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Diversity of C-line terminations in Iranian populations.

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 81:527-533 (19901
Diversity of C-Line Terminations in Iranian Populations
M. SHARIF KAMALI, JAMSHED MAVALWALA, AND B.V. BHANU
Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
M5S I A I , Canada (M.S.K., J.M.); Department of Anthropology,
University of Poona, Pune-411007, India (B.V.B.)
KEY WORDS
Palmar prints, Dendrograms, Dermatoglyphics
ABSTRACT
Thirteen Iranian populations of diverse origins have been
analyzed for C-line terminations, utilizing bilateral palmar prints of 3,158
individuals. Significant bimanual and male/female differences were frequently found in these populations. Interpopulational variation displayed
significant heterogeneity. Distance analysis and constructed dendrograms
provided separation between the populations, but the dendrograms are not in
agreement with the ethnohistoric records of the populations studied.
Numerous studies have demonstrated interpopulational differences in dermatoglyphic traits. A detailed bibliography can be
found in Mavalwala (19771, and a review of
anthropological dermatoglyphics has been
published by Meier (1980). Among several
aspects of qualitative dermatoglyphics, terminations of the C-line have been used t o
show the existence of differences between
populations (Plato, 1970). In reviewing the
worldwide distribution of various qualitative dermatoglyphics, Plato et al. (1975; also,
Plato, 1976) have shown that the terminations of the C-line are different among the
major racial groupings of humans, and each
of them has its own range of variation for this
trait. Hoff et al. (1981) in studying native
American populations found that the terminations of the C-line show better results in
interpopulational studies as compared to
terminations of the D-line.
So far, among Iranian populations, although some studies have been done (Mehdipour and Farhud, 1978,1979;Kamali, 1981,
1982a,b, 1984a,b, 1985, 1986; Kamali and
Bhanu, 1981; Kamali et al., 1986) interpopulational variation of the terminations of the
C-line of these populations has not been
previously reported. The present study reports the terminations of the C-line among
13 Iranian populations. Interpopulational
variation using cluster analysis is discussed
in relation to the known ethnohistoric backgrounds of the populations studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Inked bilateral palmar prints of 3,158 individuals representing 13 populations of
Iran, belonging to diverse racial stocks, were
collected during 1978-1985 and analyzed for
the terminations of the C-line after Plato
(1970). The sample sizes drawn from these
13 populations are listed in Table 1. The
geographic locations of these populations are
shown in Figure 1. Iran has been settled by
many diverse peoples during the last 25
centuries, and all these peoples, to varying
degrees, have contributed to the Iranian
gene pool (Ghirshman, 1978; Kamali, 1985;
Field, 1939). The ethnohistoric relations of
these populations have been described by
Kamali and Mavalwala (19891, and the
reader is referred to this earlier study.
According to Plato (1970)the terminations
of the C-line are presented in terms of absent, proximal, radial, and ulnar modal
types. The absent type refers to the absence
of the c triradius, which was classified by
Cummins and Midlo (1961) as 0. The proximal type refers to a short C-line, classified as
X or x. The radial modal type refers to terminations of the C-line that terminate on the
radial side of the c triradius. The ulnar
modal type includes terminations of the Cline on the ulnar side of the c triradius. Since
the ulnar and radial types are the most
common, Plato et al. (1972) introduced a
radiahlnar (W)formula. This formula is
also reported for our populations.
Interpopulational variation has been examined by analysis of variance for categorical data (CATANOVA), distance analysis,
and construction of dendrograms. CAT_
_
~
Received December 20,1988, accepted J u n e 19,1989
528
M. SHARIF KAMALI ET AL
TABLE I . Populations studied and their sample sizes
Population
Arabs
Armenians
Assyrians
Azaris
Raluchis
Guklan Turkmans
Kurds
Lors
South Iranians
Taleshes
Teke Turkmans
Yomut Turkmans
Zoroastrians
Abbreviations
used
AB
AR
AS
AZ
BA
GT
KU
LO
SI
TA
TT
YT
ZO
Sample sizes
Males Females
81
132
111
208
134
91
120
91
184
82
154
146
162
102
140
125
124
97
100
81
70
159
133
80
96
155
ANOVA is a n analysis of variance for a
one-way table, when the response variable is
categorical. Test statistics of CATANOVA
follow a x2 distribution.
To determine whether the populations
studied showed significant differences, the
categorical variance component analysis
was computed (Light and Margolin, 1971).
Distance analysis was calculated for phenotypic frequencies of the four modal types of
the C-line terminations using Sanghvi’s G2
(Sanghvi, 1953; Balakrishnan and Sanghvi,
1968) with the formula
where Plj and P2j are the phenotypic frequencies of a given modal type C in the
compared populations 1and 2; sj is the number of considered modal types. The extraction of the square root is not obligatory. Its
purpose is to reduce the scale. For testing
interpopulational affinities with these distance matrices, we constructed dendrograms
for cluster analysis, using the single linkage
clustering technique, the modified unweighted pairwise group method of Nei
(1975).
Fig. 1. Geographic locations of the populations studied. The abbreviations used for the populations are given in
Table 1.
529
C-LINE TERMINATIONS IN IRAN
RESULTS
Frequencies of modal types of the C-line
and the RIU formula
Frequency distributions and the RAJ formula of both palms combined and right and
left palms separately for each of the 13 populations are given in Table 2 for both males
and females. The ulnar modal type shows the
highest frequency on the left palms in most
of the populations studied. The range of variation of the ulnar modal type is from 27.61%
(Baluchi) to 59.34% (Lor) for males and from
30.32% (Zoroastrian)to 72.86% (Lor) for females. The radial modal type shows the
highest frequency on the right palms of almost all the populations studied for both the
sexes, with a range of 44.14% (Assyrian) t o
71.21% (Armenian) for males and from
43.14% (Arab) to 67.71% (Yomut Turkman)
TABLE 2. Frequency distributions
of
for females. The absent modal type shows
the lowest frequency among all the male
populations and among almost all populations of females (except Baluchis, Guklan,
and Yomut Turkmans). Kurd and Lor females did not show any absent modal type.
The RrcT formula also shows a large amount
of heterogeneity among the populations
studied. It is higher among males. For both
palms combined, the radial modal type
shows the highest frequency for 11 of 13
populations for males and 6 of 13 populations for females.
Bimanual differences
As is evident in Table 2, differences exist
for the modal types of the C-line on the right
and left palms of the populations studied.
The observed differences achieve statistical
W i n e terminations among 13 Iranian populations
Males
Females
~
A
Population
P
R
U
~
AR
AR
AS
AZ
BA
GT
KU
LO
SI
TA
TT
YT
ZO
L
R
LtR
L
R
L+R
L
R
I,+R
L
R
.+R
L
R
.+R
I,
R
,+R
L
R
,+R
L
R
L+R
I,
R
Lf R
L
R
L+R
I,
R
L+R
L
R
L+R
I,
R
L+R
8.64
7.41
8.02
4.55
1.52
3.03
5.41
8.11
6.76
6.70
5.74
6.22
11.19
6.72
8.96
2.20
0.00
1.10
2.50
2.50
2.50
5.49
2.20
3.85
6.52
4.89
5.71
4.88
3.66
4.27
4.55
2.60
3.57
5.48
4.11
4.79
12.35
10.49
11.42
13.58
7.41
10.49
6.06
3.79
4.92
27.03
17.12
22.07
11.96
3.83
7.89
16.42
9.70
13.06
16.48
7.69
12.09
4.17
2.50
3.33
12.09
10.99
11.54
20.65
13.04
16.85
15.85
14.63
15.24
25.32
16.88
21.17
26.71
17.12
21.92
20.37
12.96
16.67
I
R/U
~
35.80
56.79
46.30
39.39
71.21
55.30
24.32
44.14
34.23
35.89
60.29
48.09
44.78
66.42
55.60
38.46
61.54
50.00
48.33
63.33
55.83
23.08
53.85
38.46
31.52
55.43
43.48
31.71
50.00
40.85
30.52
51.95
41.23
34.25
55.48
44.86
34.57
54.94
44.75
41.98
28.40
35.19
42.42
23.48
32.95
43.24
30.63
36.94
45.45
30.14
37.80
27.61
17.16
22.39
42.86
30.77
36.81
45.00
31.67
38.33
59.34
32.97
46.15
41.30
26.63
33.97
47.56
31.71
39.63
39.61
28.57
34.09
33.56
23.29
28.42
32.72
21.60
27.16
0.85
2.00
1.32
0.93
3.03
1.68
0.56
1.44
0.93
0.79
2.00
1.27
1.73
3.87
2.48
0.90
2.00
1.36
1.07
2.00
1.46
0.39
1.63
0.83
0.79
2.08
1.28
0.67
1.58
1.03
0.77
1.82
1.21
1.02
2.38
1.58
1.06
2.54
1.65
P
A
~
R
~
9.80
7.84
8.82
8.57
7.14
7.86
8.00
6.40
7.20
10.48
8.06
9.27
20.69
12.37
16.49
13.00
11.00
12.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
6.92
4.40
5.66
4.51
4.51
4.51
8.75
7.50
8.13
5.21
4.47
4.69
12.90
7.10
10.00
15.69
7.84
11.76
15.71
7.14
11.43
19.20
10.40
14.80
15.32
9.68
12.50
8.25
5.15
6.70
10.00
9.00
9.50
1.23
1.23
1.23
8.57
2.86
5.71
13.84
9.43
11.64
18.05
8.27
13.16
11.25
2.50
6.88
3.13
2.08
2.60
12.90
16.13
14.52
30.39
43.14
36.76
34.29
60.00
47.14
22.40
44.80
33.60
28.23
45.16
36.69
37.11
53.61
43.93
27.00
50.00
38.50
38.27
51.85
45.06
18.57
48.57
33.57
35.22
61.64
48.43
32.33
56.63
42.48
20.00
46.25
33.13
43.75
67.71
55.73
43.87
55.48
49.68
R/U
U
~
44.12
41.18
42.65
41.43
25.71
33.57
50.40
38.40
44.40
45.97
37.10
4 1.53
34.02
28.87
31.44
50.00
30.00
40.00
60.49
46.91
53.70
72.86
48.57
60.71
44.03
24.53
34.28
45.11
34.59
39.85
60.00
43.75
51.88
47.92
26.04
36.98
30.32
21.29
25.81
~
0.69
1.05
0.86
0.83
2.33
1.40
0.44
1.17
0.76
0.69
1.22
0.88
1.09
1.86
1.44
0.54
1.67
0.96
0.63
1.11
0.84
0.25
1.00
0.55
0.80
2.51
1.41
0.72
1.52
1.07
0.33
1.06
0.64
0.91
2.60
1.58
1.45
2.61
1.93
530
M. SHARIF KAhIALI ET AL.
significance among ten male and nine female populations studied (Table 3). Arabs
and Kurds did not show any bimanual significant differences for both the sexes, whereas
Taleshes showed nonsignificant bimanual
variation for males and Baluchis and Zoroastrians for females.
Malelfemale variation
Large differences exist in the frequency of
the modal types of the C-line among males
and females (Table 2). These differences are
significant among 8 of 13 populations studied (Table 4).Five populations, Arabs, Assyrians, South Iranians, Taleshes, and Zoroastrians, do not show significant sexual
variation.
Interpopulational variation
Interpopulational differences in frequency
distributions of the four modal types of the
C-line were subjected CATANOVA before
computing the distance analysis. The results
are given in Table 5 for males, females, and
both the sexes combined. All the values are
highly significant.
It is evident from the preceding analysis
that there exists a great deal. of heteroge-
T A B L E 3.
x2 Values for birnanual uariation among the
13 populations o f Iran
Sex
x2 values
df
AB
M
3
3
AR
M
5.60
5.24
21.96**
19.65**
11.83*
14.85**
28.33**
7.99*
12.73*
6.01
11.56*
12.09*
5.70
3.05
19.39**
14.78**
21.52**
22.48**
6.14
13.13**
14.75**
14.89**
13.39**
11.37*
14.10**
7.12
Population
AS
AZ
BA
GT
KU
LO
SI
F
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
F
M
TA
F
M
TT
M
YT
ZO
F
F
M
F
M
F
' P < 0.05.
**P < mi.
3
3
3
3
:i
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
T A B L E 4. x2 Values for sexual differences o f the
terminations of the C-line among 13 Iranianpopulatrons
Population
AR
AR
AS
AZ
BA
GT
KIJ
LO
SI
TA
IT
_.
YT
ZO
x' values
df
3.36
14.47**
3
3
5.06
3
3
14.64**
10.42*
21.68**
12.53"
12.07*
4.13
0.40
28.93**
35.75**
1.69
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
* P .c 0.05.
**P .c 0 01
T A B L E 5. Analysis o f variance for categorical
traits ( C A T A N O V A ) for C-line terminations among
1 3 Iranian DoDulations
Population
Males
Females
Males a n d females
Test statistics'
df
150.30*
209.38"
409.29*
36
36
75
'Test statistic used 1s the CANTANOVA statistic as proposed by
Light a n d Margolin (1971). which follows a distribution with
degrees of freedom H S indicated.
* P < 0.01.
neity for the modal types of the C-line among
the 13 Iranian populations studied. Therefore, we computed the distance matrices
based on the four modal types of the C-line to
understand the patterns of relationshi !
among these populations. The values of G
distances obtained are presented in Table 6
for males and females separately and in
Table 7 for both sexes combined. Based on
Sanghvi's G2 values, three dendrograms for
males, females, and males and females combined were constructed, and these are presented in Figure 2.
DISCUSSION
Variations in the modal types of the terminations of the C-line among Iranian populations are generally in agreement with those
of previous studies (Plato, 1970, 1976; Plato
et al., 1975; Garruto et al., 1979; Pollitzer
and Plato, 1979). Plato et al. (1975)reported
that the radial modal type of the C-line
terminations showed the highest frequency
among Indo-Europeans (Caucasians), and
Asian Indians. The other major racial
groups, Australians, American Indians, and
531
C-LINE TERMINATIONS IN IRAN
T A B L E 6. GY values for C-line terminatrons among 13 Iranian populations for males (aboue diagonal) and females
lhdow d i a m n a l f
Podation
AB
AR
AS
A%
BA
GT
KU
LO
SI
TA
TT
YT
ZO
__
Population
KU
LO
AB
AR
AS
AZ
BA
GT
-
0.80
0.58
0.38
0.08
0.87
0.32
1.54
1.06
0.63
0.50
0.55
1.19
0.90
-
0.87
1.48
-
0.35
0.57
1.07
0.29
1.13
0.60
1.77
1.21
0.75
0.50
0.66
1.38
1.03
__
-
0.71
1.04
1.19
0.88
0.85
0.32
1.61
1.18
0.63
0.51
0.61
1.23
0.85
-
0.83
0.97
1.11
0.75
1.12
0.57
1.46
1.55
0.93
1.12
1.08
1.13
0.82
1.41
1.11
0.71
0.72
0.62
1.14
0.84
0.73
0.54
0.75
0.56
1.69
1.63
0.22
0.47
0.97
0.95
0.46
~~
0.98
0.31
1.62
0.71
1.30
0.86
-
0.68
0.99
0.82
0.63
1.30
0.72
1.05
SI
TA
TT
YT
ZO
0.50
1.05
0.50
0.68
0.80
0.75
1.23
0.66
0.57
1.02
0.56
0.68
1.05
0.64
1.14
0.37
0.32
1.02
1.24
0.47
1.32
1.05
0.85
1.40
0.77
0.36
0.43
-
0.84
1.25
0.60
1.01
0.82
0.90
1.46
1.00
0.40
0.64
0.33
1.18
1.37
-
0.62
1.27
0.78
0.90
0.54
1.17
1.49
1.12
0.58
0.85
0.83
0.66
1.25
-
1.05
1.64
1.27
1.36
1.62
0.36
0.42
1.13
1.01
0.90
1.66
1.02
0.58
2.17 2.16
-
-
0.85
1.06
0.84
-
T A B L E 7. G' iialurs for C-line terminations among 13 Iranian populations for males and females
Population
KU
LO
Population
AR
AR
AS
AZ
BA
GT
AB
AR
AS
AZ
BA
GT
KU
LO
SI
TA
TT
YT
-
0.50
0.46
0.82
0.18
0.39
0.55
0.56
0.64
0.82
0.61
0.45
0.56
0.63
0.41
0.63
-
-
-
-
ZO
Africans (Negroes) show the highest ulnar
modal type. In the present study (Table 21, a
higher radial modal type is observed among
most of the populations.
Bimanual differences in various dermatoglyphic features have been reported earlier
(Cummins and Midlo, 1961; Holt, 1968;
Meier, 19801, and the Iranian populations
are no exception. The populations that do not
show significant sexual differences are the
Arabs (AB), Assyrians (AS), South Iranians
(SI), Taleshes (TA), and Zoroastrians (ZO).
These are also the populations that have
demonstrated a n endogamy in their historic
past and live a s isolates today. The Arabs
and Assyrians fall into this category. The
South Iranians are known to have had some
admixture with the Arabs of the Persian
Gulf region and with other South Iranian
populations of African origin. However,
there are no indications of intermarriage in
-
0.86
0.65
1.20
0.80
0.97
0.78
-
0.60
0.90
0.70
0.62
0.99
0.63
0.75
-
SI
TA
TT
Y'1'
ZO
0.40
0.54
0.45
0.47
0.61
0.52
1.01
0.80
0.38
0.56
0.37
0.43
0.77
0.48
0.95
0.62
0.24
0.58
0.79
0.41
0.73
0.75
0.53
0.93
0.48
0.54
0.47
0.73
0.79
0.75
0.80
0.70
0.73
0.94
0.91
0.49
0.62
0.61
0.54
-
-
-
-
0.68
0.65
0.62
0.49
0.72
1.26
1.13
0.41
0.60
0.80
0.71
-
their recent history. The Taleshes, of IndoEuropean origin, were nomads and did not
intermarry with other Iranians. They are
seminomadic today and are still endogamous. The Zoroastrians, a pre-Islamic religious minority, fled to the mountainous regions of Kerman and Yezd after the Arab
invasion of the seventh century AD and have
remained strictly endogamous.
On the other hand, those populations that
do exhibit significant male/female differences either have been invaders or were
invaded. The Turkmans were known for capturing the children of the groups that they
conquered and adopting them a s their own.
Over the centuries, this practise must have
dramatically affected this population. Another interesting feature of this group is the
exorbitant bride price a man had to pay to
acquire a wife from within the Turkman
community. Also, since a man is permitted
532
M. SHARIF KAlMALI ET AL.
language, have also had with considerable
intermarriage. The Baluchis are known to be
SI
an admixture of Iranians and Arabs, and
TA
maybe even Dravidians. The Kurds and AzTT
aris are known to practice intermarria e.
i
YT
The Armenians do intermarry and unli e
AB
the Zoroastrians have not practiced endogAZ
zo amy.
f
Whereas interpopulational differences for
the modal types of the C-line do show significant variation among the populations studied, the constructed dendrograms from G2
values do not show a good fit with the known
ethnohistoric backgrounds. As can be seen in
Figure 2a, for males, Armenians and Kurds
are paired and are far from the others. This
may be because these two populations are
separated somewhat from other Iranian populations by both cultural and genetic factors.
The other 11 populations cluster together,
and the South Iranians and Taleshes are
paired in the first branch. This is not in
accordance with the fact that the Taleshes
claim Indo-European descent but the South
Iranians have had a lot of intermixture with
Arabs and Africans. The Turkmans pair toA€!
gether, which is to be expected, but the pairA2
ing of the Azaris and the Arabs is not consisSI
tent with their separate Turkish and Semitic
TA
origins. The clustering of the Zoroastrians
AS
TT
with the Baluchis is incongruous, as is the
BA
grouping of the Guklan Turkmans, Lors, and
20
Assyrians. The dendrograms for the females
AR
(Fig. 2b) are even less clear. For the comGT
bined sexes, the only result which is in agreeYT
I
’
ment with the ethnohistoric backgrounds of
KU
the populations studied is the pairing of the
I
LO
Kurds and Lors (Fig. lc).
r l I
1 1
1 ”
1
It should be noted that some populations
1.5
1
0.5
0
appear twice on the map in Figure 1. This
G2 DISTANCE
represents both their origmal place of residence and their recent migration to the capital city of Tehran. This urban migration
Fig. 2. Dendrograms of 13 Iranian populations based
does not appear to have affected the ways in
on the terminations of the C-line for males (a), females
(b), and males and females combined (c). The abbrevia- which mates are sought. For example, the
Zoroastrians moved in large numbers from
tions used for the populations are given in Table 1.
Kerman and Yezd to Tehran, but this has not
affected their strictly enforced endogam It
must also be noted that spatial relations ips
on the map are not good indicators of interbreeding. As with the caste groups of India,
four wives, it is often economically desirable cultural endogamous rules are much stron(and is religiously permitted) to seek other ger than physical proximity. We conclude
wives from non-Turkman groups, where the therefore that, although the modal types of
the C-line do show interpopulational varibride price is much lower.
The Azaris, who were repeatedly invaded ability, they are not a good measure of the
by Turkish peoples and forced to accept their relationships of populations one to another.
Ku
a
c
L
I
I
I
I
I
I
K:
C-LINE TERMINATIONS IN IRAN
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We acknowledge the help of N. Sakhaian,
F. Foroozanfar, and M. Marzban in the data
collection phase. The analysis of the data
was done in the Dermatoglyphics Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto.
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