Nicaraguaкод для вставкиСкачать
Distribution of Hereditary Blood Antigens Among Indians in Middle America V. IN NICARAGUA G. ALBIN MATSON AND JANE SWANSON Minneapolis W a r Memorial Blood Bank, Minneapolis, Minnesota In Nicaragua, as also in some other countries of Middle America, the aborigines, pure and mixed, still constitute the predominating portion of the population. Most of these may be called civilized, but there are many uncivilized tribes, occupying various jungle areas, whose numbers can only be estimated, and who retain their primitive habits, little modified from what they were before the Conquest. On the eastern slope and the Atlantic seaboard of Nicaragua, the Indian tribes consist principally of the Miskito, the Sumo, and the Rama, whereas the Pacific area is occupied by the Subtiaba around Le6n and the Chorotega farther north. The Matagalpa are located in the inland highlands. According to Adams (’57), the Nicaraguan population at the time of the Conquest was divided into two different kinds of Indians; one, those living on the Pacific Coast, oriented culturally toward the North, and the other, living on the Atlantic Coast, oriented toward the South. Adams (’57) favored the conclusion that the Matagalpa group also would be better classified with the southern oriented groups, the Mosquitoan’ and Suman, rather than being set aside as a distinct group. The Chibcha language stock forms the basis for the speech of the Miskito, Sumo, Rama, and Matagalpa (Johnson, ’40). On the other hand, the Chorotega and Subtiaba are considered not to be of Chibchan origin (Kidder 11, ’40), and though their language stock is uncertain, Sapir (‘25, ’29) advances the hypothesis that Subtiaba and the Chorotega are related to certain Hokan languages in California. Conzemius (’32) suggests the probability that the Miskito were originally a sub-tribe of the Sumo. He derives the present day Miskito from a mixture of Sumo and Negro slaves captured from a Portuguese ship, wrecked in 1641. Conceivably, borrowing has occurred and languages are mixed, due in part to extensive migratory movements in both pre-Hispanic and post-Hispanic times. It is likely, as Mason asserts (‘40), that the Miskito-Sumo were late immigrants to this region a comparatively short time before the Conquest. Lehmann (‘20) considers these tribes as “contact-zone mixed languages” with a considerable Chibcha content. Data derived from our blood group studies, excepting the Sumo, show that the distribution of blood group antigens reveals an appreciable amount of foreign genes among all Nicaraguan Indians tested. The Indians on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, from whom blood specimens were procured, are the Chorotega (Choluteca) of Santa Isabel, and the Subtiaba at Subtiaba, a barrio of Le6n. On the Atlantic slope samples were obtained from the Miskito residing in three communities on the Rio COCOnear Waspam, i.e., Saupuka, Bilwaskanna, and Ulwas; the Sumo, fewer in number and more primitive than the Miskito, residing at Carudurusban, and Umbra; and the Rama at Rama Cay in the Bluefields Lagoon. Less than 200 persons remain in this latter tribe of whom only 38 could be contacted for bleeding. No specimens were procured from the Matagalpa Indians. As indicated above, the Indian language of the Rama is Chibcha, but all the Rama that we saw spoke English, showing the influence of the English-speaking inhabitants around BIuefields and the IsIands off its shores. These islanders are the so1 Earlier writers used the name. Mosquito for the Indians now generally called Misklto. 545 546 G . ALBIN MATSON AND JANE SWANSON In general, those Indian populations that have had freer access to foreigners show the presence of A and/or B genes, which are generally absent among full-blood American Indians, excepting, of course, the MATERIALS AND METHODS Blood specimens were procured from Blackfeet and related tribes which are Indians in Nicaragua in much the same predominantly Group Al (Matson and manner as had been followed in Mexico, Schrader, '33; Matson, '38). In Middle Guatemala, and Honduras (Matson and America, however, it is fair to conclude Swanson, '59, '61, '63b, '63c). A 5-8 cm3 that the higher the frequency of A1, A2 sample was obtained from the median and/or B genes in aboriginal populations, basilic vein of each volunteer by means of the greater the amount of racial admixture. a sterile Becton Dickensen vacutainer M N S s system tube needle assembly, each tube containing The MNSs phenotypes and chromosome 0.17 ml of a citric acid-dextrose solution (13.9 gm citric acid and 50 gm dextrose frequencies in the MNSs system in Indians dissolved in 1,000 ml distilled water). This in Nicaragua are shown on table 2. In conformity with the distribution of small amount (0.17 ml) of solution, though not sufficient to prevent coagulation, appar- M and N in Indians generally, the freently helped preserve the integrity of the quency of the M gene is high and the N low erythrocytes during handling and transit. in putatively full-blood Indians in Middle The clotted specimens, transported to the America (Salazar-Mallen and Arteaga, '51; Minneapolis War Memorial Blood Bank via Aguirre et al., '53). Notable exceptions ocAir Express in insulated and refrigerated cur, however, e.g., the Lacandon at Naji shippers, arrived in excellent condition. and LacanjA (0.4836) (Matson and SwanCells from the clots were suspended in son, '61 ), the Chinanteco in Veracruz appropriate media and tested with suitable (0.5111), and the Zoque in Chiapas antisera for the blood group antigens. (0.5323), Mexico (Matson and Swanson Hemolysates were prepared from selected unpublished report), and the Rama at specimens for hemoglobin type determina- Rama Cay, Nicaragua (0.5000) (this retions, and the sera were frozen for later port), in which groups appear high frestudies of hereditary haptoglobins, trans- quencies for the N gene. ferrins and Gm types, (Matson et al., '63). It is noteworthy that 80.85% of the 103 Only the results of blood grouping tests are Sumo in Nicaragua are homozygous MM reported here. and when the MN group is included, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 99.01% have the M antigen. The gene freThe results of the ABO blood grouping quency for M in this group is 0.8981. This high value for the frequency of the M gene tests are shown on table 1. Adopting the premise that pure Indians in the Sumo, suggests a high degree of in Central and South America belong com- racial purity, due, in all probability, to pletely to group 0, then the purest of the their comparatively isolated location. It Nicaraguan Indians shown on table 1 is the may also point to inbreeding and genetic Sumo. It is important to note that this is drift in this relatively small population. The incidence of the Ss phenotypes and also the most isolated of the Nicaraguan tribes. The 100% group 0 in this tribe gene frequencies in Indians of Nicaragua is shown on table 3. shows no evidence of foreign admixture. It will be seen from table 3 that the freBased on the ABO tests, the tribe most mixed is the Subtiaba in the little barrio of quency of the S gene is unusually high in Subtiaba near Le6n. In this Indian muni- the Sumo (0.8350). The distribution of the Ss antigens in cipio the people speak Spanish and have adopted Spanish customs, though they relation to the three genotypes MM, NN, have resisted total assimilation. The Cho- MN and corresponding frequencies for the rotega, Miskito, and Rama also show evi- four chromosomes, MS, Ms, NS, and Ns, are shown on table 4. dence of racial crossing. called Creoles, descendents of Negroes and mulattoes brought to the Atlantic mainland as slaves from Jamaica by the English settlers in the eighteenth Century. Rama Cay Caurudrusban, Umbra Le6n Rama Sumo Subtiaba 1 77 29 103 38 150 % ,:: 97.37 90.00 92.21 % 25 86.21 103 100.00 37 135 71 NO. o 2 6.90 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 8.00 4 5.19 NO. % 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.63 1 0.67 1 1.30 NO. % AI A2 --__-- 2 6.90 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1.33 1 1.30 NO. % B 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 NO. % AiB Number and per cent of phenotypes 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 NO. 70 AzB Rama Cay Caurudrusban, Umbra Leon Rama Sumo Subtiaba 103 29 37 150 77 Matson and Swanson ('60) 1 Number tested Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) Investigator 19 65.51 80.58 7 19 15 83 57 32 No. 58.00 53.25 % 11 29.74 87 41 No. % 24.14 18.43 40.54 38.00 41.56 MN N 4.00 5.20 % 1 3 0.99 10.35 0.7759 0.8981 0.5000 0.7700 0.7403 M 0.2241 0.1019 0.5000 0.2300 0.2597 N Gene frequencies Calculated admixture percent 18.90 0.00 3.55 13.73 10.64 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 S u m of gene frequencies 0.0351 0.0000 0.0351 0.9298 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 11 29.73 6 4 No. 9 0.0000 0.0132 0.0000 0.9868 Number and per cent of phenotypes M PZ 0.0408 0.0035 0.0067 0.9490 indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published. Saupuka, Bilwas, Ulwas 1 This Sta. Isabel Miskito Location Chorotega Population M N Phenotypes and gene frequencies among Indians i n Nicaragua TABLE 2 r 0.0263 0.0067 0.0065 0.9605 P1 Gene frequencies - 1This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published. Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) Saupuka, Bilwas, Matson and Ulwas Swanson ('60) Miskito Matson and Swanson ('60) Investigator Sta. Isabel Location Chorotega Population Distribution o f ABO blood groups i n Indians of Nicaragua - sub-groups o f "A" shown TABLE 1 Matson and Swanson ('60) Caurudrusban, Umbra Le6n Sumo Subtiaba Matson and Swanson ('60) 29 103 37 150 77 14.29 % 5 17.24 71 68.95 6 16.22 28 18.67 11 No. ss % 15 51.72 30 29.11 15 40.54 91 60.67 34 44.16 No. ss % 1.94 9 31.04 2 16 43.25 31 20.66 32 41.56 No. ss ss % No. ss % MM No. ss % No. % No. % MN ss ss -No. ss % NN No. % No. % No. % 2 5.41 66 64.08 17 16.50 150 37 103 29 Miskito Rama Sumo Subtiaba 3 10.34 10 34.48 6 16.22 28 18.67 51 34.00 77 Chorotega 5 13.51 6 20.69 1 3.45 4 13.79 0 0.00 4 3.88 13 12.61 3 8.11 3 8.11 2 2 6.90 1 3.45 1 3.45 1 3.45 1.94 1 0.99 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 18.92 1 2.70 4 10.81 6 16.22 8 5.33 0 0.00 40 26.67 17 11.33 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 4.00 NS Ns 0.3210 0.4549 0.1100 0.1141 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.2280 0.2720 0.1369 0.3631 0.7413 0.1568 0.0937 0.0082 1.0000 0.4900 0.2800 0.0000 0.2300 1.0000 Sum of gene frequencies 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 S u m of gene frequencies 0.2872 0.4531 0.0764 0.1833 Ms Chromosome frequencies ss ss MS - -~ ss 0.4310 0.5690 0.8350 0.1650 0.3649 0.6351 0.4900 0.5100 system in Indians o f Nicaragua 3 3.90 21 27.27 17 22.08 8 10.39 11 14.29 13 16.88 0 0.00 2 2.60 2 2.60 No. zzt~ Number and per cent of phenotypes Incidence of phenotypes and chromosome frequencies in the MN-Ss TABLE 4 S 0.3636 0.6364 S Gene frequencies Nicaragua - using anti-9 and anti-s serums Number and per cent of phenotypes Of This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published. Population 1 Matson and Swanson ('60) Rama Cay Rama Matson and Swanson ('60) Saupuka, Bilwas, Ulwas Miskito Matson and Swanson ('60) Investigator Sta. Isabel Location Chorotega Population Number tested Incidence of S-s phenotypes and gene frequencies in Indians TABLE 3 549 BLOOD GROUPS O F NICARAGUAN INDIANS The results on this table indicate that there is a complete absence of the NS chromosome in the 150 Miskito, the N gene traveling with s, though in the Miskito the Ns frequency is not as high (0.2300) as among the two groups of Lacand6n (0.4836) (Matson and Swanson, '61). A point of further interest among the Sumo is that the MS chromosome frequency is appreciably higher (0.7413) and the Ns lower (0.0082) than in any other American Indians tested. Miltenberger (Mi"), and V e r w e y s t ( V w ) Antigens Of the 397 Indians tested in Nicaragua, no Miltenberger (Mi") or Venveyst (Vw ) antigens were found. This is an expected observation, no Mi" antigen having been found among American Indians, and only one example of Vw. This was found among 162 blood samples from the Kekchi at Coban, Guatemala (Matson and Swanson, '61). The Mi(a+) phenotype is rare also in Caucasians (one in 500), about half of these being Vw+ and half Vw- (Hart et al., '54). The P s y s t e m The incidence of antigens and gene frequencies in the P system among Indians in Nicaragua are shown on table 5. The values are spotty, but agree generally with those found among Indians in Middle America (Wiener et al., '45; Tejada et al.,'59, '61; Matson and Swanson, '59, '61, '63a, '63b, '63c). It will be observed, however, that gene frequency of PI for the Sumo is low (0.3847). For comparison of PI frequencies in some North American Indians, see Matson and Swanson, '63a, table 6. The RH-HR s y s t e m The results of tests for the Rh and Hr factors are shown on tables 6 and 7. For these tests, five potent and specific anti-sera were used, i.e., anti-C, anti-D, anti-E, anti-c, and anti-e. Anti-e was used only to determine the zygosity status of the E factor. The relatively higher frequencies of the Rh.(cDe) and/or rh(cde) chromosomes in the Miskito and Subtiaba suggests appreciable foreign admixture in these populations. 0 0 0 9 H I(D al x m m 0 v! 0 8 a; a 0 rl ) El x I- OD 10 I- I- m 0 ? d sdd $ n ?I d P 2 2 Sta. Isabel Saupuka, Bilwas, Ulwas Rama Cay Caurudrusban, Umbra Le6n Chorotega Miskito Rama Sumo Subtiaba Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) Matson and Swanson ('60) a Investigator 29 103 38 150 77 Number tested 0.00 Le6n Subtiaba 1 Matson and Swanson ('60) Caurudrusban, Umbra Sumo 29 R1 CDe CdE RY Cde I' cDE RZ cdE I" Per cent of chromosome frequencies 0 2 0 0.00 1.94 0.00 1 0 0 2.63 0.00 0.00 0.0839 0.5368 0.0000 0.0000 0.1748 0.0000 0.2045 0.0252 0.7758 0.0000 0.0000 0.1010 0.0000 0.0980 0.0000 0.6316 0.0000 0.0000 0.3421 0,0000 0.0263 0.0196 0.5371 0.0000 0.0000 0.2371 0.0000 0.2062 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 Sum of gene frecDe" "cde quencies Ra and/or r 0.0782 0.6036 0.0000 0.0000 0.2270 0.0000 0.0912 CDE Rz This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published. Matson and Swanson ('60) 38 Matson and Swanson ('60) Rama Cay Rama 103 150 Matson and Swanson ('60) Saupuka, Bilwas, Ulwas 77 Number tested Miskito Matson and Swanson ('60) 1 Investigator Sta. Isabel Location Chorotega Population 2 0 0 2.60 0.00 0.00 2 5 0 0 6.90 17.24 0.00 0.00 1 0.97 1 0 5 2.63 0.00 13.16 4 61 0 20 15 0 3.88 59.22 0.00 19.42 14.56 0.00 0 16 0 15 0.00 42.11 0.00 39.47 Per cent of chromosome frequencies for Rh-Hr blood groups calculated from data on table 6 TABLE 7 5 6.49 3 39 0 40 43 0 12 10 3 0 2.00 26.00 0.00 26.67 28.67 0.00 8.00 6.67 2.00 0.00 7 26 1 26 10 0 9.09 33.77 1.30 33.77 12.99 0.00 3 11 0 No. 0 3 5 0 % 0.00 10.34 37.93 0.00 10.34 17.24 0.00 No. 0 % 0.00 No. 0 % 0.00 % No. 0 0.00 No. 0 % Number and per cent of phenotypes tested w i t h anti-C, anti-D, anti-E, anti-c and anti-e I CCDEE CCDEe CCDee CcDEE CcDEe CcDee Ccddee ccDEE ccDEe ccDee ccddee - samples 1 None of the following phenotypes was observed: CCddEE, CCddEe, CCddee, CcddEE, CcddEe, Ccddee, ccddEE, ccddEe. ZThis indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published. Location Population Distribution of Rh-Hr blood groups in Indians o f Nicaragua TABLE 6 BLOOD GROUPS O F NICARAGUAN INDIANS 55 1 552 G . ALBIN MATSON AND JANE SWANSON The 103 Sumo have a high incidence of Rh, Rh, (CCDee) phenotype (table 6 ) and correspondingly a high R' (CDe) chromosome frequency, (table 7). This suggests a high degree of racial purity, but may point also to inbreeding and genetic drift in a small population. In general, the Indians of Middle America appear to have a distribution of Rh-Hr chromosomes similar to that observed among other Amerinds (Brown et al., '58), Landsteiner et al. ('42), Weiner et al. ('45), and they differ from whites in the same respects, i.e., Indians but not whites have a high frequency of R2(cDE), a low frequency or absence of R"(cDe), and r ( cde) and the presence of R"( CDE) chromosomes. A n exception to this general statement occurs, however, in the Sumo who show a low frequency (0.1010) of R2(cDE). The V antigen (ce") Related to the Rh-Hr system is the V antigen (DeNatale et al., '55). The notations for this antigen and its gene complex are presently in a state of change. Recent work indicates that the antigen called V is likely a combination of ce' and the gene complex is designated as rv(dces) or R,"(Dce"), (Sanger et al., '60; Tippett et al., '61). Since the new notations are not generally employed, however, the commonly used V designation is used for the purpose of this paper. The incidence of the V antigen in blood of Indians in Nicaragua is shown on table 8. Other populations are shown for comparison. Only a few studies have been reported for the incidence of the V antigen in the blood of Indians in Middle America (Matson and Swanson, '59, '61). The V antigen appears only in a few tribes in Middle America and in these the incidence is low (see table 8). This is to be expected since the gene V has been traced only to the chromosome cDe and cde, and these chromosomes have been found to be rare indeed in American Indians. Furthermore, the frequency of the V gene is high in Negroes, and almost peculiar to them; therefore, its presence among American Indians is strong evidence of Negro admixture. 8 .-M -2 Y Y 8 B m s I4 . Y 3 553 BLOOD GROUPS O F NICARAGUAN INDIANS By using the V gene frequencies to cal- nin and Sneath, '53), western Europeans culate the amount of Negro admixture, ac- have an incidence of about 8% of this cording to Bernstein's formula ('31), where phenotype (Calendar and Race, '46). the per cent of gene frequency in the InKelLCellano system dian population is zero and in West African Negroes 0.2254 (De Natale et al., '55), the The Kell antigen was not found in following percentage values for Negro ad- Nicaraguan Indians. mixture in Nicaraguan Indians were deNo homozygous KK has been found termined: Miskito 16.59% and Subtiaba, among American Indians and of ten heter15.5%. No V was found among the Cho- ozygous Kk found among 874 Indians of rotega, Rama or Sumo. The results can be Mexico, two were brothers (Tzeltal), (Matconsidered as only the roughest estimate, son and Swanson, '59). The only others since a bias is introduced by the small size showing Kk were in the Jicaque Indians of of population samples, particularly in the Honduras. Of 194 Jicaque in Honduras, Subtiaba. seven (3.61%) were heterozygous Kell (Kk) Lutheran system (Matson and Swanson, '63). The Kell gene is extremely rare among No Lutheran, Lu(a+) phenotype was found in 397 Indians in Nicaragua. This Indians, and when found, it is almost agrees with findings among 592 Maya and surely indicative of foreign admixture. non-Maya in Mexico (Matson and SwanLewis system son, '59), in 664 Maya in Guatemala (Matson and Swanson, '63b), and in 399 InThe appearance of the Lea gene among dians in Honduras (Matson and Swanson, Indians of Middle America whose blood has '63c). been tested with both anti-Le" and anti-Leb, For the most part, Indian tribes in Mid- does not follow any discernible pattern dle America lack the Lu" gene, being pre- with relation to foreign admixture. The sumably homozygous Lub Lub. This agrees results of tests for the Lewis antigens in with the findings of Chown and Lewis Nicaraguan Indians are shown as number ('53), who found no Lu" in 97 Blood In- and per cent of phenotypes on table 9. dians in Alberta or among the Eskimos. Similar data for other peoples are shown Lu" has been reported, however, by Pantin for comparison on table 10. and Kallsen ('53) to the extent of 3.45% The genetic mechanism of the Lewis among 58 Dieguefio Indians in California. system is uncertain, and gene frequencies In '52, Pantin and Junqueira observed cannot be calculated with confidence (Race 16.44% Lu(a+) in 73 Brazilian Indians. and Sanger, '62). Therefore, only the numAlthough the Lu" gene is rare in Asian ber and per cent of the Lewis phenotypes Peoples (Lehmann and Cutbush, '52; Polu- are shown on tables 9 and 10. The TABLE 10 Incidence of phenotypes of Lewis system in some peoples of the world - samples tested w i t h anti-Lea and anti-Leb (Lewis groups) 1 English Norwegian Lapps Swedes Danes Greeks (Athens) West African Negroes Chinese (New York) Maori Australian Whites American Negroes American Whites 1 Per cent of phenotypes Investigator Number tested Ikin et al., (in Mourant, '54) Allison et al. ('52) Grubb ('51) Andresen ('48) Dunsford, ( i n Mourant, '54) Barnicot and Lawler ('53) 1166 90 1000 238 34 105 21.10 8.89 18.70 19.33 11.76 17.14 71.61 81.11 52.60 74.79 55.88 43.81 7.29 10.00 28.70 5.88 32.35 39.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 85 71 500 200 460 23.53 21.13 26.40 23.00 22.83 69.41 60.56 69.80 60.00 71.52 5.88 7.04 3.60 16.00 5.65 1.18 11.27 0.20 1.00 0.00 Population Miller et al. ('51) Simmons et al. ('51) Simmons and Jakobowicz ( '51 ) Miller et al. ('51) Miller et al. ('51) Taken from Mourant, '54. Le (a+b-) Le (a-b+) Le ( a - b ) Le (a+b+) 554 G. ALBIN MATSON AND JANE SWANSON Le(a+b-) phenotype is present in small amount among the Sumo, Miskito, and Chorotega. It has been reported also among the Jicaque and the Lenca in Honduras (Matson and Swanson, '63c), the Cakchiquel, Mam, and Quiche of Guatemala (Matson and Swanson, '63b), and the Tzeltal, Tzotzil, Chiapaneca, and Zapoteca in Mexico (Matson and Swanson, '59). Complete absence of Le(a+b-) phenotype has been reported for all other Indians tested in Middle America. The low incidence of Le(a+b-) for Indians compared to the higher Le( a+b-) for Europeans, Chinese, Maori, and Negroes is outstanding. The D u f f y system Only anti-Fy" serum was available for testing blood specimens procured from Indians in Nicaragua. The results of these tests are shown on table 11. The incidence of Fy(a+) is low in the Miskito (70% ); indeed, excepting the Chinanteco in Veracruz, Mexico, with a phenotype incidence of 68.89% for Fy(a+), the Miskito have the lowest incidence observed thus far in Indians of Middle America. A low incidence of Fy(a+) could perhaps be interpreted as an indicator of foreign admixture in American Indians, since the Fy" gene frequency is unusually high among Indians (Matson et al.,'54; Pantin and Kallsen, '53). (Matson and Swanson, '51; Chown and Lewis, '53); Caucasians have a low gene frequency for Fy", e.g., 0.4074 reported for 205 English (Cutbush and Mollison, '50), and 0.4344 for 300 Minnesota whites (Matson et al., '54). Other populations in which a high gene frequency of Fy" gene appears are; Norwegian Lapps 0.8189 (Allison et al., '52), Chinese 0.9015 (MiUer et al., '51), AinuJapanese 0.8600 (Simmons et al., '53), Koreans 0.9950 (Won et al., '58) and Asiatic Indians 0.7307 (Cutbush and Mollison, '50). Kidd system All the Nicaraguan bloods were tested with anti-Jk" serum only, and most of them with both anti-Jk" and anti-Jkb sera. The results of these tests are shown on tables 12 and 13. If one compares the incidence of Jk( a+) phenotype and the frequency of the corresponding gene, Jka, among Indians in Nicaragua with those for Indians in Mexico (Matson and Swanson, '59) and in Guatemala (Matson and Swanson, '61), for the English (Race et al.,'51) and for American whites (Allen et d.,'!51), (Rosenfield et al., '53), the differences between them are not striking, On the other hand, a low gene frequency of Jk" (0.3107) has been reported for Chinese in New York by Rosenfield et al.,'53. Matson and Swanson (reported elsewhere) have observed a low frequency for the Jk" gene among 54 Mixe Indians at Zacatepec, Oaxaca, Mexico (0.2799) and among 116 Mam of San Juan, Guatemala (0.2572). TABLE 11 Incidence of phenotypes i n the D u f f y system among Indians i n Nicaragua - samples tested with anti-Fp serum only Number and per cent of phenotypes Population Location Investigator Number tested Chorotega Sta. Isabel Matson and Swanson ('60) 77 Miskito Saupuka, Bilwas, Ulwas Matson and Swanson ('60) 150 Rama Rama Cay Matson and Swanson ('60) 37 Sumo Caurudrusban, Umbra Matson and Swanson ('60) Subtiaba Le6n Matson and Swanson ('60) FY (a+) No. % 74 96.10 105 70.00 33 FY (a-) No. 3 % 3.90 45 30.00 89.19 4 10.81 103 98 95.15 5 4.85 29 28 96.55 1 3.45 This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published. 1 TABLE 12 Caurudrusban, Umbra Ledn Sumo Subtiaba 29 19 77 29 91 56 No. 65.52 74.76 78.38 60.67 72.73 % 10 26 8 59 21 No. % 34.48 25.24 21.62 39.33 Ledn Subtiaba 1 This 103 Matson and Swanson ('60) Caurudrusban, Umbra Sumo % 11.11 8.15 5 20.00 22 21.36 4 11 9 12.68 0.5872 0.5024 0.4650 0.6272 % 10 40.00 10 40.00 0.4000 0.6000 0.4806 0.5194 26 25.24 55 53.40 0.4444 0.5555 8 22.22 24 66.67 0.3259 0.6740 0.4226 0.5775 Gene frequencies Jka Jkb 58 42.96 20 28.17 NO. Jk(a-b+) 66 48.89 42 59.15 No. lo No. Jk(a+b+) Number and per cent of phenotypes Jk(a+b-) indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published. 25 36 Matson and Swanson ('60) Rama Cay Rama Matson and Swanson ('60) 135 Matson and Swanson ('60) Saupuka, Bilwas, Ulwas 71 2$:c Miskito Matson and Swanson ('60) Investigator Sta. Isabel Location Chorotega Population Jkb 0.5223 Incidence of antigens i n the Kidd system among Indians i n Nicaragua - samples tested with anti-Jka and anti-Jkb TABLE 13 0.4128 0.4976 0.5350 0.3728 0.4777 Jka Gene frequencies tested with anti-jka only 27.27 Number and per cent of phenotypes Jk(a+) Jk(a-) - samples 'This indicates the year during which the samples were procured and the tests done, not when the results were published. Matson and Swanson ('60) 103 37 Matson and Swanson ('60) Rama Cay Rama Matson and Swanson ('60) 150 Matson and Swanson ('60) Saupuka, Bilwas, Ulwas 77 Miskito Matson and Swanson ('60) Investigator Sta. Isabel Location Chorotega Population Number tested Incidence o f phenotypes and gene frequencies in the Kidd system among Indians in Nicaragua u1 UI cn m z" PI 2 0 0 * 3* kl 0 m td T1C 0 tl 0 0 r m 556 G . ALBIN MATSON A N D J A N E S W A N S O N The Diego (Di")Antigen The phenotype incidence and the gene frequencies of the Diego antigen in Indians of Nicaragua are shown on table 14. A look at the table reveals appreciable variation in the incidence of Diego in Nicaraguan Indians. The gene frequency ranges from 0.00 for 37 Rama to 0.1044 for 29 Subtiaba. The Di" antigen is present among the American Indians (Junqueira et al., '56; Layrisse and Arends, '56) Chinese, Japanese (Layrisse and Arends, '56a) and Koreans (Won et al., '60); whereas it is absent among Polynesians, Australian aboriginese, Papauans, New Briton natives (Simmons, '57) Eskimos, (Lewis et al., '56) and Caucasians, (Levine et al., '56). Wright (WP) and Berrens Be" antigens No Wright (Wr") was found in Indians of Nicaragua. The finding of Wr" in American Indians is unusual, and if present, is indicative of racial crossing. It has not been found in the Indians examined in Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, except in four of 138 Lenca, all four being related. Wright (Wr") is also of rare occurrence in Caucasians (Holman, '53), having been found only in 24 of 31,522 English (Cleghorn, '60). No Berrens (Be") antigen was found in Nicaraguan Indians. This antigen is of rare occurrence having been found only once, (Davidson et al., '53). SUMMARY !3 .r( Y 0 s 1. Phenotype incidence and gene frequencies of blood groups among the Chorotega, Subtiaba, Mikito, Sumo and Rama Indians in Nicaragua have been determined; the results of tests being shown on appropriate tables and discussed. 2. The ABO tests suggest racial admixture in the Subtiaba, Chorotega, Miskito and Rama tribes whereas the Sumo, testing 100% group 0, show no crossing. 3. The frequency of the M gene is high and the N low in Nicaraguan Indians, except for the Rama in which tribe the N gene is relatively high for Amerinds. It is noteworthy that 80.85% of the Sumo specimens tested, are homozygous MM, the frequency of the M gene in this tribe be- BLOOD GROUPS OF NICARAGUAN INDIANS ing 0.8981. This suggests a high degree of racial purity in the Sumo. There is a complete lack of the NS chromosome in the Miskito, the N gene traveling with s. In the Sumo the MS chromosome is higher and the Ns lower than in any other American Indians tested. 4. No Miltenberger (Mil) and no Verweyst (Vw) antigen was observed in Nicaraguan Indians. 5. Miskito and Subtiaba Indians possessed R"( cDe) and/or r( cde) chromosomes in sufficiently high frequency to indicate appreciable foreign admixture. The 103 Sumo have a high R(CDe) chromosome frequency suggesting a high degree of racial purity, inbreeding and genetic drift. 6. By applying Berstein's formula ('31) to the V(ce*) results to calculate the degree of Negro admixture in Nicaraguan Indians a very rough estimate was arrived a t showing 16.59% in the Miskito and 15.5% in the Subtiaba. No V was found among the Chorotega, Rama or Sumo. 7. No Lutheran (Lu") antigen was found in the blood of 397 Indians tested in Nicaragua. 8. The Kell antigen was not found in Nicaraguan Indians. 9. The Le(a+b-) phenotype is present in small amounts among the Sumo, Miskito and Chorotega. It is absent in the Rama and Subtiaba specimens (both small tribes). 10. The Fy" gene frequency is low in the Miskito, in fact only one lower has been found in Amerinds, i.e., in the Chinanteco of Ahitlan, Veracruz, Mexico. 11. There is no striking difference in the incidence of Kidd (Jka) antigen between Nicaraguan Indians and other Amerinds in Middle America, excepting the lower incidence among the Mixe i n Oaxaca, Mexico and the Mam in Guatemala. In general, the distribution of Jk" in Amerinds is similar to that reported for Caucasians. 12. The gene frequency for the Diego (Di") antigen ranges in Indians of Nicaragua from 0.00 for 37 Rama to 0.1044 for 29 Subtiaba. 13. No Wright (Wr") and no Berrens (Be") antigen was encountered in Nicaraguan Indian blood specimens. 557 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was largely supported by research grant N.S.F.-G-9064, National Science Foundation for which grateful acknowledgment is made. Our gratitude is acknowledged to the State Department of the United States and personnel of the United States Embassy in Nicaragua. We express thanks to many willing individuals in Nicaragua who contributed in many ways toward the success of this project. Among these must be mentioned: Seiior Albert0 Arguello Vidaurre, Ministro de Gobernacion por la Ley, Managua, D. N.; Lic. don Eudoro Solis, Secretario del Instituto Indigenista Nacional, Managua, D. N.; Dr. Rodrigo Quesada, Vice-Ministro de Salubridad, Managua, D. N.; Professor Sergio Villagra, Director del Proyecto Piloto de Educacion Fundamental del Rio Coco, Waspam; Dr. Jose Antonio Cantbn, Director Centro de Salud y Medico del Proyecto Piloto, Waspam; and Sefior General e Ingeniero, Don Alfonso Valle, Le6n. Our thanks go also to the several governors of Departments, local health officers, and presidentes municipales who gave generously of their time and influence toward the procurement of donors of the blood specimens. For technical assistance in typing blood specimens we are grateful to Mrs. Helen Arndt, M. T. (A.S.C.P.), Minneapolis War Memorial Blood Bank. 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