Early Siberians from Lake Baikal and Alaskan Population Aff i nit ies S LAUGHLIN,’ A P OKLADNIKOV,? A P DEREVYANK0,z A B HARPER’ A N D I V ATSEEVZ Department of Blobel-Lnviornl Sc wnc e s , U n i v e r s i t y of Connectrczct, Storrs, C o n n e c t i c u t 06268, 2 S t b e n u n BriinLh of the A c a d e m y of SccenLes, U S S R W K E Y WORDS Lake Baikal . Siberia . Skeletons . Pathology . Osteon Density . Alaskan similarities. ABSTRACT Among the materials excavated by the 1975 joint USSR-USA team i n Siberia are two burials from Shaman’s Cape, Olkhon Island, Lake Baikal. One is a middle-aged male of the Serovo culture, 6,000 B.c., and the other is a young male of the Glaskovo culture of 2,000 B.C. This later burial displays a n unusual pathology affecting the nose and postcranial regions of the pelvic girdle and lower limbs. Osteon analysis confirms the determination of age at death and illustrates the difference between normal and pathological bone. Numerous cultural materials were associated with these burials, including harpoon heads, knives, a compound fishhook and a pestle with the Serovo man, and nephrite ornaments with the Glaskovo man. The skulls, though far apart in time, are pronouncedly Mongoloid and alike in their low cranial vaults. A low, broad and inclined ascending ramus resembles Chukchi, Eskimos and Aleuts. These two specimens document the Mongoloid character of the early inhabitants of Lake Baikal. In the summer of 1975, a joint USSRUSA field research team excavated in sites near Novosibirsk and on Lake Baikal (fig. 1). The two burials discussed here were excavated in August at Shaman’s Cape, Olkhon Island, near the western shore of Lake Baikal (fig. 2). The specimens were generously given to the University of Connecticut and are available for examination and further study in the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Burial 1 (Glaskova, 2,000 B . c . ) Beneath a “boat-shaped” assemblage of flat stone, a male skeleton lying extended on his back was discovered. The skull, disarticulated from the post-cranial skeleton, was lying with the base up, the first and second cervical vertebrae nearby and the mandible missing. Atseev inferred that the remains had been disturbed by grave robbers many centuries ago in search of treasures, a common occurence in many Siberian Kurgan burials. The post-cranial AM. J. P H Y S . ANTHROP.,4 5 : 6 5 1 4 6 0 . skeleton was in situ and, excepting the lower vertebral column, extremely well preserved. Artifacts associated with this Glaskovo skeleton included two nephrite “rings” (the smaller 23 mm and the larger 40 mm in diameter), several multiple barb bone harpoon heads, and a bone knife (fig. 3 ) . In contrast to Burial 2, no harpoon blanks, or remains of other animals were present. This individual is remarkably well preserved for such antiquity. The cranium is distinctively Mongoloid, being long, broad, very low and possessing a broad, flat, zygomatic arch (table 1). The maxillary teeth were lost before death (the palate showing alveolar resorption) except for one rudimentary portion of an incisor. A most remarkable feature of Burial 1 is the extensive irregular deposition of bone on the entire right side of the nasal area with some encroachment into the upper left nasal bone (figs. 4, 5). This anomaly may be the result of a wound, with new bone formation occurring erratically around the injury. On the other hand, 65 1 652 LAUGHLIN. OKLADNIKOV, DEREVYANKO, HARPER. ATSEEV Fig 1 Olkhvn Island in Lake Baikal Siberia, USSR The skeletons were excavated at Shaman's Cape, t h e site nearest to Khuzhir the formation of crypts along the orbital margin suggests displaced alveolar tissue during early development. X-ray photographs do not reveal ossified dental enamel, and are thus inconclusive; until dental histological examinations are completed, we will reserve judgment on the cause of this unique bone growth. Except for multiple supraorbital foramina the rest of the skull is normal both by visual and X-ray inspection. The post-cranial skeleton also is unusual because of a n extensive pathology involving primarily the innominates and legs. Most afflicted are the tibiae and fibulae which are hypertrophied and irregularly ossified, particularly along the lines of muscle attachments (figs. 6, 7). X-rays reveal the disease to be localized in the cortical area, primarily the outer cortex and periosteum. Bone plugs removed from the femur in the area that is superficially normal, reveal a n irregular trabecular-like structure of the outer cortex (fig. 8). The thickness of the cortical bone, 7.25 mm, Fig. 2 Excavations at Shaman's Cape. K h u h i r . The distant cliffs are the western shore of Lake Baikal. 653 EARLY SIBERIANS TABLE 1 A n t h r o p o n i ~ l r i cmeasurrrnents ( m m )of skeletons No. 1 a n d No. 2 Martin definition riumher 1 8 8X lOO/l 21 17 45 5 48 23a 71a (Hrdlitka, '41) 71a X 100/ht. 68 Measu remen t or index Raikal 1 (Glasknvo) (ca 2.000 Crtr I I iunz Maximum length Maximum breadth Cranial index Auricular-apex height Basion-bregma Bizygomatic Basion-nasion Nasion-prosthion Circumference M a n dih le Min. breadth ascending ramus Biapical condylar height Ramus index Condylo-symphyseal length Post-cmnid Max. length humerus Max. length femur Estimated stature Fig. 3 Glaskovo grave artifacts of Burial 1. Harpoon heads, rib knife, a n d ncphrite rings ( t o p to bottom). fits the age of this individual; likewise the medullary cavity appears normal. Doctor E. Gross, Chief' Medical Examiner of Connecticut, has reviewed this pathology, and concluded that a periostitis is an appropriate designation because of the B.c.) Baikal 2 (Scrovo) lca 6,000 B.c.) 191 150 78.5 115 127 145 103 72 545 36 (right) 59 (right) 61.0 109 31 3 434 1659 f 38 Fig. 4 - 457 1708 & 38 A. P. Derevyanko excavating Burial 1 extent of' involvement. Myositis ossificans, however, is also a possibility because of the heavy formation of lipping and spicules along the areas of muscle attachment, especially the linea aspera and the line of the soleus muscle. The rarefaction of the cortex is most 654 LAUGHLIN. OKLADNIKOV, DEREVYANKO, HARPER, ATSEEV Fig. 5 Cranium of Burial 1. density in the normal individual was 1.85 g/cm3, exactly equal to normal human bone density (Zeitz and Freed, '70). Burial 2 (Serovo, 6,000 B.C.) This male skeleton lay on his left side in a semi-extended position (fig. 9). Several bone harpoon heads lay in a cluster in Fig. 6 Anterior surface o f femora from pathological Burial 1 (top) a n d normal Burial 2 (bottom), Bone plugs for osteon analysis were removed from the 4.7 m m holes. evident in comparing the bone density of the pathological individual to that of the Serovo burial. A weight of 0.14 g for a cylinder of bone 7.25 mm long with a diameter of 4.70 mm yields a density of 1.11 g/cm3 in the diseased state. The corresponding Fig. 7 Pathological tibiae from Burial 1 EARLY SIBERIANS Fig. 8 Cortical bone plugs from pathological femur of Burial 1 (left) a n d normal femur of Burial 2 (right). front of the upper arms, with their points directed toward the south, in approximately the same axis as the vertebral column. A compound fishhook lay immediately beneath the chin, and the scapula of a red deer covered the cranium while another protected the occipital region. Among the other cultural materials was a polished 655 gabbro pestle or pounding stone, a nephrite knife, a flaked axe, and several blanks of red deer long bone (figs. 10, 11). Many of the deer and human bones had been fractured in situ, presumably from the weight of many people and domestic animals (cows, horses, goats) walking over the shallow grave. Many measurements could not be taken as a consequence of the breakage. The cranium is long, broad, and low, with large zygomatic bones and large supraorbital ridges. The nasion depression is curved and “prominent” as are the nasal bones, and facial prognathism is apparent. There is a low osteorna 12 mm in diameter on the left coronal margin of the frontal bone. The inferior region of the rnaxillaryzygomatic union is characterized by great breadth, rugosity and a Iarge tubercle and pit for the masseter muscle. The mandible i s robust with a low, Fig. 9 Skull and Serovo grave artifacts of Burial 2. Note t h e compound fishhook beneath the mandible. 656 Fig. 10 LAUGHLIN, OKLAIINIKOV, DEREVYANKO. HARPER. ATSEEV Serovo harpoon heads from Burial 2 . of the coronal suture, the pars verticis, obelica and lambdica of the sagittal suture, and the asterionic portions of the lambdoid suture remain open in the calvarium of Burial 1. This, with the observed phase of the face of the periostitic pubic symphysis (fig. 12), suggests an age of 30 to 35 years. Suture closure in Burial 2 indicates an age over 47 years because all the vault sutures are closed and obliterated endocranially. Pubic symphysis at phase IX indicates a n age of approximately 45 to 50. Osteon analysis indicates a n age of 33 years for Burial 1 and of 48 years for Burial 2 . Given the high degree of correspondence between osteon counts and morphological indicators, we feel these individuals are correctly assigned ages 30 to 35 and 45 to 50, Osteon analysis und bone density In order to calculate bone density and to perform osteon analysis, a core or plug was drilled fkom the anterior middle shaft of each left femur. This core was then measured and weighed, and a thin section was prepared for osteon analysis. The essential data are given in table 2. Appropriately, the cortical thickness of No. 1, the younger male, is greater, and Fig. 1 1 Serovo stone artifacts associated w l t h Burial 2. Nephrite knives a n d polished gabbro pestle (left to right). broad and inclined ascending ramus. Third molars are present and show only a moderate reduction in crown diameters compared with the second molars Attrition is moderate, slightly greater on the left than the right side. A Y-5 pattern can still be discerned on the first left molar and a plus pattern on the second molar. There has been resorption of the lingual alveolar bone at the first right molar arid some on the second. The second premolars have two lingual cusps. The estimated age of this individual is 45 to 50 years. Age ut death The age at death of these persons can be determined with accuracy from pubic symphysis, cranial vault sutures, and 0steon analysis. Only the pterionic portions Fig 1 2 Left Pubic syinphyses Burial 1, age 33 (left) and Burial 2 age 48 (right) 657 EARLY SIBERIANS TABLE 2 Ostcon a n a l y s i s , bone density a n d age a t death Skeleton No 1 No. 2 Measurement Cortical thickness 7.30 (mm) Thickness after polishing (mm) 7.25 Core diameter (mm) 4.70 Core weight (g) 0.14 Bone density (g/cm3) 1.11 Osteons and osteon fragments ('% of field) Observer No. 1 38 Observer No. 2 40 Age (years) Observer No. 1 32.70e6.71 Observer No. 2 34.681-6.71 5.42 5.30 4.70 0.17 1.85 53 51 47.56k6.71 45.59k6.71 the bone density, relevant to his pathology, is less than that of No. 2 who precisely matches normal standards. The increase in osteons and fragments is correspondingly greater in the older individual. Ages determined for each skeleton by two independent observers, D. 'r. Thompson and S. B . Beman, using thin sections prepared by themselves, differed by only two years. They used a modification of Kerley's method for the microscopic determination of age (Ahlquist and Damsten. '69). D. Ortner had previously instructed them in the preparation and reading of thin sections. The percent of osteons and osteon fragments represents the percent of squares occupied in the field under examination. Ramus index of the mandible The ascending ramus of the skeleton from Burial No. 2 is low, broad, and inclined. In this configuration it is like, but less massive than, the remarkably powerful mandibles of the Aleuts, Eskimos, Chukchi, and Okhotsk people of about 1,000 A.D. (Laughlin, '63). The mandible of' these northern people, especially Aleuts and Eskimos, retains its ramal configuration independent of many changes in vault form and size. The vault may be narrow and long with the temporal lines approximating each other, as in one Greenland Eskimo whose temporal lines are within 6 mm of each other. The vault may be very broad and low and the temporal lines quite far apart as i n the Neo-Aleuts. In each case the minimum breadth of the ascending ramus is large. HrdliEka ('41) noted a male Eskimo from Nelson Island with measurements and index of the ramus identical to the Heidelberg mandible, a breadth of 50.5 mm, TABLE 3 Murigoloid ma n d ib u la r nzc'asuTemenfs (Based on HrdliEka, '41 j Miii. breadth Paleo Aleut Aleut Ekven, Chukotka (Eskimo) Uelen, Chukotka (Eskimo) 1 Alaska Peninsula Koniag, Kodiak Eskimo, in general Palco Koniag, Kodiak Florida Indians Alaska Indians Sioux Indians California Indians Mongol. Eastern Pueblo Indians, Pecos Old Peru. Coast Indians Old Peru, Mts. Indians Pueblo, misc. Arkansas Indians Chinese 8r Tibetans, misc. Old Peru Chinese, Canton 1 2 I1 of rainus 40 74 53 27 18 34 422 92 100 40 36 100 35 125 175 23 100 62 156 26 58 42.8 42.1 41.2 40.6 40.3 40.1 39.8 39.7 39.4 38.9 37.9 37.1 37.1 36.9 35.3 35.2 35.2 34.7 34. I 34.0 33.7 Arutiunov and Sergcev. '75 Ramus index = (Breadth X 100 IKBiapical height) Paleo Aleut Aleut Koniag, Kodiak Paleo Koniag, Kodiak Eskimo, in general Ekven, Chukotka (Eskimo) Alaska Peninsula Uelen, Chukotka (Eskimo) 1 Alaska Indians Sioux Indians Florida Indians Mongol, Eastern Pueblo Indians, mise. California Indians Old Peru, Coast Indians Arkansas Indians Chinese, Canton Old Peru, Mts. Indians n Rainus index 30 74 34 55 420 53 17 25 40 31 100 33 100 100 175 62 58 23 67.9 66.8 65.6 65.1 63.2 62.5 62.1 61.1 59.0 57.9 57.4 56.4 55.9 54.9 53.5 53.2 52.0 50.9 658 LAUGHLIN. OKLADNIKOV, DEKEVYANKO, HARPER, ATSEEV and a n index of 72.7. The low and broad Mongoloid mandibular configuration has continued through variation in the capacity of the vault as well as in its form. The value of this observation lies in the evolutionary independence of the mandible, and in the restricted geographic distribution of the low and broad ramus (table 3 ) . The absolute diameters of the ramus are informative but do not differentiate Florida Indians from Eskimos. The ramus index unambiguously separates them. Our single Baikal specimen is appropriately closer to the Eskimo of Uelen than to American Indians. DISCUSSION The examination of these two burials confirms the presence of Mongoloid peoples in the Lake Baikal region, already known to Soviet scholars, and adds some details concerning them, both the skeletons and the associated burial artifacts. In the general matrix of Baikalian prehistory, the excavations of the joint Soviet American research team identify the indisputable Asiatic Mongoloid ethnogenesis of the early red deer- and seal-hunters of Central Siberia. Previous excavations of Shaman's Cape by Atseev have produced three other crania that share the Mongoloid configuration of these two early skeletons, including the low and broad ascending ramus. One value of the skeletons of Burials 1 and 2 lies i n the association of the local Neolithic periods, ranging at the minimum from Serovo of 6,000 B . C . to the present Buryats, with modern Mongoloid populations. This association supports the continuity of the local Bajkal populations, perhaps extending as far back as the late Paleolithic of Buret on the Anagara River (Okladnikov, '41). The flaked inset blades employed i n series in bone knives and harpoons, were found at other places in our excavations. Their relationships to those found in Alaskan Eskimo sites had been remarked upon by Henry B. Collins. Here, they are chipped to fit precisely against each other rather than with spacing between the individual elements. They are not a fortuitous connection with Alaska. We are pleased to be able to contribute scientific information based o n original and joint international research in an area and on problems that have long been of interest to Dr. 1'.Dale Stewart (Stewart, '73). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The opportunity for our Siberian studies was made possible by Academician A. P. Okladnikov, Director of the Institute of History, Philology and Philosophy, Academy Town, Novosibirsk. These studies were a reciprocal continuation of the joint USAUSSR field researches in the Aleutian Islands in the preceding year (Laughlin, '75, Laughlin and Okladnikov, '75; Laughlin and Okladnikov, '76), facilitated by the National Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. The American effort was funded by the National Science Foundation, the WennerGren Foundation for Anthropological Research, and the University of Connecticut The American party in Siberia included W. S. Laughlin, A. B. Harper, University of Connecticut, D. M. Hopkins, U. S. Geological Survey, J . M. Campbell, University of New Mexico; and D. W. Clark, National Museums of Canada. S. L. Troitsky, of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy Town, worked closely with the joint party throughout the summer. A. P. Derevyanko, Deputy Director, Institute of History, Philology and Philosophy, was a member of both the 1974 Aleutian investigations and the 1975 Siberian investigations. I. V. Atseev, of the Institute, is a specialist in the Lake Baikal area, and well informed on other areas as well. The American authors are especially grateful to their Soviet colleagues for the free access to the excellent collections and exhibits at the Institute i n Novosibirsk as well as for the fine field collections. It should also be mentioned that we were able to see, handle and photograph the original specimen of the Neanderthal child of Teshik Tash owing to the generosity of both Professor V. P. Yakimov and A. P. Okladnikov at the Institute of Anthropology, Moscow St ate University. We are especially indebted to A. K. Konopatski, researcher and interpreter, a valued member of both the 1974 Aleutian and 1975 Siberian joint researches, and to E. A. Okladnikova, illustrator and interpreter. The authors are also indebted to Bruno Frerhlich for photography and X-ray analysis and to Susan I. Wolf for editing and EARLY SIBERIANS typing the manuscript. Both were members of the US-USSR Aleutian team of 1974. LITERATURE CITED Ahlquist, J., and 0. Danisten 1969 A modification of Kerley's method for the microscopic determination of age i n h u m a n bone. J. Forensic Sciences, 14: 205-212. Arutiunov, S . A , , and D. A. Sergeev 1975 Problems of ethnic history of the Bering Sea (in Russian). Moscow. Hrdlifka, A. 1941 Lower jaw, further studies. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 27: 3 8 3 4 6 7 . Laughlin, W. S . 1963 Eskimos and Aleuts. Their origins and evolution. Science, 142: 6334345. 1975 Aleuts: Ecosystem, Holocene history, and Siberian origin. Science, 189: 5 0 7 4 1 5 . Laughlin, W. S., and A. P. Okladnikov 1975 Joint research of American and Soviet archeol- ~ 659 ogists on Anangula (Aleutian Islands, Alaska) (in Russian). In: Correlation of Ancient Cultures of Siberia with Cultures of Contiguous Territory (Pacific Basin). A. P. Derevyanko, ed. Academy of Science. USSR, Siberian Section, Institute of History. Philology and Philosophy, Novosibirsk. pp. 5-18. 1976 Origin of Aleuts (in Russian). Nature (USSR), I : 119-131. Okladnikov, A. P. 1941 Paleolithic dwellings at Buret (in Russian). Akademii Nauk SSSR. No. 10. Stewart, T. D. 1973 The people of America. C. C. Scribner a n d Sons. New York. Zeitz, L., and B. Freed 1970 Design and calibration of the Sloan-Kettering Institute osteodensitometer. In: Proceedings of the Bone Measurement Conference. J. R. Cameron, ed. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., pp. 280-302.