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Distribution of hereditary blood groups among Indians in South America. VII. In Argentina

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Distribution of Hereditary Blood Groups Among
Indians in South America
VII.
I N ARGENTINA'
G. ALBIN MATSON,::< H. ELDON SUTTON, JANE SWANSON
ABNER ROBINSON
Departments of Anthropology and Molecular and Genetic Biology,
University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Department of Zoology,
University of Texas, Austin; Minneapolis War Memorial
Blood Bank, Minneapolis; and Child Research Ceizter
of Michigan, DetTozt
AND
ABSTRACT
This seventh and last paper in a series on the distribution of blood
groups among Indians in South America reports the findings among Amerinds in
Argentina. Blood specimens were procured from putative full-bloods of the following
tribes: 38 Diaguita (Calchaqui), 230 Mataco, 90 Chiriguano, 142 Choroti, 51 Toba,
120 ChanQ, 96 Chulupi (Ashluslay), and 178 Araucano (Mapuche).
These 945 samples were tested for blood factors in the A-B-0, M-N-S-s, P, Rh-Hr, K-k,
Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego systems. Serum samples were tested for haptoglobins
and transferrins. Hemolysates prepared from whole blood were tested for hemoglobin
types. The results are presented in tables as phenotype distribution and calculated
allele frequencies. Locations of the populations from which blood samples were procured are shown on a map of North and Central Argentina.
High frequencies are reported for the 0 allele. Allele frequencies are high also for
M , s, Ri (CDe), R2 (cDE), k , Ler* and Fy. They are usually low or absent for alleles
B, N , S , Mia, V w , Ro (cDe), r (cde), K , Lei, and fy. The Di allele ranged from 0.013 in
the Araucano (Mapuche) to 0.192 in the Toba.
Allele frequencies aberrant for Indians were observed more often i n the Araucano
(Mapuche) and Diaguita tribes, due probably to greater inflow of non-Indian genes
into their gene pool and perhaps also to genetic drift i n small inbred populations.
H p i allele frequencies varied from 0.43 i n the Choroti to 0.80 i n the Diaguita.
All samples tested for transferrins except six contained the variant Tf C; the six
were Bi C present i n samples from one Mataco and six Araucano persons.
All the specimens tested electrophoretically for hemoglobin types contained only ( A )
as a major component.
Argentina displays a variety of land,
topography, and climate in its 1,080,000
square miles distributed through thirtythree and one-half degrees of latitude. In
the north lies the near fallow Chaco which
has assumed economic importance recently
by the finding of oil. On the southern fringe
of the Chaco's scrub forests lie plantations
of oranges, yerba, tobacco, and sugar. To
the west, stand the majestic snow-capped
Andes. From the Andes eastward to Uruguay and the Atlantic, and southward to
the end of the country lie high mountain
lakes, pine forests, wind-swept ranches,
the great fertile central plain, the pampas,
great oil fields, and finally the bleak nearAntarctic latitudes consisting largely of
rocky bays and islets.
As varied as the land and its climate
were the cultures of the people who lived
AM. J. PHYS. ANTHROP.,
30: 61-84.
there when, in the sixteenth century, the
Spaniards conquered and colonized it.
Among their descendants are the presently
existing Diaguita (Calchaqui), Mataco,
Chiriguano, Choroti, Toba, Chanks, Chulupi (Ashluslay) and Araucano (Mapuche)
tribes; populations which, by virtue of their
donated blood, became the subjects of this
study. Relevant information on each of
these is briefly presented.
The Diaguita (Calchaqui)
In pre-Hispanic times the Diaguita (Calchaqui) inhabited arid Argentina and
1 This study is supported by the National Science
Foundation grant NSF-G. 22923 and the National
Institutes of Health, U. S. Public Health Service Research grants 1 R 0 1 GM. 14837-01, GM-09326 and
5-K3-GM-18.381 and the Universitv of Utah Research
Fund.
4 Present address: Zoology Dept., Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281.
61
62
G. A. MATSON, H. E. SUTTON,
J. SWANSON AND A. ROBINSON
The Chiriguano
The three little farming communities :
Carapari, Yacuy and Tatima near Tartagal
are inhabited almost exclusively by Indians
of the Chiriguano tribe. Their language
is of Tupi-Guarani stock. They cultivate
maize, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, beans,
sweet manioc, peanuts, tobacco and cotton.
Roasted grains are pounded into flour from
which mush is cooked. They are a proud
people whose daring and ferocity have
been commemorated in Spanish prose and
song (Mktraux, '49).
It was from 90 of these putatively fullblood Chiriguano Indians that blood specimens were procured.
The Choroti
The Choroti (Zolota), like the Mataco
tribes subsist primarily through fishing,
hunting and the gathering of algarroba
pods and other wild products, and produce
T h e Mataco
Before Europeans arrived, nomadic and fire in the same manner. They speak the
warlike tribes inhabited the region of the Matacoan language; are numbered among
Argentine Chaco, Formosa and parts of the the foot Indians of the Chaco (Steward,
present states of Santa Fe, Santiago del '49); and their dominant form of marriage
Estero, and Salta. Among these people were is monogamy (Lowie, '49).
According to Mktraux ('46) in 1915
the Mataco-Mataguayo, Choroti, Guayacuabout half of the then total 2,500 Choroti
rue and Chiriguano (Levene, '37).
lived on the Pilcomayo River near Fortin
The Mataco proper (Mataguayo) have Guachalla. Most of the remainder ranged
inhabited parts of the Gran Chaco for cen- north to Villa Montes in Bolivia, but a few
turies. Among their first contacts with Cau- families roamed inland about 75 to 100
casians were the Jesuit missionaries. The miles from the river. It is probable that
latter, however, received little encourage- some descendants of the latter migrants
ment from the Mataco, who in 1635, in are the people from whom 91 blood samprevailing aboriginal taste, plotted to kill ples were procured at La Merced, as well
them (Mktraux, '46). Today, as then, the as the itinerant laborers at the sugar facMataco dwellings are crudely constructed tory at Tabacal, Salta, from whom 51 samof branches set in the ground, joined over. ples were obtained.
head and roughly thatched with rushes,
The Toba
grass, and palm leaves. Now, as then, the
women weave textiles, and gather algarAmong the Guaycurues tribes of the
roba pods, and the men make nets, fish Chaco the Toba Indians, because of their
and hunt. Today they still light their fires stately stature and general good physical
by rotary friction using a plain hand drill condition, have been held in greater esteem
in a socketed hearth. Many migrate for than most of the others. They speak a
employment on the sugar plantations of Guaicuran language and inhabit the Gran
Salta and Jujuy; but on their own part they Chaco both in Argentina and Paraguay
engage in agriculture to only a very limited (Mktraux, '46). Subsistence is gained priextent.
marily through fishing, hunting, and some
The 230 Mataco who contributed blood agriculture, by which they produce maize,
for this study live in comparative isolation pumpkins, manioc, beans and tobacco.
in the small settlements of San Luis, Santa
The 51 blood samples of Toba blood were
Maria and Puntana on the Itiyuro River in obtained from inhabitants of Carmedo and
Salta's Chaco.
Puntana not far from Tartagal.
northern Chile. Their independent language, Kakan, differed basically from those
of other tribes (Lothrop, '46). They lived
in organized towns amid the mesquite,
talas, canes and teasels (Bennett, '49).
Their diet consisted primarily of maize,
peas, gourds, the fruit of the chaiiar tree
and prickly pears (Levene, '37).
Today they subsist primarily by agriculture and animal husbandry. They make
pottery and loom-woven fabrics and work
in bronze, gold and silver. Villages are organized under politically autonomous headmen who are succeeded patrilineally from
father to son. Polygyny was common and
usually sororal (Lothrop, '46; Miranda, '46).
The 38 Diaguita from whom blood specimens were procured for this study were
employed at Finca Santa Rosa not far from
Tartagal in the province of Salta.
BLOOD GROUPS OF INDIANS I N ARGENTINA
63
limited; as citizens of the Republic of
Argentina they participate in the country’s
privileges and responsibilities.
The Araucano have acquired more nonIndian genes than have any other Indians
of this study with the possible exception of
the Diaguita. Araucanian is spoken in the
homes unless one of the parents is not
Mapuche. All except a few old and isolated
women speak Spanish.
They subsist primarily by agriculture;
cultivating maize, beans, squash, potatoes
and small grains on land of private ownership. Such wealth as they possess consists
of sheep, cattle, horses, hogs and chickens.
The Chulupi (Ashluslay)
Ox drawn wooden plows are used; sowing
The Chulupi of Argentina and Paraguay and planting is done by hand. Grazing
belong to the Matacoan linguistic stock and lands are very often held in common. To
inhabit the plains north of the Pilcomayo date these Indians have little or no security
River. They subsist by maize and manioc in land tenure and they have been deprived
agriculture, fishing in low waters with of the better grazing grounds. The federal
conical wicker baskets, hunting, and by government is presently attempting to deal
gathering algarroba pods from which they with that problem.
The 178 blood samples analyzed in this
make flour for cakes. Chafiar fruits are
study
were procured essentially from farm
boiled and the terminal shoots of palms
are eaten raw, roasted, or boiled (Mktraux, laborers, their wives and children, residing
in the community of Rucachoroy near San
’46).
Martin
de Los Andes, in the sate of NeuEvery winter, Chulupi bands migrate to
work on sugarcane plantations in Argen- quen.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
,tina, and it was from 96 of these itinerant
Using a sterile Becton-Dickinson vaculaborers at Tabacal, Salta that blood specitainer tube-needle assembly, 5 to 8 mls of
mens were obtained.
blood were procured from volunteers by
The Araucano (Mapuche)
arm venipuncture, each tube containing
In western Argentina near the Andes in 0.17 ml of citric acid-dextrose solution
the State of Neuquen, reside parts of the (13.9 gm citric acid and 50 gm dextrose
Araucanian nation, who still speak the dissolved in 1,000 ml distilled water) as
Araucanian language. They are a resolute preservative. The clotted specimens, transand sturdy people, who, in pre-Hispanic ported under refrigeration via air express,
times, enjoyed great freedom and cultural arrived in good condition at Minneapolis
exchange with their kindred in Chile, and where the blood group tests were made.
withstood Inca invasion for centuries
The serum surrounding each clot was
removed and frozen separately. Cells from
(Cooper, ’46).
Today Araucanian survivors in Argen- each sample were tested or blood group
tina reside, for the most part, in Neuquen antigens by techniques recommended by
Province and have a population of about antiserum processors. All reagent fluids
5,000, distributed among 26 ‘lofches” or used were specific and potent and had been
small tribes. The lofche, consisting of 20 processed by the Minneapolis War Memoto 60 families, is under the control of a rial Blood Bank, gratuitously donated by
cacique (chief). In the exercise of his other workers, or procured by purchase or
authority the cacique is assisted by two barter. Erythrocytes were tested for blood
counselors and receives advice from all the antigens and factors2 in the A-B-0, M-Nmen of the lofche. Clans of gens do not
In this paper italics are used as symbols for genes
exist in their society. In recent times the and genotypes and regular type as symbols for agglutinogens, phenotypes, blood factors (serological
powers of the caciques have been greatly specificities) and the corresponding antibodies.
The Chunks
The Chanks as well as the Chiriguano
have little or nothing in common with the
Chaco tribes. Formerly they lived in the
sub-Andean range of hills lying north and
south of the Pilcomayo River. The C h a d
speak Arawakan and differ in this respect
from the Chiriguano whom they resemble
culturally, except for minor details ( M B
traux, ’46, ’48).
Blood specimens were procured for 120
Chan6 residing in the two small agricultural communities of Yacuy and Tuijuuti
near Tartagal.
64
G. A. MATSON, H. E. SUTTON,
J. S W A N S O N AND A. ROBINSON
Fig. 1 Map of Central and Northern Argentina.
BLOOD GROUPS OF INDIANS I N ARGENTINA
S-s, P, Rh-Wr, Kell-Cellano (K-k), Lewis
(Le), Duffy (Fy"), Kidd (Jk"), and Diego
65
varez ('39) possessed, in addition, the B
and AB blood group antigens. The 282
(Di") systems.
Chulupi tested by Mazza ('39) and the 209
The frozen serum samples were flown Andidos examined by Paulotti and Alegria
lo Austin, Texas where tests for hapto- ('43) yielded a small distribution of AB
globin and transferrin types were made. but no B antigen.
The serum protein components were sepaThe 0 allele has its maximum frequency
rated by means of the vertical starch gel of 1.000 in the sample of several tribes
method of Smithies ('59). The gel was which Mazza and Franke ('27) tested in
then sliced into two parts, one of which the state of Salta, in the Chulupi tested by
was stained with amidoschwarz 10-B to Mazza et al. ('33); and in the Mataco
reveal proteins (Smithies, '55), and the tested by Mazza ('39). Its lowest frequency
other with 0-dianisidine (Owen et al., '58) was reported among the Colla (0.797).
to detect hemoglobin and haptoglobin- There is no correlation of the variation in
hemoglobin complexes. All samples were allele frequencies with the degree of lintested with cyanmethemoglobin added,
guistic relationship existent among the
Traiisferrins were typed by a micropuri- tribes. The presence in South American
fication method in use in the Austin labora- Indians of allele other than 0 in the A-B-0
tory. One drop serum is diluted with three system indicates their possession of nondrops of ferric ammonium citrate solution Indian genes.
(0.15% in gel buffer: 0.03 M boric acid,
The results of tests for the A-B-0 blood
0.006 M sodium hydroxide, pH ca. 8.4). groups made on samples procured for this
To this mixture is added five drops of a study are presented in table 2 as number
solution of rivanol (2-ethoxy-6, 9-diamino- and per cent of phenotypes with their coracridine lactate, 0.6% in gel buffer). A responding allele frequencies, which have
precipitate forms and a clear supernatant been calculated by the method of Bernstein
is obtained by low speed centrifugation for described by Stevens ('38).
one minute. The supernatnat is subjected
In the 945 samples procured from the
to starch gel electrophorcsis (15 v/cm for eight tribes tested, group 0 is consistently
3-4 hours) and stained for protein by high. Indeed, the 51 Toba, 142 Choroti,
conventional methods (Smithies, '59).
and 230 Mataco presented the maximum
Hemolysates, prepared by the method frequency of 1.000 for the 0 allele. This
of Drabkin ('46), were frozen and then is not uncommon for isolated, putatively
sent to the Child Research Center Labora- full-blood Indian populations in Middle and
tories, Detroit, Michigan where they were
South America (Matson and Swanson,
tested for hemoglobin types by agar electro- '65a,b; Matson et al.,'66, '66a,b, '67). The
phoresis at pH 6.5, citric acid-sodium citlowest frequency of allele 0 (0.858) is
rate buffer (Robinson et al., '57) and by reported for the Diaguita, suggesting a
paper electrophoresjs at pII 9.6, veronal larger heritage of non-Indian genes i n this
buffer, ionic strength 0.06 (Zuelzer et al.,
population.
'56).
The remaining five populations shown
in table 2 contain A' and/or B genes, but
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
allele A2 appears only in the Chiriguano
The A-B-0 sytsern
and Diaguita tribes. The presence of alleles
Earlier tests for antigens in the A-B-0 A', A2, or B in Indians of Middle or South
system among Indians in Argentina have America suggests some mixture with nonbeen done by four workers. Results of these Indians at some time in the past. The data
tests are shown in table 1 and will be shown in table 2 are in good agreement
compared with results of this study shown with those shown in table 1 for Indians in
Argentina and in general agreement with
in table 2.
Of the 11 populations listed in table 1, those reported for Amerinds i n Middle
three yielded 100% group 0. The remain- and South America (Matson and Swanson,
ing eight populations, though largely group '59, '61, '63a,b,c,d, '64, '65a,b; Matson, et
0, presented varying amounts of group al., '66, '67; Santiana, '47, '53; Arteaga, et
A. Some of the 227 Mataco tested by Al- al., '52, Salazar-Mallen, '49; Sandoval and
2
1
(’33)
Mazza e t al.
(’33)
115
46
147
Mazza et al.
( ’331
Mazza et al.
209
194
Paulotti arid
Alegria (’43)
(’33)
227
135
78
282
55
120
Total
numbers
tested
73
38
131
198
191
179
130
78
269
55
120
No.
0
63.48
82.61
89.12
94.74
98.45
78.85
96.30
100.00
95.39
100.00
100.00
%
Cited bv Salzano ( ’ 5 7 ) .
*The locality in which this tribe was studied is not mentioned in the reference cited.
Colla
*
Pillagas
&
Chaco
Choroti
Toba
Prov. de Jujui
Mazza et al.
*
Andidos
Alvarez (‘39)
*
Matacos
(’33)
Mazza et al.
Mazza (’39)
* 2
*
Mazza (’39)
Prov. de Salta
(’33)
Mazza et al.
Mazza and
Franke (‘27)
Prov. de Salta
6 2
Investigator
Location
Matacos
Matacos
Chunupi
(Chulupi)
Chunupi
(Chulupi)
Several
Population
TABLE 1
42
8
16
8
3
34
5
0
12
0
0
No.
A
36.52
17.39
10.88
3.83
1.55
14.98
3.70
0.00
4.26
0.00
0.00
%
0
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
No.
Phenotypes
B
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.97
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
%
0
0
0
3
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
No.
AB
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.43
0.00
2.20
0.00
0.00
0.35
0.00
0.00
%
~
r
0.797
0.909
0.944
0.966
0.992
0.879
0.981
1.000
0.975
1.000
0.203
0.091
0.056
0.027
0.008
0.090
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.007
0.000
0.031
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.019
0.002
0.000
0.000
4
0.023
0.000
0.000
P
Allele frequencies
1.000
Distribution of the A - B - 0 blood groups in Indians of Arge’ntina-subgroups of “A” not shown (eurlier s t u d i e s )
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
Tabacal, State of Salta
La Merced and Tabacal,
Toba
Chulupi
Choroti
230
San Luis, Santa Maria
and Puntana (Environs
Tartagnl) State of Salta
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(Environs Tartagal)
Province of Salta
Mataco
Calchaqui
(Diaquita)
38
90
Carapari, Tatima, Yacuy
(Environs Tartagal)
State of Salta
Chiriguano
120
Tartagal, Yacuy and
ruijuuti, State of Salta
142
96
51
178
Total
numbers
tested
Chan6s
State of Salta
Rucachoroy (Environs
San Martin de Los Andes),
State of Neuquen
Location
Araucano
(Mapuche)
Population
28
230
81
118
142
95
51
154
No.
73.69
100.00
90.00
98.34
100.00
98.96
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
8.89
9 23.68
0
8
1 0.83
0
0
o
7.30
86.52
13
%
NO.
A1
%
ioo.ao
0
0.00
1.11
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
%
1 2.63
0
1
0
0
0
o
0
No.
A2
B
0.00
1.04
0.00
6.18
lo
0
0
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
1 0.83
0
1
0
'11
No.
Phenotypes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
lo
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
AiB
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
No.
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
%
AYB
"A" s h o w n ( t h i s s t u d y )
No.
of Argentina-subgroups of
TABLE 2
Distribution of the A-B-0 blood groups in I n d i a n s
0.858
1.000
0.948
0.992
1.000
0.995
0.127
0.000
0.046
0.004
0.015
0.000
0.003
0.000
0.000
O.CO3
0.000
0.030
0.034
0.003
0.005
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.032
4
0.000
0,OCO
PZ
0.c00
0.037
PI
Allele frequencies
1.000
0.931
T
68
G . A. MATSON, H. E. SUTTON,
Henckel, '54; Salzano, '57; Suarez et al.,
'64, '65; Nagel and Etcheverry, '63).
M-N-S-s s y s t e m
The number and per cent of M-N and
S-s phenotypes and their corresponding
allele frequencies are assembled in table
3. The only other tests reported for M-N
types i n Argentina Indians is that of Mazza
('39) in 282 Chunupi (Chulupi) in the
Chaco. NIazza's results showed 81.91% M,
11.35% MN and 6.74% N. The allele frequency for M was 0.876 and for N 0.124.
Frequencies for the MS, M s , NS, N s chromosomes in this present study were derived
from the phenotypic data, in part by gene
counting and in part by a n extension of
the maximum likelihood method described
by Boyd ('54).
In all tribes except the Diaguita the
allele frequency is high for M and low for
N . There is a n equitable distribution of the
M and N frequencies for the Diaguita
(M = 0.500). The frequency for M in the
Araucano agrees well with that reported
for the same tribe in Chile (Matson et al.,
'67), and those in the Chulupi and Toba
agree rather well with frequencies reported
for the same tribes in Paraguay (Matson
et al., '67b). These high frequencies for
the M allele resemble those reported for
putatively pure Amerinds elsewhere (Arteaga et al., '52; Wiener et al., '45; Boyd,
'39; Brown et al., '58; Chown and Lewis,
'53; Levine et al., '35; Matson and Piper,
'47; Matson and Roberts, '49; Matson and
Schrader, '33; Matson and Swanson, '59,
'61, '63a,b,c,d, '64, '65a,b; Matson et al.,
'36. '54, '63, '66, '66a,b, '67).
The lower frequency for allele M in the
Diaguita may be accounted for, perhaps,
on the basis of a greater flow of non-Indian
genes into this population than among the
other tribes tested and/or by genetic drift.
High M and low N is usually associated
with racial purity in Amerinds.
The highest frequency for the s allele
and lowest for S is recorded for the Diaguita ( s =- 0.789). The lowest s allele frequency is reported for the Choroti (0.549).
It is usual to find high frequencies for s
and low for S alleles in American Indians.
Frequencies for the four chromosomes
M S , M s , N S and Ns vary somewhat with
the tribe examined. The M S chromosome
J. SWANSON AND A. ROBINSON
frequency is higher and the Ms lower in
the Choroti than ordinarily expected in
South American Indians and in the Diaguita the N s chromosome is higher than
usual. Since the M and s allele frequencies
are usually high and the N and S allele
frequencies low in Amerinds, the expected
distribution would be high M s and very low
N S , with M S and N s frequencies appearing
somewhere between. Departures from this
general distribution usually observed in
full-blood Amerinds may suggest inflow of
non-Indian genes or possibly genetic drift
in small inbred populations. Either, or
both, mechanism may be suspected by the
higher than usual frequency for N in the
Diaguita and the higher than usual S frequency in the Choroti.
Miltenberger (Mi")and V e r w e y s t
(Vw)antigens
Of the 945 blood samples tested for the
Miltenberger (Mi") and Verweyst (Vw)
antigens only one of each was observed.
The 230 Mataco specimens yielded both
antigens in the same person. Negative
tests are quite usual in American Indians,
Miltenberger (MP) having been reported
previously i n only one tribe, i.e. in four
of 239 Quechua in the northern plateau
in Ecuador (Matson et al., '66); and Verweyst (Vw) in only one person among
162 Kekchi at CobAn, Guatemala (Matson
and Swanson, '61).
The alleles corresponding to these antigens are extremely rare not only in American Indians but in Europeans as well, Mi"
having been reported in them in a proportion of about 1 in 500, one half of which
are coupled with Vw
and one half with
Vw - (Hart et al., '54).
+
P system
Specimens from the Argentine Indians
were tested only with anti-P (anti?,)
serum for antigens in the P system. The
distribution of phenotypes of the P system
in these populations and the calculated
frequencies of their corresponding alleles
are presented in table 4.
The maximum allele frequency of 1.000
or the PI gene in the Diaguita, and its low
frequency of 0.289 in the Araucano (Map3,The notations PI and P? (Sanger, '55; Matson et
al., 59) are employed, PI being the antigen previously
called P and Pz the one formerly called p.
4.78
7
11
90
(Diaguita)
C alchaqui
Mataco
38
230
7.78
8
120
Chan6s
Chiriguano
21
142
Choroti
0
10
96
Chulupi
0.00
6.67
14.79
10.42
5.88
3
51
0.56
%
Toba
s
1
No.
178
Araucano
(Mapuche)
Population
Total
numbers
tested
TABLE 3
4
48
20
30
35
22
6
35
No.
c/b
25.28
96
6
15.79
16.09
37
20.87
10.53
18.89
17
22.22
21.67
9.16
13
26
23.96
27.45
S
23
14
45
No.
25.00
24.65
22.92
11.77
19.66
ss
M
6.25
1.96
5.06
%
10.53
1.74
4
4
7.78
6.67
4.93
S
7
8
7
6
1
9
No.
%
2
49
19
20
5.26
21.30
21.11
16.66
23.94
15.62
15
34
17.65
16.85
SS
9
30
NO.
MN
Phenotypes
12
45
13
21
23
16
12
37
No.
$6
31.58
19.57
14.44
17.50
16.20
16.67
23.53
20.79
S
0.00
0
0.00
1 0.43
0
2
4
5
5.26
1.74
5.56
8
31
2
6
1 0.83
0.00
0
7
1 0.70
5
1 0.70
0
0.00
8
No.
4
0.00
%
6.74
ss
0.00
0
0
1 1.96
%
IVO.
12
s
1 0.56
No.
N
2.22
5.00
4.93
4.16
9.80
4.50
96
21.05
13.48
S
0.121
0.252
0.279
0.278
0.402
0.302
0.182
0.379
0.378
0.427
0.460
0.309
0.464
0.485
0.509
Ms
0.090
0.037
0.121
0.068
0.049
0.057
0.063
0.118
NS
0.410
0.333
0.173
0.194
0.240
0.177
0.270
0.213
Ns
Chromosome frequencies
0.160
MS
Distribution of phenotypes and chromosome frequencies in the M-N-S-s system in Indians o f Argentina
70
G. A. MATSON, H. E. SUTTON,
J. SWANSON AND A. ROBINSON
TABLE 4
Distribution of antigens and allele frequencies in the P system i n Indians of Argentina samples tested
with anti-PI serum only
Phenotypes
Population
Location
Total
numbers
tested
P1-C
- .
%
Araucano
(Mapuche )
Rucachoroy (Environs San
Martin de Los Andes),
State of Neuquen
178
88
49.44
Toba
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs
Tartagal) State of Salta
51
47
92.16
Chulupi
Tabacal, State of Salta
96
76
79.17
Choroti
Tabacal and La Merced,
State of Salta
142
114
80.28
Chants
Tartagal, Yacuy and
Tuijuuti, State of Salta
120
106
Carapari, Tatima, Yacuy
(Environs Tartagal)
State of Salta
90
Mataco
San Luis, Santa Maria
and Puntana (Environs
Tartagal) State of Salta
230
Calchaaui
(Diaguita)
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(Environs Tartagal)
Province of Salta
38
1 The
-
Allele frequencies
_.
PI
Nn
NO.
Chiriguano
P,
PZ
%
90
50.56
0.289
0.711
4
7.84
0.720
0.280
20
20.83
0.544
0.456
28
19.72
0.556
0.444
88.33
14
11.67
0.658
0.342
80
88.89
10
11.11
0.667
0.333
195
84.78
35
15.22
0.610
0.390
38 100.00
0
0.00
1.000
0.000
notations PI and Pa (Sanger, '55; Matson et al., '59) are used where PI = former P and PZ= former p.
uche) are noteworthy variants in opposite
directions. The frequencies for PI presented
in table 4 for the remaining tribes range
between 0.544 and 0.720. These fall within
the range usually reported for this allele
in American Indians (Chown and Lewis,
'53; Matson et al., '54; Matson and Swanson, '59, '61, '63a,b,c,d). No p or Pk was
noted in the Argentine Indians tested.
It is noteworthy that the low PI allele
frequency (0.289) in the Araucano at
Rucachoroy differs so widely from that
determined for the Araucano on the western slope of the Andes at Longuimay, Chile,
where a population of 141 present a frequency of 0.831. The reasons for these
deviations in opposite directions for P'
allele frequency in two isolates of the same
tribe are not immediately apparent. Until
more information is at hand concerning
the history and migrations of this tribe
and their relationships with other populations, east and west of the Andes, perhaps
it can only be assumed that any or all of
such factors as isolation, inbreeding, genetic drift and, more recently, miscegenation with Caucasians may have played a
role.
Prevalence of the maximum frequency
of 1.000 for allele P' in the 38 Diaguita is
also remarkable, but no less so than the
same observation in 51 Guayaki of Paraguay (Matson et al., '67b).
Similar high frequencies have been reported also for this allele in other small,
isolated, inbred populations of putatively
pure Indians in South America e.g., in 14
ChAcoba in the Bolivian Beni (Matson et
al., '66b), 14 Isconahua and 9 Yagua in
Peru (Matson et al., '66a). In such small
populations the chances of introducing bias
is great; however, very high frequencies for
PI have been observed also in 109 Itonama
in the Bolivian Beni; 93 Ticuna, 93
AymarB, 151 Aguaruna, and 181 Quechua
in Peru (Matson et al., '66a).
BLOOD GROUPS O F INDIANS IN ARGENTINA
Rh-Hr s y s t e m
Five antisera were employed in testing
the blood samples for antigens in the RhHr system, i.e., anti-rh' (C), -Rho ( D ) , -rh"
(E), -hr' (c) and -hr" (e) *. Anti-hr" (antie ) was used only to determine the zygosity
status of the rh" ( E ) factor. Results of the
tests with the above antisera are presented
as number and per cent of phenotypes in
table 5 and as calculated allele frequencies
in table 6.
In only two populations, the Araucano
and Chanks, did the rh (ccddee) phenotype appear and only in the Chanks and
Diaguita was the Rho (ccDee) phenotype
present, These two phenotypes are rare
indeed or completely absent among fullblood Indians and are thought to be determined by genes of non-Indian origin. The
Rhlrh phenotype ranged from 0.00% in
the Mataco to the high values of 18.54%
in the Araucano and 10.53% in the Diaguita. It is noteworthy that the phenotype
kh,Rhz, usually high in full-blood Amerinds, had lower values in the Araucano
and Diaguita than in the other tribes
shown in the table, suggesting again the
greater presence of non-Indian genes or
perhaps gentic drift in these two tribes.
Phenotype data can be observed better
when reduced to allele frequencies. These
have been calculated from the data in
table 5 and presented in table 6.
Absent in all the tribes were alleles T'
( C d e ) , r" ( c d E ) and rY ( C d E ) . The allele
r ( c d e ) appeared in the Araucano, ChanBs,
and Diaguita, but it was absent in the
other populations. The R" ( c D e ) allele was
present in all except the Araucano, but
it presented its highest frequency in the
Diaguita. Alleles R1 ( C D e ) and R2 ( c D E )
were present in all tribes, but the frequency
for Rz ( c D E ) , usually high in full-blood
Indians, was highest in the Mataco (0.715)
and lowest in the Araucano (0.289). Allele
R" ( C D E ) , ordinarily present in Amerinds,
was absent in the Araucano but present in
all the other tribes. In Amerinds the R'
( C D e ) and R2 ( c D E ) allele frequencies
are higher and the T ( c d e ) and R" ( c D e )
lower than in other ethnic groups with the
possible exception of Polynesians (Matson
et al., '54; Matson and Swanson, '59, '61,
'63b,c, '64, '65a; Chown and Lewis, '53;
71
Matson and Piper, '47; Pantin and Kallsen, '53; and Brown et al., '58).
Kell-Cellano s y s t e m
Anti-K and anti-k sera were both employed in testing the 945 Argentine Indian
blood specimens for Kell and Cellano
antigens. All samples tested negative for
Kell (K) and positive for Cellano ( k )
as is usually the case in putatively pure
Indian populations; for homozygous K has
not been noted in Amerinds and heterozygous (Kk) only in a few instances (Chown
and Lewis, '57; Matson and Swanson, '59,
'63b; Fernandes et al., '57; Salzano, '61;
Best et al., '62; Allen, '59; Ellis et al., '63;
Layrisse and Wilbert, '60; Nunez Montiel
et al., '57; Etcheverry et al., '66, '66a,b).
Only Pantin and Junqueira ('52) have reported any appreciable amount of Kell in
Amerinds (20% or more in Indians of
Mato Grosso, Brazil). Presence of Kell in
American Indians strongly suggests a nonIndian source for the responsible gene.
Lewis s y s t e m
Both anti-Lel and anti-Lea sera were
used in testing for antigens in the Lewis
system. The results of these tests are presented in table 7.
Only two populations in this series presented phenotype Lel i.e., the Araucano, in
which there were two among 178 persons
and the Choroti, having four in 142. The
complete absence of Let in the remaining
tribes conforms to the pattern odserved
in full-blood Amerind populations generally
(Matson and Swanson, '59, '61, '63b,d,
'64, '65a,b; Matson et al., '66b, '67; Chown
and Lewis, '53; Gray and Laughlin, '60;
Layrisse et al., '61, '62, '63a). The presence
of the Lel phenotype in the Araucanian and
Choroti populations may be a further indication, therefore, of non-Indian genes in
their gene pools.
Tests were not made on saliva to determine the prevalence of the A-B-H secretor
character in these Indians. The few studies
that have been accomplished on the distribution of the A-B-H secretor and its cor4The existence of more than one nomenclature for
this system makes it desirable to follow the Rh-Hr
notations with CDE equivalents in arentheses.
5 Lewis notations recommended f y Wiener ('65)
are used i n this paper where:
Lel =Le(a+b-),
Lez = (a-b+), le = (a-b-);
anti-Lei = anti-Lea and anti-Lea = anti-Leb.
140
119
90
230
Tabacal, State of
Salta
Tabacal and La Merced,
State of Salta
Tartagal, Yacuy and
Tuijuuti, State of
Salta
Carapari, Tatima,
Yacuy (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
San Luis, Santa Maria
and Putana (Environs
Tartagal) State of
Salta
Chulupi
Choroti
ChanCs
Chiriguano
Mataco
38
%
No.
%
CcDee
Rhlrh
No.
%
CCDee
RhlRhl
%
CcDEe
No.
%
%
0 0.00 1 2.63
0 0.00 0 0.00
0 0.00 0 0.00
1 0.84 2 1.68
0 0.00 0 0.00
0 0.00 0 0.00
0 0.00 0 0.00
5 9.80 30 58.83
1.43 33 23.57 58 41.43
1.04 19 19.79 38 39.58
3.96
1.11 18 20.00 42 46.67
4 10.53
6 15.79 12 31.58
0 0.00 12 5.22 93 40.43
1
4 3.36 27 22.69 48 40.34
2
1
1
5.88
9 17.65
%
2 3.92 1 1.96
7 18.42
1.31 113 49.13
4 10.53
3
4 4.44 13 14.44
8 6.72 22 18.49
3 2.14 35 25.00
2 5.26 2 5.26
2 0.87 7 3.04
6 6.67 6 6.67
5 4.20 2 1.68
7 5.00 1 0.71
2 2.08 22 22.92 10 10.42 3 3.13
3
No.
&DEE
Rh,Rha
0 0.00 0 0.00
%
CCDEe
No.
ccDEE
No.
ccDEe
No.
Rh.Rhl
RhzRhz
Rhzrh
Phenotypes
RhlRhz
10 5.62 0 0.00 33 18.54 45 25.84 45 25.28 30 16.85 14 7.87
%
ccDee
No.
ccddee
No.
Rh,
rh
‘
%
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
0 0.00
1 0.71
1 1.04
0 0.00
0 0.00
No.
CCDEE
RhzRhz
Sera
1 None of the following phenotypes were observed: rh’rh (Ccddee); rh’rh’ (CCddee); rh’rh” (CcddEe); rh”rh (ccddEe); rh”rh” (ccddEE); rh,rh‘ (CCddEe); rh,rh”
(CcddEE); rhyrhy (CCddEE).
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(EnvironsTartagal)
Province of Salta
96
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs
Tartagal) State of
Salta
Toba
Calchaqui
(Diaguita)
51
Rucachoroy (Environs
San Martin de 10s
Andcs), State of
Neuquen
Araucano
178
Location
Population
Total
numbers
tested
Distribution of Rh-Hr blood groups in Indians of Argentina samples tested with anti-Rho (D), anti-rh’ (C), anti-rh“ ( E ) , anti-hr‘ ( c ) and anti-hr” ( e )
TABLE 5
73
BLOOD GROUPS OF INDIANS I N ARGENTINA
TABLE 6
Allele frequencies f w Rh-Hr blood groups calculated f r o m data o n table 5
Population
Araucano
(Mapuche)
Toba
Chulupi
Total
numbers
tested
Allele frequencies
7
Re
R1
Rz
Re
cde
cDe
CDe
cDE
CDE
Rucachory (Environs San
Martin de Los Andes),
State of Neuquen
178
0.233
0.000
0.478
0.289
0.000
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
51
0.000
0.041
0.420
0.508
0.031
Tabacal and La Merced,
State of Salta
96
0.000
0.017
0.452
0.452
0.079
Location
Choroti
Tabacal, State of Salta
140
0.000
0.012
0.471
0.486
0.031
Chanks
Tartagal, Yacuy and
Tuijuuti, State of Salta
119
0.045
0.033
0.464
0.426
0.032
90
0.000
0.030
0.470
0.431
0.069
San Luis, Santa Maria and
Puntana (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
230
0.000
0.007
0.258
0.715
0.020
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(Tartagal Environs)
Province of Salta
0.001
0.139
0.387
0.413
0.060
Chiriguano
Mataco
Calchaqui
(Diaguita)
Carapari, Tatima, Yacuy
(Environs Tartagal)
State of Salta
38
responding Se gene in Indians of South
America is discussed in paper number VI
of this series (Matson et al., '67b). Generally, in studies of A-B-H secretors among
American Indian populations in which frequencies for the Se gene are less than
1.000, the deviation has been attributed
to the presence of non-Indian genes in the
Indian gene pool (Matson and Piper, '47;
Chown and Lewis, '53; Pollitzer et al., '62;
Ellis et al., '63; Salzano, '64). In Europeans, the distribution of A-B-H secretors
is low and Lel secretors high (Race and
Sanger, '62), whereas in Amerinds the reverse has been found. Therefore, as expected, in American Indians having European admixture the Lei phenotype becomes
higher and A-B-H secretors lower than in
€ull-blood Amerinds.
D u f f y System
Duffy blood group factors were determined in the Argentine Indian samples by
the use of anti-Fy" serum only. The phenotype distribution and allele frequencies
determined from the results of the tests
are presented in table 8.
Phenotype Fy( a ) is consistently high
for the populations represented, ranging
from 91.11% in the 90 Chiriguano to
100% in the 51 Toba and 142 Choroti. In
contrast, tests performed on samples from
100 Toba at Laguna Por6 in the Paraguayan Chaco yielded only 83.00% positive
for the Fy" antigen, which was the lowest
value found for Fy" in Paraguayan Indians. The reason for this inconsistency
in the frequency of the Fy gene in the Toba
in separate locations in the Gran Chaco is
not known, one is constrained to think
that basic principles such as migration, isolation, inbreeding, miscegenation and/or
genetic drift have played their parts. The
certainty of what happened must remain,
for the present at least, a close-locked secret of their distant past.
More similar, however, were the values
for the prevalence of the Fy(a +) phenotype in the Chulupi of Argentina and Paraguay i.e., 96.88% (allele frequency 0.823)
+
TABLE 7
2.82
4
96
142
120
90
230
38
Tabacal and La Merced,
State of Salta
Tabacal, State of Salta
Tartagal, Yacuy and
'Tuijuuti, State of Salta
Carapari, Tatima, Yacuy
(Environs Tartagal)
State of Salta
San Luis, Santa Maria
and Puntana (Environs
Tartagal) State of Salta
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(Environs Tartagal)
Province of Salta
Chulupi
Choroti
Chanbs
Chiriguano
Mataco
0
0
0
0
0
32
203
81
109
122
80
42
162
No.
%
6
27
9
11
le = Le(a-b-),
15.79
11.74
10.00
9.17
0.397
0.343
0.316
0.303
0.336
0.408
0.420
0.281
Ze
anti-Lei = anti-Lea
0.603
0.657
0.684
0.697
0.664
11.27
16
0.580
0.719
0.592
17.65
7.87
I
Le
Allele frequencies
16.67
le
16
9
14
NO.
= Le(a-b+),
84.21
88.26
90.00
90.83
85.91
83.33
82.35
91.01
Ley
Leg
Phenotypes
= Le(a+b-1,
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1 Lewis notations recommended by Wiener ('65) are used in this paper where: Lei
and anti-LeH = anti-Lea.
Calchaqui
(Diaguita)
0.00
0
51
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
1.12
Toba
2
178
%
Rucachoroy (Environs San
Martin de Los Andes),
State of Neuquen
Araucano
(Mapuche)
No.
Lei
Location
Population
Total
numbers
tested
Distribution of phenotypes and allele frequencies for the Lewis system in Indians of Argentina samples tested with anti-Lel and anti-Len sera
TABLE 8
51
96
142
120
90
230
38
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
Tabacal, State of Salta
Tabacal and La Merced,
State of Salta
Tartagal, Yacuy and
Tuijuuti, State of Salta
Carapari, Tatima, Yacuy
(Environs Tartagal)
State of Salta
San Luis, Santa Maria
and Puntana (Environs
Tartagal) State of Salta
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(Environs Tartagal)
Province of Salta
Toba
Chulupi
Choroti
Chan6s
Chiriguano
Mataco
Calchaqui
(Diaguita)
178
Rucachoroy (Environs San
Martin de Los Andes),
State of Neuquen
Araucano
(~Mapuche)
--".--
Location
Population
Total
36
224
82
115
94.74
97.39
91.11
95.83
100.00
96.88
93
142
100.00
93.26
%
51
166
No.
- sampbs
2
6
8
5
0
3
0
12
No.
Phenotypes
Distribution of phenotypes and allele frequencies f o r the D u f f y system in Indians o f Argentina
5.26
2.61
8.89
4.17
0.771
0.838
0.702
0.796
1.000
0.823
3.12
0.00
1 .ooo
0.740
0.00
6.74
%
Allele freai
0.229
0.162
0.298
0.204
0.000
0.177
0.000
0.260
tested w i t h anti-Fp serum only
76
G. A. MATSON, H. E. SUTTON,
and 98.65% (allele frequency 0.847) respectively.
Although the Fy( a+ ) phenotype presents an erratic distribution in American
Indians, ranging from 100% positive in
the Kutchin (Lewis et al., '61), the Yahgan
(Matson et al., '67), the Guayaki (Matson
et al., '67b) and in the Toba and Choroti
of this study, to 100% negative in one
group of Brazilian Indians (Pantin and
Junqueira, '52), the values are more frequently high than low (Matson et al., '54;
Pantin and Kallsen, '53; Matson and Swanson, '59, '61, '63a,b,c,d, '64, '65a,b; Matson et al., '66, '66a,b, '67; Chown and
Lewis, '53; Hulse, '57; Brown et al., '58).
In Caucasians moderately low frequencies for the Fy allele have been reported
(Cutbush and Mollison, '50; Matson et al.,
'54).
Kidd s y s t e m
Only anti-Jk" serum was available for
testing the Argentine Indian specimens
for the homologous antigen in the Kidd
system. Phenotype and allele frequency
data presented in table 9 were determined
€rom the results of these tests.
A wide variation exists in the distribution of the Jk(a +) phenotype and the
frequencies of its responsible allele among
Indian tribes in Argentina. The range as
shown in table 9 is from a low of 46.07%
(allele frequency 0.266) in the Araucano
to a high of 88.24% (allele frequency
0.657) in the Toba. The range is practically
the same as among Indians in Paraguay
(Matson et al., '67b) but the Toba of Paraguay presented a frequency of only 0.490
for the J h allele. The frequencies for J h in
the Chulupi in the Chaco of both countries
varied less than in the Toba i.e., 0.490 in
Argentina and 0.368 in Paraguay (Matson
et al., '67b).
Elsewhere in Middle and South America
frequencies for the Jh allele resemble those
appearing in table 9. Low frequencies for
Jk have been noted among the Araucano
(Mapuche) of Chile i.e., (0.113) (Matson
et al., '67), the AymarA and Chama in Bolivia (frequencies 0.389 and 0.270 respectively, Matson et al., '66b) and in others
e.g., the Aguaruna in Peru, Quechua in
Ecuador, Guaymi in Panama, T6rraba in
Costa Rica, Mam in Guatemala (Matson
J. SWANSON AND A. ROBINSON
et al., '66, '66a; Matson and Swanson, '65b,
'61). Frequencies of 0.500 or more for
J h are numerous however in Indians of the
Americas (Chown and Lewis, '53; Allen,
'59; Matson and Swanson, '59, '61, '63a,b,
c,d, '64, '65a,b; Matson et al., '66, '66a,b;
Tejada et al., '61; Pollitzer et al., '62; Layrisse et al., '61, '62, '63, '63a; Best et al.,
'62 and Gershowitz et al., '67). Although
frequencies vary greatly for the Jk allele
in Amerinds, they present no easily discernable ethnological pattern at the present
time, and they are not statistically very
different from those reported for the English (Race et al., 51) or for American
Whites (Allen et al., '51; Rosenfield et al.,
'53). Chinese in New York have been reported, however, to have a low frequency
for the Jk allele (Rosenfield et al., '53).
Diego s y s t e m
A potent and specific anti-Di" serum obtained from Dr. Layrisse of Caracas, Venezuela was used to test the Argentine
Indian bloods for the Diego (Di") antigen.
The results of these tests are presented in
table 10 as number and per cent of phenotypes and calculated allele frequencies.
The allele responsible for the Di" antigen
was present in all the tribes tested, but the
distribution of the phenotype varied greatly
between tribes ranging from 2.60% Di( a +) (allele frequency 0.013) in the
Araucano to 34.74% Di(a +) (allele frequency 0.192) in the Chulupi. The D i allele
frequencies in the Toba and Chulupi of
this study were in fair agreement with
those reported for the same tribes in the
Chaco in Paraguay (Matson et al., '6%).
So also was there agreement between the
low values determined for Di in the Araucan0 (Mapuche) in Argentina and in Chile,
Distribution of phenotype Di( a +) and
frequencies of its corresponding allele
varies widely among American Indians
(Layrisse and Wilbert, '60), but no orderly
ethnographic gradient or cline appears.
Layrisse and Wilbert ('60) have attempted
to explain this situation on the basis of
migration waves; an early one is postulated
to have had a low frequency of the Di
allele, followed by a later wave of high
D i frequency. They endeavor to correlate
given physical and serological types with
specific cultural and sociological traits.
TABLE 9
88.24
73.96
45
71
96
142
120
90
230
38
Tabacal, State of Salta
Tabacal and La Merced,
State of Salta
Tartagal, Yacuy and
Tuijuuti, State of Salta
Carapari, Tatima, Yacuy
(Environs Tartagal) State
of Salta
San Luis, Santa Maria
and Puntana (Environs
Tartagal) State of Salta
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(Environs Tartagal)
Province of Salta
Chulupi
Choroti
Chanbs
Chiriguano
Mataco
Calchaqui
(Diaguita)
29
118
53
90
111
76.32
51.30
58.89
75.00
78.17
46.07
51
82
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
178
Toba
%
Rucachoroy (Environs San
Martin de Los Andes),
State of Neuquen
Araucano
(Mapuche)
No.
Location
JW a+ 1
9
112
37
30
31
25
6
96
No.
JWa-1
23.68
48.70
41.11
25.00
21.83
26.04
11.76
53.93
%
- samples tested
Phenotypes
Population
Total
numbers
tested
Distribution of phenotypes and allele frequencies for the Kidd system i n Indians of Argentina
0.513
0.302
0.358
0.500
0.533
0.490
0.266
Jk
0.487
0.698
0.642
0.500
0.467
0.510
0.734
ik
Allele frequencies
with anti-Jka serum only
r
$
8
0
+
2
3
*
0
80
td
230
28
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
Tabacal, State of Salta
Tabacal and La Merced,
State of Salta
Tartagal, Yacuy and
Tuijuuti, State of Salta
Carapari, Tatima, Yacuy
(Environs Tartagal) State
of Salta
S a n Luis, Santa Maria
and Puntana (Environs
Tartagal) State of Salta
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(Environs Tartagal)
Province of Salta
Toba
Chulupi
Choroti
Chanes
Chiriguano
Mataco
81
118
142
95
51
154
Rucachoroy (Environs San
Martin de Los Andes),
State of Neuquen
Araucano
(Mapuche)
Total
numbers
tested
Location
Population
Calchaqui
(Diaguita)
TABLE 10
4
69
7
19
37
33
12
4
No.
2.60
%
14.29
30.00
8.64
16.10
26.06
34.74
24
161
74
99
105
62
39
150
No.
Phenotypes
23.53
Wa+)
=(a-)
85.71
70.00
91.36
83.90
73.94
65.26
76.47
97.40
%
Distribution of phenotypes and allele frequencies f o r the Diego (Dia) antigen i n Indians of Argentina
0.074
0.163
0.045
0.084
0.140
0.192
0.125
0.013
Di
0.926
0.837
0.955
0.916
0.860
0.808
0.875
0.987
di
Allele frequencies
2
H
v)
?
tl
5.
m
F
%
0
.1
cn
0
?
79
BLOOD GROUPS OF INDIANS I N ARGENTINA
TABLE 11
Distribution of haptoglobin types in Indians of Argentina
Population
Location
Araucano
(Mapuche)
Rucachoroy (Environs §an
Martin de Los Andes),
State of Neuquen
Toba
Monte Carmelo and
Puntana (Environs Tartagal) State of Salta
Total
Phenotypes
0
Allele frequency
Hpl
11
0
0.79
23
14
0
0.49
0.44
numbers
tested
1-1
207
132
64
50
13
2-1
2-2
Chulupi
Tabacal, State of Salta
100
23
42
35
0
Choroti
Tabacal, and La Merced,
State of Salta
142
24
75
43
0
0.43
Tartagal, Yacuy and
Tuijuuti, State of Salta
120
26
76
18
0
0.53
Chiriguano
Carapari, Tatirna, Yacuy
(Environs Tartagal) State
of Salta
109
29
52
25
3
0.52
Mataco
San Luis, Santa Maria
and Puntana (Environs
Tartagal) State of Salta
205
47
103
54
1
0.48
Finca Sta. Rosa - Chaco
(Environs Tartagal)
Province of Salta
38
24
11
2
1
0.80
Chanes
Calchaqui
(Diaguita)
Nee1 and Salzano ('66) have criticized this
typological approach proposed by Layrisse
and Wilbert ('60).
(0.78), Mapuche (0.72) in Chile, (Matson
et al., '67; Nagel and Etcheverry, '63); the
Aymara (0.69) in Peru (Matson et al.,
'66a; Giblett and Best, '61); the Quechua
Haptoglobins
(0.78) and Colorado (0.89) in Ecuador
Haptoglobins differentiated by starch-gel Matson et al., '66); the Caingang (0.79)
electrophoresis (Smithies, '55) are pre- and (0.73) in Brazil (Salzano and Sutton,
sented in table 11 as the four different '63, '65); and the Guahibo (0.67), Piraroa
phenotypes and calculated frequencies of (0.77) and Waica (0.80) in Venezuela
the autosomal Hp' allele.
(Arends and Gallango, '62, '64).
The usual three phenotypes Hp 1-1, Hp
It appears that the Hp' allele frequencies
2-1, and Hp 2-2 were the only ones demon- in the Indians of this study range from
strable, except in the Chiriguano, Mataco, 0.44 or the Chulupi to 0.80 in the Diaguita.
and Diaguita, in which populations were The higher frequencies for Hp' in the
revealed very low prevalences of Hp 0 Araucano and Diaguita are in line with
(apparent ahaptoglobinemia), the inheri- their deviations from the other Argentine
tance. of which is not well understood. The Indians with respect to blood group allele
distribution of the three phenotypes Hp frequencies. However, these Hp' allele fre1-1, Hp 2-1, and Hp 2-2 forms a roughly quencies cannot be explained on the basis
uniform 1 , 2, 1 pattern throughout the of inflow of non-Indian genes. At least, no
tribes except in the Araucano and Diaguita one has reported a population with Hp'
tribes in which the prevalence of Hp 1-1 frequencies near 1.0 except in very small
phenotype far exceeds the other two. This isolates. Genetic drift may explain some
relationship is clearly depicted in the Hpf aberrant allele frequencies in the Diaguita
allele frequency column. Other high fre- and Araucano better than significant forquencies reported for the Hp' allele in eign admixture. Apparently the Araucano
South America are: The Atacameiios and Diaguita differ from the other Indians
(0.67), Araucano (0.75), Pehuenches tested in the distribution of many genes.
80
G . A. MATSON, H. E. SUTTON,
J. SWANSON AND A. ROBINSON
The Hp' allele frequencies shown in the All these contained hemoglobin (A) as a
table for the remaining tribes are in es- major component. No unusual major hemosential agreement with values reported globin component was encountered.
generally for Indians in Middle and South
Among Indians in Middle and South
American Indians e.g., the Alacaluf (0.48) America abnormal hemoglobin types have
in Chile (Matson et al., '67); the San Blas been rarely found, though the following
Cuna (0.38) and Choc6 (0.46) in Panama exception to hemoglobin (A) have been
(Matson et al., '65b); the Terraba (0.52), noted: in southern Mexico, two hemoglobin
Cabkcar (0.44), and Boruca (0.44) in (N), one (AS) and one (F) were detected
Costa Rica (Matson et al., '65a); the Pan- in 87 Chiapaneca (Sutton et al., '60; Matare (0.35), Pamon (0.38), Paraujuano son et al., '63); in Costa Rica, two (AS)
(0.53) in Venezuela (Arends and Gallango, '62); the Xavante (0.46) in Brazil were found in 67 Thrraba; in Panama five
(Neel et al., '64); and the Aweikoma and (AS) and one homozygous ( S ) in 153
Guarani (0.52) in Brazil (Salzano and Guaymi, and two (AS) in 350 San Blas
(Matson and Swanson, '65b). These few
Sutton, '63).
aberrancies may well have been determined
by genes introduced into the gene pool
Transferrins
Serum samples tested for haptoglobins from non-Indians.
were subjected to electrophoretic mobility
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
tests to determine the presence of variants
This study could not have been accomof the iron-binding pl globulin, transferrin.
Of the more than a dozen variants that plished without the interest and cooperahave been defined (Giblett, '62; Parker tion of numerous persons and agencies.
and Bearn, '61), only two were detected Genuine gratitude moves us to mention
in the serum specimens from the Argen- the following:
tine Indians. All the samples except six
In the United States. The Department
contained the variant Tf C; the six were of State and the U. S. Customs Service asBIC, present in samples from one Mataco sisted by official sanction and in the expeand five Araucano individuals.
ditious movement of blood samples through
With few exceptions South American portals of entry into the United States. The
Indian tribes tested for transferrin variants, technical assistance of Mrs. Annette Arosahave presented 100% values for Tf C (Mat- mena, Minneapolis War Memorial Blood
son et al., '66, '66a,b; Salzano and Sutton, Bank, in performing blood grouping tests is
'65; Giblett and Best, '61; Neel et al., '64; much appreciated.
Parker and Bearn, '61). The exceptions,
I n Argentina. The following persons asbesides the BIC variant, reported in this sisted in official and non-official capacities
paper haven been very low frequencies of in the procurement and handling of blood
slow Tf DI (or Dchi) in the Piro in Peru samples from the Indians:
(Matson et al., '66a), the Quechua, Cayapa
In Buenos Aires. Dr. Arturo Oiiatavia,
and Secoya in Ecuador (Matson et al., ' 6 6 ) , El Ministro de Asistencia Social y Salud
and in the Paraujuano and Yupa in Vene- Publica; Dr. Frederick W. Brown, Scientific
zuela (Arends and Gallango, '62, '64) and Attach&,American Embassy; Mr. Robert A.
the B2C variant in the Quechua in Peru Hancock, Counselor of Embassy, American
(Giblett and Best, '61) and the Caingang Embassy; Dr. Bernard0 A. Houssay, Presiin Brazil (Salzano and Sutton, '63).
dente, Podor Ejecutivo Nacional, Consejo
Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y
Hemoglobin types
Technicas; Professor Enrique Palavecino,
Hemolysates were prepared from a total Director, Museo Etnografico de la Faculof 353 samples of whole blood. The tribes tad de Filasofia y Letras, Universidad de
represented and the number of samples Buenos Aires; Dr. Armando S. Parodi, Catested from each were the following : Arau- tearc de Microbiologia, Faculdad de Medcan0 (Mapuche) 39, Toba 24, Chulupi 37, kina, Universidad de Buenos Aires; Mr.
Choroti 92, Chan6s 54, Chiriguano 55, Richard Baxendale, American Embassy;
Mataco 26, and Diaguita (Calchaqui) 26. Sr. Jose B. Gaon, Gerente de Cargas, Pan
BLOOD GROUPS OF INDIANS IN ARGENTINA
American-Panagra Air Lines; Sra. Maricela
Gil Pietranera de Pombo, Florida, 947.
In Salta, Province of Salta. Dr. Oscar
Rivero; Dr. Danton Cermesoni, Sr. Ministro
de Asuntos Sociales y Salud Publica de
Salta; Dr. Nestor Rodriguez Campoamor;
Padre Lozano; Senorita Nelly Perkz; Senorita Sonia D’Andrea; Victor Amable Guerra,
Hito 1”” Sargento, Jefe Hito 1, Salta.
In Tartagal, Province of Salta. Padre
Jose Buttinelli, Parroco de Tartagal; Rev.
Francis Tomkins; Sr. Jefe de Seccidn, Gendarmeria Nacional; Sr. Humberto Aguero,
Jefe Servicio Lucha Antipa-Barrio Mitre;
Sr. Julio Andre Ferreyra, Recopilador del
Folklore del Chaco Salteno; Sr. Juan Albert,
Driver; Sr. Arnerico Gonzalez, Cook; Juan
Teodoro Gueros, Sargento l“”,Santa Maria; Jefe Seccidn Santa Victorio “Este” de
Gendarmeria Nacional; Rev. and Mrs. Olof
Jonsson, Missionaries to the Mataco.
In San Carlos de Bariloche, Province of
Rio Negro. Jose M. Iglesias, M.D. “Ruca
Lelen”; Federico Caeiro, M.D.; Emilio Feliu, M.D.
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