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Early Siberians from Lake Baikal and Alaskan population affinities.

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Early Siberians from Lake Baikal and Alaskan
Population Aff i nit ies
S LAUGHLIN,’ A P OKLADNIKOV,? A P DEREVYANK0,z
A B HARPER’ A N D I V ATSEEVZ
Department of Blobel-Lnviornl Sc wnc e s , U n i v e r s i t y of Connectrczct, Storrs,
C o n n e c t i c u t 06268, 2 S t b e n u n BriinLh of the A c a d e m y
of SccenLes, U S S R
W
K E Y WORDS Lake Baikal . Siberia . Skeletons . Pathology .
Osteon
Density . Alaskan similarities.
ABSTRACT
Among the materials excavated by the 1975 joint USSR-USA
team i n Siberia are two burials from Shaman’s Cape, Olkhon Island, Lake Baikal.
One is a middle-aged male of the Serovo culture, 6,000 B.c., and the other is a
young male of the Glaskovo culture of 2,000 B.C. This later burial displays a n
unusual pathology affecting the nose and postcranial regions of the pelvic girdle
and lower limbs. Osteon analysis confirms the determination of age at death and
illustrates the difference between normal and pathological bone.
Numerous cultural materials were associated with these burials, including
harpoon heads, knives, a compound fishhook and a pestle with the Serovo man,
and nephrite ornaments with the Glaskovo man.
The skulls, though far apart in time, are pronouncedly Mongoloid and alike
in their low cranial vaults. A low, broad and inclined ascending ramus resembles Chukchi, Eskimos and Aleuts. These two specimens document the Mongoloid character of the early inhabitants of Lake Baikal.
In the summer of 1975, a joint USSRUSA field research team excavated in sites
near Novosibirsk and on Lake Baikal (fig.
1). The two burials discussed here were
excavated in August at Shaman’s Cape,
Olkhon Island, near the western shore of
Lake Baikal (fig. 2). The specimens were
generously given to the University of Connecticut and are available for examination
and further study in the Laboratory of
Biological Anthropology.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Burial 1 (Glaskova, 2,000 B . c . )
Beneath a “boat-shaped” assemblage of
flat stone, a male skeleton lying extended
on his back was discovered. The skull, disarticulated from the post-cranial skeleton,
was lying with the base up, the first and
second cervical vertebrae nearby and the
mandible missing. Atseev inferred that the
remains had been disturbed by grave robbers many centuries ago in search of treasures, a common occurence in many Siberian Kurgan burials. The post-cranial
AM. J. P H Y S . ANTHROP.,4 5 : 6 5 1 4 6 0 .
skeleton was in situ and, excepting the
lower vertebral column, extremely well preserved. Artifacts associated with this Glaskovo skeleton included two nephrite “rings”
(the smaller 23 mm and the larger 40 mm
in diameter), several multiple barb bone
harpoon heads, and a bone knife (fig. 3 ) .
In contrast to Burial 2, no harpoon blanks,
or remains of other animals were present.
This individual is remarkably well preserved for such antiquity. The cranium is
distinctively Mongoloid, being long, broad,
very low and possessing a broad, flat, zygomatic arch (table 1). The maxillary teeth
were lost before death (the palate showing
alveolar resorption) except for one rudimentary portion of an incisor.
A most remarkable feature of Burial 1
is the extensive irregular deposition of
bone on the entire right side of the nasal
area with some encroachment into the
upper left nasal bone (figs. 4, 5). This
anomaly may be the result of a wound,
with new bone formation occurring erratically around the injury. On the other hand,
65 1
652
LAUGHLIN. OKLADNIKOV, DEREVYANKO, HARPER. ATSEEV
Fig 1 Olkhvn Island in Lake Baikal Siberia,
USSR The skeletons were excavated at Shaman's
Cape, t h e site nearest to Khuzhir
the formation of crypts along the orbital
margin suggests displaced alveolar tissue
during early development. X-ray photographs do not reveal ossified dental enamel,
and are thus inconclusive; until dental
histological examinations are completed,
we will reserve judgment on the cause of
this unique bone growth. Except for multiple supraorbital foramina the rest of the
skull is normal both by visual and X-ray
inspection.
The post-cranial skeleton also is unusual
because of a n extensive pathology involving primarily the innominates and legs.
Most afflicted are the tibiae and fibulae
which are hypertrophied and irregularly
ossified, particularly along the lines of muscle attachments (figs. 6, 7). X-rays reveal
the disease to be localized in the cortical
area, primarily the outer cortex and periosteum. Bone plugs removed from the femur in the area that is superficially normal, reveal a n irregular trabecular-like
structure of the outer cortex (fig. 8). The
thickness of the cortical bone, 7.25 mm,
Fig. 2 Excavations at Shaman's Cape. K h u h i r . The distant cliffs are the western shore
of Lake Baikal.
653
EARLY SIBERIANS
TABLE 1
A n t h r o p o n i ~ l r i cmeasurrrnents ( m m )of skeletons No. 1 a n d No. 2
Martin
definition
riumher
1
8
8X lOO/l
21
17
45
5
48
23a
71a
(Hrdlitka, '41)
71a X 100/ht.
68
Measu remen t
or
index
Raikal 1
(Glasknvo)
(ca 2.000
Crtr I I iunz
Maximum length
Maximum breadth
Cranial index
Auricular-apex height
Basion-bregma
Bizygomatic
Basion-nasion
Nasion-prosthion
Circumference
M a n dih le
Min. breadth ascending
ramus
Biapical condylar height
Ramus index
Condylo-symphyseal length
Post-cmnid
Max. length humerus
Max. length femur
Estimated stature
Fig. 3 Glaskovo grave artifacts of Burial 1.
Harpoon heads, rib knife, a n d ncphrite rings ( t o p
to bottom).
fits the age of this individual; likewise the
medullary cavity appears normal.
Doctor E. Gross, Chief' Medical Examiner
of Connecticut, has reviewed this pathology, and concluded that a periostitis is an
appropriate designation because of the
B.c.)
Baikal 2
(Scrovo)
lca 6,000 B.c.)
191
150
78.5
115
127
145
103
72
545
36 (right)
59 (right)
61.0
109
31 3
434
1659 f 38
Fig. 4
-
457
1708 & 38
A. P. Derevyanko excavating Burial 1
extent of' involvement. Myositis ossificans,
however, is also a possibility because of the
heavy formation of lipping and spicules
along the areas of muscle attachment, especially the linea aspera and the line of
the soleus muscle.
The rarefaction of the cortex is most
654
LAUGHLIN. OKLADNIKOV, DEREVYANKO, HARPER, ATSEEV
Fig. 5
Cranium of Burial 1.
density in the normal individual was 1.85
g/cm3, exactly equal to normal human bone
density (Zeitz and Freed, '70).
Burial 2 (Serovo, 6,000 B.C.)
This male skeleton lay on his left side in
a semi-extended position (fig. 9). Several
bone harpoon heads lay in a cluster in
Fig. 6 Anterior surface o f femora from pathological Burial 1 (top) a n d normal Burial 2 (bottom), Bone plugs for osteon analysis were removed
from the 4.7 m m holes.
evident in comparing the bone density of
the pathological individual to that of the
Serovo burial. A weight of 0.14 g for a cylinder of bone 7.25 mm long with a diameter
of 4.70 mm yields a density of 1.11 g/cm3
in the diseased state. The corresponding
Fig. 7
Pathological tibiae from Burial 1
EARLY SIBERIANS
Fig. 8 Cortical bone plugs from pathological
femur of Burial 1 (left) a n d normal femur of Burial 2 (right).
front of the upper arms, with their points
directed toward the south, in approximately
the same axis as the vertebral column. A
compound fishhook lay immediately beneath the chin, and the scapula of a red
deer covered the cranium while another
protected the occipital region. Among the
other cultural materials was a polished
655
gabbro pestle or pounding stone, a nephrite
knife, a flaked axe, and several blanks of
red deer long bone (figs. 10, 11). Many of
the deer and human bones had been fractured in situ, presumably from the weight
of many people and domestic animals (cows,
horses, goats) walking over the shallow
grave.
Many measurements could not be taken
as a consequence of the breakage. The
cranium is long, broad, and low, with
large zygomatic bones and large supraorbital ridges. The nasion depression is
curved and “prominent” as are the nasal
bones, and facial prognathism is apparent.
There is a low osteorna 12 mm in diameter
on the left coronal margin of the frontal
bone. The inferior region of the rnaxillaryzygomatic union is characterized by great
breadth, rugosity and a Iarge tubercle and
pit for the masseter muscle.
The mandible i s robust with a low,
Fig. 9 Skull and Serovo grave artifacts of Burial 2. Note t h e compound fishhook beneath
the mandible.
656
Fig. 10
LAUGHLIN, OKLAIINIKOV, DEREVYANKO. HARPER. ATSEEV
Serovo harpoon heads from Burial 2 .
of the coronal suture, the pars verticis,
obelica and lambdica of the sagittal suture,
and the asterionic portions of the lambdoid
suture remain open in the calvarium of
Burial 1. This, with the observed phase of
the face of the periostitic pubic symphysis
(fig. 12), suggests an age of 30 to 35 years.
Suture closure in Burial 2 indicates an
age over 47 years because all the vault sutures are closed and obliterated endocranially. Pubic symphysis at phase IX indicates a n age of approximately 45 to 50.
Osteon analysis indicates a n age of 33
years for Burial 1 and of 48 years for
Burial 2 . Given the high degree of correspondence between osteon counts and morphological indicators, we feel these individuals are correctly assigned ages 30 to
35 and 45 to 50,
Osteon analysis und bone density
In order to calculate bone density and
to perform osteon analysis, a core or plug
was drilled fkom the anterior middle shaft
of each left femur. This core was then measured and weighed, and a thin section was
prepared for osteon analysis. The essential
data are given in table 2.
Appropriately, the cortical thickness of
No. 1, the younger male, is greater, and
Fig. 1 1 Serovo stone artifacts associated w l t h
Burial 2. Nephrite knives a n d polished gabbro pestle (left to right).
broad and inclined ascending ramus. Third
molars are present and show only a moderate reduction in crown diameters compared with the second molars Attrition is
moderate, slightly greater on the left than
the right side. A Y-5 pattern can still be
discerned on the first left molar and a plus
pattern on the second molar. There has
been resorption of the lingual alveolar bone
at the first right molar arid some on the
second. The second premolars have two
lingual cusps.
The estimated age of this individual is
45 to 50 years.
Age ut death
The age at death of these persons can
be determined with accuracy from pubic
symphysis, cranial vault sutures, and 0steon analysis. Only the pterionic portions
Fig 1 2 Left Pubic syinphyses Burial 1, age 33
(left) and Burial 2 age 48 (right)
657
EARLY SIBERIANS
TABLE 2
Ostcon a n a l y s i s , bone density a n d
age a t
death
Skeleton
No 1
No. 2
Measurement
Cortical thickness
7.30
(mm)
Thickness after
polishing (mm)
7.25
Core diameter (mm)
4.70
Core weight (g)
0.14
Bone density (g/cm3)
1.11
Osteons and osteon
fragments ('% of
field)
Observer No. 1
38
Observer No. 2
40
Age (years)
Observer No. 1
32.70e6.71
Observer No. 2
34.681-6.71
5.42
5.30
4.70
0.17
1.85
53
51
47.56k6.71
45.59k6.71
the bone density, relevant to his pathology,
is less than that of No. 2 who precisely
matches normal standards. The increase
in osteons and fragments is correspondingly
greater in the older individual.
Ages determined for each skeleton by
two independent observers, D. 'r. Thompson
and S. B . Beman, using thin sections prepared by themselves, differed by only two
years. They used a modification of Kerley's
method for the microscopic determination
of age (Ahlquist and Damsten. '69). D. Ortner had previously instructed them in the
preparation and reading of thin sections.
The percent of osteons and osteon fragments represents the percent of squares
occupied in the field under examination.
Ramus index of the mandible
The ascending ramus of the skeleton
from Burial No. 2 is low, broad, and inclined. In this configuration it is like, but
less massive than, the remarkably powerful
mandibles of the Aleuts, Eskimos, Chukchi,
and Okhotsk people of about 1,000 A.D.
(Laughlin, '63). The mandible of' these
northern people, especially Aleuts and Eskimos, retains its ramal configuration independent of many changes in vault form
and size. The vault may be narrow and long
with the temporal lines approximating each
other, as in one Greenland Eskimo whose
temporal lines are within 6 mm of each
other. The vault may be very broad and
low and the temporal lines quite far apart
as i n the Neo-Aleuts. In each case the
minimum breadth of the ascending ramus
is large. HrdliEka ('41) noted a male Eskimo from Nelson Island with measurements
and index of the ramus identical to the
Heidelberg mandible, a breadth of 50.5 mm,
TABLE 3
Murigoloid ma n d ib u la r nzc'asuTemenfs (Based on HrdliEka, '41 j
Miii. breadth
Paleo Aleut
Aleut
Ekven, Chukotka (Eskimo)
Uelen, Chukotka (Eskimo) 1
Alaska Peninsula
Koniag, Kodiak
Eskimo, in general
Palco Koniag, Kodiak
Florida Indians
Alaska Indians
Sioux Indians
California Indians
Mongol. Eastern
Pueblo Indians, Pecos
Old Peru. Coast Indians
Old Peru, Mts. Indians
Pueblo, misc.
Arkansas Indians
Chinese 8r Tibetans, misc.
Old Peru
Chinese, Canton
1
2
I1
of rainus
40
74
53
27
18
34
422
92
100
40
36
100
35
125
175
23
100
62
156
26
58
42.8
42.1
41.2
40.6
40.3
40.1
39.8
39.7
39.4
38.9
37.9
37.1
37.1
36.9
35.3
35.2
35.2
34.7
34. I
34.0
33.7
Arutiunov and Sergcev. '75
Ramus index = (Breadth X 100 IKBiapical height)
Paleo Aleut
Aleut
Koniag, Kodiak
Paleo Koniag, Kodiak
Eskimo, in general
Ekven, Chukotka (Eskimo)
Alaska Peninsula
Uelen, Chukotka (Eskimo) 1
Alaska Indians
Sioux Indians
Florida Indians
Mongol, Eastern
Pueblo Indians, mise.
California Indians
Old Peru, Coast Indians
Arkansas Indians
Chinese, Canton
Old Peru, Mts. Indians
n
Rainus
index
30
74
34
55
420
53
17
25
40
31
100
33
100
100
175
62
58
23
67.9
66.8
65.6
65.1
63.2
62.5
62.1
61.1
59.0
57.9
57.4
56.4
55.9
54.9
53.5
53.2
52.0
50.9
658
LAUGHLIN. OKLADNIKOV, DEKEVYANKO, HARPER, ATSEEV
and a n index of 72.7. The low and broad
Mongoloid mandibular configuration has
continued through variation in the capacity of the vault as well as in its form.
The value of this observation lies in the
evolutionary independence of the mandible,
and in the restricted geographic distribution of the low and broad ramus (table 3 ) .
The absolute diameters of the ramus are
informative but do not differentiate Florida
Indians from Eskimos. The ramus index
unambiguously separates them. Our single
Baikal specimen is appropriately closer to
the Eskimo of Uelen than to American Indians.
DISCUSSION
The examination of these two burials
confirms the presence of Mongoloid peoples
in the Lake Baikal region, already known
to Soviet scholars, and adds some details
concerning them, both the skeletons and
the associated burial artifacts.
In the general matrix of Baikalian prehistory, the excavations of the joint Soviet
American research team identify the indisputable Asiatic Mongoloid ethnogenesis
of the early red deer- and seal-hunters of
Central Siberia. Previous excavations of
Shaman's Cape by Atseev have produced
three other crania that share the Mongoloid configuration of these two early skeletons, including the low and broad ascending ramus. One value of the skeletons of
Burials 1 and 2 lies i n the association of
the local Neolithic periods, ranging at the
minimum from Serovo of 6,000 B . C . to the
present Buryats, with modern Mongoloid
populations. This association supports the
continuity of the local Bajkal populations,
perhaps extending as far back as the late
Paleolithic of Buret on the Anagara River
(Okladnikov, '41).
The flaked inset blades employed i n
series in bone knives and harpoons, were
found at other places in our excavations.
Their relationships to those found in Alaskan Eskimo sites had been remarked upon
by Henry B. Collins. Here, they are chipped
to fit precisely against each other rather
than with spacing between the individual
elements. They are not a fortuitous connection with Alaska.
We are pleased to be able to contribute
scientific information based o n original and
joint international research in an area and
on problems that have long been of interest
to Dr. 1'.Dale Stewart (Stewart, '73).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The opportunity for our Siberian studies
was made possible by Academician A. P.
Okladnikov, Director of the Institute of
History, Philology and Philosophy, Academy Town, Novosibirsk. These studies were
a reciprocal continuation of the joint USAUSSR field researches in the Aleutian Islands in the preceding year (Laughlin,
'75, Laughlin and Okladnikov, '75; Laughlin and Okladnikov, '76), facilitated by the
National Academy of Sciences and the
Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union.
The American effort was funded by the
National Science Foundation, the WennerGren Foundation for Anthropological Research, and the University of Connecticut
The American party in Siberia included
W. S. Laughlin, A. B. Harper, University
of Connecticut, D. M. Hopkins, U. S. Geological Survey, J . M. Campbell, University
of New Mexico; and D. W. Clark, National
Museums of Canada. S. L. Troitsky, of the
Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy Town, worked closely with the joint
party throughout the summer. A. P. Derevyanko, Deputy Director, Institute of History, Philology and Philosophy, was a member of both the 1974 Aleutian investigations and the 1975 Siberian investigations.
I. V. Atseev, of the Institute, is a specialist
in the Lake Baikal area, and well informed
on other areas as well. The American authors are especially grateful to their Soviet
colleagues for the free access to the excellent collections and exhibits at the Institute i n Novosibirsk as well as for the fine
field collections. It should also be mentioned
that we were able to see, handle and photograph the original specimen of the Neanderthal child of Teshik Tash owing to the
generosity of both Professor V. P. Yakimov
and A. P. Okladnikov at the Institute of
Anthropology, Moscow St ate University.
We are especially indebted to A. K.
Konopatski, researcher and interpreter, a
valued member of both the 1974 Aleutian
and 1975 Siberian joint researches, and to
E. A. Okladnikova, illustrator and interpreter.
The authors are also indebted to Bruno
Frerhlich for photography and X-ray analysis and to Susan I. Wolf for editing and
EARLY SIBERIANS
typing the manuscript. Both were members of the US-USSR Aleutian team of
1974.
LITERATURE CITED
Ahlquist, J., and 0. Danisten 1969 A modification of Kerley's method for the microscopic determination of age i n h u m a n bone. J. Forensic
Sciences, 14: 205-212.
Arutiunov, S . A , , and D. A. Sergeev 1975 Problems of ethnic history of the Bering Sea (in Russian). Moscow.
Hrdlifka, A. 1941 Lower jaw, further studies.
Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 27: 3 8 3 4 6 7 .
Laughlin, W. S . 1963 Eskimos and Aleuts. Their
origins and evolution. Science, 142: 6334345.
1975 Aleuts: Ecosystem, Holocene history, and Siberian origin. Science, 189: 5 0 7 4 1 5 .
Laughlin, W. S., and A. P. Okladnikov 1975
Joint research of American and Soviet archeol-
~
659
ogists on Anangula (Aleutian Islands, Alaska)
(in Russian). In: Correlation of Ancient Cultures
of Siberia with Cultures of Contiguous Territory
(Pacific Basin). A. P. Derevyanko, ed. Academy
of Science. USSR, Siberian Section, Institute of
History. Philology and Philosophy, Novosibirsk.
pp. 5-18.
1976 Origin of Aleuts (in Russian). Nature (USSR), I : 119-131.
Okladnikov, A. P. 1941 Paleolithic dwellings at
Buret (in Russian). Akademii Nauk SSSR. No.
10.
Stewart, T. D. 1973 The people of America.
C. C. Scribner a n d Sons. New York.
Zeitz, L., and B. Freed 1970 Design and calibration of the Sloan-Kettering Institute osteodensitometer. In: Proceedings of the Bone Measurement Conference. J. R. Cameron, ed. U. S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.,
pp. 280-302.
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